A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
A plant genus of the family CORNACEAE. It is widely cultivated for the attractive flowers.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain scrosides (CINNAMATES) and phenylethanoid glycoside. P. kurrooa is the source of picroliv (a purified iridoid glycoside fraction from the roots having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties).
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Campa C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Cataldi TR, Bufo SA, Freitag D, Kettrup A (2000). "Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar ... The seeds and all green parts of the plant contain cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of berries, leaves, bark or stems, if not ... containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4). The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. It ... and cyanogenic glycosides, which may be toxic if consumed raw. ...
... (bufo bufo gargarizans) is a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from the skin of toads from the genus Bufo that ... The molecules in HuaChanSu include the cardiac glycosides bufalin, cinobufagin, cinobufotalin and resibufogenin. These ... Bufo is a group of over 150 species of toads. Nearly all of these species contain a venom in their skin called bufotoxin which ... Bufo toads can live under very adverse conditions resulting in its inhabitance in nearly every continent; its ability to ...
Its derivatives was found in Bufo and Scilla, as an aglycone of cardiac glycosides and is usually toxic. Tao Song, Yuanyuan ...
Bufo venoms also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ingestion of the venom can be fatal. Ingestion of Bufo toad venom ... Takeda N (February 1994). "Serotonin-degradative pathways in the toad (Bufo bufo japonicus) brain: clues to the pharmacological ... by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad venom or dried Bufo skins. The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad venom ... Bufotenin is found in the poison and eggs of several species of toads belonging to the genus Bufo, but is most concentrated in ...
Rhinella marina (Cane toad), Rhaebo guttatus (Smooth-sided toad), Bufo melanostictus (Asian toad), and Bufo bufo (common ... Bufotalin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid, cardiac glycoside analogue, secreted by a number of toad species. Bufotalin can ... Bufo bufo gargarizans Canto) venom in guinea-pigs in vivo and in vitro". Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 22 (1): 1-8. doi: ...
The term derives from the toad genus Bufo that contains bufadienolide glycosides, the suffix -adien- that refers to the two ... These are a type of cardiac glycoside, the other being the cardenolide glycosides. Both bufadienolides and their glycosides are ... Its derivatives are collectively known as bufadienolides, including many in the form of bufadienolide glycosides ( ... Polycyclic compounds Steroids Cardanolides Cardiac glycosides Bufanolides (includes bufenolides, bufadienolides, ...
Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Sclerophrys ... which are cardiac glycosides (e.g., bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine-related substances (e.g., bufotenin) Toads known to ... formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus Bufo regularis Bufo valliceps Bufo viridis Bufo ... Bufo gutturalis) Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina ( ... such as Bufo bufo gargarizans and Bufo melanostictus, is often ...
Bufo secretions also contain digoxin-like cardiac glycosides, and ingestion of the poison can be fatal. Ingestion of Bufo toad ... by smoking or orally ingesting Bufo toad secretion or dried Bufo skins. The use of chan'su and love stone (a related toad toxin ... Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius". Zoological Science. 28 (9): 664-670. doi:10.2108/zsj.28.664. PMID 21882955. ... Bufo woodhousii) in Central Arizona". Copeia. 1999 (2): 281-286. doi:10.2307/1447473. JSTOR 1447473. "COLORADO RIVER TOAD (Bufo ...
... "bufo" portion of their name. Below is a list of organisms from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. Convallaria majalis ( ... "Cardiac Glycosides". www.people.vcu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-25. Cheeke PR (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin: Glycosides. ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group. The ... as done by cardiac glycosides. Nevertheless, due to questions of toxicity and dosage, cardiac glycosides have been replaced ...
