A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
A genus of obligately aerobic, thermophilic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Crenotrichaceae. They were isolated from submarine alkaline HOT SPRINGS in Iceland.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.

Energetics of sodium transport in toad urinary bladder. (1/493)

The ratio of the rate of transepithelial sodium transport, JNa, across the isolated toad urinary bladder to the simultaneously measured rate of transport-dependent metabolism, JsbCO2, has been measured as a function of the transepithelial electrical voltage, deltapsi. The ratio remains constant with a mean value of 18 to 20 over the range of imposed voltages of 0 to +70 mV. With increasing hyperpolarization of the bladder, JNa decreases and the calculated electromotive force or apparent "ENa" of the sodium pump increases. From thermodynamic and kinetic arguments it is shown that the apparent "ENa" approaches the maximal electrochemical potential gradient, ENa, against which sodium can be transported by this tissue only when JNa approximately 0. At this unique condition F ENa (in which F is the Faraday constant) is the maximal free energy of the chemical reaction driving sodium transport and thus equal to the maximal extramitochondrial phosphorylation potential and the maximal free energy of the mitochondrial respiratory chain within the transporting cells.  (+info)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (2/493)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

How does beta-adrenergic stimulation increase the heart rate? The role of intracellular Ca2+ release in amphibian pacemaker cells. (3/493)

1. The mechanism by which sympathetic transmitters increase the firing rate of pacemaker cells was explored in isolated cells from the sinus venosus of the cane toad Bufo marinus. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with indo-1 and membrane potential and currents were recorded with the nystatin perforated-patch technique. 2. Adrenaline or isoprenaline (2 microM) increased the transient rise in [Ca2+]i and increased the firing rate; these effects were blocked by propranolol (2 microM). 3. To determine whether the changes in [Ca2+]i might influence the firing rate we studied agents which affect either the loading or the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Rapid application of caffeine (10 mM) to spontaneously firing cells caused a large Ca2+ release from the SR and the cells were then quiescent for 24 s. In the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation the caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i was 14 % larger but the period of quiescence after application was reduced to 12 s. 4. Ryanodine, at either low (1 microM) or high (> 10 microM) concentration, stopped firing. However, when the SR store content of Ca2+ was tested with caffeine, at low ryanodine concentration the SR Ca2+ store was empty whereas at the high concentration the SR store was still loaded with Ca2+. beta-Adrenergic stimulation was not able to restore firing at the low concentration of ryanodine but did restore firing at the high ryanodine concentration. 5. An SR Ca2+ pump blocker, 2, 5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBQ) which depletes the SR store of Ca2+, also rapidly and reversibly stopped spontaneous firing. 6. The relation between the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient and firing rate established in the presence of ryanodine was similar when firing was restored by beta-stimulation. 7. In both spontaneously firing and voltage-clamped cells, depleting the SR store with either ryanodine or TBQ suggested that about half of the Ca2+ which contributes to the calcium transient is released from the SR. 8. These results show that the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient is an important factor in the firing rate of toad pacemaker cells and consequently agents which modify SR Ca2+ release influence firing rate. The effects of beta-stimulation on firing rate seem to be largely mediated by changes in amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient.  (+info)

Variability in the time course of single photon responses from toad rods: termination of rhodopsin's activity. (4/493)

We examined the responses of toad rod photoreceptors to single photons of light. To minimize the effects of variability in the early rising phase, we selected sets of responses that closely matched the rise of the mean single photon response. Responses selected in this way showed substantial variations in kinetics, appearing to peel off from a common time course after different delays. Following incorporation of the calcium buffer BAPTA, the time to peeling off was retarded. Our analysis indicates that it is not necessary to invoke a long series of reaction steps to explain the shutoff of rhodopsin activity. Instead, our results suggest that the observed behavior is explicable by the presently known shutoff reactions of activated rhodopsin, modulated by feedback.  (+info)

Expression of membrane transporters in cane toad Bufo marinus oocytes. (5/493)

Membrane transport proteins (transporters and ion channels) have been extensively expressed in amphibian oocytes. The aims of this study were to determine whether oocytes from the cane toad Bufo marinus could be used as an alternative expression system to the broadly used Xenopus laevis oocytes. mRNAs encoding plasma membrane transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1 (sulphate transporters), NaDC-1 (dicarboxylate transporter), SGLT-1 (Na(+)/glucose cotransporter) and rBAT and 4F2 hc (amino acid transporters) were injected into B. marinus oocytes. All led to significant induction of their respective transport activities. Uptake rates were comparable with those in X. laevis oocytes, with the exception of rBAT, which was able to induce amino acid uptake only in X. laevis oocytes, suggesting that rBAT may require an endogenous X. laevis oocyte protein that is absent from B. marinus oocytes. Transport kinetics were determined for the NaSi-1 cotransporter in B. marinus oocytes, with identical results to those obtained in X. laevis oocytes. NaSi-1 specificity for the Na(+) cation was determined, and the anions selenate, molybdate, tungstate, oxalate and thiosulphate could all inhibit NaSi-1-induced sulphate transport. This study demonstrates that cane toad oocytes can be used successfully to express plasma membrane proteins, making this a viable heterologous system for the expression of proteins.  (+info)

Distribution of active protein kinase C in smooth muscle. (6/493)

To localize activated protein kinase C (PKC) in smooth muscle cells, an antibody directed to the catalytic site of the enzyme was used to assess PKC distribution by immunofluorescence techniques in gastric smooth muscle cells isolated from Bufo marinus. An antibody to vinculin was used to delineate the cell membrane. High-resolution three-dimensional images of immunofluorescence were obtained from a series of images collected through focus with a digital imaging microscope. Cells were untreated or treated with agents that increase PKC activity (10 microM carbachol for 1 min, 1 microM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 10 min), or have no effect on PKC activity (1 micrometer 4-alpha phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4-alpha PMA)). In unstimulated cells, activated PKC and vinculin were located and organized at the cell surface. Cell cytosol labeling for activated PKC was sparse and diffuse and was absent for vinculin. After treatment with carbachol, which stimulates contraction and PKC activity, in addition to the membrane localization, the activated PKC exhibited a pronounced cytosolic fibrillar distribution and an increased total fluorescence intensity relative to vinculin. The distributions of activated PKC observed after PMA but not 4-alpha PMA were similar to those observed with carbachol. Our results indicate that in resting cells there is a pool of activated PKC near the cell membrane, and that after stimulation activated PKC is no longer membrane-confined, but is present throughout the cytosol. Active PKC appears to associate with contractile filaments, supporting a possible role in modulation of contraction.  (+info)

The role of calcium stores in fatigue of isolated single muscle fibres from the cane toad. (7/493)

1. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and tension were measured from single muscle fibres dissected from the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The amount of Ca2+ which could be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was estimated by brief (approximately 20 s) exposures to 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) or caffeine. 2. Muscle fatigue was produced by repeated tetani at 4 s or shorter intervals and continued until tension had fallen to 50% of the control. The intracellular free calcium concentration during a tetanus (tetanic [Ca2+]i) first increased and then steadily declined to 43+/-2% of control by the time tension had fallen to 50%. Over the period of fatigue the rapidly releasable Ca2+ from the SR fell to 46+/-6% of control. Tension and tetanic [Ca2+]i recovered to 93+/-3% and 100+/-4% of the control values after 20 min of rest. Over the same period rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ recovered to 98+/-12%. 3. When a similar number of tetani (200) were repeated at longer intervals (10 s), fibres showed only a small reduction in tension (to 85+/-1%) and tetanic [Ca2+]i did not change significantly. Under these conditions the rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ did not change significantly. 4. The recovery of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ after fatigue was unaffected by removal of extracellular calcium but did not occur when oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited with cyanide. 5. These results suggest that an important cause of the decline of tetanic [Ca2+]i during fatigue is an equivalent decline in the amount of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+. The results show that the decline of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ is related to a metabolic consequence of fatigue and are consistent with the hypothesis that Ca2+ precipitates with phosphate in the SR during fatigue.  (+info)

Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad. (8/493)

1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (P<0.0001) with initial fibre glycogen concentration. 6. In conclusion, the results show that (i) the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship holds for conditions where glycogen is not required as a source of energy and (iii) the mechanically skinned fibre preparation is well suited to study the regulation of endogenous glycogenolytic enzymes.  (+info)

Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
Flow from the posterior lymph hearts of Bufo marinus was measured using Doppler flow probes. These probes were placed on the posterior vertebral vein and recorded flow as lymph was ejected from the heart. In resting, hydrated toads, mean lymph flow from one of the paired posterior lymph hearts was 25.9 +/- 4.9 ml kg-1 h-1, stroke volume was 8.9 +/- 1.4 microL kg-1 and lymph heart rate was 47.5 +/- 3.7 beats min-1. We estimate that, together, the paired posterior lymph hearts are capable of generating flows that are approximately one-sixtieth of the resting cardiac output. Mean peak systolic pressure developed by the posterior lymph hearts was 1.62 +/- 0.08 kPa. Simultaneous measurements of lymph heart pressure development and flow revealed that the outflow pore of the heart opened at a pressure of 0.71 +/- 0.04 kPa, approximately 113 +/- 5 ms into systole. When toads were moderately disturbed, stroke volume increased by as much as fourfold with little change in lymph heart rate (, 5 beats ...
Have you ever heard of the Cane Toad? If you havent, youre probably not from Australia. Hawaii was the source population for this introduction, otherwise known as the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). After its introduction to the land-down-under, it has reached plague proportions. Its not as bad in Hawaii, yet, youd be challenged not to find one of these toads on any night in the back of a Hawaiian valley. The toads are unique in that they have toxic secretions that will ooze from glands on their neck if they feel threatened. Dogs can easily die after biting a marine toad. These same secretions, when scrapped from a frog, can be smoked or licked to receive a hallucination. This is not recommended however, as Hazen Audel has tried this, and subsequently come down with a tongue fungus that was not pretty.. ...
Throughout the world, invasive species remain one of the most serious threats to native wildlife. Perhaps the most infamous example of such an alien invasion is that of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia. Released in 1935 to combat sugarcane pests, cane toads proved themselves to be adept at reproducing rapidly in their new environment and, worse still, took quite a fancy to many of Australias native wildlife, viewing them as a tasty snack. A recent study, by Rick Shine and his team at the University of Sydney, Australia, demonstrates that a barrier that once was thought would slow down the toads expansion - low temperatures at high altitudes - is actually dealt with rapidly and successfully by the toads, their secret trick being incredibly rapid cold acclimation.. The study, published in Functional Ecology, noted that cane toads were being recorded up to 1100 m above sea level, with the animals experiencing considerably colder conditions than their native counterparts in central and ...
In amphibians, it has been determined that CRF has an affect on subcortical visual pathways that regulate prey capturing ability. The pathways targeted by CRF effects on visually guided feeding are unknown, but CRF-ir fibers have been reported in the superficial layers of the amphibian optic tectum that collect retinal innervation. These findings have led to the hypothesis that CRF may originate from retinal afferents that innervate the superficial layers of the tectum. A series of experiments were carried out in the cane toad (Bufo marinus) and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to examine an alternate hypothesis that CRF neurons intrinsic to the optic tectum may contribute to the CRF content innervation of this visual center in the amphibian brain. In both species, CRF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in tectal layers 6 and 7 with axons directed toward the more superficial layers of the tectum. To confirm the identity of CRF neurons in the tectum, I examined the expression of CRF and ...
Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
Bufo Marinus is a large Cane Toad statue situated in the town centre of Sarina. He is fondly known as Buffy and is a tourist attraction.
El gènere Bufo és molt cosmopolita, ja que sel pot trobar a tot el planeta sota condicions molt adverses. No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, dAustràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. ...
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Organismal mechanisms underlying range expansions are poorly known in vertebrates [1]. Behavioural traits such as aggression [2] and innovation [3] can be important, as can morphological [4] and physiological traits such as reproductive proclivity [5], regulation of stress hormones [6,7] and immune defences [8]. For instance, in cane toads (Bufo marinus) spreading across Australia, changes in morphology, behaviour and physiology have arisen even though the species arrived in 1935 [4]. Here, our interest was to determine whether regulation of a critical immune defence, inflammation, differed among populations of a recent invader in a manner that would implicate inflammation as a mediator of range expansion. Of all the immune processes that could facilitate range expansions [8], inflammation might be among the most important.. Inflammation can occur on the tissue level and be resolved rapidly, but it can also be a whole body response involving prolonged increases in hepatic synthesis of acute ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
Marinus Pharmaceuticals is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the development of ganaxolone, offering a new mechanism of action with demonstrated safety and convenient dosing for patients affected by epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders.
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Hi guys, so after a long time of thinking, ordering, waiting, re-designing and putting together parts I am finally finalizing my MendelMax 1.5 Here are some pictures, the machine is still not done, but there is already a lot of work done. This is the second 3D-printer Im building, after working wi
So the latest cunning plan, which is to reintroduce the tadpoles of a small green frog, into the breeding ponds of the cane toads is mildly amusing ... apparently the tadpoles of this frog (a native to Australia), are better competitors for the food supply in the ponds than cane toad tadpoles, and it means that less cane toads reach a size big enough to leave the tadpole stage .... the green tree frog spawn cant actually eat the cane toad tadpoles, but the restriction in the food supply they cause, cuts their overall numbers ...
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
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Cane toads are the publics Feral Enemy Number 1. More Australians place the cane toad in their top five ferals than any other species - in fact 9 out of 10 do so. Its a clear winner from the next...
by T. Kawauchi. Introduction. Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are Asiatic toad, Japanese toad, Japanese stream toad , and Marine toad. The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands. Description & Taxonomy. The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias isHiki,Gamagaeru,Gama,Ibogaeru and Senjo. Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toads web doesnt develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the ...
Removed from the synonymy of Rhinella crucifer by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 265, who provided an account (as Bufo henseli). Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, briefly summarized the taxonomic, conservation, and geographic status, as well as a summary of what is know of natural history. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, 2014, Herpetol. J., 24: 229-236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Bruschi, Sousa, Soares, Carvalho, Busin, Ficanha, Lima, Andrade, and Recco-Pimentel, 2019, Genet. Mol. Biol., 42: 445-451, reported on karyotype. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella crucifer group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: ...
Anfípodes são pequenos crustáceos com uma distribuição ao longo de todos os habitats marinhos e de água doce. Echinogammarus marinus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) é uma espécie amplamente distribuída ao longo da costa europeia, sendo o estuário do Mondego (costa oeste de Portugal) considerado o limite sul da sua distribuição. Estudos prévios determinaram que E. marinus é a espécie mais abundante nos habitats intertidais rochosos, tendo um papel crucial na organização trófica do estuário do Mondego. A ocorrência de intersexualidade tem sido largamente descrita em crustáceos, incluindo populações de E. marinus do norte da Europa e mais recentemente no estuário do Mondego. Dado que esta anomalia traz custos associados, como fecundidade e fertilidade reduzidas, baixo sucesso no emparelhamento, maturação retardada e oscilações na proporção de machos/fêmeas, um dos objectivos deste trabalho foi determinar as possíveis consequências da intersexualidade para as populações de ...
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Meaning: Aldosterone-induced Protein; American Institute Of Physics; Automated Immunoprecipitation; Average Intravascular Pressure; Integral Anatuberculin, ...
Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the development of ganaxolone, which offers a new mechanism of action, demonstrated efficacy and safety and convenient dosing, to improve the lives of patients suffering from epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Ganaxolone is a CNS-selective GABAA modulator that acts on a well-characterized target in the
From BioPortfolio: SummaryMarinus Pharmaceuticals Inc Marinus is a biopharmaceutical company that manufactures and commercializes therapeutics for the treatment of epilepsy and ot...
