A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
A genus of obligately aerobic, thermophilic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Crenotrichaceae. They were isolated from submarine alkaline HOT SPRINGS in Iceland.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.

Energetics of sodium transport in toad urinary bladder. (1/493)

The ratio of the rate of transepithelial sodium transport, JNa, across the isolated toad urinary bladder to the simultaneously measured rate of transport-dependent metabolism, JsbCO2, has been measured as a function of the transepithelial electrical voltage, deltapsi. The ratio remains constant with a mean value of 18 to 20 over the range of imposed voltages of 0 to +70 mV. With increasing hyperpolarization of the bladder, JNa decreases and the calculated electromotive force or apparent "ENa" of the sodium pump increases. From thermodynamic and kinetic arguments it is shown that the apparent "ENa" approaches the maximal electrochemical potential gradient, ENa, against which sodium can be transported by this tissue only when JNa approximately 0. At this unique condition F ENa (in which F is the Faraday constant) is the maximal free energy of the chemical reaction driving sodium transport and thus equal to the maximal extramitochondrial phosphorylation potential and the maximal free energy of the mitochondrial respiratory chain within the transporting cells.  (+info)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (2/493)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

How does beta-adrenergic stimulation increase the heart rate? The role of intracellular Ca2+ release in amphibian pacemaker cells. (3/493)

1. The mechanism by which sympathetic transmitters increase the firing rate of pacemaker cells was explored in isolated cells from the sinus venosus of the cane toad Bufo marinus. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with indo-1 and membrane potential and currents were recorded with the nystatin perforated-patch technique. 2. Adrenaline or isoprenaline (2 microM) increased the transient rise in [Ca2+]i and increased the firing rate; these effects were blocked by propranolol (2 microM). 3. To determine whether the changes in [Ca2+]i might influence the firing rate we studied agents which affect either the loading or the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Rapid application of caffeine (10 mM) to spontaneously firing cells caused a large Ca2+ release from the SR and the cells were then quiescent for 24 s. In the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation the caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i was 14 % larger but the period of quiescence after application was reduced to 12 s. 4. Ryanodine, at either low (1 microM) or high (> 10 microM) concentration, stopped firing. However, when the SR store content of Ca2+ was tested with caffeine, at low ryanodine concentration the SR Ca2+ store was empty whereas at the high concentration the SR store was still loaded with Ca2+. beta-Adrenergic stimulation was not able to restore firing at the low concentration of ryanodine but did restore firing at the high ryanodine concentration. 5. An SR Ca2+ pump blocker, 2, 5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBQ) which depletes the SR store of Ca2+, also rapidly and reversibly stopped spontaneous firing. 6. The relation between the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient and firing rate established in the presence of ryanodine was similar when firing was restored by beta-stimulation. 7. In both spontaneously firing and voltage-clamped cells, depleting the SR store with either ryanodine or TBQ suggested that about half of the Ca2+ which contributes to the calcium transient is released from the SR. 8. These results show that the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient is an important factor in the firing rate of toad pacemaker cells and consequently agents which modify SR Ca2+ release influence firing rate. The effects of beta-stimulation on firing rate seem to be largely mediated by changes in amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient.  (+info)

Variability in the time course of single photon responses from toad rods: termination of rhodopsin's activity. (4/493)

We examined the responses of toad rod photoreceptors to single photons of light. To minimize the effects of variability in the early rising phase, we selected sets of responses that closely matched the rise of the mean single photon response. Responses selected in this way showed substantial variations in kinetics, appearing to peel off from a common time course after different delays. Following incorporation of the calcium buffer BAPTA, the time to peeling off was retarded. Our analysis indicates that it is not necessary to invoke a long series of reaction steps to explain the shutoff of rhodopsin activity. Instead, our results suggest that the observed behavior is explicable by the presently known shutoff reactions of activated rhodopsin, modulated by feedback.  (+info)

Expression of membrane transporters in cane toad Bufo marinus oocytes. (5/493)

