Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
Conservation of Natural Resources
Dictionaries as Topic
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Terminology as Topic
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 18.104.22.168.
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Textbooks as Topic
Characterization of toad liver glutathione transferase. (1/78)The major form of glutathione transferase from the toad liver previously designed as Bufo bufo liver GST-7.6 (A. Aceto, B. Dragani, T. Bucciarelli, P. Sacchetta, F. Martini, S. Angelucci, F. Amicarelli, M. Miranda and C. Di Ilio, Biochem. J. 289 (1993) 417-422) has been characterized. According to its partial amino acid sequence, the toad enzyme may be included in the pi class GST and named bbGST P2-2. However, bbGST P2-2 appears to be immunologically, structurally and kinetically distinct from any other members of pi family, including bbGST P1-1, suggesting that it may constitute a subset of pi class GST. The data support the hypothesis that the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life causes a switch of the GST amphibian pattern promoting the expression of a GST form (bbGST P2-2) able to counteract, with higher efficiency, the toxic effects of reactive metabolites of oxidative metabolism and those of hydrophobic xenobiotics. (+info)
Chloride dependence of active sodium transport in frog skin: the role of intercellular spaces. (2/78)1. In agreement with previous observations the replacement of Cl by a nonpenetrating anion in the solution bathing either the outside or both sides of the frog skin causes a fall in the short-circuit current. 2. When Cl is replaced by a non-penetrating anion in the solution bathing the outside of the frog skin the Isc is still a correct measure of the net Na transport. 3. Under the same conditions both active and shunt paths seem to be affected since there is a decrease in Isc, Na influx, amiloride-dependent conductance, and initial Na uptake across the external barrier, together with a decrease in Cl-backfluxes and amiloride-independent conductance. There is also a decrease in water permeability and a reduction in size of the intercellular spaces. 4. The removal of Cl does not appear to affect the entry step of Na but may have an effect on the shunt path. This in turn may change the active Na transport. (+info)
A visual evoked potential correlate of global figure-ground segmentation. (3/78)Human observers discriminated the global orientation of a texture-defined figure which segregated from a texture surround. Global figure discriminability was manipulated through within-figure collinearity, figure-surround interaction, and figure connectedness, while the local orientation contrast at edges between figure and surround was kept constant throughout all the experiments. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during onset-offset stimulation in which the figure cyclically appeared and disappeared from a uniform texture background. A difference component was obtained by subtraction of offset-from onset-VEP. Two negative peaks of the difference component are found with latencies around 140-160 and 200-260 ms, respectively. Enhanced discriminability of the global figure reduced (11-25 ms) the latency of the second peak, hence indicating that the 200-260 ms component was produced by global figure-ground segmentation. (+info)
Seeing better at night: life style, eye design and the optimum strategy of spatial and temporal summation. (4/78)Animals which need to see well at night generally have eyes with wide pupils. This optical strategy to improve photon capture may be improved neurally by summing the outputs of neighbouring visual channels (spatial summation) or by increasing the length of time a sample of photons is counted by the eye (temporal summation). These summation strategies only come at the cost of spatial and temporal resolution. A simple analytical model is developed to investigate whether the improved photon catch afforded by summation really improves vision in dim light, or whether the losses in resolution actually make vision worse. The model, developed for both vertebrate camera eyes and arthropod compound eyes, calculates the finest spatial detail perceivable by a given eye design at a specified light intensity and image velocity. Visual performance is calculated for the apposition compound eye of the locust, the superposition compound eye of the dung beetle and the camera eye of the nocturnal toad. The results reveal that spatial and temporal summation is extremely beneficial to vision in dim light, especially in small eyes (e.g. compound eyes), which have a restricted ability to collect photons optically. The model predicts that using optimum spatiotemporal summation the locust can extend its vision to light intensities more than 100,000 times dimmer than if it relied on its optics alone. The relative amounts of spatial and temporal summation predicted to be optimal in dim light depend on the image velocity. Animals which are sedentary and rely on seeing small, slow images (such as the toad) are predicted to rely more on temporal summation and less on spatial summation. The opposite strategy is predicted for animals which need to see large, fast images. The predictions of the model agree very well with the known visual behaviours of nocturnal animals. (+info)
The distribution of sodium, potassium and chloride in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Bufo bufo oocytes measured by electron microprobe analysis. (5/78)1. Measurements of cytoplasmic and nuclear Na, K and Cl have been made by electron microprobe analysis on freeze-dried sections of oocytes of Bufo bufo, using standards of bovine plasma albumin and gamma-globulin. Concentrations were obtained per kilogram of dry mass, were converted to concentrations per litre of water content using known figures for water and solid concentration of nucleus and cytoplasm, and were then compared with measurements on cells from the same animal obtained by flame photometry. 2. In fresh oocytes concentrations were (mean +/- S.E. of mean in m-mole/l. H2O) in cytoplasm Na 10.9 +/- 1.95, K 70.2 +/- 3.22, Cl 98.8 +/- 11.0, and in nucleus Na 10.4 +/- 1.79, K 266.4 +/- 22.8, Cl 91.3 +/- 9.0. 3. After treatment with Na-free Ringer (Li substituted for Na) for 5 hr, concentrations were in cytoplasm Na 11.1 +/- 2.44, K 64.4 +/- 5.7, Cl 88.7 +/- 8.8, and in nucleus Na 2.4 +/- 0.73, K 141 +/- 13.9, Cl 75.0 +/- 6.7. Na inexchangeable with Li therefore lay in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus as previously shown by autoradiography. 4. For K electron microscopic analysis measurements agreed well with those obtained by flame photometry but the former measured only 35% of Na measured by flame photometry. This discrepancy may be due either to technical difficulties with the electron microprobe analysis or to localization of Na in the cytoplasm. (+info)
Pepsin-mediated processing of the cytoplasmic histone H2A to strong antimicrobial peptide buforin I. (6/78)The intestinal epithelium forms a first line of innate host defense by secretion of proteins with antimicrobial activity against microbial infection. Despite the extensive studies on the antimicrobial host defense in many gastrointestinal tracts, little is known about the antimicrobial defense system of the stomach. The potent antimicrobial peptide buforin I, consisting of 39 aa, was isolated recently from the stomach tissue of an Asian toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans. In this study we examined the mechanism of buforin I production in toad stomach tissue. Buforin I is produced by the action of pepsin isozymes, named pepsin Ca and Cb, cleaving the Tyr39-Ala40 bond of histone H2A. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that buforin I is present extracellularly on the mucosal surface, and unacetylated histone H2A, a precursor of buforin I, is localized in the cytoplasm of gastric gland cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that buforin I is also present in the gastric fluids, and immunoelectron microscopy detected localization of the unacetylated histone H2A in the cytoplasmic granules of gastric gland cells. The distinct subcellular distribution of the unacetylated histone H2A and the detection of the unacetylated buforin I both on the mucosal surface and in the lumen suggest that buforin I is produced from the cytoplasmic unacetylated histone H2A secreted into the gastric lumen and subsequently processed by pepsins. Our results indicate that buforin I along with pepsins in the vertebrate stomach may contribute to the innate host defense of the stomach against invading microorganisms. (+info)