Bufotenin is found in the skin and glands of Bufo toads. It is commonly used in West Indian and Chinese cultures. West Indian ... Horny goat weed contains icariin, a flavanol glycoside. Alcohol has been associated as an aphrodisiac due to its effect as a ... Ginseng's active ingredients are ginsenosides and saponin glycosides. There are three different ways to process ginseng. Fresh ... Bufo toad, yohimbine, horny goat weed, ginseng, alcohol, and food are recorded throughout these texts as containing aphrodisiac ...
There is a rather large homology in structure between arenobufagin and cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glycosides are natural ... such as the Bufo gargarizans or the Bufo melanostictus Suhneider. Arenobufagin is specifically secreted by the Rhinella ... Structure of Arenobufagin Structure of a Cardiac Glycoside Although a low dosis of arenobufagin can be used as a medicine of ... Arenobufagin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid secreted by the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. It has effects similar to ...
Black-spined Toad (Bufo melanostictus) Risk Assessments for Australia; Department of Agriculture and Food: Western Australia. ... the possibility that some Malagasy animals do possess resistance to bufotenin because almost identical cardiac glycosides are ... Covacevich, Jeanette, and Archer, Mike; 'The distribution of the cane toad, Bufo marinus in Australia and its effects on ... Berry, P. Y.; Bullock, J. A. (1962). "The Food of the Common Malayan Toad, Bufo melanostictus Schneider". Copeia. 1962 (4): 736 ...
5. The Reactions of Toads (Bufo terrestris) to Bumblebees (Bombus americanorum) and Their Robberfly Mimics (Mallophora ... with one being completely potent with regard to cardiac glycoside toxicity, the second not. The first will fit all of the ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves), Nerium ... In addition, the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of a purported aphrodisiac substance that ... encoded search term (Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning) and Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including the following [1] :. * Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Campa C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Cataldi TR, Bufo SA, Freitag D, Kettrup A (2000). "Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar ... The seeds and all green parts of the plant contain cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of berries, leaves, bark or stems, if not ... containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4). The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. It ... and cyanogenic glycosides, which may be toxic if consumed raw. ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
1 The venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides. 1 Dried toad venom is used in ... Bufo alvarius medicine made its way mainstream(ish) out of secrecy in 2011. Using Bufo helps you put ego aside to enable ... BUFO CEREMONY . Science has changed the name Bufo to Ollotis Alvaria but it is still the Colorado toad (inchillius alvarius ). ... Bufo Alvarius, which produces a venom known as 5-MeO-DMT: an extremely. . The Colorado River Toad (Bufo alvarius), also known ...
Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves), Nerium ... In addition, the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of a purported aphrodisiac substance that ... encoded search term (Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning) and Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including the following [1] :. * Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis ...
Theyre cardiac glycosides and are present in the plants entire body.. From stem to leaves, this concentrated amount of ... Its interesting to learn that the same poison found in the Kalanchoe family can also be noted in the skin of the Bufo or the ... Not only that, but bufadienolide glycosides attach themselves to units of the myocardium, skeletal muscle, kidney, and red ... How do these various cardiac glycosides affect you once theyre ingested, however? ...
Toad venom is prepared from dried secretions, typically from the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). In addition being an ... contains cardiac glycosides whose structure and biochemical activity are similar to those of digitalis. These cause ...
Animal: Bufo marinus toad. It is a potent Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor and can lead to hyperkalemia in acute ingestion with ... digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides. The Fab fragment binds free digoxin and once the digoxin-Fab complex is formed, the ...
Bufonis Venenum,the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus,is toxic and hard with the efficacy of ... The main chemical components of the genus are isoflavones, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, puerarin glycosides and ...
Antiproliferative activity and new argininyl bufadienolide esters from the "cururú" toad Rhinella (Bufo) schneideri ... Sambucus ebulus; abscess; anti-ulcer activity; bioassays; butanol; chromatography; flavonols; fractionation; glycosides; in ... Bufo; pressing; leukemia; erysipelas; neoplasm cells; spectral analysis; lungs; epithelium; inhibitory concentration 50; ... and two isolated kaempferol glycosides of Carthamus tinctorius L. to provide experimental evidence for its traditional use.An ...