Membrane transport proteins (transporters and ion channels) have been extensively expressed in amphibian oocytes. The aims of this study were to determine whether oocytes from the cane toad Bufo marinus could be used as an alternative expression system to the broadly used Xenopus laevis oocytes. mRNAs encoding plasma membrane transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1 (sulphate transporters), NaDC-1 (dicarboxylate transporter), SGLT-1 (Na(+)/glucose cotransporter) and rBAT and 4F2 hc (amino acid transporters) were injected into B. marinus oocytes. All led to significant induction of their respective transport activities. Uptake rates were comparable with those in X. laevis oocytes, with the exception of rBAT, which was able to induce amino acid uptake only in X. laevis oocytes, suggesting that rBAT may require an endogenous X. laevis oocyte protein that is absent from B. marinus oocytes. Transport kinetics were determined for the NaSi-1 cotransporter in B. marinus oocytes, with identical results to those obtained in X. laevis oocytes. NaSi-1 specificity for the Na(+) cation was determined, and the anions selenate, molybdate, tungstate, oxalate and thiosulphate could all inhibit NaSi-1-induced sulphate transport. This study demonstrates that cane toad oocytes can be used successfully to express plasma membrane proteins, making this a viable heterologous system for the expression of proteins.  (+info)

Distribution of active protein kinase C in smooth muscle. (6/493)

To localize activated protein kinase C (PKC) in smooth muscle cells, an antibody directed to the catalytic site of the enzyme was used to assess PKC distribution by immunofluorescence techniques in gastric smooth muscle cells isolated from Bufo marinus. An antibody to vinculin was used to delineate the cell membrane. High-resolution three-dimensional images of immunofluorescence were obtained from a series of images collected through focus with a digital imaging microscope. Cells were untreated or treated with agents that increase PKC activity (10 microM carbachol for 1 min, 1 microM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 10 min), or have no effect on PKC activity (1 micrometer 4-alpha phorbol, 12,13-didecanoate (4-alpha PMA)). In unstimulated cells, activated PKC and vinculin were located and organized at the cell surface. Cell cytosol labeling for activated PKC was sparse and diffuse and was absent for vinculin. After treatment with carbachol, which stimulates contraction and PKC activity, in addition to the membrane localization, the activated PKC exhibited a pronounced cytosolic fibrillar distribution and an increased total fluorescence intensity relative to vinculin. The distributions of activated PKC observed after PMA but not 4-alpha PMA were similar to those observed with carbachol. Our results indicate that in resting cells there is a pool of activated PKC near the cell membrane, and that after stimulation activated PKC is no longer membrane-confined, but is present throughout the cytosol. Active PKC appears to associate with contractile filaments, supporting a possible role in modulation of contraction.  (+info)

The role of calcium stores in fatigue of isolated single muscle fibres from the cane toad. (7/493)

1. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and tension were measured from single muscle fibres dissected from the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The amount of Ca2+ which could be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was estimated by brief (approximately 20 s) exposures to 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) or caffeine. 2. Muscle fatigue was produced by repeated tetani at 4 s or shorter intervals and continued until tension had fallen to 50% of the control. The intracellular free calcium concentration during a tetanus (tetanic [Ca2+]i) first increased and then steadily declined to 43+/-2% of control by the time tension had fallen to 50%. Over the period of fatigue the rapidly releasable Ca2+ from the SR fell to 46+/-6% of control. Tension and tetanic [Ca2+]i recovered to 93+/-3% and 100+/-4% of the control values after 20 min of rest. Over the same period rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ recovered to 98+/-12%. 3. When a similar number of tetani (200) were repeated at longer intervals (10 s), fibres showed only a small reduction in tension (to 85+/-1%) and tetanic [Ca2+]i did not change significantly. Under these conditions the rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ did not change significantly. 4. The recovery of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ after fatigue was unaffected by removal of extracellular calcium but did not occur when oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited with cyanide. 5. These results suggest that an important cause of the decline of tetanic [Ca2+]i during fatigue is an equivalent decline in the amount of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+. The results show that the decline of rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ is related to a metabolic consequence of fatigue and are consistent with the hypothesis that Ca2+ precipitates with phosphate in the SR during fatigue.  (+info)

Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad. (8/493)

1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (P<0.0001) with initial fibre glycogen concentration. 6. In conclusion, the results show that (i) the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship holds for conditions where glycogen is not required as a source of energy and (iii) the mechanically skinned fibre preparation is well suited to study the regulation of endogenous glycogenolytic enzymes.  (+info)

'Bufo marinus' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the Cane Toad or Giant Toad. This toad is native to Central and South America, but has been introduced to various parts of the world including Florida, Australia, and several Pacific islands. The toad produces a toxic secretion from glands on its back and neck, which can be harmful or fatal if ingested by pets or humans.