Recombinant human interleukins IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-7 show different and specific calcium-independent carbohydrate-binding properties. (7/78)A method was developed for the determination of putative lectin activities of cytokines. It involved the immunoblotting measurement of the quantity of these cytokines unbound to a series of different immobilized glycoconjugates and displacement of the bound cytokines with oligosaccharides of known structures. This method allows demonstrating that the following interleukins specifically recognize different oligosaccharide structures in a calcium-independent mechanism: interleukin-1alpha binds to the biantennary disialylated N-glycan completed with two Neu5Acalpha2-3 residues; interleukin-1beta to a GM4 sialylated glycolipid Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-Cer having very long and unusual long-chain bases; interleukin-4 to the 1,7 intramolecular lactone of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid; interleukin-6 to compounds having N-linked and O-linked HNK-1-like epitopes; and interleukin-7 to the sialyl-Tn antigen. Because the glycan ligands are rare structures in human circulating cells, it is suggested that such activities could be essential for providing specific signaling systems to cells having both the receptors and the oligosaccharide ligands of the interleukin at their cell surface. (+info)
Developmental expression and distribution of amphibian glutathione transferases. (8/78)This work is aimed at detecting the expression and location of embryonic Bufo bufo GST (bbGSTP1-1) and adult B. bufo GST (bbGSTP2-2) during toad development, in order to assign a putative role to these enzymes also on the basis of their compartmentalization and to verify whether during the premetamorphic liver ontogeny the bbGSTP2-2 form appears. This study was also performed in the adult liver (the primary site of Pi class GST expression) and in the mature ovary, to discern if the embryonic form derives from maternal form. The results show that the embryos and the ovary express only bbGSTP1-1. Moreover, bbGSTP1-1 distribution is the same both in the early embryos and in the ovary: this strongly suggests that bbGSTP1-1 is of maternal origin. As development goes on, a wide distribution of bbGSTP1-1 all over the differentiating organs is observed. The embryonic liver expresses exclusively the bbGSTP1-1 form, while the adult liver is highly positive only towards the bbGSTP2-2 form. This implies that the switch towards the adult bbGSTP2-2 form occurs in metamorphic or postmetamorphic phases and that the detoxication metabolic requirements of the embryo may be completely fulfilled by the bbGSTP1-1 isoenzyme. (+info)
K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo | Journal of Experimental Biology
To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate patterns of variation in molecular (a mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme assay and sequence data for two nuclear DNA fragments totalling 979 bp) and 17 morphological variables in Northern France where two of these groups meet (B. bufo sensu stricto and B. spinosus), in order to delineate their contact zone and uncover characters that would allow discrimination of the two taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data show an abrupt transition from areas where B. bufo is present to those inhabited by B. spinosus, with a narrow area of overlap east of the city of Caen. Morphometric characters, particularly those related to the positioning of the parotoid glands and metatarsal tubercle shape and size, proved useful in ...
A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2007 in a laboratory in Virginia, USA (Woodhams et al. 2012) found that survival of mountain yellow-legged frogs Rana muscosa naturally infected with chytridiomycosis was not increased by adding chytrid-inhibiting skin bacteria. Survival of frogs treated with bacteria was 50% compared to 39% for infected controls. Infection was not cleared in surviving frogs. However, weight loss was reduced with treatment (0.1 vs 0.4 g/week). Wild-caught frogs were randomly assigned to treatments. Twenty were bathed in water containing bacteria (Pedobacter cryoconitis) isolated from mountain yellow-legged frog and 13 control frogs in water alone for two hours. Frogs were swabbed and tested at seven and 13 days after treatment.. A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2010 in a laboratory in Switzerland (Woodhams, Geiger, Reinert, Rollins-Smith, Lam, Harris, Briggs, Vredenburg & Voyles 2012) found that survival of common toad Bufo bufo toadlets was not ...
Volume 3, Number 3, July 1993 | British Herpetological Society
pp.90-94. Authors: Jonathan S. Denton And Trevor J.C. Beebee. Abstract: We have investigated the refugia used by Bufo calamita and Bufo bufo throughout the year on heathland, sand dune and saltmarsh habitats in Britain. On the first two habitats, natterjacks mainly lived at depths of ,20 cm in burrows of their own making and these burrows insulated animals very effectively against temperature fluctuations during the summer. In saltmarsh habitats natterjacks used a variety of refugia and at all sites common toads were found in mammalian burrows and under stones, logs and piles of leaf litter. Natterjacks at the saltmarsh site vacated areas following tidal inundation with no evidence of mortality attributable to this event. At the heathland site, male natterjacks adopted two distinct strategies for refugia use during the breeding season: commuters travelled to and from the ponds every night, returning before dawn to their summer burrows, while residents took up temporary abode near the ponds for ...
Vision in toads - Wikipedia
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the toads behavioral responses, Ewert performed a series of recording and stimulation experiments. First and foremost, the results allowed him to understand the way the visual system is constructed and connected to the central nervous system. Secondly, he discovered areas of the brain that were responsible for differential analysis of stimuli. First, the retina is connected to the optic tectum by at least three types of ganglion cells, each with an excitatory receptive field and a surrounding inhibitory receptive field, but they differ in the diameter of their central excitatory receptive fields. Diameters in Class II (R2) ganglion cells are approximately four degrees visual angle. Those in Class III (R3) cells are about eight degrees and Class IV (R4) ganglion cells range from twelve to fifteen degrees. As stimuli move across the toads visual field, information is sent to the optic tectum in the toads midbrain. The optic tectum exists as an ...
Studies on Temperature Regulation | Journal of Experimental Biology
1. The upper thermal death-point of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis) is significantly above that of either the toad (Bufo bufo) or the frog (Rana temporaria). That of the toad differs only slightly from that of the frog.. 2. In response to external variation with respect to temperature and humidity, the body temperature of the toad behaves in a manner similar to that of the frog, being considerably below that of the air at low humidities, though appreciably above that of the wet-bulb thermometer. It is concluded that the toad loses water as freely as the frog.. 3. The body temperature of the slow worm and that of the alligator (A. mississippiensis) differs only slightly from that of the air under all conditions of sustained air temperature and humidity.. 4. The body temperature reaction of the alligator is more sluggish than that of the slow worm, presumably owing to the higher thermal capacity of the animal.. 5. The significance of these results in relation to the evolution of the terrestrial ...
Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin | SpringerLink
The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell...
Mitochondria-rich normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic cells show overexpression of the epitope H recognized by the monoclonal...
