Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Glycoside HydrolasesDigitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.GlucosidesSpectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.TriterpenesFlavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Cimicifuga: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Stevia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Spirostans: Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Asclepias: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Diterpenes, Kaurane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Scrophulariaceae: The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Cellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rhodiola: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cistanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Convolvulaceae: The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Gardenia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Cornus: A plant genus of the family CORNACEAE. It is widely cultivated for the attractive flowers.Psidium: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.Cynanchum: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Picrorhiza: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain scrosides (CINNAMATES) and phenylethanoid glycoside. P. kurrooa is the source of picroliv (a purified iridoid glycoside fraction from the roots having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties).Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Campa C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Cataldi TR, Bufo SA, Freitag D, Kettrup A (2000). "Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar ... All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides (Vedel & Lange 1960). The berries are edible after ... containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4). The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. ...
... (bufo bufo gargarizans) is a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from the skin of the Bufo toad that is believed ... The molecules in HuaChanSu include the cardiac glycosides bufalin, cinobufagin, cinobufotalin and resibufogenin. These ... Bufo is a group of over 150 species of toads. Nearly all of these species contain a venom in their skin called bufotoxin which ... Bufo toads can live under very adverse conditions resulting in its inhabitance in nearly every continent; its ability to ...
Rhinella marina (Cane toad), Rhaebo guttatus (Smooth-sided toad), Bufo melanostictus (Asian toad), and Bufo bufo (common ... Bufotalin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid, cardiac glycoside analogue, secreted by a number of toad species. Bufotalin can ... Bufo bufo gargarizans Canto) venom in guinea-pigs in vivo and in vitro". Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 22 (1): 1-8. doi: ...
Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo ... bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads ... formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus Bufo regularis Bufo valliceps Bufo viridis Bufo ... such as Bufo bufo gargarizans, is often found in certain Chinese folk remedies.[citation needed] Siperstein MD, Murray AW, ...
The term derives from the toad genus Bufo that contains bufadienolide glycosides, the suffix -adien- that refers to the two ... These are a type of cardiac glycoside, the other being the cardenolide glycosides. Both bufadienolides and their glycosides are ... Its derivatives are collectively known as bufadienolides, including many in the form of bufadienolide glycosides ( ... Polycyclic compounds Steroids Cardanolides Cardiac glycosides Bufanolides (includes bufenolides, bufadienolides, ...
... "bufo" portion of their name. Below is a full list of plants from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. Convallaria majalis ( ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid glycoside molecule attached to a sugar and an R group. The ... Cheeke, Peter R. (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin: Glycosides. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849369919. "Cardiac Glycoside Plant ... proscillaridine A Bufo marinus (cane toad): various bufadienolides Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump ...
Bufo venoms also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ingestion of the venom can be fatal. Ingestion of Bufo toad venom ... Takeda N (February 1994). "Serotonin-degradative pathways in the toad (Bufo bufo japonicus) brain: clues to the pharmacological ... by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad venom or dried Bufo skins. The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad venom ... Albert Most, founder of the Church of the Toad of Light and a proponent of spiritual use of Bufo alvarius venom, published a ...
There is a rather large homology in structure between arenobufagin and cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glycosides are natural ... such as the Bufo gargarizans or the Bufo melanostictus Suhneider. Arenobufagin is specifically secreted by the Rhinella ... Structure of Arenobufagin Structure of a Cardiac Glycoside Although a low dosis of arenobufagin can be used as a medicine of ... Arenobufagin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid secreted by the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. It has effects similar to ...
... "bufo" portion of their name.[6] Below is a full list of plants from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group.[4] ... "Cardiac Glycosides". www.people.vcu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-25.. *^ a b Cheeke, Peter R. (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin ... Glycosides. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849369919. .. *^ a b c "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology ...
Black-spined Toad (Bufo melanostictus) Risk Assessments for Australia; Department of Agriculture and Food: Western Australia. ... the possibility that some Malagasy animals do possess resistance to bufotenin because almost identical cardiac glycosides are ... Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its effects on ... Berry, P. Y.; Bullock, J. A. (1962). "The Food of the Common Malayan Toad, Bufo melanostictus Schneider". Copeia. 1962 (4): 736 ...
Campa C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Cataldi TR, Bufo SA, Freitag D, Kettrup A (2000). "Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar ... All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides (Vedel & Lange 1960). The berries are edible after ... containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4). The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. ...
HuaChanSu (bufo bufo gargarizans) is a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from the skin of the Bufo toad that is believed ... The molecules in HuaChanSu include the cardiac glycosides bufalin, cinobufagin, cinobufotalin and resibufogenin. These ... Bufo is a group of over 150 species of toads. Nearly all of these species contain a venom in their skin called bufotoxin which ... Bufo toads can live under very adverse conditions resulting in its inhabitance in nearly every continent; its ability to ...