'Bufo bufo' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the common toad or European toad. It belongs to the family Bufonidae and is native to many parts of Europe and western Asia. The toad is typically characterized by its warty skin, large parotoid glands behind its eyes, and a dull yellow or brownish color.

The parotoid glands of Bufo bufo contain a toxic secretion that can be harmful if ingested or comes into contact with mucous membranes, making the toad unpalatable to many predators. The toxin can cause irritation and may lead to respiratory and cardiac problems in some animals, including pets and humans.

While Bufo bufo is not typically aggressive, it will defend itself if threatened by inflating its body, lifting its hind legs, and releasing the toxic secretion from its glands. The common toad is primarily a terrestrial animal but requires access to water for breeding, and it feeds on a variety of small invertebrates such as insects, worms, and slugs.

Bufonidae is a family of toads, characterized by the presence of parotoid glands that produce bufotoxins, a group of toxic secretions. These toads are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and some isolated islands. They vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending on the species. Some notable members of this family include the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius). It is important to note that while these toads have toxic secretions, they are not typically harmful to humans unless ingested or if their secretions come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin.

"Rhodothermus" is not a medical term, but rather a genus name in the domain Bacteria. It belongs to the family Rhodothermaceae and is characterized by its ability to thrive in high-temperature environments, with an optimum growth temperature of around 65-70°C. These bacteria are typically found in marine hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. They play a role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down complex organic matter into simpler compounds, which can then be used by other organisms.

Therefore, "Rhodothermus" is not directly related to medical terminology or human health. However, understanding the biology and ecology of these extremophilic bacteria can provide insights into the fundamental principles of life and may have potential applications in biotechnology and industrial processes.

Photoreceptor cells are specialized neurons in the retina of the eye that convert light into electrical signals. These cells consist of two types: rods and cones. Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels and provide black-and-white, peripheral, and motion sensitivity. Cones are active at higher light levels and are capable of color discrimination and fine detail vision. Both types of photoreceptor cells contain light-sensitive pigments that undergo chemical changes when exposed to light, triggering a series of electrical signals that ultimately reach the brain and contribute to visual perception.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Methohexital is a rapidly acting barbiturate sedative-hypnotic agent primarily used for the induction of anesthesia. It is a short-acting drug, with an onset of action of approximately one minute and a duration of action of about 5 to 10 minutes. Methohexital is highly lipid soluble, which allows it to rapidly cross the blood-brain barrier and produce a rapid and profound sedative effect.

Methohexital is administered intravenously and works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), producing a range of effects from mild sedation to general anesthesia. At lower doses, it can cause drowsiness, confusion, and amnesia, while at higher doses, it can lead to unconsciousness and suppression of respiratory function.

Methohexital is also used for diagnostic procedures that require sedation, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cerebral angiography. It is not commonly used outside of hospital or clinical settings due to its potential for serious adverse effects, including respiratory depression, cardiovascular instability, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that Methohexital should only be administered by trained medical professionals under close supervision, as it requires careful titration to achieve the desired level of sedation while minimizing the risk of adverse effects.

'Acari' is the scientific name for a group of small arthropods that includes ticks and mites. These tiny creatures are characterized by having eight legs, lack antennae or wings, and have a hard exoskeleton. They belong to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and scorpions.

Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can transmit various diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. Mites, on the other hand, have diverse habits and lifestyles, with some being parasitic, predacious, or free-living. Some mites are pests that can cause skin irritation and allergies in humans and animals.

Overall, Acari is a significant group of organisms with medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit diseases and cause other health problems.

"Petromyzon" is the name of a genus that includes the sea lampreys, an ancient type of jawless fish. They are eel-like aquatic creatures with circular mouths filled with teeth, which they use to attach themselves to other fish and feed on their blood. They have a long, slender body, and can grow up to 20-100 cm in length depending on the species. Sea lampreys are considered parasites and can cause significant damage to commercial fisheries.

The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which is a mixed sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve. The RLN has important functions in providing motor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, which is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all the muscles that are responsible for adduction (bringing together) of the vocal cords, including the vocalis muscle, lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles. These muscles play a crucial role in voice production, coughing, and swallowing.

