Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.South AmericaCartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.QuinaldinesFerrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Galanthus: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.CaliforniaNorth AmericaSearch Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)BiographyBooks, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)EncyclopediasHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Energetics of sodium transport in toad urinary bladder. (1/493)

The ratio of the rate of transepithelial sodium transport, JNa, across the isolated toad urinary bladder to the simultaneously measured rate of transport-dependent metabolism, JsbCO2, has been measured as a function of the transepithelial electrical voltage, deltapsi. The ratio remains constant with a mean value of 18 to 20 over the range of imposed voltages of 0 to +70 mV. With increasing hyperpolarization of the bladder, JNa decreases and the calculated electromotive force or apparent "ENa" of the sodium pump increases. From thermodynamic and kinetic arguments it is shown that the apparent "ENa" approaches the maximal electrochemical potential gradient, ENa, against which sodium can be transported by this tissue only when JNa approximately 0. At this unique condition F ENa (in which F is the Faraday constant) is the maximal free energy of the chemical reaction driving sodium transport and thus equal to the maximal extramitochondrial phosphorylation potential and the maximal free energy of the mitochondrial respiratory chain within the transporting cells.  (+info)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (2/493)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

How does beta-adrenergic stimulation increase the heart rate? The role of intracellular Ca2+ release in amphibian pacemaker cells. (3/493)

1. The mechanism by which sympathetic transmitters increase the firing rate of pacemaker cells was explored in isolated cells from the sinus venosus of the cane toad Bufo marinus. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with indo-1 and membrane potential and currents were recorded with the nystatin perforated-patch technique. 2. Adrenaline or isoprenaline (2 microM) increased the transient rise in [Ca2+]i and increased the firing rate; these effects were blocked by propranolol (2 microM). 3. To determine whether the changes in [Ca2+]i might influence the firing rate we studied agents which affect either the loading or the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Rapid application of caffeine (10 mM) to spontaneously firing cells caused a large Ca2+ release from the SR and the cells were then quiescent for 24 s. In the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation the caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i was 14 % larger but the period of quiescence after application was reduced to 12 s. 4. Ryanodine, at either low (1 microM) or high (> 10 microM) concentration, stopped firing. However, when the SR store content of Ca2+ was tested with caffeine, at low ryanodine concentration the SR Ca2+ store was empty whereas at the high concentration the SR store was still loaded with Ca2+. beta-Adrenergic stimulation was not able to restore firing at the low concentration of ryanodine but did restore firing at the high ryanodine concentration. 5. An SR Ca2+ pump blocker, 2, 5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBQ) which depletes the SR store of Ca2+, also rapidly and reversibly stopped spontaneous firing. 6. The relation between the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient and firing rate established in the presence of ryanodine was similar when firing was restored by beta-stimulation. 7. In both spontaneously firing and voltage-clamped cells, depleting the SR store with either ryanodine or TBQ suggested that about half of the Ca2+ which contributes to the calcium transient is released from the SR. 8. These results show that the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient is an important factor in the firing rate of toad pacemaker cells and consequently agents which modify SR Ca2+ release influence firing rate. The effects of beta-stimulation on firing rate seem to be largely mediated by changes in amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient.  (+info)

Variability in the time course of single photon responses from toad rods: termination of rhodopsin's activity. (4/493)

We examined the responses of toad rod photoreceptors to single photons of light. To minimize the effects of variability in the early rising phase, we selected sets of responses that closely matched the rise of the mean single photon response. Responses selected in this way showed substantial variations in kinetics, appearing to peel off from a common time course after different delays. Following incorporation of the calcium buffer BAPTA, the time to peeling off was retarded. Our analysis indicates that it is not necessary to invoke a long series of reaction steps to explain the shutoff of rhodopsin activity. Instead, our results suggest that the observed behavior is explicable by the presently known shutoff reactions of activated rhodopsin, modulated by feedback.  (+info)

Expression of membrane transporters in cane toad Bufo marinus oocytes. (5/493)

Membrane transport proteins (transporters and ion channels) have been extensively expressed in amphibian oocytes. The aims of this study were to determine whether oocytes from the cane toad Bufo marinus could be used as an alternative expression system to the broadly used Xenopus laevis oocytes. mRNAs encoding plasma membrane transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1 (sulphate transporters), NaDC-1 (dicarboxylate transporter), SGLT-1 (Na(+)/glucose cotransporter) and rBAT and 4F2 hc (amino acid transporters) were injected into B. marinus oocytes. All led to significant induction of their respective transport activities. Uptake rates were comparable with those in X. laevis oocytes, with the exception of rBAT, which was able to induce amino acid uptake only in X. laevis oocytes, suggesting that rBAT may require an endogenous X. laevis oocyte protein that is absent from B. marinus oocytes. Transport kinetics were determined for the NaSi-1 cotransporter in B. marinus oocytes, with identical results to those obtained in X. laevis oocytes. NaSi-1 specificity for the Na(+) cation was determined, and the anions selenate, molybdate, tungstate, oxalate and thiosulphate could all inhibit NaSi-1-induced sulphate transport. This study demonstrates that cane toad oocytes can be used successfully to express plasma membrane proteins, making this a viable heterologous system for the expression of proteins.  (+info)

Distribution of active protein kinase C in smooth muscle. (6/493)

To localize activated protein kinase C (PKC) in smooth muscle cells, an antibody directed to the catalytic site of the enzyme was used to assess PKC distribution by immunofluorescence techniques in gastric smooth muscle cells isolated from Bufo marinus. An antibody to vinculin was used to delineate the cell membrane. High-resolution three-dimensional images of immunofluorescence were obtained from a series of images collected through focus with a digital imaging microscope. Cells were untreated or treated with agents that increase PKC activity (10 microM carbachol for 1 min, 1 microM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 10 min), or have no effect on PKC activity (1 micrometer 4-alpha phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4-alpha PMA)). In unstimulated cells, activated PKC and vinculin were located and organized at the cell surface. Cell cytosol labeling for activated PKC was sparse and diffuse and was absent for vinculin. After treatment with carbachol, which stimulates contraction and PKC activity, in addition to the membrane localization, the activated PKC exhibited a pronounced cytosolic fibrillar distribution and an increased total fluorescence intensity relative to vinculin. The distributions of activated PKC observed after PMA but not 4-alpha PMA were similar to those observed with carbachol. Our results indicate that in resting cells there is a pool of activated PKC near the cell membrane, and that after stimulation activated PKC is no longer membrane-confined, but is present throughout the cytosol. Active PKC appears to associate with contractile filaments, supporting a possible role in modulation of contraction.  (+info)

The role of calcium stores in fatigue of isolated single muscle fibres from the cane toad. (7/493)

1. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and tension were measured from single muscle fibres dissected from the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The amount of Ca2+ which could be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was estimated by brief (approximately 20 s) exposures to 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) or caffeine. 2. Muscle fatigue was produced by repeated tetani at 4 s or shorter intervals and continued until tension had fallen to 50% of the control. The intracellular free calcium concentration during a tetanus (tetanic [Ca2+]i) first increased and then steadily declined to 43+/-2% of control by the time tension had fallen to 50%. Over the period of fatigue the rapidly releasable Ca2+ from the SR fell to 46+/-6% of control. Tension and tetanic [Ca2+]i recovered to 93+/-3% and 100+/-4% of the control values after 20 min of rest. Over the same period rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ recovered to 98+/-12%. 3. When a similar number of tetani (200) were repeated at longer intervals (10 s), fibres showed only a small reduction in tension (to 85+/-1%) and tetanic [Ca2+]i did not change significantly. Under these conditions the rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ did not change significantly. 4. The recovery of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ after fatigue was unaffected by removal of extracellular calcium but did not occur when oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited with cyanide. 5. These results suggest that an important cause of the decline of tetanic [Ca2+]i during fatigue is an equivalent decline in the amount of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+. The results show that the decline of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ is related to a metabolic consequence of fatigue and are consistent with the hypothesis that Ca2+ precipitates with phosphate in the SR during fatigue.  (+info)

Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad. (8/493)

1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (P<0.0001) with initial fibre glycogen concentration. 6. In conclusion, the results show that (i) the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship holds for conditions where glycogen is not required as a source of energy and (iii) the mechanically skinned fibre preparation is well suited to study the regulation of endogenous glycogenolytic enzymes.  (+info)

*Fauna of Australia

Invasive Species Specialist Group (1 June 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2 July ... Protected marine zones have been created in many areas to preserve marine biodiversity; as of 2002, these areas cover about 7 ... live in tropical marine environments. This is partly due to Australia's huge marine territory, covering 9 million km2. Groups ... 646,000 km²) of Australia's marine jurisdiction. The Great Barrier Reef is managed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park ...

*Cane toad

Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea". Pacific Science. 29 (1). Zug, G. R.; Zug, P. B. (1979). "The Marine Toad, Bufo marinus: A ... Bufo marinus (L.) in Fiji". Herpetologica. 18 (4). Invasive Species Specialist Group (June 1, 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus ... changing the binomial name from Bufo marinus to Rhinella marina; the binomial Rhinella marinus was subsequently introduced as a ... "WEC 11/UW046: Marine Toads (Bufo marinus)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2010-04-26. Lever 2001, p. 64 Easteal 1981, p. 101 ...

*Biological pest control

"The cane toad (Bufo marinus)". Australian Government: Department of the Environment. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 ... Biological Control of the Cane Toad Bufo marinus in Australia Cory, J.; Myers, J. (2000). "Direct and indirect ecological ... For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle ( ... "Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory: Alternanthera philoxeroides". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. 1 December 2007 ...

*Sarina, Queensland

The name Buffy comes from the species name bufo marinus. Buffy has been painted for the "state of origin" football game ...

*Wynn's propulsion effect

Circulatory Mechanics in the Toad Bufo Marinus, Gibbons and Shadwick. ... Bufo marinus. Recent studies conducted in Sydney, Australia have discovered a behavioral connection. An efferent neurological ...

*Acanthocephalus (animal)

... from Bufo marinus (Bufonidae: Amphibia) in Hawaii". Parasite. 6 (3): 269-272. doi:10.1051/parasite/1999063269. Amin, Omar ...

*Lankesterella (Apicomplexa)

L. hylae - European gree tree frog (Hyla caerula) L. minima - African common toad (Bufo regularis), cane toad (Bufo marinus), ... infecting Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) in Pará, North Brazil". Parasite. 2 (3): 307-313. doi:10.1051/parasite/1995023307. ... Bufo poeppigii) L. tritonis - newt (Triton cristatus) Parasite species unknown White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) Oregon ...

*Deoxyepinephrine

This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop (1962). "Catecholamines and N-methyltransferase in the South American toad (Bufo marinus)." ...

*Geography of Bermuda

Bufo marinus), and tree frogs. In addition to casurinas, numerous other species of tree, bush, shrub, cacti, palm, and other ...

*Adaptations of Australian animals to cane toads

Zug, G; Zug, P (1979). "The marine toad, Bufo marinus : a natural history resumé of native populations". Smithsonian ... Ward-Fear, G; Brown, G; Shine, R (2010). "Factors affecting the vulnerability of cane toads (Bufo marinus) to predation by ants ... Bufo marinus)". Austral Ecology. 35 (5): 560-567. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02067.x. Tyler, J; Covacevich, J; Davie, P; ... "Ability of predatory native Australian fishes to learn to avoid toxic larvae of the introduced toad Bufo marinus". Journal of ...

*Hemolivia

The vertebrate host of this species is the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The invertebrate host is the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. ... Bufo marinus) H. mariae - Amblyomma limbatum H. mauritanica - Hyalomma aegyptium H. stellata - Amblyomma rotondatum. Karadjian ...

*Bidder's organ

Brown, Federico D.; del Pino, Eugenia M.; Krohne, Georg (2002). "Bidder's organ in the toad Bufo marinus: Effects of ... The ideal specimen for dissection is Bufo marinus, or Giant Cane Toad. In the male toad, lift the intestine leftward. In the ...

*Jeffrey Scott Flier

"Endogenous digitalis-like activity in the plasma of the toad Bufo marinus". Nature. 279 (5711): 341-3. doi:10.1038/279341a0. ...

*New Guinean quoll

Bufo marinus) Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its ... Rhinella marina, formerly Bufo marinus). Because they have evolved consistently isolated from toads since the Jurassic, all ...

*Amphibians of Western Australia

However, Bufo marinus (Cane Toad) occurs in the Northern Territory close to Western Australia's border, and is expected to ... "Advice to Western Australians on the humane killing of cane toads (Bufo marinus)". Department of Agriculture and Food, Western ...

*Eimeria bufomarini

Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) from Amazonian Brazil". Parasite. 2 (2): 141-148. ...

*List of amphibians of Guatemala

Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Volcan Tacana Toad -- Bufo tacanensis P. Smith, 1952 [EN] Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997 [EN] ... Some toads, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo ... Bocourt's Toad -- Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877 Campbell's Forest Toad -- Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994 Dwarf Toad -- Bufo ... Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954 [EN] Yellow Toad -- Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891 Large-crested Toad -- Bufo macrocristatus ...

*Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala

FROM THE MARINE TOAD, BUFO MARINUS (L.) (LISSAMPHIBIA: ANURA: BUFONIDAE), IN CENTRAL AMERICA". Journal of Parasitology. 93 (1 ... It was first found in lungs of the cane toad Bufo marinus in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It can be confused with Rhabdias ... "Origin of the parasites of an invading species, the Australian cane toad (Bufo marinus): are the lungworms Australian or ... "Infection dynamics of the lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala in its natural host, the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and in ...