Marinus Pharmaceuticals is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the development of ganaxolone, offering a new mechanism of action with demonstrated safety and convenient dosing for patients affected by epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Single rod hanger installs in ground easily by using the H-hook on the bottom of the rod. Constructed of 1/2 In. wrought iron rod. For use in...
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, suitable habitat which appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
You can submit refund requests within 15 days after the guaranteed period for delivery (45 days) has expired. You can do it by sending a message on page.. If you are approved for a refund, then your refund will be processed, and a credit will automatically be applied to your credit card or original method of payment, within 14 days.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Today was Pauls last day of treatment. It was a gorgeous sunny day so after he wrapped up, we walked into town. Paul went to the gym, I took a walk and then we celebrated with CAKE. Tomorrow morning at 5:45 AM local time we head home via a very long travel day that takes…
The species page of Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983. . Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
Define genus Bufo. genus Bufo synonyms, genus Bufo pronunciation, genus Bufo translation, English dictionary definition of genus Bufo. Noun 1. genus Bufo - type genus of the Bufonidae; common toads of New and Old Worlds amphibian genus - any genus of amphibians Bufonidae, family Bufonidae -...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic GMP injected into retinal rod outer segments increases latency and amplitude of response to illumination. AU - Nicol, G. D.. AU - Miller, W. H.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. N2 - The authors have injected cyclic GMP intracellularly by iontophoresis through the recording electrode into single rod outer segments of the isolated superfused retina of the toad, Bufo marinus. The two most marked effects of the injection are: (i) the latency of the hyperpolarizing membrane-potential change caused by illumination is increased from 5 to 50 times normal, the increase in latency being inversely proportional to the light stimulus intensity; and (ii) the amplitude of the hyperpolarizing receptor potential is increased. These effects are reversible. The authors findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cyclic GMP is a link in the molecular chain of events that controls the inward flow of sodium ions in light and darkness. The increased latency the authors observe after injection ...
Smooth muscle is responsible for the contractility of hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the uterus. Its structure differs greatly from that of skeletal muscle. The human stomach contains three layers of muscle in its walls, the outer longitudinal, the middle circular and the inner oblique and visceral smooth muscle cells makes up all three layers along the entire organ. Smooth muscle contraction is critical to peristalsis in the human stomach and the contraction may be mediated by activation of phospholipase through two distinct mechanisms (increased intracellular Ca2+ and G protein activation) and activating PKCepsilon-dependent mechanisms. In vitro study also shows that gastric smooth muscle cells express ET and eNOS and both calcium and sodium may be involved as current carriers in the generation of the plateau potential.HGSMC from Bioarray Research Laboratories are isolated from the human stomach. HGSMC are cryopreserved at secondary culture ...
website).. Clearly, there is something cheeky and mischievous about how cane toads are represented culturally. A striking example is The Cane Toad Times, an anti-authoritarian satire and humour magazine established in Brisbane in the late 1970s, and revived from 1983-1990. The introduction to the first edition ironically describes the much maligned, but fascinating amphibian as having a myriad of uses […] from organic cricket to live-action barbecues. This edition also includes a satirical section on Elizabeths silver jubilee, which aims to revive all those flagging anti-monarchy sentiments with five pages of unadulterated royalty-roasting. In case the flavour of The Cane Toad Times wasnt clear, we can see from the advertisements that accompany the poems and political cartoons, as well as the Whats On in Brisbane section, that the magazine oriented its social critiques around backyard banter and an emphasis on the local. There are advertisements for record shops, independent ...
On Mars, significant amounts (0.4 - 0.6 %) of perchlorate ions were detected in dry soil by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory and later confirmed with the Mars Science Laboratory. Therefore, the ability of Hydrogenothermus marinus, a desiccation tolerant bacterium, to survive and grow in the presence of perchlorates was determined. Results indicated that H. marinus was able to tolerate concentrations of sodium perchlorate up to 200 mM (≙ 1.6 %) during cultivation without any changes in its growth pattern. After the addition of up to 440 mM (≙ 3.7 %) sodium perchlorate, H. marinus showed significant changes in cell morphology; from single motile short rods to long cell chains up to 80 cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the known desiccation tolerance of H. marinus is highly influenced by a pre-treatment with different perchlorates; additive effects of desiccation and perchlorate treatments are visible in a reduced survival rate. These data demonstrate that thermophiles, especially H. marinus,
Vol 3: Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepithelial transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal membrane (th Na influx) and found that it is reduced when intracellular Na is increased by ouabain or by removal of external potassium. Removal of serosal sodium also reduced the influx, suggesting that the Na gradient across the serosal border rather than the cell Na concentration is the critical factor. Because in tissues such as muscle and nerve a steep transmembrane sodium gradient is necessary to maintain low cytosolic calcium, it is possible that a reduction in the sodium gradient in the toad bladder reduces luminal permeability by increasing the cell calcium activity. We found that the ...
The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate patterns of variation in molecular (a mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme assay and sequence data for two nuclear DNA fragments totalling 979 bp) and 17 morphological variables in Northern France where two of these groups meet (B. bufo sensu stricto and B. spinosus), in order to delineate their contact zone and uncover characters that would allow discrimination of the two taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data show an abrupt transition from areas where B. bufo is present to those inhabited by B. spinosus, with a narrow area of overlap east of the city of Caen. Morphometric characters, particularly those related to the positioning of the parotoid glands and metatarsal tubercle shape and size, proved useful in ...
Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos
Other articles where American toad is discussed: toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). The thick, dry, often warty…
A compartmental model of toad bladder sodium content has been developed, whereby it is possible to measure the four unidirectional fluxes across the opposite faces of the transport compartment, as well as the amount of sodium in the compartment. 24Na is added to the mucosal medium of a short-circuited bladder mounted between halves of a chamber in which the fluid is stirred by rotating impellers. After a steady state is reached, nonradioactive medium is flushed through both sides of the chamber, collected, and counted. The data from each chamber are fitted to sums of exponentials and interpreted in terms of conventional compartmental analysis. Three exponentials are required, with half-times of 0.2, 2.2, and 14.0 min. It is shown that the first of these represents chamber washout, the second the transport pool, and the third a tissue compartment which is not involved in active sodium transport and which does not communicate with the transport pool. The second compartment contains 10.5 µEq of ...
The 4-6 inch yellowish brown toad is considered an invasive species and was brought to Florida as a form of pest control between the 1930s and 1950s.. They appear every summer to bread when heavy rains stir them up from their burrows.. We have dozens out on the street at night. They are not even scared of people anymore, its like there are gangs of them out this year, Elizabeth Bonilla , who lives near a canal in Homestead, told the Miami Herald.. If a dog bites or licks one it can suffer convulsions, loss of coordination and cardiac arrest.. Get your dog to the vet ASAP if it shows symptoms such as excessive drooling, red gums, vomiting, disorientation, circling, stumbling and falling, and seizures.. You are urged to kill a cane toad if you come across one.. The University of Florida Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation says you can identify the toad using the following criteria:. Body is tan to reddish-brown, dark brown, or gray; back is marked with dark spots. Skin is warty. ...
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO ...
Cane Toads remaja (ketika saiz sedang-sedang) kebanyakannya dari pengkelasan amfibia dengan kering kulit berketuat. Kepalanya yang kurus dan atas mata mereka yang bertemu di atas hidung. Sentiasa dalam keadaan duduk tegak dan berpindah hop(lompat) jarak yang pendek. Manakala bagi saiz dewasa, Cane Toads mempunyai bengkak-bengkak besar parotoid kelenjar-kelenjar pada setiap bahu di belakang gegendang telinga.. Ciri khas fizikal. (warna) Mempunyai warna kelabu, kekuning-kuningan, coklat zaitun atau coklat kemerah-merahan, dan perut mereka pucat dengan gelap belak. Manakala yang sudah dewasa bersaiz lebih kurang dalam 10-15 cm panjangnya. Bagi betina di Queensland ialah 24 cm panjang dan anggaran berat dalam 1.3 kg. Kebiasaannya jantina jantan lebih kecil dari yang betinanya.. Manakala Cane Toads yang masih muda (kecil) mempunyai ciri satu kulit yang gelap rata dengan tompok-tompok lebih gelap dan bar-bar , dan tidak ada ketara parotoid kelenjar-kelenjar. Mereka boleh dibezakan dari beberapa ...