The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one. It loops around the subclavian artery in the chest before ascending to the larynx, while the left RLN hooks around the arch of the aorta. This anatomical course makes them vulnerable to injury during various surgical procedures, such as thyroidectomy and neck dissection, leading to potential voice impairment or vocal cord paralysis.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Ocular adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust and accommodate to changes in visual input and lighting conditions. This process allows the eye to maintain a clear and focused image over a range of different environments and light levels. There are several types of ocular adaptation, including:

1. Light Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to different levels of illumination. When moving from a dark environment to a bright one, the pupils constrict to let in less light, and the sensitivity of the retina decreases. Conversely, when moving from a bright environment to a dark one, the pupils dilate to let in more light, and the sensitivity of the retina increases.
2. Dark Adaptation: This is the process by which the eye adjusts to low light conditions. It involves the dilation of the pupils and an increase in the sensitivity of the rods (specialised cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in low light conditions). Dark adaptation can take several minutes to occur fully.
3. Color Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to changes in the color temperature of light sources. For example, when moving from a room lit by incandescent light to one lit by fluorescent light, the eye may need to adjust its perception of colors to maintain accurate color vision.
4. Accommodation: This is the process by which the eye changes focus from distant to near objects. The lens of the eye changes shape to bend the light rays entering the eye and bring them into sharp focus on the retina.

Overall, ocular adaptation is an essential function that allows us to see clearly and accurately in a wide range of environments and lighting conditions.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

"Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011. Rogers, Lesley J.; Kaplan, Gisela T. (2004). Comparative ... He's the spiritual father of a space marine legion (later changed to a chapter) called the Raven Guard. Both ravens and crows ...
In June 1935, 102 cane toads (Rhinella marina, formerly ICZN Bufo marinus) were imported to Gordonvale from Hawaii, with one ... "Cane Toad Bufo marinus". National Geographic. Mayes, P.J.; Thompson, G. G.; Withers, P. C. (2005). "Diet and foraging behaviour ... J. S. Doody et al (2007): A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on Three Species of ... ISBN 0-86857-247-0. Media related to Bufo marinus in Australia at Wikimedia Commons Cane Toads: An Unnatural History at IMDb ...
Invasive Species Specialist Group (1 June 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus". Global Invasive Species Database. Archived from the ... Protected marine zones have been created in many areas to preserve marine biodiversity; as of 2002[update], these areas cover ... live in tropical marine environments. This is partly due to Australia's huge marine territory, covering 9 million km2. Groups ... Forty-six marine mammals from the order Cetacea are found in Australian coastal waters. Since the majority of these species ...
Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea". Pacific Science. 29 (1). Zug, G. R.; Zug, P. B. (1979). "The Marine Toad, Bufo marinus: A ... Bufo marinus (L.) in Fiji". Herpetologica. 18 (4). Invasive Species Specialist Group (June 1, 2006). "Ecology of Bufo marinus ... changing the binomial name from Bufo marinus to Rhinella marina; the binomial Rhinella marinus was subsequently introduced as a ... The common name "marine toad" and the scientific name Rhinella marina suggest a link to marine life, but cane toads do not live ...
"The cane toad (Bufo marinus)". Australian Government: Department of the Environment. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 ... Biological Control of the Cane Toad Bufo marinus in Australia Cory, J.; Myers, J. (2000). "Direct and indirect ecological ... For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle ( ... "Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory: Alternanthera philoxeroides". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. 1 December 2007 ...
Amphibians found here are Bufo marinus and Leptodactylus albilabris. Reptiles found here are Anolis pulchellus, Ameiva exsul, ...
The name Buffy comes from the species name bufo marinus. Buffy has been painted for the "state of origin" football game ...
... from Bufo marinus (Bufonidae: Amphibia) in Hawaii". Parasite. 6 (3): 269-272. doi:10.1051/parasite/1999063269. Amin, Omar ...
BLJ Delvinquier; WJ Freeland (1988). "Protozoan Parasites of the Cane Toad, Bufo-Marinus, in Australia". Australian Journal of ... Rhinella marina). Janet W. Raff (1911). "Protozoa parasitic in the large intestine of Australian frogs. Part I". Proceedings of ... Rhinella marina)". International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife. 6 (3): 375-385. doi:10.1016/J.IJPPAW.2016.12 ...
... on gonadal form and function in the giant cane toad Bufo marinus (also known as Rhinella marina), which found that toads living ... Mary Colette M. (2008-11-01). "Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus". Environmental Health ... Mary is also interested in marine fisheries management and reproduction and evolution in hatchery settings. St. Mary received ... Mary, Colette M. (2017-12-31). "Giant toads (Rhinella marina) living in agricultural areas have altered spermatogenesis". ...
ISBN 978-0-98-724478-9. Shine, Richard (2010). "The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus) in Australia". The ...
Bufo gutturalis) Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo ... quercicus Bufo regularis Bufo valliceps Bufo viridis Bufo vulgaris Extract from the skin of certain Asian toads, such as Bufo ... Incilius alvarius Anaxyrus americanus Rhinella arenarum Phrynoidis asper Rhaebo blombergi Anaxyrus boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo ... Siperstein MD, Murray AW, Titus E (March 1957). "Biosynthesis of cardiotonic sterols from cholesterol in the toad, Bufo marinus ...
Bufo regularis), cane toad (Bufo marinus), blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), rice field frogs (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), frog ( ... infecting Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) in Pará, North Brazil". Parasite. 2 (3): 307-313. doi:10.1051/parasite/1995023307. ... Bufo poeppigii) L. tritonis - newt (Triton cristatus) Parasite species unknown White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) Oregon ...
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop (1962). "Catecholamines and N-methyltransferase in the South American toad (Bufo marinus)." ...
Bufo marinus)". Copeia. 2009 (1): 29-36. doi:10.1643/ce-08-036. ISSN 0045-8511. S2CID 83622844. Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1980). " ... Marine Ecology. 27 (1): 54-65. Bibcode:2006MarEc..27...54L. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2005.00053.x. hdl:1912/906. ISSN 0173-9565 ...
Bufo marinus), and tree frogs. In addition to casuarinas, numerous other species of tree, bush, shrub, cacti, palm, and other ...
Zug, G; Zug, P (1979). "The marine toad, Bufo marinus : a natural history resumé of native populations". Smithsonian ... Ward-Fear, G; Brown, G; Shine, R (2010). "Factors affecting the vulnerability of cane toads (Bufo marinus) to predation by ants ... Fitzgerald, M (1990). "Rattus rattus: the introduced black rat, a successful predator on the introduced cane toad Bufo marinus ... Bufo marinus)". Austral Ecology. 35 (5): 560-567. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02067.x. Tyler, J; Covacevich, J; Davie, P; ...