The epitope H contains an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue in a specific conformation and/or environment recognized by monoclonal antibody H (mAbH). We have previously shown that the epitope H is present in more than one polypeptide and in various types of normal and pathological cells. In the present study, we focused on mitochondria-rich normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic cells, prompted by our recent immuno-electron microscopy findings that mAbH clearly stains the mitochondria of breast epithelial cells in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas. The indirect immunoperoxidase method was applied using the mAbH to investigate the distribution of the epitope H in mitochondria-rich normal cells and in metaplastic and neoplastic oncocytic cells. Immunohistochemical staining for the mAbH was observed in oxyphil cells of parathyroid glands, in striated duct cells of parotid glands, in urinary tubules of kidneys, in parietal cells of gastric body mucosa, in oxyphil ...
Common Toad - 2017 taddies
My assumption was this was why toads tended to breed in larger ponds with fish - their toxins keep them relatively safe from fish predation, but the fish keep down numbers of other tadpole predators such as newts and invertebrates. This would also explain the shoaling behaviour - having tried one and found it unpalatable, a fish would be likely to leave the rest of the shoal alone. Having said that Ive never actually seen any data on how much different fish species do prey on / avoid toad tadpoles, so Id be interested if anyone knows of any research on the subject ...
Micro toad | Photography Forum
The Common Toad...only smaller Shot Handheld with Canon 50mm 1.4 with stacked Macro filters on Canon TLb [IMG] [IMG] My GF found this little guy in...
TRANSLATIONAL IMPACT | Disease Models & Mechanisms
Complex epithelia have multiple functions, including the regulation of ion transport and homeostasis. A failure to regulate ionic homeostasis is a hallmark of many human diseases. For example, defects in the function of epithelia whose primary function is ion transport, such as those found in kidney and epididymis, lead to abnormalities such as distal renal acidosis and male sterility. In addition, although ion transport is not the primary function of other epithelia, such as the secretory and mucociliary epithelia found in the gut and lung, ionic regulation is crucial for their normal function. In diseases such as cystic fibrosis, failure of ionic regulation is associated with abnormalities in mucus consistency and secretion, which has deleterious effects in the gut and lungs.. Most epithelia consist of several cell types, including specialised cells dedicated to ionic regulation (known as ionocytes, mitochondria-rich cells, proton-secreting cells or intercalated cells). Challenges in ...
Bufo torrenticola (Japanese Stream Toad)
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, suitable habitat which appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
Bufotoxin - Wikipedia
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are: Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo Gutturalis Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus ...
Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) - PubMed
New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to res …
Genus Bufo - definition of genus Bufo by The Free Dictionary
Define genus Bufo. genus Bufo synonyms, genus Bufo pronunciation, genus Bufo translation, English dictionary definition of genus Bufo. Noun 1. genus Bufo - type genus of the Bufonidae; common toads of New and Old Worlds amphibian genus - any genus of amphibians Bufonidae, family Bufonidae -...
Bufo japonicus (Japanese Common Toad)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
Anaerobiosis in the segmenting eggs of Bufo arenarum | Development
In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). Under anaerobic conditions a rapid accumulation of lactic acid gives evidence of an intense glycolytic activity, which is inhibited when the eggs are returned to oxygen (Pasteur effect) (Barbieri & Salomón, 1963). Furthermore, an increase in oxygen uptake during the first 2 h of recovery has been observed (payment of the oxygen debt) (Legname, 1966). Taking into account the low value of the respiratory quotient (r.q. = 0·5-0·7) during this period it can be assumed that most of the oxygen is not involved in the oxidation of lactate (Legname, 1966).. ...
The collecting duct of the mammalian kidney is involved in urine acidification. Recent studies in the turtle bladder suggest that hydrogen ion secretion in response to elevated CO2 is regulated by insertion of hydrogen pumps into the luminal membrane of the mitochondria-rich cells. Because intercalated cells of the collecting duct are structurally similar to mitochondria-rich cells of the amphibian bladder, we studied the rat outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) during respiratory acidosis to determine whether changes compatible with hydrogen ion secretion occur in the intercalated cells. Rats were studied during normal acid-base conditions and after 4-5 h of respiratory acidosis. After collection of physiologic data, the kidneys were fixed by in vivo perfusion and processed for electron microscopy. No changes were observed in the principal cells of the OMCD. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the surface density of the apical plasma membrane and a decrease in the number ...
Bufo Rana. (Bufones.) - THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA By CONSTANTINE HERING, M.D.
Toads. Reptilia.. Toads belong to the most poisonous reptiles.. In olden times, being looked upon as horrible things, they were given in horrible diseases. During the rage of improvement the remedy was thrown overboard, and even the poisonous qualities doubted, until rare experiments, especially those by Vulpian, have settled the question. In 1832 Henke, our great prover, was the first in our school to call attention to it ; his observations were published in Meyers Monatsblatt, 1860 ; in 1834 the Hom opathic Society of Th ringen sent some symptoms to the Archives of Stapf (vol. xiv, No. 2, page 102). In 1849 Mure published a proving with his preparation, taken from the most common toad in Brazil, called by him Bufo satyhiensis. This was translated by Hempel and Allen. Houat published one of his provings in Nouvelles Donn es. This was translated three times --by Lippe, Lilienthal and Allen. In 1859, Destrone, in a French journal, collected notes from all old writers and also made some provings. ...
Download Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog, during, toad, european, anura
Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos
Bufo - Viquipèdia, lenciclopèdia lliure
El gènere Bufo és molt cosmopolita, ja que sel pot trobar a tot el planeta sota condicions molt adverses. No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, dAustràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. ...
Variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 in populations of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) differing by nuclear DNA...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Bufo gargarizans gargarizans - Wikispecies
Dubois, A. & R. Bour. 2010: The nomenclatural status of the nomina of amphibians and reptiles created by Garsault (1764), with a parsimonious solution to an old nomenclatural problem regarding the genus Bufo (Amphibia, Anura), comments on the taxonomy of this genus, and comments on some nomina created by Laurenti (1768). Zootaxa, 2447: 1-52 ...
American toad | amphibian | Britannica
Other articles where American toad is discussed: toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). The thick, dry, often warty…
Dungeness Bird Observatory : Vertebrates
Common Frog is not common and Common Toads are occasionally seen but the commonest amphibian by far is the large and very noisy Marsh Frog. The first individuals of this species were originally introduced into Britain into a small garden pool at Stone-in-Oxney in the winter of 1934-35. Since then the population has increased and spread dramatically and they can now be seen or heard in many ditches and pools throughout Romney Marsh. ...
Smithsonian Institute, Giants, Burlington UFO and Paranormal Research Center, BUFO Paranormal and UFO Radio
No. 11 is now 35 by 40 feet at the base and 4 feet high. In the center, 3 feet below the surface, was a vault 8 feet long and ...