Cataldi, T.R.I., Nardiello, D., De Benedetto, G.E., Bufo, S.A., 2002, Optimizing Separation Conditions for Riboflavin, Flavin ... Tachibana, S., 1971, Isolation of Riboflavin Glycosides, w: McCormick, D.B., Wright, L.D. (eds.), Methods in Enzymology. ...
Elshafie HS, Armentano MF, Carmosino M, Bufo SA, Feo VD, Camele I (2017) Cytotoxic activity of Origanum vulgare L. on ... Anticancer activity of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides. Mar Drugs 13:1202-1223 ...
Purpurea Glycoside-A and Purpurea Glycoside-B from Digitalis Seeds.. *Studies on the constituents of DIGITALIS PURPUREA LV On ... Digitalis-like and vasoconstrictor effects of endogenous Digoxin-like factor (s) from the venom of Bufo marinus toad ... Digitalis glycosides. IV. Influence of drying temperature on glycoside composition in Digitalis leaves (D. purpurea and D. ... New Cardiotonic Glycosides, Acetyl-digitoxin-γ and Acetyl-gitoxin-γ.. *Studies on the Constituents of DIGITALIS PURPUREA L. XXI ...
Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. *Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis *Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. *Acacia catechu ...
... cardiac glycoside plants, grayanotoxin plants, yews, avocado, cyanide-containing plants, bufo toads, and fireflies. ...
It is present in the skin of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) at a concentration equivalent to ouabain of ~1 mM. Because toads, ... Resibufogenin (3-hydroxy-14,15-epoxy-20,22-dienolide glycoside) is a potent sodium pump inhibitor present in toad toxin. It is ... Resibufogenin (3-hydroxy-14,15-epoxy-20,22-dienolide glycoside) is a potent sodium pump inhibitor present in toad toxin. ... present in the skin of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) at a concentration equivalent to ouabain of ~1 mM. Because toads, like ...
Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants Brazilian Archives o.... 2000. van Dyck CH, Malison RT, .... Age-related decline in central ... Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psy... J Psychoactive Drugs. 1996. ... Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psy... J Psychoactive Drugs. 1996. ...
In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity ... releases and oxygen consumption rates were also determined in cancer cells treated with these various cardiac glycosides. ... steroid aglycones usually display weaker binding affinity and in vitro anticancer activity than the corresponding glycoside, ... The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of seven cardiac glycosides including five cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, ...
Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. *Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis *Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. *Acacia catechu ...
cardiac glycosides*nerium*asclepias*ouabain*digitalis*apocynaceae*calotropis*digitoxigenin*antiaris*natriuresis*digitoxin* ... Isolation and characterization of novel endogenous digitalis-like factors in the ovary of the giant toad, Bufo marinus. J Nat ... digitalis glycosides*adonis*dolichol*inbred dahl rats*periploca*celastraceae*hydroxymethylglutaryl coa reductases*aphrodisiacs* ... In this review, we focus on two compound classes, iridoid glycosides and cardenolides, which can be found in the food plants of ...
Cardiac glycosides in the venom are thought to inhibit proteins that promote cancer cell growth, thereby causing cancer cell ... Bufo gargarizans). Chinas use of the venom in the treatment of a number of illnesses can be traced back to the tenth century. ... Although potentially toxic at high doses, these glycosides are used to treat congestive heart failure. Currently, the venom- ...
Keywords: cardioactive steroids, cardioactive glycoside (PubMed Search) Posted: 11/9/2017 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH (Updated: 1/16/ ... Bufo toad (Bufo species) Non-digoxin cardioactive steroid exposure can result in a positive digoxin level due to cross ... There are other sources of cardioactive steroids (aka cardiac glycosides) that have similar effect as digoxin. ...