Cane Toads remaja (ketika saiz sedang-sedang) kebanyakannya dari pengkelasan amfibia dengan kering kulit berketuat. Kepalanya yang kurus dan atas mata mereka yang bertemu di atas hidung. Sentiasa dalam keadaan duduk tegak dan berpindah hop(lompat) jarak yang pendek. Manakala bagi saiz dewasa, Cane Toads mempunyai bengkak-bengkak besar parotoid kelenjar-kelenjar pada setiap bahu di belakang gegendang telinga.. Ciri khas fizikal. (warna) Mempunyai warna kelabu, kekuning-kuningan, coklat zaitun atau coklat kemerah-merahan, dan perut mereka pucat dengan gelap belak. Manakala yang sudah dewasa bersaiz lebih kurang dalam 10-15 cm panjangnya. Bagi betina di Queensland ialah 24 cm panjang dan anggaran berat dalam 1.3 kg. Kebiasaannya jantina jantan lebih kecil dari yang betinanya.. Manakala Cane Toads yang masih muda (kecil) mempunyai ciri satu kulit yang gelap rata dengan tompok-tompok lebih gelap dan bar-bar , dan tidak ada ketara parotoid kelenjar-kelenjar. Mereka boleh dibezakan dari beberapa ...
Dubois, A. & R. Bour. 2010: The nomenclatural status of the nomina of amphibians and reptiles created by Garsault (1764), with a parsimonious solution to an old nomenclatural problem regarding the genus Bufo (Amphibia, Anura), comments on the taxonomy of this genus, and comments on some nomina created by Laurenti (1768). Zootaxa, 2447: 1-52 ...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Gustavson, M. S., Collins, P. C., Finarelli, J. A., Egan, D., Conchúir, R. Ó., Wightman, G. D., King, J. J., Gauthier, D. T., Whelan, K., Carlsson, J. E. L. & Carlsson, J., (2015), An eDNA assay for Irish Petromyzon marinus and Salmo trutta and field validation in running water. Journal of Fish Biology, Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12781 ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for ENSPMAP00000007221 from Petromyzon marinus 69_7.0. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
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The aim of this investigation was to describe a new adaptation of the ST2R technique as reported by Clement et al.10 for thoracic hypokyphotic AIS patients. We focused on whether the ST2R technique would improve the TK apex location and outcomes relative to a case-matched cohort treated with RR.. However, one limitation of our study is the discrepancy of rods used in the RR and ST2R maneuvers, i.e., the 5.5-mm titanium versus the 6.0-mm cobalt-chrome alloy rods, respectively. This discrepancy is primarily due to the retrospective nature of the study and the consequential change in materials used over time in our practice. As such, outcome differences between the two techniques may be in part explained by the differences in the rods applied. Nevertheless, the roles of the rods in the RR and ST2R techniques are inherently different. RR uses a single rod to support a rotational correction of the spine at the concavity side, while a second rod is placed after the correction to provide support to ...
No. 11 is now 35 by 40 feet at the base and 4 feet high. In the center, 3 feet below the surface, was a vault 8 feet long and ...
CNS is probably the toughest segment in the drug industry with a frustratingly low success rate and a diminishing pipeline. This is best exemplified by the disproportionally low number of CNS programs that received Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD). Of almost 70 designations, only three (J&Js esketamine, Neurocrines NBI-98854 and Acadias pimavanserin) were for CNS indications…
CNS is probably the toughest segment in the drug industry with a frustratingly low success rate and a diminishing pipeline. This is best exemplified by the disproportionally low number of CNS programs that received Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD). Of almost 70 designations, only three (J&Js esketamine, Neurocrines NBI-98854 and Acadias pimavanserin) were for CNS indications…
Lets just say hypothetically I was strange enough to want to keep a Lamprey. Has anyone successfully raised predatory -AKA parasitic- lampreys? (as opposed to f
"Cane Toad Bufo marinus". National Geographic. Mayes, P.J.; Thompson, G. G.; Withers, P. C. (2005). "Diet and foraging behaviour ... J. S. Doody et al (2007): A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on Three Species of ... In June 1935 102 cane toads (Bufo marinus) were imported to Gordonvale from Hawaii (with one dying in transit due to ... Boland, C. R. J. (2004). "Introduced cane toads Bufo marinus are active nest predators and competitors of rainbow bee-eaters ...
Invasive Species Specialist Group (1 June 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus". Global Invasive Species Database. Archived from the ... Protected marine zones have been created in many areas to preserve marine biodiversity; as of 2002[update], these areas cover ... live in tropical marine environments. This is partly due to Australia's huge marine territory, covering 9 million km2. Groups ... Forty-six marine mammals from the order Cetacea are found in Australian coastal waters. Since the majority of these species ...
Among them are species in the genus Bufo (e. g. Bufo marinus) and Ceratophrys. Reptiles that feed on slugs include mainly ... New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 30 (2): 257-269. doi:10.1080/00288330.1996.9516713. Britt, E. J.; Hicks ...
Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea". Pacific Science. 29 (1). Zug, G. R.; Zug, P. B. (1979). "The Marine Toad, Bufo marinus: A ... Bufo marinus (L.) in Fiji". Herpetologica. 18 (4). Invasive Species Specialist Group (June 1, 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus ... changing the binomial name from Bufo marinus to Rhinella marina; the binomial Rhinella marinus was subsequently introduced as a ... The common name "marine toad" and the scientific name Rhinella marina suggest a link to marine life, but cane toads do not live ...
"The cane toad (Bufo marinus)". Australian Government: Department of the Environment. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 ... Biological Control of the Cane Toad Bufo marinus in Australia Cory, J.; Myers, J. (2000). "Direct and indirect ecological ... For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle ( ... "Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory: Alternanthera philoxeroides". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. 1 December 2007 ...
Amphibians found here are Bufo marinus and Leptodactylus albilabris. Reptiles found here are Anolis pulchellus, Ameiva exsul, ...
The name Buffy comes from the species name bufo marinus. Buffy has been painted for the "state of origin" football game ...
... from Bufo marinus (Bufonidae: Amphibia) in Hawaii". Parasite. 6 (3): 269-272. doi:10.1051/parasite/1999063269. Amin, Omar ...
... on gonadal form and function in the giant cane toad Bufo marinus (also known as Rhinella marina), which found that toads living ... Mary Colette M. (2008-11-01). "Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus". Environmental Health ... Mary is also interested in marine fisheries management and reproduction and evolution in hatchery settings. St. Mary received ... Mary, Colette M. (2017-12-31). "Giant toads (Rhinella marina) living in agricultural areas have altered spermatogenesis". ...
ISBN 978-0-98-724478-9. Shine, Richard (2010). "The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus) in Australia". The ...
Bufo gutturalis) Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo ... Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Sclerophrys ... quercicus Bufo regularis Bufo valliceps Bufo viridis Bufo vulgaris Extract from the skin of certain Asian toads, such as Bufo ... Siperstein MD, Murray AW, Titus E (March 1957). "Biosynthesis of cardiotonic sterols from cholesterol in the toad, Bufo marinus ...
L. hylae - European gree tree frog (Hyla caerula) L. minima - African common toad (Bufo regularis), cane toad (Bufo marinus), ... infecting Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) in Pará, North Brazil". Parasite. 2 (3): 307-313. doi:10.1051/parasite/1995023307. ... Bufo poeppigii) L. tritonis - newt (Triton cristatus) Parasite species unknown White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) Oregon ...
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop (1962). "Catecholamines and N-methyltransferase in the South American toad (Bufo marinus)." ...
Bufo marinus)". Copeia. 2009 (1): 29-36. doi:10.1643/ce-08-036. ISSN 0045-8511. S2CID 83622844. Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1980). " ... Marine Ecology. 27 (1): 54-65. Bibcode:2006MarEc..27...54L. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2005.00053.x. hdl:1912/906. ISSN 0173-9565 ...
Bufo marinus), and tree frogs. In addition to casurinas, numerous other species of tree, bush, shrub, cacti, palm, and other ...
Zug, G; Zug, P (1979). "The marine toad, Bufo marinus : a natural history resumé of native populations". Smithsonian ... Ward-Fear, G; Brown, G; Shine, R (2010). "Factors affecting the vulnerability of cane toads (Bufo marinus) to predation by ants ... Bufo marinus)". Austral Ecology. 35 (5): 560-567. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02067.x. Tyler, J; Covacevich, J; Davie, P; ... "Ability of predatory native Australian fishes to learn to avoid toxic larvae of the introduced toad Bufo marinus". Journal of ...
The vertebrate host of this species is the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The invertebrate host is the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. ... Bufo marinus) H. mariae - Amblyomma limbatum H. mauritanica - Hyalomma aegyptium H. stellata - Amblyomma rotondatum. Karadjian ...