Bufotenin - Mappin Summary Report | CureHunter
Bufotenin: A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
Blue Jay Barrens: Toad Pool Success
There was one thing different about the toad pools this spring that may have contributed to the toad visitations. Both pools were surrounded by a mass of Spring Peepers creating a loud chorus. Im wondering if the Peeper song alerted the toads to the fact that a suitable breeding pool was available. The newly hatched Peeper tadpoles shown above are just two of dozens hanging in the algae around the edge of the pools. This toad pool venture may just turn out to be a success ...
Biker Babe Toad - Green only $69.99 at Garden Fun
Biker Babe Toad - Green We were so excited to get this amazing new Biker Babe Toad - Green on the site, we havent even had the chance to write a whimsical description!We have loved these toads for the past few years and ...
Proteomic and phenotypic profiling of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows that genotype is linked to...
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
Late Pleistocene fossils and the future distribution of Rana temporaria (Amphibia, Anura) along the Apennine Peninsula (Italy) ...
The effect of past climatic changes on the distribution of organisms is a fertile field of research that has been tackled in many different ways. Because the fossil record provides direct access to the chronological and geographic dimensions of biological events occurred in the past, it can be a useful tool for assessing range contractions and expansions related to climatic changes. Here, we provide support for the recent shrinkage of the range of a frigophilous anuran, the common frog, Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, by analyzing the amphibian fossil assemblage coming from the Grotta di Equi, a Late Pleistocene site (about 45 ka) located in the Apuan Alps (northern Apennine chain, Massa-Carrara Province, Italy). Besides, R. temporaria, the assemblage includes cf. Salamandra salamandra Linnaeus, 1758 and Bufo bufo Linnaeus, 1758. The presence of R. temporaria in the Apuan Alps during a cold interglacial phase at an elevation that is much lower than the minimum current elevation in the region (about
Rhinella atacamensis (Cei, 1962) | Amphibian Species of the World
In the Bufo spinulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Considered a distinct species by Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 82-92; still treated as a subspecies of Bufo spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 42-44, provided an account (as Bufo spinulosus atacemensis). Sallaberry-Ayerza and Méndez-Torres, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 218-219, commented on the range and provided a range extension. Sallaberry-Ayerza, Soto-M., Correa-Quezada, and Méndez-Torres, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 214, provided range extensions and discussed the range. Correa-Quezada, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Jara-Arancio, Lobos, Soto-M., and Méndez-Torres, 2008, Check List, 4: 478-484, detailed the range in and discussed all known records as well as providing evidence of allopatry of this species and Rhinella arunco. Veloso, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Correa-Quezada, and Méndez, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 568-577, found an area of contact in the Estero Pupío area ...
Bufo Rana extremities, limbs symptoms - ABC Homeopathy
Homeopathic Bufo Rana - EXTREMITIES, LIMBS indications, uses & symptoms from 12 cross linked materia medicas. Available 8X-30X, 4C-30C, 200C, 30C, 200CH, 1M-10M
Sclerophrys pusilla (Mertens, 1937) | Amphibian Species of the World
Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 73-93, removed Sclerophrys pusilla from the synonymy of Sclerophrys maculata and redescribed the holotype of this species. See comments under Sclerophrys maculata for relevant literature. Angola records in Poynton and Haacke, 1993, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 36: 1-16 (as Bufo maculata). Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 460-463, discussed the uncertainty of the synonymy of Bufo pusillus with Bufo maculatus, citing immunological evidence of Maxson, 1981, Herpetologica, 37: 96-104. See also Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 51, who recognized Bufo pusillus, and Channing, 1989, Lammergeyer, 40: 1, who disputed Lambiris conclusion. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 47-53, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 84, Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 14-15, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 146-147, provided ...
An aqueous extract from toad skin prevents gelatinase activities derived from fetal serum albumin and serum-free culture medium...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius ...
There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric rela...
dinner, after : Aloe., anac., canth., cast., cycl., ferr., gamb., mag-c., mag-m., nat-c., nat-m., plb., psor., thuj., zinc.. dread of liquids, with : Agn., am-c., arn., bell., cann-i., canth., caust., cocc., hell., hyos., lac-c., lach., lyc., lyss., merc., nat-m., nux-v., rhus-t., samb., sel., stram., tarent.. eating, while : Ail., aloe., am-c., bufo., coc-c., cocc., lach., nat-c., psor.. after : Aloe., anac., bell., bry., calad., caust., coc-c., cocc., cycl., elaps., graph., guare., lyc., nat-c., nit-ac., phel., phos., sil.. extreme : Acet-ac., Acon., aesc., aeth., agar., all-c., all-s., alum., am-m., anac., anan., ant-c., ant-t., apis., Arg-n., arn., ars-h., ars-i., Ars., asar., aspar., aur-m., aur., bar-c., bar-i., bar-m., bell., bism., bor., bov., Bry., bufo., cadm., calad., Calc-s., Calc., camph., cann-s., canth., caps., carb-ac., carb-an., carb-s., carb-v., Caust., cedr., Cham., chel., Chin., chlor., cic., cina., coc-c., cocc., coff., colch., coloc., con., cop., croc., crot-c., crot-h., ...
Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino
O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino ...
Emery, Patrick | Profiles RNS
Dubruille R, Murad A, Rosbash M, Emery P. A constant light-genetic screen identifies KISMET as a regulator of circadian photoresponses. PLoS Genet. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000787 ...
China revolution: Toads in Tesco | This is Money
Live toads at Tesco? Like other Western firms, the store giant is having to adapt to local customs to cash in on Chinas economic boom
Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? | Journal of Tropical...
Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
Toad-Licking - Tom Lyttle Memorial Site
In the late 1960s, LSD evangelist Art Kleps founded a psychedelic church called the Neo-American Church. The churchs newsletter was called Divine Toad Sweat. In 1984, Bufo toad evangelist Albert Most revealed his Church of the Toad of Light with his publication of the book Bufo Alvarius: Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert. The Sonoran Desert is in New Mexico. This small booklet details how to use the Bufo toad for ritual and pleasure, as well as how to catch the Bufo alvarius toad, extract or milk the glandular secretions, dry them, and enjoy the smoked venom. Mosts book claims that 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is the active hallucinogen, not bufotenine. He is correct, as 5-MeO-DMT is the O-methylated version of bufotenine. Again, it is important to mention that 5-MeO-DMT is present in only one of the more than 200 types of Bufo toads ...
American Toad (Bufo americanus) - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
Membrane specialization in the rat epididymis. I. Rod-shaped intramembrane particles in the apical (mitochondria-rich) cell |...
Following freeze-fracture of the rat epididymis, a population of cells whose apical, but not baso-lateral, plasma membrane contains elongated intramembrane particles was found in the initial segment. From their size, shape and distribution, these cells are assumed to be the so-called apical cells of this segment. Apical cells also contain the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase which, together with the presence of rod-shaped particle on their membranes, permits their classification as mitochondria-rich cells, a specialized cell type found in some transporting epithelia. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that the apical cells may play a role in fluid and/or electrolyte transport in the initial segment of the epididymis. ...