*Meat ant

39 (1): 3-4. Clerke, R. B.; Williamson, I. (1992). "A note on the predation of Bufo marinus juveniles by the ant Iridomyrmex ... Marine Ecology Progress Series. 253: 165-173. doi:10.3354/meps253165. Retrieved 15 April 2015. Sharman, M.; Williamson, I.; ...

*Meringa Sugar Experiment Station

Around 100 toads (Bufo marinus) arrived at Meringa from Hawaii in June 1935, escorted by Assistant Entomologist RW Mungomery. ... Froggatt W 1936, 'The introduction of the Giant American Toad, Bufo marinus, into Australia'. The Australian Naturalist, ...

*Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its effects on ... Black-spined Toad (Bufo melanostictus) Risk Assessments for Australia; Department of Agriculture and Food: Western Australia. ... Berry, P. Y.; Bullock, J. A. (1962). "The Food of the Common Malayan Toad, Bufo melanostictus Schneider". Copeia. 1962 (4): 736 ... Saidapur, S. K.; Girish, S. (2000). "The Ontogeny of Kin Recognition in Tadpoles of the Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura; ...

*Torresian crow

"Culturally transmitted predation and consumption techniques by Torresian crows Corvus orru on Cane Toads Bufo marinus". ...

*Werejaguar

... like Bufo marinus or Bufo valliceps, have the pronounced cleft in the head and, like all toads, have a fleshy mouth with ... "There were a wide number of bones from the marine toad, Bufo marinus". . . at San Lorenzo. Furst (1981), p. 150. Coe 2002, p. ... Skeletal remains of these species, particularly Bufo marinus, have been found at several archaeological sites in Mesoamerica ...

*Mangrove monitor

The US response was to introduce the marine toad (Bufo marinus) which proved toxic to the lizards. As the monitor population ... Marine toads were introduced to the Palau Islands for a similar reason, and the demise of the mangrove monitors led to an ... which enable them to survive in saltwater conditions and to consume marine prey. The presence of this gland probably enabled ...

*Rhabdias alabialis

FROM THE MARINE TOAD, BUFO MARINUS (L.) (LISSAMPHIBIA: ANURA: BUFONIDAE), IN CENTRAL AMERICA". Journal of Parasitology. 93 (1 ... It was first found in lungs of the cane toad Bufo marinus in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It can be distinguished from its ... nov.: a parasite of the lungs of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia." Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo ... "New species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Bufo occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico." ...