Male toads may share their pools with the larger Bufo marinus toads. The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has ... Incilius melanochlorus, formerly Bufo melanochlorus, is a mid-sized species of toad with a crested head in the family Bufonidae ... Earlier publications use Bufo melanochlorus. In 2006 Darrel Frost et al. moved the species to the old genus Cranopsis ... In 2004 O'Neill and Mendelson moved this species from Bufo to Incilius, and while doing so split the taxon into two species, a ...
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01773.x. Clerke, R. B.; Williamson, I. (1 December 1992). "A note on the predation of Bufo marinus ... Richard, Shine (2010). "The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus) in Australia" (PDF). The Quarterly Review ... Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia". Journal of Applied Ecology. 47 (2): 273-280. ...
Brown, Federico D.; del Pino, Eugenia M.; Krohne, Georg (2002). "Bidder's organ in the toad Bufo marinus: Effects of ... The ideal specimen for dissection is Bufo marinus, or giant cane toad. In the male toad, the Bidder's organ is beneath the ...
"Endogenous digitalis-like activity in the plasma of the toad Bufo marinus". Nature. 279 (5711): 341-3. doi:10.1038/279341a0. ...
"The cane toad (Bufo marinus) - fact sheet (Department of the Environment and Energy)". Department of the Environment and Energy ... The sole species of true toad introduced to Australia which has naturalised, is the cane toad (Rhinella marinus), of the family ...
Bufo marinus) Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its ... Rhinella marina, formerly Bufo marinus). Because they have evolved consistently isolated from toads since the Jurassic, all ...
However, Bufo marinus (Cane Toad) occurs in the Northern Territory close to Western Australia's border, and is expected to ... "Advice to Western Australians on the humane killing of cane toads (Bufo marinus)". Department of Agriculture and Food, Western ...
Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) from Amazonian Brazil". Parasite. 2 (2): 141-148. ...
Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Volcan Tacana toad - Bufo tacanensis P. Smith, 1952 [EN] Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997 [EN] ... Some toads, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo ... Bocourt's toad - Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877 Campbell's forest toad - Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994 Dwarf toad - Bufo ... Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954 [EN] Yellow toad - Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891 Large-crested toad - Bufo macrocristatus Firschein ...
... from the Marine Toad, Bufo Marinus (L.) (Lissamphibia: Anura: Bufonidae), in Central America". Journal of Parasitology. 93 (1 ... It was first found in lungs of the cane toad Bufo marinus in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It can be confused with Rhabdias ... "Origin of the parasites of an invading species, the Australian cane toad (Bufo marinus): are the lungworms Australian or ... "Infection dynamics of the lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala in its natural host, the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and in ...
39 (1): 3-4. Clerke, R. B.; Williamson, I. (1992). "A note on the predation of Bufo marinus juveniles by the ant Iridomyrmex ... Marine Ecology Progress Series. 253: 165-173. Bibcode:2003MEPS..253..165P. doi:10.3354/meps253165. Retrieved 15 April 2015. ...
Around 100 toads (Bufo marinus) arrived at Meringa from Hawaii in June 1935, escorted by Assistant Entomologist RW Mungomery. ... Froggatt W 1936, 'The introduction of the Giant American Toad, Bufo marinus, into Australia'. The Australian Naturalist, ...
Bufo bufo). The cane toad (Bufo marinus) has been known to survive 24 years in captivity, and the American bullfrog (Rana ... The cane toad (Bufo marinus) is a very adaptable species native to South and Central America. In the 1930s, it was introduced ... Some tadpoles, including those of the cane toad (Bufo marinus), are poisonous. The tadpole stage may be as short as a week in ... The common toad (Bufo bufo) has golden irises and horizontal slit-like pupils, the red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) ...
Marina Real Británica (diff). *Teselación (diff). *Ronaldo (diff). *Supernatural (serie de TV) (diff) ... Bufo (diff). *Proteína (diff). *Chelsea Staub (diff). *Distrito de Trujillo (diff). *Juan Rulfo (diff) ...
Successive stages in the development of common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles, finishing with metamorphosis ... A few (e.g. Fejervarya raja) can inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians.[67] There are reports, ... Sumich, James L.; Morrissey, John F. (2004). Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 171. ... Others amphibians, such as the Bufo spp. toads, actively search for prey, while the Argentine horned frog (Ceratophrys ornata) ...
Grapaud calamit (Bufo calamita). *Grapaud de Mauritània o pantherin (Bufo mauritanicus). *Grapaud agua (Bufo marinus) ... Grapaud comun (Bufo vulgaris o Bufo bufo). *Grapaud verd (Bufo viridis). * ...
The effect of formation of the isthmus on the marine biota of the area was the inverse of its effect on terrestrial organisms, ... Bufo)". Evolution. 58 (11): 2517-2535. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00881.x. PMID 15612295.. ... This trend is thought to have caused the extinction of the marine sloths of the area.[93] ... Lessios, H.A. (December 2008). "The Great American Schism: Divergence of Marine Organisms After the Rise of the Central ...
The Feral Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) - Invasive species fact sheet *^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: European red fox (Vulpes ... A number of marine pests have arrived in Australia in the ballast water of cargo ships. Marine pests include the black-striped ... Invasive marine speciesEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... Rhinella marina). 1935. Biological control (cane beetle). Americas via Hawaii. Queensland (extensive), northern New South Wales ...
Bufotoxin (from Bufo toads) cat, intravenous 300 µg/kg 0.0003 [76]. Sarin mouse, subcutaneous injection 172 µg/kg 0.000172 [77] ... a putative calcium channel agonist isolated from a marine dinoflagellate". Journal of Biochemistry. 104 (2): 184-7. doi:10.1093 ...
Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate.[57] These toads likely recognize and actively avoid close ... both freshwater and marine. The rest of the vertebrate species are tetrapods, a single lineage that includes amphibians (with ...
Otters, a brief comparison of river and sea otters in the marine environment by the Capital Regional District, Victoria, ... Bufo hemiophrys); wood frogs (Rana sylvatica);[34] bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana); green frogs (Rana clamitans);[36] northwestern ... North American river otters swimming in San Francisco Bay stop to sun themselves on rocks at Richmond, CA Marina ... In Alaska, the two species living in marine environments indicate niche separation through resource partitioning, probably ...
Bufo marinus glandulas toxiferas post oculos habet.. Amphibia (-orum, n.) (ex Graecis amphi- 'ambobus lateribus' + bios 'vita ... Situs scientifici: • ITIS • NCBI • Biodiversity • Encyclopedia of Life • Marine Species • Fossilworks Vide Amphibia apud ... San Mauro, Diego, Miguel Vences, Marina Alcobendas, Rafael Zardoya, et Axel Meyer. 2005. "Initial diversification of living ...
2005). "Effects of ozone exposure on nonspecific phagocytic capacity of pulmonary macrophages from an amphibian, Bufo marinus ... 2007). "Effects of UVB radiation on marine and freshwater organisms: a synthesis through meta-analysis". Ecology Letters. 10 (4 ... Bufo periglenes) endemic to Monteverde, Costa Rica, featured prominently. It was the subject of scientific research until ...
No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d'Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser ... A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Bufo *Llorente, Gustavo: Els vertebrats de les zones humides dels ... Bufo és un gènere d'amfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies. ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo. *Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, i D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: ...
Bufo bufo gredosicola), which are two endemic subspecies to the Sistema Central. ... The coldest periods of winter are associated with invasions of a continental polar front and strata of marine arctic air, rare ...
"Bidder's organ in the toad Bufo marinus: Effects of orchidectomy on the morphology and expression of lamina-associated ... Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River ... Bufo being the most widespread and well known. ...
... while bufadienolides have been derived from the venom of the cane toad Bufo marinus, from which they receive the "bufo" portion ...
Bufo bufo). Domesticated animals[edit]. The island has its own acknowledged breed of goat, named after it. The Skopelos goat is ... In addition, marine pollution and uncontrolled tourism are causing the destruction of the seal's natural habitat. The ... establishment in 1992 of the National Marine Park of Alonnissos-Northern Sporades was an effort to protect this species by ...
Bufo marinus mah béda deui, ieu bangkong ngaluarkeun endog nu ngandung racun. Najan hambalan endog ieu rupa-rupa gumantung ...
Bufo Marinus). The introduced cane toad is currently implicated in the local disappearance of the northern quoll (Dasyurus ...