The vertebrate host of this species is the cane toad (Bufo marinus). The invertebrate host is the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. ... Bufo marinus) H. mariae - Amblyomma limbatum H. mauritanica - Hyalomma aegyptium H. stellata - Amblyomma rotondatum. Karadjian ...
Male toads may share their pools with the larger Bufo marinus toads. The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has ... Incilius melanochlorus, formerly Bufo melanochlorus, is a mid-sized species of toad with a crested head in the family Bufonidae ... Earlier publications use Bufo melanochlorus. In 2006 Darrel Frost et al. moved the species to the old genus Cranopsis ... In 2004 O'Neill and Mendelson moved this species from Bufo to Incilius, and while doing so split the taxon into two species, a ...
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01773.x. Clerke, R. B.; Williamson, I. (1 December 1992). "A note on the predation of Bufo marinus ... Richard, Shine (2010). "The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus) in Australia" (PDF). The Quarterly Review ... Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia". Journal of Applied Ecology. 47 (2): 273-280. ...
Bufo marinus) Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its ... Rhinella marina, formerly Bufo marinus). Because they have evolved consistently isolated from toads since the Jurassic, all ...
"The cane toad (Bufo marinus) - fact sheet (Department of the Environment and Energy)". Department of the Environment and Energy ... The sole species of true toad introduced to Australia which has naturalised, is the cane toad (Rhinella marinus), of the family ...
However, Bufo marinus (Cane Toad) occurs in the Northern Territory close to Western Australia's border, and is expected to ... "Advice to Western Australians on the humane killing of cane toads (Bufo marinus)". Department of Agriculture and Food, Western ...
Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) from Amazonian Brazil". Parasite. 2 (2): 141-148. ...
Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Volcan Tacana toad - Bufo tacanensis P. Smith, 1952 [EN] Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997 [EN] ... Some toads, like the cane toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo ... Bocourt's toad - Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877 Campbell's forest toad - Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994 Dwarf toad - Bufo ... Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954 [EN] Yellow toad - Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891 Large-crested toad - Bufo macrocristatus Firschein ...
... from the Marine Toad, Bufo Marinus (L.) (Lissamphibia: Anura: Bufonidae), in Central America". Journal of Parasitology. 93 (1 ... It was first found in lungs of the cane toad Bufo marinus in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It can be confused with Rhabdias ... "Origin of the parasites of an invading species, the Australian cane toad (Bufo marinus): are the lungworms Australian or ... "Infection dynamics of the lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala in its natural host, the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and in ...
39 (1): 3-4. Clerke, R. B.; Williamson, I. (1992). "A note on the predation of Bufo marinus juveniles by the ant Iridomyrmex ... Marine Ecology Progress Series. 253: 165-173. Bibcode:2003MEPS..253..165P. doi:10.3354/meps253165. Retrieved 15 April 2015. ...
Around 100 toads (Bufo marinus) arrived at Meringa from Hawaii in June 1935, escorted by Assistant Entomologist RW Mungomery. ... Froggatt W 1936, 'The introduction of the Giant American Toad, Bufo marinus, into Australia'. The Australian Naturalist, ...
focuses on the invasion of the cane toad (Rhinella marina, formerly Bufo marinus) of Australia. Through thermal acclimation and ... Connell, Joseph H. (1972). "Community Interactions on Marine Rocky Intertidal Shores". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics ...
Letnic, M.; Webb, J. K.; Shine, R. (2008). "Invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles ( ... Marine Faunal Diversity in India: Taxonomy, Ecology and Conservation, 453. Platt, S. G.; W. K. Ko; M. Kalyar Myo; L. L. Khaing ... The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific (PDF). Rosenzweig, P. A. 2001. p. 3972. Nayak, Lakshman; Sharma, ... Most witnessed acts of predation on marine animals have occurred in coastal waters or within sight of land, with female sea ...
original description (of Murex bufo Bruguière, 1792) Bruguière J.G. (1792). Catalogue des coquilles envoyées de Cayenne, à la ... of Murex bufo Bruguière, 1792) Bruguière J.G. (1792). Catalogue des coquilles envoyées de Cayenne, à la Société dhistoire ... Marsupina bufo (Bruguière, 1792). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia. ... To GenBank (5 nucleotides; 3 proteins) (from synonym Murex bufo Bruguière, 1792). ...
"Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011. Rogers, Lesley J.; Kaplan, Gisela T. (2004). Comparative ... Hes the spiritual father of a space marine legion (later changed to a chapter) called the Raven Guard. Both ravens and crows ...
Bufo marinus (toad) Species. Host Age/Stage. adult Sex. Not Answered Isolated From. Isolation Details. ...
Members of the genus Bufo, particularly Bufo marinus (see the image below) and Bufo alvarius, contain bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT ...