Repository of UOI Olympias: Mitochondria-rich normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic cells show overexpression of the epitope H...
Acetylglucosamine/immunology/*metabolism,*Antibodies, Monoclonal,Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology/metabolism,Epitopes/immunology/metabolism,Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect,Humans,Immunoenzyme Techniques,Metaplasia/immunology/metabolism/pathology,*Mitochondria,Neoplasms/immunology/*metabolism/pathology,Oxyphil Cells/*metabolism/pathology,Tumor Markers, Biological/immunology/ ...
Nearctic Toads (American Toad) Gallery. Framed Prints, Wall Art
View our Animals Amphibians Toads Nearctic Toads American Toad Gallery from Media Storehouse. Framed Prints, Posters, Canvas, Puzzles, Metal, Photo Gifts and Wall Art
The Mission - Toads at a Thai Market
It was the clear cellophane bags of toads that made us linger. As I stared at the toads, one of them suddenly moved. Holy moly. All the toads were alive.
Toad - Everything2.com
A toad is an amphibian of the order Anura, a classification which also includes the frog. I always thought the difference between toads and frogs revolv...
Pulmonary Respiration System of Toad
Pulmonary Respiration System of Toad: Pulmonary respiration is breathing through the lungs, as human do. Lungs are the main respiratory organs of toad. The
Nova Toad Xbox Achievements
See all of Nova Toads Xbox achievements, what theyve been playing, and their upcoming gaming sessions on trueachievements.com
Bufo - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Bufo *Llorente, Gustavo: Els vertebrats de les zones humides dels ... Bufo és un gènere d'amfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies. ... No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d'Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo. *Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, i D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: ...
The Human Part
"The Human Part premieres in the Official Selection Competition of Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival , Bufo". Retrieved 26 ...
She performed in popular, but slightly vulgar theater (zarzuela; bufo); traveled to other countries and became a recording star ...
Vision in toads
Bufo bufo) it was shown that this detection property matures during the metamorphosis of the aquatic tadpoles in the course of ... Bufo bufo). Ewert's work with toads yielded several important discoveries (Ewert 1974, 2004). In general, his research revealed ...
Heinrich Rudolf Schinz
Bufo spp. from "Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen Der Reptilien". *. Greek tortoise from "Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen Der ...
Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, new subspecies, p. 593).. *Smith HM et al. (1998). "The taxonomic status of the Wyoming toad, Bufo ... The Wyoming toad or Baxter's toad (Anaxyrus baxteri, formerly Bufo baxteri) is an extremely rare amphibian that exists ... 2010). Dermatitis in captive Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) associated with Fusarium spp. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4) 1185 ... Porter, Kenneth R. (1968). "Evolutionary Status of a Relict Population of Bufo hemiophrys Cope". Evolution 22 (3): 583-594. ( ...
... , Bufo quercicus. Archived 2013-03-01 at the Wayback Machine USGS, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Checklist ... Bufo quercicus. Archived 2007-11-10 at the Wayback Machine Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries. 2004. Retrieved on ...
Bufo tuberosus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. v t e. ...
Hammerson (2004). "Bufo hemiophrys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 20 August 2006.old-form url Green, D ... Cope determined that the Anaxyrus hemiophrys differs from most of the other North American "Bufo" species because of the lack ... Wittliff, J. L. (1962) Parotoid Gland Secretions in Two Species Groups of Toads (Genus Bufo). Evolution, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Jun., ... 2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution ...
Gulf Coast toad
"Bufo valliceps". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 October 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bufo valliceps Gulf Coast Toad". Herps of Texas. University of Texas at Austin. ...
Bufo alvarius". Journal of Morphology. 148 (2): 137-60. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051480202. PMID 1254079. S2CID 22652419. Hutchinson ... DA, Savitzky AH (May 2004). "Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (Bufonidae: Bufo)". Journal of ...
... , formerly Bufo melanochlorus, is a mid-sized species of toad with a crested head in the family Bufonidae ... Earlier publications use Bufo melanochlorus. In 2006 Darrel Frost et al. moved the species to the old genus Cranopsis ... In 2004 O'Neill and Mendelson moved this species from Bufo to Incilius, and while doing so split the taxon into two species, a ... Bufo melanochlorus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. Paull, Julia. "Mother Nature's Son". ...
Bufo, R; Choplin, T; De Filippo, G; Devernois, G; Eggermann, T; Elli, FM; Freson, K; García Ramirez, A; Germain-Lee, EL; ...
African Bufo. In: Blair, W.F. (ed.), Evolution in the genus Bufo, pp. 119-170. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas Inger, ... Robert F.; Menzies, J. I. (25 Oct 1961). "A new species of toad (Bufo) from Sierra Leone". Fieldiana Zoology. 39: 589-594. ...
Entheogenics and the Maya
... otherwise known as Bufo Marinus, a sacred figure throughout the history of Mesoamerican culture. The skin of the Bufo Marinus ... Horgan, John (August 1990). "Bufo Abuse". Scientific American. 263 (2): 26-27. Bibcode:1990SciAm.263b..26H. doi:10.1038/ ...
Originally placed in the genus Bufo but was placed in the African genus Amietophrynus for the former 20-chromosome "Bufo" in ... "Bufo mauritanicus". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2016-11-13. Christopher Lever (2003). Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians ...
"Bufo asper". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 19 March 2006. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Frogs of ... the Malay Peninsula: Bufo asper v t e. ...
STÖCK M., M. SCHMID, C. STEINLEIN AND W.-R. GROSSE (1999). Mosaicism in somatic triploid specimens of the Bufo viridis complex ... STÖCK M., R. GÜNTHER AND W. BÖHME (2001). Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian Bufo viridis group: Current status ... Stöck, M., Papenfuss, T. & Khan, M.S. (2004). Bufo pseudoraddei. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 ... Bufo viridis complex) in Asia including new data from Iran and Pakistan. Asiatic Herp. Res. (Berkeley) 9: 77-100. ...
"Bufo bufo: Common toad". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2012-05-04. Fairchild, G. J. (2003). "Common Toad - Bufo bufo". Reptiles and ... The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an ... The remaining European lineage split into Bufo bufo and Bufo verrucosissimus less than three million years ago during the ... the Austrian naturalist Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti placed the common toad in the genus Bufo, naming it Bufo bufo. The toads in ...
Bufo oblongus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. v t e. ...
List of Bulbophyllum species
bufo (Lindl.) Govaerts 1996 Bulbophyllum falcatum var. falcatum Bulbophyllum falcatum var. velutinum (Lindl.) J.J.Verm. 1992 ...
Japanese common toad
The Japanese common toad, Japanese warty toad or Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. ... Asako Miyakawa (2004-10-05). "Bufo japonicus". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2014-09-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ... "Bufo japonicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T54673A11184598. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54673A11184598.en ... Ōshima and Hokkaido where the subspecies Bufo japonicus formosus has been introduced. It is present in a wide variety of types ...