Adapting his Bufo Theater stock characters, he created instant favorites at "La Taberna India" in WAPA-TV's Channel 4 such as ... After 1959, he worked with the newspaper El Diario de la Marina to defy openly the military take-over by Fidel Castro, for ... La selva oscura, de los Bufos a la neo colonia: historia del teatro cubano de 1868 a 1902 (The Black Jungle, from Bufo Theater ... Cuban comedies derived much of their lively situations from Cuban musical theater genre was known as Bufo Theater and usually ...
... bufo (Röding, 1798). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 June 2010. Tutufa tenuigranosa (E.A. ... In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine ... World Register of Marine Species on 19 June 2010. Tutufa bubo (Linnaeus, 1758). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine ... Tutufa is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Bursidae, the frog shells. Species within the genus ...
... from Bufo rubescens and the cane toad (Bufo marinus); Quercicobufagin, from the oak toad (Anaxyrus quercicus, synonym Bufo ... Rhinella marina, synonym Bufo marinus, the cane toad). The toad produces this secretion when it is injured, scared or provoked ... synonym Bufo arenarum); Cinobufagin, from the Chusan Island toad (Bufo gargarizans); Gamabufagin, from the Japanese toad (Bufo ... synonym Bufo valliceps); Viridibufagin, from the European green toad (Bufo viridis) These bufagins, and especially cinobufagin ...
Bufo marinus), indirectly contributing to its decline. The cane toad (Bufo marinus) has also had a direct effect on ground ... Marine animals that frequent the Noosa Biosphere Reserve, such as the dugong (Dugong dugon), flatback turtle (Natator depressus ... How many of Australia's ground-nesting birds are likely to be at risk from the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina)? EMU 112: ... Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: an example of the co-existence of significant marine mammal populations and large-scale ...
1949 Ramsdenia bufo (Pfeiffer, 1864) Ramsdenia natensoni (Torre & Bartsch, 1941) Ramsdenia nobilitata (Gundlach in Poey, 1858) ... List of non-marine molluscs of the United States List of non-marine molluscs of the Bahamas List of non-marine molluscs of ... The non-marine molluscs of Cuba are a part of the molluscan wildlife of Cuba. Numerous species of non-marine molluscs are found ... Haiti List of non-marine molluscs of Jamaica List of non-marine molluscs of the Cayman Islands List of non-marine molluscs of ...
European and American voyages of scientific exploration Category:Taxa named by René Lesson Persée Un pharmacien de la marine et ... as Bufo thaul (Chile four-eyed frog) Hylarana papua (Lesson, 1826) as Rana papua (Papua River frog) Scincus cyanurus now Emoia ... Pharmacien de la marine, Membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes, &c.". In Bajot, Louis-Marie (ed.). Annales maritimes et ...
... also known as the marine toad) (Bufo marinus) and the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). All of these species are commonly found in ... National Marine Fisheries Service; US Fish and Wildlife Service, eds. (1992). Recovery Plan for Leatherback Turtles in US ... "WMF -Leatherback turtle". Marine Turtles. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). 16 February 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007. CS1 ... The leatherback turtle is the largest marine turtle in the world, and has been federally listed as endangered since 1970. Vast ...
... like Bufo marinus or Bufo valliceps, have the pronounced cleft in the head and, like all toads, have a fleshy mouth with ... "There were a wide number of bones from the marine toad, Bufo marinus". . . at San Lorenzo. Furst (1981), p. 150. Coe 2002, p. ... Skeletal remains of these species, particularly Bufo marinus, have been found at several archaeological sites in Mesoamerica ...
Amphibiaweb link: Rhinella marina *Amphibian Species of the World link: Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Syn. Bufo marinus ... Vernacular names [edit wikidata Rhinella marina] *. English. : Agua Toad, Cane Toad, Giant Marine Toad, Giant Toad, Marine ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bufo_marinus&oldid=231150176" ... Bufo • Species: Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) ... Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Syn. of Bufo marinus) (Least ...
Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia, carrying with them a nematode lungworm (Rhabdias ... INFECTION DYNAMICS OF THE LUNGWORM RHABDIAS PSEUDOSPHAEROCEPHALA IN ITS NATURAL HOST, THE CANE TOAD (BUFO MARINUS), AND IN ... BUFO MARINUS), AND IN NOVEL HOSTS (NATIVE AUSTRALIAN FROGS)," Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46(4), 1152-1164, (1 October 2010) ... BUFO MARINUS), AND IN NOVEL HOSTS (NATIVE AUSTRALIAN FROGS)," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4), 1152-1164, (1 October 2010). ...
Bufo marinus / physiology*. Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology. Decerebrate State. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Medulla Oblongata ... Bufo marinus. Adult toads were anesthetized, catheterized and unidirectionally ventilated before exposing the brainstem. An ... concluded that the VSM is pH sensitive and a cholinergic mechanism is involved in the central modulation of respiration in Bufo ...
Bufo marinus Cell Type. Sertoli cell sperm Cellular Component. microtubule apical part of cell ... Don W. Fawcett (2011) CIL:36054, Bufo marinus, Sertoli cell, sperm. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL36054 ... Horizontal section through the apical cytoplasm of a Sertoli cell in the testis of the toad Buro marinus. Microtubules in these ...
2008) Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) ... Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular ...
Crossland, M. R., Alford, R. A., & Shine, R. (2009). Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog ( ... Crossland, MR, Alford, RA & Shine, R 2009, Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ... Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ornatus) depends on minor variation in ... We used a mesocosm experiment to quantify the impact of eggs and larvae of the introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) on fitness- ...
Bufo marinus. mortality. Northern Territory. ecology. introduced species Summary Exotic animal and plant species introduced ... Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus). Ujvari, Beata and ... Proponents of biological control introduced the South American Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) into the sugar cane fields of ... Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) ...
Direct measurement of flow from the posterior lymph hearts of hydrated and dehydrated toads (Bufo marinus). J M Jones, J M ... Flow from the posterior lymph hearts of Bufo marinus was measured using Doppler flow probes. These probes were placed on the ... Stroke volume was clearly more important in regulating lymph flow than lymph heart rate under these conditions in Bufo marinus. ... Bufo marinus).. J Exp Biol 1 January 1997; 200 (11): 1695-1702. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.200.11.1695 ...
Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos ... Aga Toad Or Cane Toad (bufo Marinus, Rhinella Marina). Royalty ... Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads ( ... Common Toads (bufo Bufo) On The Way To Spawning Waters. Photographie: Common Toads (Bufo bufo) on the way to spawning waters ... Young Common Toad (bufo Bufo). Photo cd: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo) Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2009-08-15 Maximum available ...
Bufo marinus (toad) Species. Host Age/Stage. adult Sex. Not Answered Isolated From. Isolation Details. ...
Bufo marinus introduced into Australia and some Pacific islands; 27 genera, about 360 species; adult size 2 to about 25 cm (1 ... habitats, such as the venomous cane toads (Bufo marinus) introduced in Australia in the 1930s from Hawaii to reduce the effects ... cane toadCane toad (Bufo marinus).. U.S. Geological Survey Archive-U.S. Geological Survey/Bugwood.org. ... Indo-Australian archipelago, Polynesia, and Madagascar; Bufo marinus introduced into Australia and some Pacific islands; 27 ...
Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that cause an alteration in perception, thought, or mood. A rather heterogeneous group, these compounds have different chemical structures, different mechanisms of action, and different adverse effects.
Bufo marinus Comments cane toad Specimen Condition Live Specimen Source #1354003 Source Collection Bugwood Network/Forestry ...
Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that cause an alteration in perception, thought, or mood. A rather heterogeneous group, these compounds have different chemical structures, different mechanisms of action, and different adverse effects.
In the Bufo marinus group according to Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, ... Bufo marinus var. platensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862-1865: 202. Syntypes: 34 specimens, in ... Considered a synonym of Bufo marinus by Savage, 1978, in Espadas Vert. Viaje Pacif.: vii-xvii (in error?), without discussion. ... Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Klappenbach, 1968 ...
Zupanovic Z, Lopez B, Hyatt AD, Green B, Bartran G, Parkes H, Giant toads Bufo marinus in Australia and Venezuela have ... Common toad (Bufo bufo). Bufo UK virus. Europe, United Kingdom. 34. Red-legged frog larvae. Redwood Creek virus. California, ... Cane toad (Bufo marinus). Gutapo iridovirus. South America (Venezuela). 65. Common frog. Rana UK virus. Europe, United Kingdom ... The invasion ecology of the toad Bufo marinus: From South America to Australia. Ecol Appl. 1998;8:388-96. ...