... a steroidal glycoside also found in the toad genus Bufo. Also contains a lectin that inhibits protein synthesis. It is said to ... All parts, but especially the tubers, are considered poisonous to mammals and humans due to presence of cardiac glycosides. ... Contains eranthin A, B and other cardiac glycosides including bufadienolide, ...
Other cardiac glycosides are present in the skin of toads (Bufo maritimus, B. vulgaris), but are of toxicological rather than ... cardiac glycosides. the glycosides of Digitalis purpurea (digitoxin, gitalin and gitoxin) and digoxin (from D. lanata). ... Strophanthin and ouabain are glycosides found in Strophanthus spp. ...
An ancient Chinese remedy that employs an extract of Bufo toad secretions contains several cardiac glycosides and is still ... Wang, Y.; Qiu, Q.; Shen, J.J.; Li, D.D.; Jiang, X.J.; Si, S.Y.; Shao, R.G.; Wang, Z. Cardiac glycosides induce autophagy in ... McConkey, D.J.; Lin, Y.; Nutt, L.K.; Ozel, H.Z.; Newman, R.A. Cardiac glycosides stimulate Ca2+ increases and apoptosis in ... Digitalis containing cardiac glycosides has been used for the treatment of heart diseases for over 200 years [33]. ...
... "bufo" portion of their name.[6] Below is a full list of plants from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group.[4] ... "Cardiac Glycosides". www.people.vcu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-25.. *^ a b Cheeke, Peter R. (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin ... Glycosides. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849369919. .. *^ a b c "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology ...
Profiling of quercetin glycosides and acyl glycosides in sun-dried peperoni di Senise peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by a ... Pascale R, Acquavia MA, Cataldi TRI, Onzo A, Coviello D, Bufo SA, Scrano L, Ciriello R, Guerrieri A, Bianco G. ...
Cardiac improvement can be corrected by taking cardiac glycosides. These drugs can increase cardiac output, but there is a risk ... Bufo marinus (cane toad): various boufadienolides. Mechanism of action. *Cardiac glycosides inhibit the action of the sodium- ... Cardiac glycoside toxicity. Cardiac glycosides are most often used for therapeutic purposes, but their toxicity is widely ... Antidotes of cardiac glycosides. Therapeutic treatment options for cardiac glycoside toxicity are based on the following ...
Cardiac Glycosides are also found in oleander, lily of the valley, squill, dogbane, and henbane *Mechanism: reversibly inhibits ... B) Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) *Venom considered an aphrodisiac and a hallucinogen 2/2 bufotenin (serotonin analog); people engage ... Can send dig level; however, not all glycosides are measured by this assay and levels do not correlate with severity of illness ... Entire plant (seeds, flowers, leaves) contains digitalis (cardiac glycoside); sometimes brewed as teas ...
For example, Huachansu (Cinobufacini), the aqueous extracts from the dried toad skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor or Bufo ... The skin of the toads is known to be rich in bufadienolide compounds (a group of cardiac glycosides) that exhibit antitumor ... The Australian cane toad (Bufo marinus) is also known as a source of bufadienolides, therefore is also considered as a new ... Previous studies have shown that cane toad skin aqueous extracts (CTSAE) exhibited a stronger cardiac glycosides-like activity ...
MECHANISM ACTION OF CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES Mechanisms of inotropic action of cardiac glycosides Cardiac glycosides produce their ... Bufo vulgaris (Toad skin) - Bufotoxin • • • • ... CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES The main source of cardiac glycosides is ... GLYCOSIDE Glycosides are non-nitrogenous substances obtained from plants. The glycosides on hydrolysis yield two molecules ... digitalis glycoside should be given. In ruminants, oral administration of glycosides leads to destruction of the drug and hence ...
"The Permeability of the Midgut of Three Insects to Cardiac Glycosides." Journal of Insect Physiology 28 (8): 689-94. ... "First case of attack of an adult Bufo spinosus Daudin, 1803 by a carabid beetle larva of Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, ... Epomis circumscriptus attacking and preying upon Bufo viridis - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFJ_CXJ0qPo ...
Toxicity from cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin, can present as acute and chronic poisoning. Although falling out of favor ... The benefit of a digoxin level is that it can pick up other digitalis substances such as Bufo toxins or oleander given the ... A dig level can still be positive in cardiac glycosides such as foxglove or oleander, but dont use the level itself to guide ... Chapter 325: Cardiac Glycosides. In: Ling L , Wolfson AB, editors. Harwood-Nuss Clinical Practice Of Emergency Medicine. 6th ...
Pankoke H., Dobler S. (2015). Feeding specialization and host plant use - How the interaction with plant glycosides has shaped ... Blowfly larvae (Lucilia buvonivora, Diptera: Calliphoridae) coping with the poisonous skin secretion of the common toad (Bufo ... Pankoke H., Bowers D., Dobler S. (2010). Influence of iridoid glycoside containing host plants on midgut ß-glucosidase activity ... Baden C.U., Franke S., Dobler S. (2012). Differing patterns of sequestration of iridoid glycosides in the Mecininae (Coleoptera ...