Farallones de Cali
Bufo hypomelas ? - Sapo Mamboré Dendrobates lehmanni - Red-banded poison frog or Oophaga lehmanni On the western slope, between ...
... , formerly Bufo ceratophrys, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is sometimes known as the ... Bufo ceratophrys. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. v t e. ...
In 2006, members of the Bufo margaritifera complex were recognized as the new genus Rhinella, leading to the current name. The ... The species was first described under the name Bufo proboscideus by Johann Baptist von Spix in 1824. Spix collected the ... Chaparro, J. C.; Pramuk, J. B.; Gluesenkamp, A. G.; Frost, D. R. (2007). "Secondary homonymy of Bufo proboscideus Spix, 1824, ... Menin, M. (2005). "Bufo proboscideus. Predation". Herpetological Review. 36 (3): 299.. ...
Japanese stream toad
The Japanese stream toad (Bufo torrenticola), also known as the Honshū Toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It ... Bufo torrenticola. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. v t e. ...
Bufo verrucosissimus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. Media related to Bufo ... The Caucasian toad (Bufo verrucosissimus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Azerbaijan, Georgia, ...
This species was described as Bufo regularis rangeri, in 1935, by John Hewitt of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, from ... "Bufo rangeri". 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ... Poynton raised Bufo rangeri of Hewitt, 1935 to full species status, distinguishing it from co-occurring related forms. More ... as subspecies of the widespread African toad Bufo regularis (a species which is now considered absent from Southern Africa, ...
Korean water toad
Kwak, HC; Oh YL; Kwon HJ; Oh SJ; Kim SG; Kim KS; Yoo HJ; Won DJ & Park JS (1998). "증례 : 물두꺼비 ( Bufo stejnegeri Schmidt ) 섭취에 의한 ... The Korean water toad, Korean toad, water toad, or Stejneger's toad (Bufo stejnegeri), is a species of toad found in East Asia ... The classification of the Korean water toad into the genus Bufo was challenged in a 2006 paper. However, no alternative ... Matsui, M. & Zhao, W. (2004). "Bufo stejnegeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T54766A11200818. doi:10.2305/IUCN ...
The Interrogation (film)
"THE INTERROGATION". bufo.fi. Retrieved 28 October 2013. "The Interrogation". mubi.com. Missing or empty ,url= (help) The ...
Bufo marinus - Wikimedia Commons
Nearctic Bufo Clade
Containing group: Bufo. Introduction. The phylogeny of this group of Bufo species was taken from Pauly et al. (2004). Note that ... Nearctic Bufo Clade clade Anaxyrus. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Nearctic Bufo Clade. clade Anaxyrus. Authored by David Cannatella. The TEXT of this page is licensed under ... The history of a Nearctic colonization: molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58(11 ...
Bufo - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Bufo *Llorente, Gustavo: Els vertebrats de les zones humides dels ... Bufo és un gènere damfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies. ... No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, dAustràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo. *Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, i D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: ...
Bufo japonicus (Japanese Common Toad)
Bufo torrenticola (Japanese Stream Toad)
Bufo - Wikipedia
2006) removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo bufo group ... Penn State University - How safe is it to hold frogs and toads? amphibiaweb.org - Bufo Blair (ed.), 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo. ... bufo). Some of the genera that contain species formerly placed in Bufo are Anaxyrus (many North American species), Bufotes ( ... Bufo is a genus of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae. As traditionally defined, it was a wastebasket genus ...
Bufo stuarti - Wikipedia
AmphibiaWeb - Bufo bufo
Bufo bufo from the Anatolian part of Turkey is closer to B. verrucosisimus, in comparison to B. bufo or B. spinosus (from ... As other toads, B. bufo is active mainly in twilight. The activity in light time, common for the toads of the Bufo viridis ... B. bufo have a tendency to breed in the same location they were born, even if other breeding areas are available nearby. This ... In most habitats, B. bufo is not very abundant, although sometimes up to 70 specimens are found per 100 m of pond shore or, on ...
AmphibiaWeb - Bufo gargarizans
It is very similar to the Common Toad (Bufo bufo), but differs from it mainly by having spines on the dorsal skin tubercles and ... Bufo gargarizans lives in China (provinces of Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhajiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan, ... Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2018 Bufo gargarizans: Asiatic Toad ,http://amphibiaweb.org/species/179, University of ...
Genus Bufo - definition of genus Bufo by The Free Dictionary
genus Bufo synonyms, genus Bufo pronunciation, genus Bufo translation, English dictionary definition of genus Bufo. Noun 1. ... genus Bufo - type genus of the Bufonidae; common toads of New and Old Worlds amphibian genus - any genus of amphibians ... genus Bufo. Also found in: Thesaurus.. Related to genus Bufo: marine toad, Bufonidae ... Genus Bufo - definition of genus Bufo by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/genus+Bufo ...
Bufo Garsault, 1764 | Amphibian Species of the World
... that Bufo Garsault, 1764 = Bufo Fitzinger, 1768. I have retained Bufo for the former Bufo bufo group and Bufotes for the Bufo ... The former authors argue that Bufo Garsault, 1764, applies to the former Bufo bufo group, and that Bufo Laurenti, 1768, is a ... applied a biological species concept and therefore regarded Bufo spinosus and Bufo bufo as subspecies of a larger Bufo bufo. ... Hist., 297, removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo ...
October - Bufo Frogs - Palmetto's - Pests Galore - Read This
Bufo gargarizans gargarizans - Wikispecies
Genus: Bufo Species: Bufo gargarizans Subspecies: Bufo gargarizans gargarizans Name. Bufo gargarizans gargarizans Cantor ... Bufo gargarizans gargarizans . Accessed on 10 Apr 2008.. *World Conservation Monitoring Centre IUCN: Bufo gargarizans ... Bufo japonicus gargarizans - Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990. *Bufo gargarizans andrewsi - Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993 ... Bufo gargarizans miyakonis - Ye and Fei, 1994. References. *Cantor, T. 1842: General features of Chusan, with remarks on ...
Bufo maculatus Hallowell, 1855 | National Museums Liverpool
Upperparts may be yellow, grey, reddish-brown or drab grey-brown, patterned with more or less symmetrical pairs of darker blotches including one pair on the upper surface of the snout. Underside whitish, often freckled with pale to dark grey on the chest and abdomen, throat of males suffused with black. Length up to 7 cm.
Lysozyme C precursor - Bufo gargarizans andrewsi (Andrew's toad)
Bufo gargarizans andrewsi (Andrews toad) (Bufo andrewsi). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the ... "Purification of a lysozyme from skin secretions of Bufo andrewsi.". Zhao Y., Jin Y., Lee W.-H., Zhang Y.. Comp. Biochem. ... "Purification of a lysozyme from skin secretions of Bufo andrewsi.". Zhao Y., Jin Y., Lee W.-H., Zhang Y.. Comp. Biochem. ... "Purification of a lysozyme from skin secretions of Bufo andrewsi.". Zhao Y., Jin Y., Lee W.-H., Zhang Y.. Comp. Biochem. ...