Autonomic influences on heart rate and blood pressure in the toad, Bufo marinus, at rest and during exercise I. Wahlqvist, I. ... I. Wahlqvist, G. Campbell; Autonomic influences on heart rate and blood pressure in the toad, Bufo marinus, at rest and during ... Blood pressure (PA) and heart rate (HR) were measured in the conscious, resting toad, Bufo marinus. Treatment with bretylium ( ...
Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Bufo marinus / Acaridae Limits: Animals Country/Region as subject: ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Bufo marinus / Acaridae Limits: Animals Country/Region as subject: ... Animals , Male , Female , Acaridae/physiology , Bufo marinus/parasitology , Brazil , Host-Parasite Interactions ... Notes on the biology of Amblyomma dissimile Kock, 1844 (Acari: Ixodida) on Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Brazil ...
Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Tongue / Bufo marinus / Glycoconjugates Limits: Animals Language: Spanish Journal: Acta ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Tongue / Bufo marinus / Glycoconjugates Limits: Animals Language: Spanish Journal: Acta ... Animals , Male , Female , Bufo marinus/anatomy & histology , Glycoconjugates/analysis , Tongue/chemistry , Tongue/ ... Caracterizacion histoquimica de los glicoconjugados de la lengua del sapo Bufo marinus L. (Anfibio, Anuro) con tecnicas ...
Characterization of a Major Secretory Protein in the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) Choroid Plexus as an Amphibian Lipocalin-type ... Bufo marinus, whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly ... Bufo marinus, whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly ...
Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ... Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ... Bufo marinus. Easy to maintain in an inclined tank with water at one end. Requires little care beyond occasional feeding with ...
Bufo marinus), and rats. Homogenate metabolism was inhibited by the addition of potassium fluoride and nitrilotriacetic acid ( ... Bufo marinus), and rats. Homogenate metabolism was … ...
Known scientifically as Bufo Marinus, the Cane Toad, Giant Toad, or Marine Toad is native to an area extending from Mexico and ... The Giant Bufo Marinus Toad is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. ...
Bufo americanus PJC1.jpg 3,341 × 2,227; 5.18 MB. *. Bufo marinus in Venezuela.jpg 3,221 × 2,251; 4.62 MB. ...
"Cane Toad Bufo marinus". National Geographic. Mayes, P.J.; Thompson, G. G.; Withers, P. C. (2005). "Diet and foraging behaviour ... J. S. Doody et al (2007): A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on Three Species of ... In June 1935 102 cane toads (Bufo marinus) were imported to Gordonvale from Hawaii (with one dying in transit due to ... Boland, C. R. J. (2004). "Introduced cane toads Bufo marinus are active nest predators and competitors of rainbow bee-eaters ...
Invasive Species Specialist Group (1 June 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus". Global Invasive Species Database. Archived from the ... Protected marine zones have been created in many areas to preserve marine biodiversity; as of 2002[update], these areas cover ... live in tropical marine environments. This is partly due to Australias huge marine territory, covering 9 million km2. Groups ... Forty-six marine mammals from the order Cetacea are found in Australian coastal waters. Since the majority of these species ...
Bufo marinus. * Family: Bufonidae. * Adult Size: Adults usually measure up to 8 inches in total length. ...
Bufo marinus 53. Wekiu Bug. Wekiu. Nysius wekiuicola The third series of these cards are brought to you courtesy of Tesoro ...
  • Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH changes and cholinergic agents on the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Figure 421 from Chapter 16 (Cytoplasmic matrix and cytoskeleton) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Horizontal section through the apical cytoplasm of a Sertoli cell in the testis of the toad Buro marinus. (ucsd.edu)
  • We used a mesocosm experiment to quantify the impact of eggs and larvae of the introduced cane toad ( Bufo marinus ) on fitness-related traits (number, size and time of emergence of metamorphs) of a native Australian frog species ( Opisthodon ornatus ). (edu.au)
  • Predation on toxic toad eggs reduced the survival of O. ornatus and B. marinus . (edu.au)
  • Proponents of biological control introduced the South American Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) into the sugar cane fields of Queensland in 1935. (edu.au)
  • Fine Art Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), female with egg string, Oberaegeri, Switzerland, Europe Author: Rolf NussbaumerDate: 2009-06-19 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
  • Photo cd: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo) Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2009-08-15 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), juvenile Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2005-08-28 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Royalty free: European Green Toad Bufo viridis, Neusiedlersee Neusiedler Lake region, Austria, Europe Author: Hans Lang Date: 2007-12-13 Maximum available. (tradebit.com)
  • Royalty free photos: Colorado River Toad or Sonoran Desert Toad Bufo alvarius, in captivity Author: Kurt M busDate: 2009-01-03 Maximum available size: 18. (tradebit.com)
  • Digital Photography: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo), Waldviertel region, Lower Austria, Austria, Europe Author: Christian HandlDate: 2009-08-13 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
  • Royalty free photos: Aga Toad or Cane Toad (Bufo marinus, Rhinella marina) Author: Florian KoppDate: 2009-05-17 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Digital Photography: Green Toad (Bufo viridis), National Park Lake Neusiedl, Burgenland, Austria, Europe Author: Rolf NussbaumerDate: 2007-04-23 Maximum a. (tradebit.com)
  • Photoalbum: Colorado River Toad, Sonoran Desert Toad (Bufo alvarius) Author: Kurt M busDate: 2009-12-09 Maximum available size: 18.1 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • alvarius ) and the giant toad ( B. marinus , also called the cane toad) affect animals as large as dogs, in some instances causing temporary paralysis or even death. (britannica.com)
  • Blood pressure (PA) and heart rate (HR) were measured in the conscious, resting toad, Bufo marinus. (biologists.com)
  • Histochemical stains with and without enzymatic digestions such as alpha-amylase, neuraminidase and hyaluronidase, made possible to localize and differentiate various types of glycoconjugates (GCs) in the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we report the enzymatic and ligand-binding properties of a major secretory protein in the choroid plexus of cane toad, Bufo marinus , whose protein is homologous with lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) and is recombinantly expressed in Xenopus A6 cells and Escherichia coli . (oup.com)
  • The Giant Bufo Marinus Toad is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. (constantcontact.com)
  • Known scientifically as Bufo Marinus, the Cane Toad, Giant Toad, or Marine Toad is native to an area extending from Mexico and Central America to the Amazon Basin and was introduced to Florida in 1966 in an attempt to control the population of a type of beetle that was ravaging the sugar cane crops. (constantcontact.com)
  • In the United States, another toad species, Bufo alvarius , known as the Colorado River toad or the Sonoran Desert toad, causes similar effects. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The potential geographical distribution of marine toads in Australia has been predicted based on climatic conditions around the country and tolerance limits of the toad (Sutherst et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • 1995). Temperature and rainfall extremes are foreshadowed to prevent marine toad occupation of other regions (Sutherst et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Long-term management of a natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) population in southern Britain. (springer.com)
  • Australia's toad is the cane toad, Bufo marinus , also called the marine toad or giant toad (the largest specimens are the size of dinner plates! (eduplace.com)
  • Intracellular pH in the toad Bufo marinus following hypercapnia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Blood circulation in the tail of a cane toad tadpole ( Bufo Marinus ), captured by Ralph Grimm. (cbsnews.com)
  • Uptake of 3H-glycine in the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the toad, Bufo marinus. (xenbase.org)
  • The uptake of 3H-glycine in the retina of the toad, Bufo marinus, was investigated by light and electron microscopical autoradiography. (xenbase.org)
  • Bufo marinus or the cane toad of Florida can cause a severe and sudden reaction in dogs. (earthclinic.com)
  • On June 22, 2009 our little Jack Russell was poisoned by a Bufo Toad. (earthclinic.com)
  • Bufo marinus is the scientific name of the Cane, Marine, or Giant Neotropical Toad. (teachersnetwork.org)
  • of an amphibian, the cane toad Bufo marinus. (xenbase.org)
  • Some toads can carry a toxin on their skin, specifically the species Bufo marinus (cane toad). (petsbest.com)
  • The scientific name of the toad is Bufo marinus, which somehow seems to fit. (tbo.com)
  • Quickly the marine toad population increased to the point of being declared a public nuisance," the advisory states. (tbo.com)
  • The cane toad, or Bufo marinus , secretes a white, milky irritant called bufotenin from glands at the rear of its head. (lifehack.org)
  • [10] Among these species, the Golden toad ( Bufo periglenes ) endemic to Monteverde , Costa Rica , featured prominently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? (cambridge.org)
  • Cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia, carrying with them a nematode lungworm ( Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala ) congeneric with those found in Australian frogs. (bioone.org)