*Carnarvon Gorge

Bufo Marinus). The introduced cane toad is currently implicated in the local disappearance of the northern quoll (Dasyurus ...
Have you ever heard of the Cane Toad? If you havent, youre probably not from Australia. Hawaii was the source population for this introduction, otherwise known as the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). After its introduction to the land-down-under, it has reached plague proportions. Its not as bad in Hawaii, yet, youd be challenged not to find one of these toads on any night in the back of a Hawaiian valley. The toads are unique in that they have toxic secretions that will ooze from glands on their neck if they feel threatened. Dogs can easily die after biting a marine toad. These same secretions, when scrapped from a frog, can be smoked or licked to receive a hallucination. This is not recommended however, as Hazen Audel has tried this, and subsequently come down with a tongue fungus that was not pretty.. ...
Throughout the world, invasive species remain one of the most serious threats to native wildlife. Perhaps the most infamous example of such an alien invasion is that of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia. Released in 1935 to combat sugarcane pests, cane toads proved themselves to be adept at reproducing rapidly in their new environment and, worse still, took quite a fancy to many of Australias native wildlife, viewing them as a tasty snack. A recent study, by Rick Shine and his team at the University of Sydney, Australia, demonstrates that a barrier that once was thought would slow down the toads expansion - low temperatures at high altitudes - is actually dealt with rapidly and successfully by the toads, their secret trick being incredibly rapid cold acclimation.. The study, published in Functional Ecology, noted that cane toads were being recorded up to 1100 m above sea level, with the animals experiencing considerably colder conditions than their native counterparts in central and ...
In amphibians, it has been determined that CRF has an affect on subcortical visual pathways that regulate prey capturing ability. The pathways targeted by CRF effects on visually guided feeding are unknown, but CRF-ir fibers have been reported in the superficial layers of the amphibian optic tectum that collect retinal innervation. These findings have led to the hypothesis that CRF may originate from retinal afferents that innervate the superficial layers of the tectum. A series of experiments were carried out in the cane toad (Bufo marinus) and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to examine an alternate hypothesis that CRF neurons intrinsic to the optic tectum may contribute to the CRF content innervation of this visual center in the amphibian brain. In both species, CRF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in tectal layers 6 and 7 with axons directed toward the more superficial layers of the tectum. To confirm the identity of CRF neurons in the tectum, I examined the expression of CRF and ...
Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
Bufo Marinus is a large Cane Toad statue situated in the town centre of Sarina. He is fondly known as Buffy and is a tourist attraction.
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Organismal mechanisms underlying range expansions are poorly known in vertebrates [1]. Behavioural traits such as aggression [2] and innovation [3] can be important, as can morphological [4] and physiological traits such as reproductive proclivity [5], regulation of stress hormones [6,7] and immune defences [8]. For instance, in cane toads (Bufo marinus) spreading across Australia, changes in morphology, behaviour and physiology have arisen even though the species arrived in 1935 [4]. Here, our interest was to determine whether regulation of a critical immune defence, inflammation, differed among populations of a recent invader in a manner that would implicate inflammation as a mediator of range expansion. Of all the immune processes that could facilitate range expansions [8], inflammation might be among the most important.. Inflammation can occur on the tissue level and be resolved rapidly, but it can also be a whole body response involving prolonged increases in hepatic synthesis of acute ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
So the latest cunning plan, which is to reintroduce the tadpoles of a small green frog, into the breeding ponds of the cane toads is mildly amusing ... apparently the tadpoles of this frog (a native to Australia), are better competitors for the food supply in the ponds than cane toad tadpoles, and it means that less cane toads reach a size big enough to leave the tadpole stage .... the green tree frog spawn cant actually eat the cane toad tadpoles, but the restriction in the food supply they cause, cuts their overall numbers ...
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
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Cane toads are the publics Feral Enemy Number 1. More Australians place the cane toad in their top five ferals than any other species - in fact 9 out of 10 do so. Its a clear winner from the next...
by T. Kawauchi. Introduction. Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are "Asiatic toad", "Japanese toad", " Japanese stream toad ", and "Marine toad. " The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands. Description & Taxonomy. The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias is"Hiki","Gamagaeru","Gama","Ibogaeru" and "Senjo". Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toads web doesnt develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the ...
Anfípodes são pequenos crustáceos com uma distribuição ao longo de todos os habitats marinhos e de água doce. Echinogammarus marinus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) é uma espécie amplamente distribuída ao longo da costa europeia, sendo o estuário do Mondego (costa oeste de Portugal) considerado o limite sul da sua distribuição. Estudos prévios determinaram que E. marinus é a espécie mais abundante nos habitats intertidais rochosos, tendo um papel crucial na organização trófica do estuário do Mondego. A ocorrência de intersexualidade tem sido largamente descrita em crustáceos, incluindo populações de E. marinus do norte da Europa e mais recentemente no estuário do Mondego. Dado que esta anomalia traz custos associados, como fecundidade e fertilidade reduzidas, baixo sucesso no emparelhamento, maturação retardada e oscilações na proporção de machos/fêmeas, um dos objectivos deste trabalho foi determinar as possíveis consequências da intersexualidade para as populações de ...
Meaning: Aldosterone-induced Protein; American Institute Of Physics; Automated Immunoprecipitation; Average Intravascular Pressure; Integral Anatuberculin, ...
Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the development of ganaxolone, which offers a new mechanism of action, demonstrated efficacy and safety and convenient dosing, to improve the lives of patients suffering from epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Ganaxolone is a CNS-selective GABAA modulator that acts on a well-characterized target in the
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, suitable habitat which appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The species page of Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983. . Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
Smooth muscle is responsible for the contractility of hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the uterus. Its structure differs greatly from that of skeletal muscle. The human stomach contains three layers of muscle in its walls, the outer longitudinal, the middle circular and the inner oblique and visceral smooth muscle cells makes up all three layers along the entire organ. Smooth muscle contraction is critical to peristalsis in the human stomach and the contraction may be mediated by activation of phospholipase through two distinct mechanisms (increased intracellular Ca2+ and G protein activation) and activating PKCepsilon-dependent mechanisms. In vitro study also shows that gastric smooth muscle cells express ET and eNOS and both calcium and sodium may be involved as current carriers in the generation of the plateau potential.HGSMC from Bioarray Research Laboratories are isolated from the human stomach. HGSMC are cryopreserved at secondary culture ...
On Mars, significant amounts (0.4 - 0.6 %) of perchlorate ions were detected in dry soil by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory and later confirmed with the Mars Science Laboratory. Therefore, the ability of Hydrogenothermus marinus, a desiccation tolerant bacterium, to survive and grow in the presence of perchlorates was determined. Results indicated that H. marinus was able to tolerate concentrations of sodium perchlorate up to 200 mM (≙ 1.6 %) during cultivation without any changes in its growth pattern. After the addition of up to 440 mM (≙ 3.7 %) sodium perchlorate, H. marinus showed significant changes in cell morphology; from single motile short rods to long cell chains up to 80 cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the known desiccation tolerance of H. marinus is highly influenced by a pre-treatment with different perchlorates; additive effects of desiccation and perchlorate treatments are visible in a reduced survival rate. These data demonstrate that thermophiles, especially H. marinus,
Vol 3: Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepithelial transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal membrane (th Na influx) and found that it is reduced when intracellular Na is increased by ouabain or by removal of external potassium. Removal of serosal sodium also reduced the influx, suggesting that the Na gradient across the serosal border rather than the cell Na concentration is the critical factor. Because in tissues such as muscle and nerve a steep transmembrane sodium gradient is necessary to maintain low cytosolic calcium, it is possible that a reduction in the sodium gradient in the toad bladder reduces luminal permeability by increasing the cell calcium activity. We found that the ...
The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate patterns of variation in molecular (a mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme assay and sequence data for two nuclear DNA fragments totalling 979 bp) and 17 morphological variables in Northern France where two of these groups meet (B. bufo sensu stricto and B. spinosus), in order to delineate their contact zone and uncover characters that would allow discrimination of the two taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data show an abrupt transition from areas where B. bufo is present to those inhabited by B. spinosus, with a narrow area of overlap east of the city of Caen. Morphometric characters, particularly those related to the positioning of the parotoid glands and metatarsal tubercle shape and size, proved useful in ...
Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos
A compartmental model of toad bladder sodium content has been developed, whereby it is possible to measure the four unidirectional fluxes across the opposite faces of the transport compartment, as well as the amount of sodium in the compartment. 24Na is added to the mucosal medium of a short-circuited bladder mounted between halves of a chamber in which the fluid is stirred by rotating impellers. After a steady state is reached, nonradioactive medium is flushed through both sides of the chamber, collected, and counted. The data from each chamber are fitted to sums of exponentials and interpreted in terms of conventional compartmental analysis. Three exponentials are required, with half-times of 0.2, 2.2, and 14.0 min. It is shown that the first of these represents chamber washout, the second the transport pool, and the third a tissue compartment which is not involved in active sodium transport and which does not communicate with the transport pool. The second compartment contains 10.5 µEq of ...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Gustavson, M. S., Collins, P. C., Finarelli, J. A., Egan, D., Conchúir, R. Ó., Wightman, G. D., King, J. J., Gauthier, D. T., Whelan, K., Carlsson, J. E. L. & Carlsson, J., (2015), An eDNA assay for Irish Petromyzon marinus and Salmo trutta and field validation in running water. Journal of Fish Biology, Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12781 ...