Toads: Toad toxin acts like digoxin, cardiac glycoside. Toxin is secreted by poison glands underneath skin of a toad. Toad Bufo ...
Bufo venoms also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ingestion of the venom can be fatal. Ingestion of Bufo toad venom ... The name bufotenin originates from the Bufo genus of toads, which includes several species of psychoactive toads (such as Bufo ... Serotonin-degradative pathways in the toad (Bufo bufo japonicus) brain: clues to the pharmacological analysis of human ... by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad venom or dried Bufo skins. The use of chansu and love stone (a related toad venom ...
Cinobufacini, an aqueous extract from Bufo bufo Gargarizans cantor, induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway ... Iridoid glycosides Cell-cycle arrest Anti-proliferative activity Apoptosis ABSTRACT The objective of the current study was to ... Iridoid glycosides from Gentiana kurroo royle. Alexandria Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1, 82-86. Shahidi, F., Janitha, ... The roots of the plant are source of iridoid glycosides like gentiopicrine, gentiamarin and the alkaloid gentianin (Sharma et ...
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside, aka a cardioactive steroid. *Dig comes from the foxglove plant, but other cardiac glycosides ... as well bufadienolides like the dried secretion of Bufo toads that is apparently used as an aphrodisiac ... Works for non-digoxin cardiac glycosides as well, but wont be able to go by level because they wont be reliable ...
In where to buy modafinil 100mg mexico addition to bufotenin, Bufo venoms also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ...
Marinobufagenin (MBG), a bufadienolide CTS (naturally produced by the toad Bufo rubescens) has been implicated in the ... Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), are molecules similar in structure to cardiac glycosides or digitalis, that are ...
Marinobufagenin (MBG), a bufadienolide CTS (naturally produced by the toad Bufo rubescens) has been implicated in the ... Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), are molecules similar in structure to cardiac glycosides or digitalis, that are ...
Cyanogenic glycoside Glycosylamine Phenolic glycoside Anthraquinone glycoside Coumarin glycoside Flavonoid glycoside Saponin ... Bufo Arenobufagin Bufotalin Cinobufagin Marinobufagin. TOP Related Articles.. EXAIR SUPER AIR KNIFE PDF. BIOSYNTHESIS OF ... Chemistry of natural compounds: Alcoholic glycoside Cardiac glycoside Bufadienolide Cardenolide ... Determination of digitoxin and other glycosides and genins in Digitalis purpurea.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. ...
similarly to that of bufo marinus and rana esculenta the luminal membrane of bufo bufo urinary bladder shows an adh stimulated ... detection of poisoning by plant-origin cardiac glycoside with the abbott tdx analyzer.. cardiac glycoside poisoning caused by ... in bufo bufo urinary bladder an urea facilitated transport has been localised on the luminal membrane. the transport fulfils ... comparative effects of mammalian prolactin and growth hormone on growth in the toads bufo boreas and bufo marinus.. 1969. ...
Toads of the genus Bufo, for example the common toad (Bufo bufo), are able to synthesise and store a host of chemicals, some of ... which are known as steroidal bufadienolides (Daly, 1998). These are a type of cardiac glycoside and specifically block nerve ... Unlike Bufo toads or salamanders, which synthesise their own toxins, poison dart frogs accumulate toxic lipophilic alkaloids ...
Colorado river toad (Bufo alvarius). *Marine toad (Bufo marinus). Clinical findings:. ANOREXIA, HYPOREXIA. ATAXIA, ... some of which are cardiac glycosides having a similar effect to digitalis. The venom may also contain catecholamines, ... When dogs mouth or bite Bufo marinus or Bufo alvarius (cane toads) toads, a potent venom is released from the toads parotid ... Here in South Florida we are also unfortunate to have BUFO TOADS. They can be very toxic to our dogs. If you think your pet has ...
  • Previous studies have shown that cane toad skin aqueous extracts (CTSAE) exhibited a stronger cardiac glycosides-like activity than the extracts of other organic solvents and have a suppression effect on Na+, K+‐ATPase in experimental models. (edu.au)
  • Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bianco G, Lelario F, Battista FG, Bufo SA, Cataldi TRI (2012) Identification of glucosinolates in capers by LC-ESI-hybrid linear ion trap with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR MS) and infrared multiphoton dissociation. (springer.com)
  • Nursing actions/interventions with rationales adult health actions/interventions assist the patient, concurrent medication, and med- 408 part c the clinical basis of medical toxicology ter and cardiac glycosides (chap. (alsrideforlife.org)
  • Feeding specialization and host plant use - How the interaction with plant glycosides has shaped the digestive β-glucosidase activity in two Longitarsus leaf beetles. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • A chemotaxonomical relationship based on glycoside and homoisoflavanone content is revealed for some Muscari, Bellevalia, Chionodoxa and Scilla species. (storysteel.gq)