1-3. Bufo marinus.... $295.00. ADD TO CART * Artist: W. Winship. Reptilia, Pl. 6. Figs. 1-3. Bufo marinus.... $295.00. ADD TO ...
Food and parasitism of the cane toad, Bufo marinus, in relation to time since colonization. Aust Wildl Res. 1986;13:489-99. DOI ... Protozoan parasites of the cane toad, Bufo marinus, in Australia. Aust J Zool. 1988;36:301-16. DOIGoogle Scholar ... Phylogenetic inference of cane toad (Rhinella marina) Entamoeba SSU-rDNA sequences. Entamoeba SSU-rDNA sequences obtained using ... Invasive colonic entamoebiasis in wild cane toads (Rhinella marina), tropical Australia, 2014-2015. A) Toad with severe colonic ...
Bufo marinus Biological Process. microtubule cytoskeleton organization Cellular Component. microtubule Figure 421 from Chapter ...
Other more used scientific name for them is Bufo marinus.. They were another great idea (NOT!) import to Australia alongside ... The cane toad (Rhinella marina), also known as the giant neotropical toad or marine toad, is a large, terrestrial true toad ...
"Invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia ... Annual ocean conference raises $11.3b in pledges for marine conservation * Caribbean startups are turning excess seaweed into ... Indonesian activists face jail over FB posts flagging damage to marine park ...
The cure comes in the form of an extinct frog-the Bufo marinus-which emits an acid from its skin. Doc and Marty meet up with ... Marty and Doc end up being captured by Incas and are put in a large pit with hundreds of Bufo marinus frogs. With that many ...
Spring and summer foods of Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) in ...
This is a procession of three ways (animal spirits): a waterlily-jaguar, a deer-snake (och-chan) and a toad (bufo marinus). ...
Autonomic influences on heart rate and blood pressure in the toad, Bufo marinus, at rest and during exercise ...
The secretions of the poisonous cane toad Bufo marinus were apparently used as an anaesthetic companion drug, while the ...
... though Bufo marinus has been artificially introduced into Australia and some South Pacific islands. Besides Bufo, the family ...
Bufo marinus) communicate using chemicals excreted into the water, a finding that may help to impede the Cane Toad invasion of ... Sydney University biologists have discovered cane toad tadpoles (Bufo marinus) communicate using chemicals excreted into the ...
The Bufus marinus toad species is especially common in southern Florida. Many thousands of dogs are exposed to these poisonous ... Bufo Toad Toxicity (Envenomation) in Dogs. Overview of Bufo Toad Toxicity in Dogs. Toads of the genus Bufo, live in many parts ... Diagnosis of Bufo Toad Toxicity in Dogs. Knowledge of contact with a Bufo toad is the typical means of diagnosis. But in many ... Treatment of Bufo Toad Toxicity in Dogs. *Treatment of Bufo toad envenomation usually depends on the dose an animal has ...
The Marine or Cane Toad, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina) in Nature and Captivity - Marine Toads as Pets - Part 1. September 9, ... My Animal Collection: How a Herpetologist Keeps American Toads, Bufo (Anaxyrus) americanus and Related Species, Part I. ... My Animal Collection: How a Herpetologist Keeps American Toads, Bufo (Anaxyrus) americanus and Related Species, Part II. ...
Giant Toad (invasive) Bufo marinus Gopher Frog Rana capito aesopus Green Treefrog Hyla cinerea ...
Biological Control of the Cane Toad Bufo marinus in Australia. *. Cory, J.; Myers, J. (2000). "Direct and indirect ecological ... "The cane toad (Bufo marinus)". Australian Government: Department of the Environment. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 ... "Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. 1 December 2007. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017 ... For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle ( ...
Marine divisions supported by more than 800 warships and landing craft has been described as the classic amphibious assault of ... Marine toad , Bufo marinus (marine toad, cane toad) See BUFONIDAE. marine toad (Bufo marinus) See BUFONIDAE. Tinian , TINIAN ( ... United States Marine Corps , Marine Corps, U.S. OverviewMarine Corps, U.S., 1775-1865Marine Corps, U.S., 1865-1914Marine Corps ... IWO JIMA (16 February-17 March 1945). The capture of the Japanese island of Iwo Jima in World War II by three U.S. Marine ...
8. Cane toad : Cane toads, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina), have a poor reputation in Australia because they are strong, heavy- ...
Bufo periglenes regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Amphibia ordo = Anura familia = Bufonidae… ... "Bufo marinus", are more toxic than others. Some ". psychoactive toad. s," such as the Colorado River Toad. "Bufo alvaris", have ... "Bufo periglenes". regnum = Animalia. phylum = Chordata. classis = Amphibia. ordo = Anura. familia = Bufonidae. familia_ ... Bufo. " being the most widespread and well known.. Characteristics. True toads are widespread and occur natively on every ...
New ants from stomachs of Bufo marinus L. and Typhlops reticulatus (L). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 31: 207-210 * Weber, N. A. 1938b ...
Mark Detecting the impact of invasive species on native fauna: Cane toads (Bufo marinus), frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus ...
In Chapter 5, the presence of nucleoplasmin in Rana catesbeiana (H-type) and Bufo marinus (P-type) is assessed. The amphibian ... In Chapter 5, the presence of nucleoplasmin in Rana catesbeiana (H-type) and Bufo marinus (P-type) is assessed. The amphibian ...