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Lets just say hypothetically I was strange enough to want to keep a Lamprey. Has anyone successfully raised predatory -AKA parasitic- lampreys? (as opposed to f
Aspects of the relationships between cellular composition and transepithelial sodium transport across toad urinary bladder are reviewed. Changes in cellular sodium produced by amiloride, vasopressin,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). AU - Metts, Brian S.. AU - Buhlmann, Kurt A.. AU - Scott, David E.. AU - Tuberville, Tracey D.. AU - Hopkins, William A.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced ...
In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). Under anaerobic conditions a rapid accumulation of lactic acid gives evidence of an intense glycolytic activity, which is inhibited when the eggs are returned to oxygen (Pasteur effect) (Barbieri & Salomón, 1963). Furthermore, an increase in oxygen uptake during the first 2 h of recovery has been observed (payment of the oxygen debt) (Legname, 1966). Taking into account the low value of the respiratory quotient (r.q. = 0·5-0·7) during this period it can be assumed that most of the oxygen is not involved in the oxidation of lactate (Legname, 1966).. ...
In the Bufo spinulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Considered a distinct species by Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 82-92; still treated as a subspecies of Bufo spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 42-44, provided an account (as Bufo spinulosus atacemensis). Sallaberry-Ayerza and Méndez-Torres, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 218-219, commented on the range and provided a range extension. Sallaberry-Ayerza, Soto-M., Correa-Quezada, and Méndez-Torres, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 214, provided range extensions and discussed the range. Correa-Quezada, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Jara-Arancio, Lobos, Soto-M., and Méndez-Torres, 2008, Check List, 4: 478-484, detailed the range in and discussed all known records as well as providing evidence of allopatry of this species and Rhinella arunco. Veloso, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Correa-Quezada, and Méndez, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 568-577, found an area of contact in the Estero Pupío area ...
Brachycerus bufo is a species of Curculionidae family, Brachycerinae subfamily. Brachycerus bufo reaches a length of about 20 millimetres (0.79 in). The body is black, with yellowish spots. The abdomen is rounded. Zipcodezoo Catalogue of ...
A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2007 in a laboratory in Virginia, USA (Woodhams et al. 2012) found that survival of mountain yellow-legged frogs Rana muscosa naturally infected with chytridiomycosis was not increased by adding chytrid-inhibiting skin bacteria. Survival of frogs treated with bacteria was 50% compared to 39% for infected controls. Infection was not cleared in surviving frogs. However, weight loss was reduced with treatment (0.1 vs 0.4 g/week). Wild-caught frogs were randomly assigned to treatments. Twenty were bathed in water containing bacteria (Pedobacter cryoconitis) isolated from mountain yellow-legged frog and 13 control frogs in water alone for two hours. Frogs were swabbed and tested at seven and 13 days after treatment.. A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2010 in a laboratory in Switzerland (Woodhams, Geiger, Reinert, Rollins-Smith, Lam, Harris, Briggs, Vredenburg & Voyles 2012) found that survival of common toad Bufo bufo toadlets was not ...
Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 73-93, removed Sclerophrys pusilla from the synonymy of Sclerophrys maculata and redescribed the holotype of this species. See comments under Sclerophrys maculata for relevant literature. Angola records in Poynton and Haacke, 1993, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 36: 1-16 (as Bufo maculata). Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 460-463, discussed the uncertainty of the synonymy of Bufo pusillus with Bufo maculatus, citing immunological evidence of Maxson, 1981, Herpetologica, 37: 96-104. See also Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 51, who recognized Bufo pusillus, and Channing, 1989, Lammergeyer, 40: 1, who disputed Lambiris conclusion. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 47-53, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 84, Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 14-15, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 146-147, provided ...
New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to res …
Heart region collecting blood from the paired common cardinal veins and delivering to the atrium. One of four components of the heart. The sinus venosus also acts as a pacemaker and is the first to contract. (1 ...
There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric rela...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
Jan J. Cornelissen, Bronno van der Holt, Gregor E. G. Verhoef, Mars B. van t Veer, Marinus H. J. van Oers, Harry C. Schouten, Gert Ossenkoppele, Pieter Sonneveld, Johan Maertens, Marinus van Marwijk Kooy, Martijn R. Schaafsma, Pierre W. Wijermans, Douwe H. Biesma, Shulamit Wittebol, Paul J. Voogt, Joke W. Baars, Pierre Zachée, Leo F. Verdonck, Bob Löwenberg and Adriaan W. Dekker on behalf of the Dutch-Belgian HOVON Cooperative Group ...
Covers methods of evolution other than natural selection, effects of invasive species and ecosystems. Looks at changes in the cane toad population since their invasion of Australia.
Todays Deals: Save 10% on Wood Cane - Natural Stain This Fritz handle cane was disigned by a German count to make cane use by the arthritic sufferer more...
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Menno R. Kruk (Convener), Jay Belsky, Sietse de Boer, Douglas Fry, Marinus van IJzendoorn, Maaike Kempes, Steve Maxson, Michael Potegal, Juliette Schaafsma, Stephanie van Goozen, Kipling Williams ...
TheraCane is a self massaging body cane used to apply pressure to sore muscles. The unique design of the Thera Cane Massager lets you apply deep pressure massage to hard to reach areas of your body on your own.
Growing up in England, Tessa Croker had never heard of, much less owned, an American Girl doll, but today her world is full of them. She recently joined the company as an in-house historian, reviewing its line of historical dolls, books, and other products to ensure they accurately reflect the era theyre set in. A doctoral ...
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:[citation needed] Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo Gutturalis Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus ...
Toads. Reptilia.. Toads belong to the most poisonous reptiles.. In olden times, being looked upon as horrible things, they were given in horrible diseases. During the rage of improvement the remedy was thrown overboard, and even the poisonous qualities doubted, until rare experiments, especially those by Vulpian, have settled the question. In 1832 Henke, our great prover, was the first in our school to call attention to it ; his observations were published in Meyers Monatsblatt, 1860 ; in 1834 the Hom opathic Society of Th ringen sent some symptoms to the Archives of Stapf (vol. xiv, No. 2, page 102). In 1849 Mure published a proving with his preparation, taken from the most common toad in Brazil, called by him Bufo satyhiensis. This was translated by Hempel and Allen. Houat published one of his provings in Nouvelles Donn es. This was translated three times --by Lippe, Lilienthal and Allen. In 1859, Destrone, in a French journal, collected notes from all old writers and also made some provings. ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
I am looking forward to a great day today, I have it on good authority that the session is fantastic.. I am using a blog with my grade six students. They are studying feral animals, first writing what they know already, then posing questions for each other. The answers from students have just begun to be posted.. Eventually they will collaboratively design an imaginary feral animal or a trap for cane toads.. ...
WoRMS (2011). Janibacter marinus Bae, 2004. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=571937 on 2017-11- ...
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TheraCane Massage Stick. Thera Cane is designed to apply pressure to sore muscles. TheraCane cane by used effectively over the entire body. Thera Cane Self-Massaging Device
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The classic walking cane has remained pretty much unchanged for millenia. Really just a walking stick with an ergonomic handle, its hard to come up with n
In the late 1960s, LSD evangelist Art Kleps founded a psychedelic church called the Neo-American Church. The churchs newsletter was called "Divine Toad Sweat".[3] In 1984, Bufo toad evangelist Albert Most revealed his Church of the Toad of Light with his publication of the book Bufo Alvarius: Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert. The Sonoran Desert is in New Mexico. This small booklet details how to use the Bufo toad for ritual and pleasure, as well as how to catch the Bufo alvarius toad, extract or "milk" the glandular secretions, dry them, and "enjoy the smoked venom." Mosts book claims that 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is the active hallucinogen, not bufotenine. He is correct, as 5-MeO-DMT is the O-methylated version of bufotenine.[4] Again, it is important to mention that 5-MeO-DMT is present in only one of the more than 200 types of Bufo toads ...
Das Vorkommen von Pseudodiaptomus marinus Sato, 1913, ist für Port Louis auf der Insel Mauritius festgestelt worden. Die Art wird beschrieben und hier zum ersten Mal detailliert abgebildet. Sie steht in Beziehung zu einer orientalischen Gruppe von Arten derselben Gattung. Ihres abnormalen zoogeographischen Verhaltens wegen wird angenommen, dass die Art durch Schiffe von Japan nach Mauritius transportiert worden ist. Intraspezifische Variationen zwischen Exemplaren von verschiedenen Lokalitäten werden beschrieben.
We plan to apply the methodologies developed from our current NMFS-funded project for mtDNA markers, DNA fingerprinting, RNA probes and PCR technologies to quantify low-levels of Perkinsus marinus infections in order to fully describe the etiology of this oyster disease. Our progress in working with genetic markers of P. marinus has: Developed a sensitive PCR-based diagnostic assay for detecting P. marinus infections ; Identified an extrachromosomal relic plastid-genome in P.
dinner, after : Aloe., anac., canth., cast., cycl., ferr., gamb., mag-c., mag-m., nat-c., nat-m., plb., psor., thuj., zinc.. dread of liquids, with : Agn., am-c., arn., bell., cann-i., canth., caust., cocc., hell., hyos., lac-c., lach., lyc., lyss., merc., nat-m., nux-v., rhus-t., samb., sel., stram., tarent.. eating, while : Ail., aloe., am-c., bufo., coc-c., cocc., lach., nat-c., psor.. after : Aloe., anac., bell., bry., calad., caust., coc-c., cocc., cycl., elaps., graph., guare., lyc., nat-c., nit-ac., phel., phos., sil.. extreme : Acet-ac., Acon., aesc., aeth., agar., all-c., all-s., alum., am-m., anac., anan., ant-c., ant-t., apis., Arg-n., arn., ars-h., ars-i., Ars., asar., aspar., aur-m., aur., bar-c., bar-i., bar-m., bell., bism., bor., bov., Bry., bufo., cadm., calad., Calc-s., Calc., camph., cann-s., canth., caps., carb-ac., carb-an., carb-s., carb-v., Caust., cedr., Cham., chel., Chin., chlor., cic., cina., coc-c., cocc., coff., colch., coloc., con., cop., croc., crot-c., crot-h., ...
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
The dam gene of E. coli can be inactivated by insertion of Tn9 or Mud phage. Strains bearing these mutations are viable indicating that the dam gene product is dispensable.
Many people are under the impression that each states White Cane Law contains a provision that requires drivers to stop for, and/or yield to, pedestrians who are carrying white canes. This is not correct. The laws in each state vary widely and drivers do not always reliably stop for pedestrians who carry white canes. When drivers see pedestrians who are carrying white canes: ...