BiologicalBufo arenarumRana pipiensXenopusBufo marinusLarvaMycosesRana catesbeianaPondsAnimal DiseasesNotophthalmus viridescens ... The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other ... The SBPs in Bufo consist exclusively of two protamines (Pl, P2), and those in Xenopus consist of 6 proteins (SPl-6) in addition ... Bufo marinus. A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost ...
D27.720.150 Bufo arenarum B2.90.180.210.80 B1.150.900.90.180.210.80 Bufo bufo B2.90.180.210.108 B1.150.900.90.180.210.108 Bufo ... Digitalis Glycosides D4.808.155.580.261 Digitonin D4.808.155.580.261.236 Digitoxin D4.808.155.580.261.336 Diglycerides D10.516. ... D10.390 Glycoside Hydrolases D8.586.277.450 D8.811.277.450 Glycosphingolipids D10.516.390.470 D10.390.470 D10.516.570.877.360 ... A3.556.875.875.163 Cardiac Glycosides D4.808.155.580 Cardiac Myosins D8.586.277.40.25.525.750.124 D8.811.277.40.25.525.750.124 ...
Toad venom (Chansu) is prepared from the dried secretion of parotid gland and skin gland from Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. ... Previously, only several spirostanol glycosides with 25S configuration were isolated from Paris plants. Guided by mass ...
PMID- 5435508 TI - On the early appearance of arginase activity in the liver of Bufo bufo larvae after prolactin treatment. ... The glycosides of Marsdenia erecta R. Br. I. Isolation, glycoside and aglycone. 325]. PMID- 5435977 TI - [Protonation of amino ... PMID- 5436407 TI - Specific nuclear DNA amounts in toads of the genus Bufo. PMID- 5436409 TI - The "20-minute hour" revisited: ... Leukocyte DNA-synthesis and cell reaction to phytohemagglutinin in cell culture]. PMID- 5436667 TI - [Cardiac glycoside therapy ...
Bufo alvarius. CARE SHEET. Bufo alvarius toads can live for surprisingly long times. In general, toads will live from about 5 ... Toad secretions contain traces of cardiac glycosides, which is a toxic substance that can lead to deadly consequences. Blister ... Medicinal toad venom is the dried white secretion of the auricular glands and the skin glands of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor ... The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) is named Chansu, which has ...
Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. *Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis *Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. *Acacia catechu ...
Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. *Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis *Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. *Acacia catechu ...
... bufo Bufo Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo andersonii Bufo arenarum Bufo boreas Bufo boreas halophilus Bufo bufo Bufo bufo ... acrylaldehydes acrylamide acrylamides acrylamido acrylamidoethyl acrylamidoethyl glycoside acrylamidoethyl glycosides acrylate ... Bufo bufo japonicus Bufo bufo spinosus Bufo calamita Bufo canorus Bufo cognatus Bufo danatensis Bufo dhufarensis Bufo exsul ... Bufo galeatus Bufo gargarizans bufogenin Bufo granulosus Bufo japonica Bufo japonicus Bufo japonicus formosus bufokinin Bufo ...
May 13, 2013 , Categories: Amphibians, Breeding, Courtship, Mating, May, Toads , Tags: Bufo americanus, Bufonidae , 5 Comments ... Cardiac Glycosides (1) *Cardinal (1) *Cardinal Flower (2) *Carnivores (26) *Carnivorous Plants (10) ...
... bufo Bufo Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo andersonii Bufo arenarum Bufo boreas Bufo boreas halophilus Bufo bufo Bufo bufo ... acrylaldehydes acrylamide acrylamides acrylamido acrylamidoethyl acrylamidoethyl glycoside acrylamidoethyl glycosides acrylate ... Bufo bufo japonicus Bufo bufo spinosus Bufo calamita Bufo canorus Bufo cognatus Bufo danatensis Bufo dhufarensis Bufo exsul ... Bufo galeatus Bufo gargarizans bufogenin Bufo granulosus Bufo japonica Bufo japonicus Bufo japonicus formosus bufokinin Bufo ...