Bufo Rana cough symptoms - ABC Homeopathy
Homeopathic Bufo Rana - COUGH indications, uses & symptoms from 12 cross linked materia medicas. Available 8X-30X, 4C-30C, 200C ... Bufo Rana - Cough symptoms Poison Of The Toad, Rana Bufo Bufo.. Available in 8X-30X, 4C-30C, 200C, 30C, 200CH, 1M-10M from $ ... Bufo Rana. General Modalities Etc Relationships Mind Head Vertigo, Dizziness Eyes Ears Nose Face Skin Mouth Chest Throat Back ... Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Bufo Rana in traditional homeopathic usage, not approved ...
Bufo Toad Envenomation in Dogs | Embrace
Bufo Toad Envenomation can be incredibly dangerous for dogs. Find out how to treat it, what it costs, and whether pet insurance ... Bufo Toad Envenomation. by Dr. Patty Khuly, VMD, MBA Summary. Toads of the genus Bufo, live in many parts of the world and, ... The cost of Bufo toad envenomation depends to a large extent on the degree to which a dog is exposed and, consequently, to the ... Treatment of Bufo toad envenomation usually depends on the dose an animal has received. In all cases, however, dogs should have ...
Download Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog, during, toad, european, anura
Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos ... bufo Bufo). Photo cd: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo) Author: ... Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads ( ... Common Toads (bufo Bufo) On The Way To Spawning Waters. Photographie: Common Toads (Bufo bufo) on the way to spawning waters ... Common Toad (bufo Bufo), Female With Egg String, Oberaegeri, Switzerland, Europe. Fine Art Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo ...
Sonoran Desert Toad (Bufo alvarius)
Thalamus, Praetectum, Tectum: Retinale Topographie und physiologische Interaktionen bei der Kröte Bufo bufo (L.) | SpringerLink
Ewert, J.-P., Borchers, H.-W.: Reaktionscharakteristik von Neuronen aus dem Tectum opticum und Subtectum der ErdkröteBufo bufo ... Thalamus, Praetectum, Tectum: Retinale Topographie und physiologische Interaktionen bei der KröteBufo bufo (L.). ... Thalamus, pretectum, tectum: Retinal topography and physiological interactions in the toadBufo bufo(L.). ... praetectale Nervennetze im visuellen System der KröteBufo bufo (L.). J. comp. Physiol.,92, 131-148 (1974a)Google Scholar ...
Spanish musical theatre. Modern zarzuela and género bufo • Fundación Juan March
Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis
Extinción del sapo dorado ( Bufo periglenes) a causa del ca by Anyela Cubero on Prezi
Transcript of Extinción del sapo dorado ( Bufo periglenes) a causa del ca. Reino:. Animalia. Filo:. Chordata. Clase:. Anphibia ... Bufo periglenes. , actual Incilius periglenes. Hábitat del Insilius periglenes. Reproducción o apareaemiento del Incilius ... Extinción del sapo dorado ( Bufo periglenes) a causa del ca. No description ...
Bufo. - Text Book of Materia Medica. - By Adolph Lippe, M. D.
Changes in Plasma Sex Steroids in Relation to Reproductive Behavior of the Toad, Bufo melanostictus (Schn.)
Bufo vulgaris | definition of Bufo vulgaris by Medical dictionary
Bufo vulgaris explanation free. What is Bufo vulgaris? Meaning of Bufo vulgaris medical term. What does Bufo vulgaris mean? ... Looking for online definition of Bufo vulgaris in the Medical Dictionary? ... Bufo. (redirected from Bufo vulgaris). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.. Related to Bufo vulgaris: Bufo viridis, American ... Bufo vulgaris , definition of Bufo vulgaris by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Bufo+ ...
Anaerobiosis in the segmenting eggs of Bufo arenarum | Development
Molecular Characterization on the Early Developmental Stages of the Egyptian Toad Bufo regularis Reuss
... assay to identify changes in DNA concentration in the embryos of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when ... acquire information about the changes in the molecular content of Bufo regularis during metamorphosis has been estimated. ... Sedra, S.N. and Michael, M.I. (1961) Normal Table of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo regularis Reuss, with an Addendum on the ... Sakr, S.A. and Shalaby, S.Y. (2012) Effect of Gibberellin-A3 on Metamorphosis in the Egyptian Toad Bufo regularis. Basic & ...
Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae...
The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizansbelongs to Bufonidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and ... Park CB, Kim MS, Kim SC (1996) A novel antimicrobial peptide from Bufo bufo gargarizans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 218:408-413 ... Bufo gargarizans Bufonidae Complete mitochondrial genome Protein-coding genes This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Kuzmin S, Wang Y, Matsui M, Kaneko Y, Maslova I (2004) Bufo gargarizans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e. ...