Cane Corso Italiano information, Photos, Q & A and Reviews. Also learn about training and care. Ask Cane Corso Italiano questions and view photos. We provide a complete guide for the breed. Learn about Cane Corso Italiano characteristics and owernship requirements.
The White Cane Laws are there to protect cane users. If the color of the cane changes, does that change the law on who is ultimately responsible for the safety of the blind person?
Lot: 30: An 18k gold Tiffany cane with JFK history, Lot Number: 0030, Starting Bid: $2,200, Auctioneer: Tradewinds Antiques, Auction: Tradewinds 2012 Fall Antique Cane Auction, Date: September 15th, 2012 UTC
She bought Ekrich (that was his name, dont ask me why) on an impulse at our State Fair, where on the last day a lot of the livestock is for sale. He was adorable, and quite intelligent; he learned to use the litterbox on his own by watching the cats. He walked on a leash (in a harness), and came a-hoppin when he was called. He did get a tad aggressive once he hit puberty, and was finally neutered when he kept attempting to molest the cats. All in all, though, he made a far better pet than I thought a rabbit ever could ...
REFINED CANE SUGAR ICUMSA - 45 ORIGIN: BRAZIL. PACKING: In 50 Kilo bags. SPECIFICATIONS REFINED SUGAR ICUMSA - 45: POLARIZATION: 99.80 Degrees min. ASH CONTE...
Me,Dmax and Robotronik visited Cane hill for the first time and i was not dissapointed. With constantly changing colour,light,atmosphere and mood...
One case of inferior vena cava type sinus venosus defect is reported. It is likely to be missed on transthoracic echocardiography. Transesophageal echocardiography is useful. Unlike superior sinus venosus defect which are easily visible on transesoph
Researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia have spent years looking for biological methods to control invasive cane toads. Its proving to be a difficult task. The trick is finding a way to do it without killing off native species.. CSIRO researchers looked into the possibility of infecting toads with a fatal, exotic ranavirus-a non-native virus that infects amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They abandoned the idea in 1998, when they found that it killed a native frog species as well as cane toads.. Gene technology also looks promising. The hunt is on for a gene critical to toad development that could be "switched off" to prevent metamorphosis-the changing of a tadpole into an adult frog. "If the toads dont reach adulthood," says CSIROs Dr. Tony Robinson, "they wont be able to reproduce.". Dr. Alex Hyatt at CSIROs Australian Animal Health Laboratory thinks that a ranavirus inserted with the development-controlling gene can be used as a ...
As predicted, invasion-front toads were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did toads from long-colonized populations. We also found a sex effect; males were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did females. Because our stimulus toads were female, that sex bias might reflect sexual rather than social attraction. However, the greater sociality of male than female toads was seen in both long-colonized and range-edge populations, suggesting that the effect of invasion history on social attraction was not due to differences in sexual selection among populations. Below, we consider possible explanations for the divergence in social attraction between long-colonized and invasion-front populations.. First, the costs and benefits of social attraction may differ at high versus low population densities, which in turn differ predictably across the invasion range. For example, low densities at the invasion front may reduce ecological ...
COPYRIGHT (C) 2016 KISTI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] ...
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O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino ...
Moving to a different country presents plenty of challenges, but for Richelle Street a move with her young family to Indonesia in 2015 bought with it one particularly large challenge. Richelle is legally blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa and uses a white cane to assist her to navigate her surroundings. While her cane had provided her with a sense of security when living in Australia, helping her identify hazards and indicating to others she is person who is blind, the same could not be said for Indonesia. "My husband had a work opportunity in Jakarta so we moved over there with our children for nine months in July 2015," Richelle said. "The biggest concern was how Id go with using my cane to walk down the street and find my way around and if the cane would be recognised like it is Western countries," she said. Richelle quickly found that wasnt the case and things like walking down the street, a simple task in Australia, proved to be much more difficult. "At home people slow down and ...
About halfway through, we paused to eat the bread wed brought along and have some of the wine. We were joined by a young gull, who seemed hardly the least bit afraid of people. He landed inside our circle, and Spooky fed him. A Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), the largest species in the North Atlantic, with wingspans up to 65". This fellow was no more than three winters old. As the breakers crashed over the craggy black and grey rocks (Jamestown Formation, Middle Cambrian age) and rushed noisily into deep places between the rocks, the lone gull added a note of humour to the whole affair. Soon, though, a second, larger gull arrived and swooped over us a couple of times, then sat a short distance away, seeming to caw angrily at our visitor. The two finally left together, and we continued. I finished the ritual and opened the circle. It was getting dark by then, and we had to pick our way carefully along the cliffs back to the ravine. Within sight of the path leading back up the to car, we ...
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0L862 (MLTF_MAGMM), Membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase F. Magnetococcus marinus (strain ATCC BAA-1437 / JCM 17883 / MC-1)
... Safety Day is this weekend! Read how self-defense instructor Jim Turk describes the sense of liberation and empowerment his white cane has given him.
Instead of filling your preschoolers tummy with sugary sweets this season, let her take a bite out of this healthy and delicious candy cane alternative.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant ACL myotoxin, a Lys49PLA2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus snake venom and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 115-129 of venom of the two different Agkistrodon species on water permeability in the toad urinary bladder. The water flow through the membrane was measured gravimetrically in bag preparations of the bladder. The addition of recombinant ACL myotoxin-MBP (maltose binding protein) fusion protein (10 nM) to the bathing solution significantly increased (above 60%) the water transport compared with the control hemibladders. The addition of the Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides in several concentrations to the bathing solution did not affect the water transport across membrane. These results suggest that the ACL myotoxin effect on water transport is not related to the cytotoxic C-terminal region ...
We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of Bufo arabicus (Duttaphrynus arabicus)from the Arabian Peninsula in Saudi Arabia, according to mitochondrial DNA (D-Loop). Samples were
Federal source for scientific information needed by managers, decision makers, and the public to protect, enhance, and restore the ecosystems in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Midwest, and worldwide.
Patented July 4, 19.33 agent for untrue STATES PATENT QFFEQE BRUNO WENDT, 0F DESSAU IN ANHALI, AND HANS BINCER, OF DESSAU-ZIEBIGK, GER- MANY, ASSIGNQRS T0 AGFA ANSCO CORPORATIQN, 0F BINGHAMTON, NEW YORK, A. CORPORATION OF NEW YORK LIGHT-SENSITIVE MATERIAL Ito Drawing. Application filed May 9, 1930, Serial No. 451,192, and in Germany may 14, 1929. Uur invention relates to an improvement in the manufacture of light-sensitive materials used in the so-called bleaching-out processand more particularly to fixable layers useful for this process. As binding agents for the preparation of bleaching-out layers, to be a carrierfor the light-sensitive dye, only gelatin or nitrocellulose has, heretofore, been used. Hitherto there has not been known any practically satisfactory process of fixing the layers consisting of such binding agents or of any other cellulose derivatives, and this for want of a solvent for the usual sensitizers of the class of the thiosinamines in which the binding agent is capable of ...
Nanoscale or colloidal particles are important in many realms of science and technology. They can dramatically change the properties of materials, imparting solid-like behaviour to a wide variety of complex fluids(1,2). This behaviour arises when particles aggregate to form mesoscopic clusters and networks. The essential component leading to aggregation is an interparticle attraction, which can be generated by many physical and chemical mechanisms. In the limit of irreversible aggregation, infinitely strong interparticle bonds lead to diffusion-limited cluster aggregation(3) (DLCA). This is understood as a purely kinetic phenomenon that can form solid-like gels at arbitrarily low particle volume fraction(4,5). Far more important technologically are systems with weaker attractions, where gel formation requires higher volume fractions. Numerous scenarios for gelation have been proposed, including DLCA(6), kinetic or dynamic arrest(4,7-10), phase separation(5,6,11-16), percolation(4,12,17,18) and ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0L678 (MNMA_MAGMM), tRNA-specific 2-thiouridylase MnmA. Magnetococcus marinus (strain ATCC BAA-1437 / JCM 17883 / MC-1)
Aluminum Folding Cane, Height Adjustable Product Summary |ul> |li>Cane folds into 4 convenient parts for easy storage.|/li> |li>Attrac
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THE BALANCED SHAFT AS A RESULT OF UNIAUE IN-LINE POSITIONING OF THE GROOVED GRIP AND FLEXI-TIP COMBINE FOR A SAFE AND COMFROTABLE CANE. GRIP IS ALIGNED WITH TRIPOD FLEXI-TIP FOR STABILITY AND CONTROL. AVAILABLE IN S/M AND L/XL
Linea Actiwet: una linea studiata per risolvere le patologie del tuo cane e del tuo gatto. Le stesse proprietà di Forza10 Active in versione umido.
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
Order Recombinant Prochlorococcus marinus subsp pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase trpC 01015965649 at Gentaur Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (trpC)
1. The effect of pH on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad was examined using a skinned fibre preparation which gives ready access to the intracellular environment while still allowing stimulation of Ca2+ release by the normal voltage-sensor mechanism. 2. In each fibre, depolarization-induced responses (produced by changing the ions in the bathing solution) were examined first at pH 7.1, and then at another pH between 6.1 and 8.0. At all pH levels examined, the first depolarization elicited a large response which was slightly greater (pH 7.6 and 8.0) or smaller (pH 6.6 and 6.1) than that at pH 7.1. The size of the first depolarization-induced response varied with pH in almost exactly the same manner as did the maximum Ca(2+)-activated response. The duration of the depolarization-induced response at all other pH levels was longer than at pH 7.1. 3. Repeated depolarizations (30 s or more apart) produced similar responses at pH 7.1, but at all other pH levels examined the ...
Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless ...
It is unclear whether accumulation of lactate in skeletal muscle fibers during intense activity contributes to muscle fatigue. Using mechanically skinned fibers from rat and toad muscle, we were able to examine the effect of l(+)-lactate on excitation-contraction coupling independently of other metabolic changes. We investigated the effects of lactate on the contractile apparatus, caffeine-induced ...