Fuery CJ, Withers PC, Guppy M (1998) Protein synthesis in the liver of Bufo marinus: Cost and contribution to oxygen ... Marine invertebrate larvae, and particularly those with calcareous structures, have been used in numerous investigations of the ... 5). The increase of in vivo Na+,K+-ATPase activity may be related to acid-base regulation (37). For marine invertebrates, acid- ... The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food.. ...
We went down near the rangers garbage pit and found no less than two dozen marine toads ( Bufo marinus ) stuck in the pit. The ... Mike remarked that it was the largest one he had ever seen! This toad has very large parotid glands, but unlike most Bufo toads ... Journeying to La Palma from Mapache Lodge to collect Don Marinos offerings involved a boat journey, two bus journeys and an ... I received considerable cooperation, particularly from Don Marino from La Palma. He presented me with many fer-de-lances caught ...
Cane toads (Bufo Marinus) and your pets.. *. Everyone Has Their Own Normal ...
  • Phylogenetic inference of cane toad ( Rhinella marina ) Entamoeba SSU-rDNA sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Sydney University biologists have discovered cane toad tadpoles (Bufo marinus) communicate using chemicals excreted into the water, a finding that may help to impede the Cane Toad invasion of the Kimberley. (phys.org)
  • 8. Cane toad : Cane toads, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina), have a poor reputation in Australia because they are strong, heavy-built amphibians. (ruposhibangla.in)
  • Some, like the Cane Toad "Bufo marinus", are more toxic than others. (en-academic.com)
  • In addition, the venom gland of cane toad ( Bufo marinus ) contains large quantities of a purported aphrodisiac substance that has resulted in cardiac glycoside poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • This is a procession of three ways (animal spirits): a waterlily-jaguar, a deer-snake (och-chan) and a toad (bufo marinus). (famsi.org)
  • The Bufus marinus toad species is especially common in southern Florida. (petplace.com)
  • Any breed of dog is susceptible to the effects of the Bufo toad toxin. (petplace.com)
  • Knowledge of contact with a Bufo toad is the typical means of diagnosis. (petplace.com)
  • Treatment of Bufo toad envenomation usually depends on the dose an animal has received and their specific clinical signs. (petplace.com)
  • For patients who have received a large dose of Bufo toad toxin, intensive care may be required to keep recurrent seizures at bay and to monitor the heart for signs of cardiotoxicity. (petplace.com)
  • The cost of Bufo toad envenomation depends to a large extent on the degree to which a dog is exposed and, consequently, to the dose of toxin he or she received. (petplace.com)
  • If was a simple lick or quick bite, resulting in minimal toxin absorption, dogs are likely to fare well - sometimes even without any veterinary intervention at all (though it's strongly recommended all dogs be examined by a veterinarian after any Bufo toad toxin exposure). (petplace.com)
  • Preventing exposure to the Bufo toad is the only sure means of preventing envenomation. (petplace.com)
  • Dog owners who live in Bufo toad-specific locales are urged to keep a watchful eye out during the wetter seasons of the year. (petplace.com)
  • Some " psychoactive toad s," such as the Colorado River Toad "Bufo alvaris", have been used recreationally for the effects of the bufotoxin . (en-academic.com)
  • Toads of the genus Bufo, live in many parts of the world and, unbeknownst to many pet owners, can be toxic to dogs. (petplace.com)
  • We documented severe (lethal) colitis of wild cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) in Australia associated with Entamoeba spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Invasive colonic entamoebiasis in wild cane toads ( Rhinella marina ), tropical Australia, 2014-2015. (cdc.gov)
  • True toads comprise a number of genera, with " Bufo " being the most widespread and well known. (en-academic.com)
  • In Chapter 5, the presence of nucleoplasmin in Rana catesbeiana (H-type) and Bufo marinus (P-type) is assessed. (uvic.ca)
  • True Toads can be found worldwide except in Australasia, polar regions, Madagascar, and Polynesia, though Bufo marinus has been artificially introduced into Australia and some South Pacific islands. (centralpark.com)
  • Other more used scientific name for them is Bufo marinus . (tomzap.com)
  • We described 15 cases of a newly recognized spinal arthropathy in adult cane toads (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus), an invasive species in Australia. (nih.gov)
  • In 1935, Australian farmers released cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) into Queensland. (popsci.com)
  • We documented severe (lethal) colitis of wild cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) in Australia associated with Entamoeba spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Invasive colonic entamoebiasis in wild cane toads ( Rhinella marina ), tropical Australia, 2014-2015. (cdc.gov)
  • These marine toads are most frequently seen under the streetlights of the suburbs. (ballenisleswildlifefoundation.org)
  • Bufo toads cannot jump higher than 15", and adults cannot fit through the small holes. (ballenisleswildlifefoundation.org)
  • Bufo toads (the term is redundant as bufo is Latin for toad) are seen mostly during the rainy season (late May to mid October) and most often at night near well lit areas because bugs are attracted to light and toads are attracted to bugs, their primary food source. (ballenisleswildlifefoundation.org)