  • Ujvari, Beata and Madsen, Thomas 2009, Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) , Herpetological conservation and biology , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 248-251. (edu.au)
  • Direct measurement of flow from the posterior lymph hearts of hydrated and dehydrated toads (Bufo marinus). (biologists.com)
  • Photoalbum: Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning Author: Hans LangDate: 2009-02-08 Maximum available size: 19.8 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Photographie: Common Toads (Bufo bufo) on the way to spawning waters Author: Hans LangDate: 2009-06-30 Maximum available size: 19.8 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • habitats, such as the venomous cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) introduced in Australia in the 1930s from Hawaii to reduce the effects of beetles on sugarcane plantations. (britannica.com)
  • Tissues were sampled from undisturbed worms (Sipunculus nudus), squid (Illex illecebrosus), trout (Salmo gairdneri), toads (Bufo marinus), and rats. (nih.gov)
  • In June 1935 102 cane toads (Bufo marinus) were imported to Gordonvale from Hawaii (with one dying in transit due to dehydration). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1919, marine toads were introduced to Puerto Rico. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • in Puerto Rico's cane fields was attributed to the introduction of marine toads in the 1920s (Freeland, 1985). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • It was the assumption that marine toads were a successful biological control for cane pests that led to their introduction throughout the Pacific Basin (Freeland, 1985). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • While native to extreme southern Texas, marine toads were introduced elsewhere in the United States (Florida and Hawaii) to control insect pests. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • In northern Australia, marine toads reached Mataranka (40 km south of Darwin, Northern Territory) in 1999 (Caneris and Oliver, 1999) and entered Kakadu National Park (a World Heritage area) in the summer of 2000/2001. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • 1995). These workers predicted that marine toads have the potential to expand their range as far south as Bega, near the New South Wales and Victorian border, and across the top of Australia to Broome in Western Australia (Sutherst et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Because marine toads have been introduced to parts of the United States, Australia, and throughout the Indo-Pacific region, they are more abundant now than they have been historically. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Abundance, growth and feeding of natterjack toads ( Bufo calamita ) in a 4-year-old artificial habitat. (springer.com)
  • Beastly bondage: The costs of amplexus in cane toads ( Bufo marinus ). (springer.com)
  • True toads (known as Bufo in Latin), lack tails and teeth, but behind their eyes are wart-like structures called parotoid glands that secrete a poisonous substance to deter predators. (earthclinic.com)
  • On this page you can find user-submitted remedies and strategies for soothing your dog in the event of a poisoning and preventing them from coming into contact with bufo toads in the first place. (earthclinic.com)
  • Around the same time, Cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) were introduced to control sugarcane pests. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It seems that Australian officials decided to introduce Cane Toads (Bufo marinus ) into Queensland and the eastern part of their country island, hoping that the amphibians would eat the larvae of the cane beetle that was threatening the sugar cane crops. (teachersnetwork.org)
  • The genus Bufo includes the 'true toads. (teachersnetwork.org)
  • Some call them marine toads or just plain giant toads. (tbo.com)
  • In standardized trials, cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) from invasion-front populations approached conspecifics more often, and spent more time close to them, than did conspecifics from high-density, long-colonized populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To test for geographical divergence in social behaviour, we quantified social attraction in standardized trials of cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) from long-colonized populations in Hawai'i and Australia, and from invasion-front populations in Australia. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We used linear mixed effects models to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors that drive variation in the scaling relationship between the lengths of the second and fourth digits in two species of anurans: túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and cane toads (Rhinella marina). (elsevier.com)
  • In the combined liver transcriptome, we also identified a complete genome sequence of a distinct epsilonretrovirus, Rhinella marina endogenous retrovirus (RMERV). (asm.org)
  • Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular junction. (edu.au)
  • What we are finding in Bufo marinus might also occur in other animals, including other amphibian species and humans," says lead author Krista McCoy. (motherjones.com)
  • Growth and survival of O. ornatus tadpoles were enhanced when they preceded B. marinus tadpoles into ponds, and reduced when they followed B. marinus tadpoles into ponds, relative to when tadpoles of both species were added to ponds simultaneously. (edu.au)
  • We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. (scielo.br)
  • Assessing differences in targeted fish species between marine preserves and non-restricted waters on Guam. (uog.edu)
  • 2017. Siganus spinus (scribbled rabbitfish) as a sentinel species for assessing xenobiotic pollution in tropical marine ecosystems. (uog.edu)
  • We draw on a database of observed climate change impacts on marine species, supplemented with evidence in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (frontiersin.org)
  • Observations of species responses that have been linked to anthropogenic climate change are widespread, but are still lacking for some taxonomic groups (e.g., phytoplankton, benthic invertebrates, marine mammals). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, these priority effects were reduced or reversed when O. ornatus tadpoles encountered B. marinus eggs. (edu.au)
  • While OCT readily creates cross-sectional images of the retina along the optical axis in an interferometric approach, confocal SLO technology allows en face images of the retina by detecting backscattered light reflected from a transverse plane of the retina. (springer.com)
  • We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The phenomenon of hypercapnia-induced metabolic depression has been extensively investigated in the sipunculid Sipunculus nudus , a marine worm from intertidal and subtidal sandy sediments. (biologists.org)
  • Caracterizacion histoquimica de los glicoconjugados de la lengua del sapo Bufo marinus L. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bufo marinus gives off a chemical called bufotenine that is highly toxic. (teachersnetwork.org)
  • A survey of the diseases of marine turtles in northern Australia. (int-res.com)
  • Niche dynamics of the omnivorous butterflyfish, Chaetodon auriga, on the reef flats of Guam, Mariana Islands, and Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. (uog.edu)
  • Global biogeography of marine algae. (uog.edu)
  • Foi determinada a dieta das duas espécies mais abundantes de anuros que ocorrem na serrapilheira de uma floresta semidecídua (Lençóis, Bahia, Brasil), Physalaemus cf. cicada e Bufo granulosus , nas estações seca e chuvosa. (scielo.br)
  • Details of the biology of specimens from the State of Amapá were studied in the laboratory in a humidity chamber at an average environmental temperature of 19.5 §C, using Bufo marinus as host for the time in Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bufos have immense, deeply parotid glands that extend far down the sides of their bodies, according to an advisory from the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. (tbo.com)
  • Bufo granulosus Spix and Physalaemus cf. cicada Bokermann. (scielo.br)
  • However, some studies have suggested that shortcut nutrient flow pathways may exist from DON to marine invertebrates [ 7 - 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Previous studies have documented direct DON uptake by marine invertebrates, thereby shortening the nutrient flow pathway, and improving the growth of individual invertebrates in DON-enriched environmental water [ 14 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Despite this growing body of evidence for the use of shortcut nutrient flow pathways by marine invertebrates, at present, evidence for a shortcut pathway in aquatic vertebrates is limited, although Glover and his colleagues have shown that DON may be actively transported from environmental water to gill and skin epithelia of hagfish [ 16 - 18 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Indo-West Pacific are among the most biologically diverse regions in the world. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Climate change is driving changes in the physical and chemical properties of the ocean that have consequences for marine ecosystems. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effectiveness of a marine reserve on the density and diversity of reef fishes in Guam. (uog.edu)
  • Here, we review evidence for the responses of marine life to recent climate change across ocean regions, from tropical seas to polar oceans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bufo has adapted well for life in urban and suburban areas of central and southern Florida. (tbo.com)