EDNA DILL CPAR BUDD BUBO COIF DING BUBS COHO CPFA COIL FEE ANASTOMOSES FADO BUFF SPECTRUM COIR BUDS DINT COMA COMB COLI BUFO ... INTERRUPTION COLLEGIAL WISENT SACCHARATE VOMITS FORWARDEST EXTOLED MAGICIAN COCAINIZE VOIDED BUSTLE YS WISHED GLYCOSIDE HISPANO ... DEPUTED ADOWN AGATE WHIMSICALITIES AGARS ADOZE AGAVE BREECHCLOTH HAULER ABSTAINING ROUNDEL EXPEDIENCIES ANGLOPHOBES GLYCOSIDES ...
  • Exposure to plants containing glycosides can occur through ingestion of sap, berries, leaves, blossoms, or seeds, or of teas brewed from plant parts. (medscape.com)
  • Except for the flowers and ripe berries (but including the ripe seeds), all parts of the plant are poisonous to mammals, containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C14H17NO6, CAS number 99-19-4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity may occur after consuming teas brewed from plant parts or after consuming leaves, flowers, or seeds from plants containing cardiac glycosides. (medscape.com)
  • The seeds and all green parts of the plant contain cyanogenic glycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: S. nigra f. laciniata (cut-leaved alder) S. nigra f. porphyrophylla 'Eva' S. nigra f. porphyrophylla 'Gerda' Components of the elderberry plant, including its fruit, contain diverse phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, lectins, and cyanogenic glycosides, which may be toxic if consumed raw. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bufonis Venenum,the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus,is toxic and hard with the efficacy of removing toxicity for detumescence and relieving pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is present in the skin of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) at a concentration equivalent to ouabain of ~1 mM. (edu.au)
  • The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of seven cardiac glycosides including five cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, uzarigenin-rhamnoside, and their respective aglycone forms) and two bufadienolides (gamabufotalin-rhamnoside and hellebrin, and their respective aglycone forms) were determined by means of the MTT colorimetric assay and hellebrigenin-induced cytotoxic effects were visualized by means of quantitative videomicroscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ancient Egyptians and Romans first used plants containing cardiac glycosides medicinally as emetics and for heart ailments. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicity from herbal cardiac glycosides was well recognized by 1785, when William Withering published his classic work describing therapeutic uses and toxicity of foxglove, D purpurea. (medscape.com)
  • Therapeutic use of herbal cardiac glycosides continues to be a source of toxicity today. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides have been also found in Asian herbal products and have been a source of human toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicity may occur after consuming teas brewed from plant parts or after consuming leaves, flowers, or seeds from plants containing cardiac glycosides. (medscape.com)
  • More than 200 naturally occurring cardiac glycosides have been identified. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides also have vagotonic effects, resulting in bradycardia and heart block. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides primarily affect cardiovascular, neurologic, and gastrointestinal systems. (medscape.com)
  • At therapeutic doses, cardiac glycosides also may increase inotropy. (medscape.com)
  • They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. (labome.org)
  • Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias are a classic chemically defended clade of plants with toxic cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) and pressurized latex employed as anti-herbivore weapons. (labome.org)
  • In addition, the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of a purported aphrodisiac substance that has resulted in cardiac glycoside poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to plants containing glycosides can occur through ingestion of sap, berries, leaves, blossoms, or seeds, or of teas brewed from plant parts. (medscape.com)
  • Previously, only several spirostanol glycosides with 25S configuration were isolated from Paris plants. (bvsalud.org)
  • The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. (lookformedical.com)
  • The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years Dysecdysis in a juvenile Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne lemur) with an early case of brown skin disease showing dark adherent unshed skin. (chodte-intresserad.com)
  • Dobler S, Petschenka G, Pankoke H. Coping with toxic plant compounds--the insect's perspective on iridoid glycosides and cardenolides. (labome.org)