Bufo marinus - Wikimedia CommonsBufo marinus - Wikimedia Commons

Amphibiaweb link: Rhinella marina *Amphibian Species of the World link: Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Syn. Bufo marinus ... Vernacular names [edit wikidata Rhinella marina] *. English. : Agua Toad, Cane Toad, Giant Marine Toad, Giant Toad, Marine ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bufo_marinus&oldid=231150176" ... Bufo • Species: Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) ... Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Syn. of Bufo marinus) (Least ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bufo_marinus

Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus.Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus.

Bufo marinus / physiology*. Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology. Decerebrate State. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Medulla Oblongata ... Bufo marinus. Adult toads were anesthetized, catheterized and unidirectionally ventilated before exposing the brainstem. An ... concluded that the VSM is pH sensitive and a cholinergic mechanism is involved in the central modulation of respiration in Bufo ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Involvement-cholinergic-mechanisms-in-central/11282326.html

Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) - DROIncreased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) - DRO

Bufo marinus. mortality. Northern Territory. ecology. introduced species Summary Exotic animal and plant species introduced ... Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus). Ujvari, Beata and ... Proponents of biological control introduced the South American Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) into the sugar cane fields of ... Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) ...
more infohttp://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30063818

Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular...Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular...

2008) Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) ... Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular ...
more infohttp://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/5182/

Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type...Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type...

Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type ... Bufo marinus, whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly ... Bufo marinus, whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly ...
more infohttps://oxfordindex.oup.com/oi/viewindexcard/10.1093$002fjb$002fmvm016

Cane ToadCane Toad

Bufo marinus. * Family: Bufonidae. * Adult Size: Adults usually measure up to 8 inches in total length. ...
more infohttp://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Frog-Amphibian-Species/Cane-Toad/

ArboCat Virus: Cuiaba (CUIV)ArboCat Virus: Cuiaba (CUIV)

Bufo marinus (toad) Species. Host Age/Stage. adult Sex. Not Answered Isolated From. Isolation Details. ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=124&SID=2

Hallucinogen Use Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Further Inpatient Care, TransferHallucinogen Use Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Further Inpatient Care, Transfer

Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that cause an alteration in perception, thought, or mood. A rather heterogeneous group, these compounds have different chemical structures, different mechanisms of action, and different adverse effects.
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/293752-followup

NeobatrachiaNeobatrachia

Bufo marinus Comments cane toad Specimen Condition Live Specimen Source #1354003 Source Collection Bugwood Network/Forestry ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/tree?group=Neobatrachia

Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) | Amphibian Species of the WorldRhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) | Amphibian Species of the World

In the Bufo marinus group according to Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, ... Bufo marinus var. platensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862-1865: 202. Syntypes: 34 specimens, in ... Considered a synonym of Bufo marinus by Savage, 1978, in Espadas Vert. Viaje Pacif.: vii-xvii (in error?), without discussion. ... Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Klappenbach, 1968 ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Anura/Bufonidae/Rhinella/Rhinella-arenarum

Giant Toad, Living, Pack of 3 | Carolina.comGiant Toad, Living, Pack of 3 | Carolina.com

Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ... Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ... Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/toads/giant-toad-living-usually-male-10-12-cm-pack-of-3/146750.pr

Table 2 - Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines - Volume 5, Number 6-December 1999 - Emerging...Table 2 - Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines - Volume 5, Number 6-December 1999 - Emerging...

Zupanovic Z, Lopez B, Hyatt AD, Green B, Bartran G, Parkes H, Giant toads Bufo marinus in Australia and Venezuela have ... Common toad (Bufo bufo). Bufo UK virus. Europe, United Kingdom. 34. Red-legged frog larvae. Redwood Creek virus. California, ... Cane toad (Bufo marinus). Gutapo iridovirus. South America (Venezuela). 65. Common frog. Rana UK virus. Europe, United Kingdom ... The invasion ecology of the toad Bufo marinus: From South America to Australia. Ecol Appl. 1998;8:388-96. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/5/6/735-t2.htm

HBS Good Guys & Bad Guys Website-Trading Card ListHBS Good Guys & Bad Guys Website-Trading Card List

Bufo marinus 53. Wekiu Bug. Wekiu. Nysius wekiuicola The third series of these cards are brought to you courtesy of Tesoro ...
more infohttp://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/good-bad/list.html

Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.

Bufo marinus. Cholesterol / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estradiol / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Action-steroids-H-NH4-excretion/113550.html

October - Bufo Frogs - Palmettos - Pests Galore - Read ThisOctober - Bufo Frogs - Palmetto's - Pests Galore - Read This

Known scientifically as Bufo Marinus, the Cane Toad, Giant Toad, or Marine Toad is native to an area extending from Mexico and ... The Giant Bufo Marinus Toad is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. ...
more infohttp://myemail.constantcontact.com/October---Bufo-Frogs---Palmetto-s---Pests-Galore---Read-This.html?soid=1119543438940&aid=ulBQTSgvlMY

Category:Featured pictures on Wikipedia, Spanish - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Featured pictures on Wikipedia, Spanish - Wikimedia Commons

Bufo americanus PJC1.jpg 3,341 × 2,227; 5.18 MB. *. Bufo marinus in Venezuela.jpg 3,221 × 2,251; 4.62 MB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Featured_pictures_on_Wikipedia,_Spanish

Aquire Search ResultsAquire Search Results

Bufo marinus. 2. Oak toad. Bufo quercicus. 2. Nematode. Caenorhabditis elegans. 23. ...
more infohttp://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_EcoChemSpecies.jsp?Effect=

Zombie ProjectZombie Project

Bufo marinus. Bufo marinus, the common marine toad, showing the prominent partoid glands. Bokors assistant with a dried ... 2. A marine toad (Bufo marinus) - also produces numerous toxic substances that have pain killing effects and can potentially ... specimen of Bufo marinus. 3. A hyla tree frog (Osteopilus dominicensis) - secretes an irritating (but not deadly) substance ...
more infohttps://sites.duke.edu/ginalisgh323/zombie-project/

Cell Component | Plasma MembraneCell Component | Plasma Membrane

Bufo marinus Biological Process. tight junction assembly Cellular Component. tight junction Transmission electron micrograph of ...
more infohttp://cellimagelibrary.org/browse/cellcomponent/Plasma%20Membrane?per_page=10&page=1

Alphabetical Browse | BritannicaAlphabetical Browse | Britannica

Bufo marinus (amphibian). Anura: Annotated classification: …Indo-Australian archipelago, Polynesia, and Madagascar; Bufo ... Bufo bufo (amphibian). toad: …toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with ... Bufo americanus (amphibian). toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are ... Bufo alvarius (amphibian). toad: The poisons of the Colorado River toad (B. alvarius) and the giant toad (B. marinus, also ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/sitemap/b/199

Everard J[au] - PubMed - NCBIEverard J[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Leptospires in the marine toad (Bufo marinus) on Barbados.. Everard CO, Carrington D, Korver H, Everard JD. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Everard+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Adaptive Optics for Photoreceptor-Targeted Psychophysics | SpringerLinkAdaptive Optics for Photoreceptor-Targeted Psychophysics | SpringerLink

Bufo marinus) [5]. The first in vivo images of human photoreceptors were captured with a custom digital fundus camera [6]. Here ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-16638-0_17
  • Ujvari, Beata and Madsen, Thomas 2009, Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) , Herpetological conservation and biology , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 248-251. (edu.au)
  • Abundance, growth and feeding of natterjack toads ( Bufo calamita ) in a 4-year-old artificial habitat. (springer.com)
  • The ingestion of cane toad's ( Bufo marinus ) eggs or parotid gland secretions cause toxic effects that resemble cardiac glycoside poisoning. (litfl.com)
  • The Giant Burrowing Frog is sometimes mistaken for the Cane Toad ( Bufo marinus ) because of its size and warty appearance. (australianmuseum.net.au)
  • Marine Toad or Cane Toad) is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. (ufl.edu)
  • The endemic-rich amphibian fauna of the Philippine Archipelago (ca. 350,000 km2) includes six alien frogs: the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), Asiatic painted toad (Kaloula pulchra), cane toad (Rhinella marina), Chinese bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), green paddy frog (Hylarana erythraea), and greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris). (sprep.org)
  • The cane or marine toad, rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distint species. (sprep.org)
  • Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. (sprep.org)