- As traditionally defined, it was a wastebasket genus containing a large number of toads from much of the world, but following taxonomic reviews most of these have been moved to other genera, leaving only seventeen extant (living) species from Europe, northern Africa and Asia in this genus, including the well-known common toad (B. bufo). (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the genera that contain species formerly placed in Bufo are Anaxyrus (many North American species), Bufotes (European green toad and relatives), Duttaphrynus (many Asian species, including the Asian common toad introduced elsewhere), Epidalea (natterjack toad) and Rhinella (many Latin American species, including the cane toad introduced elsewhere). (wikipedia.org)
- It is very similar to the Common Toad ( Bufo bufo ), but differs from it mainly by having spines on the dorsal skin tubercles and a black band which extends from the outer surface of the parotoid onto the body flank. (amphibiaweb.org)
- Use of lidocaine, propranolol, amidarone and verapamil in toad envenoming ( genus Bufo ) in dogs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The Giant Bufo Marinus Toad is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. (constantcontact.com)
- Known scientifically as Bufo Marinus, the Cane Toad, Giant Toad, or Marine Toad is native to an area extending from Mexico and Central America to the Amazon Basin and was introduced to Florida in 1966 in an attempt to control the population of a type of beetle that was ravaging the sugar cane crops. (constantcontact.com)
- Bufo stuarti is a species of toad found in Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
- Poison Of The Toad, Rana Bufo Bufo. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Knowledge of contact with a Bufo toad is the typical means of diagnosis. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Any breed of dog is susceptible to the effects of the Bufo toad toxin. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Treatment of Bufo toad envenomation usually depends on the dose an animal has received. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- For patients who have received a large dose of Bufo toad toxin, intensive care may be required to keep recurrent seizures at bay and to monitor the heart for signs of cardiotoxicity. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- The cost of Bufo toad envenomation depends to a large extent on the degree to which a dog is exposed and, consequently, to the dose of toxin he or she received. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- If was a simple lick or quick bite, resulting in minimal toxin absorption, dogs are likely to fare well -- sometimes even without any veterinary intervention at all (though it's strongly recommended all dogs be examined by a veterinarian after any Bufo toad toxin exposure). (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Preventing exposure to the Bufo toad is the only sure means of preventing envenomation. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Dog owners who live in Bufo toad-specific locales are urged to keep a watchful eye out during the wetter seasons of the year. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Fine Art Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), female with egg string, Oberaegeri, Switzerland, Europe Author: Rolf NussbaumerDate: 2009-06-19 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
- Photo cd: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo) Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2009-08-15 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), juvenile Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2005-08-28 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Royalty free: European Green Toad Bufo viridis, Neusiedlersee Neusiedler Lake region, Austria, Europe Author: Hans Lang Date: 2007-12-13 Maximum available. (tradebit.com)
- Royalty free photos: Colorado River Toad or Sonoran Desert Toad Bufo alvarius, in captivity Author: Kurt M busDate: 2009-01-03 Maximum available size: 18. (tradebit.com)
- Digital Photography: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo), Waldviertel region, Lower Austria, Austria, Europe Author: Christian HandlDate: 2009-08-13 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
- Royalty free photos: Aga Toad or Cane Toad (Bufo marinus, Rhinella marina) Author: Florian KoppDate: 2009-05-17 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Digital Photography: Green Toad (Bufo viridis), National Park Lake Neusiedl, Burgenland, Austria, Europe Author: Rolf NussbaumerDate: 2007-04-23 Maximum a. (tradebit.com)
- Photoalbum: Colorado River Toad, Sonoran Desert Toad (Bufo alvarius) Author: Kurt M busDate: 2009-12-09 Maximum available size: 18.1 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Thalamus, pretectum, tectum: Retinal topography and physiological interactions in the toad Bufo bufo (L. (springer.com)
- Ewert, J.-P.: Single unit response of the toad ( Bufo americanus ) caudal thalamus to visual objects. (springer.com)
- The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. (hindawi.com)
- Changes in Plasma Sex Steroids in Relation to Reproductive Behavior of the Toad, Bufo melanostictus (Schn. (bioone.org)
- Changes in the plasma concentration of steroid hormones (testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) in relation to sexual behavior of males and females were studied in a natural population of the toad ( Bufo melanostictus ) during the breeding season. (bioone.org)
- In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). (biologists.org)
- Sakr, S.A. and Shalaby, S.Y. (2012) Effect of Gibberellin-A3 on Metamorphosis in the Egyptian Toad Bufo regularis. (scirp.org)
- Sakr, S.A., Badawy, G.M. and El-Borm, H.T. (2014) Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis. (scirp.org)
- The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans belongs to Bufonidae. (springer.com)
- The Bufo alvarius toad, whose correct name is Incilius alvarius , is native to the American continent. (iceers.org)
- Several anthropologists suggest that one toad variety, Bufo marinus has been used in Mesoamerica since ancient times for its intoxicating properties. (iceers.org)
- The scientific name of the toad is Bufo marinus, which somehow seems to fit. (tbo.com)
- A novel protein, named BAS-AH, was purified and characterized from the skin of the toad Bufo andrewsi. (nih.gov)
- Purification and characterization of the major glutathione transferase from adult toad (Bufo bufo) liver. (biomedsearch.com)
- Five forms of glutathione transferase (GST) were resolved from the cytosol of adult common toad (Bufo bufo) liver by GSH-affinity chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing. (biomedsearch.com)
- We studied the mechanisms of K + transport in cells from isolated and perfused collecting tubules and ducts from the mesonephric kidney of the toad Bufo bufo . (biologists.org)
- The aim of our study was to characterize K + transport by the cells within these tubule segments of a terrestrial anuran, the common European toad Bufo bufo . (biologists.org)
- In 1849 Mure published a proving with his preparation, taken from the most common toad in Brazil, called by him Bufo satyhiensis. (homeoint.org)
- Recently the use of the secretions of by the Bufo alvarius toad (correct name Incilius alvarius ) has become popular in various ritual settings. (iceers.org)
- Chinese toad ( Bufo gargarizans ) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20mgL- 1 ) from G3 to G42. (fluoridealert.org)
- The Wyoming toad ( Bufo hemiophrys ) was discovered in 1946 by Dr. George T. Baxter, a University of Wyoming professor. (amphibianrescue.org)
- This toad was originally considered a subspecies of the Canadian toad ( Bufo hemiophrys ). (amphibianrescue.org)
- Using multi-locus DNA sequence and frequency data, we examined the phylogeographic patterns of the Asian toad Bufo gargarizans species complex. (nih.gov)
- Antiproliferative activity and new argininyl bufadienolide esters from the 'cururú' toad Rhinella (Bufo) schneideri. (semanticscholar.org)
- Therefore we take gross anatomy and observation of tissue slices between the Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and the Chinese Fire-belled newt (Cynops orientalis). (conicyt.cl)
- Proponents of biological control introduced the South American Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) into the sugar cane fields of Queensland in 1935. (edu.au)
- We have recently completed studies that showed in the Wyoming toad ( Bufo baxteri ) that the sequential administration of a combination of hCG and LHRHa a week prior to ovulation resulted in increased numbers of spawning toads, oocyte numbers, fertilization and neurulation rates [unpublished data]. (biomedcentral.com)
- He began by observing the natural prey catching behavior of the common European toad ( Bufo bufo ). (wikipedia.org)
- A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the measurement of toad (Bufo japonicus) prolactin (PRL). (elsevier.com)
- In English We analysed 12 years of data on the spring migration of the common toad Bufo bufo L. to breeding ponds across 25 locations in Derbyshire, UK, to determine factors influencing the number of toads active per night. (lu.se)
- The main species of my investigation was the Eastern American toad, Bufo americanus, and the occasional Fowler's toad, Bufo fowleri . (amnh.org)
- True toads, of which the American toad ( Bufo americanus ) and the European toad ( B. bufo ) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. (britannica.com)
- The giant Cane toad [shown here, from wikipedia], for example, is a thoroughly different beast from the tiny Lugh toad (conventionally B. lughensis ) of eastern Africa (SVL less than 33 mm): they look about as different from one another as either does from any of the traditionally recognised non- Bufo bufonid genera. (scienceblogs.com)
- 2004. The history of a Nearctic colonization: molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). (tolweb.org)
- Bufo is a genus of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae. (wikipedia.org)
- At the time these toads were collected and accessioned into the UMMZ collection, there was considerable disagreement over the taxonomic relationships within the Americanus group of genus Bufo (sensu lato). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Toads of the genus Bufo, live in many parts of the world and, unbeknownst to many pet owners, can be toxic to dogs. (embracepetinsurance.com)
- Photoalbum: Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning Author: Hans LangDate: 2009-02-08 Maximum available size: 19.8 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Photographie: Common Toads (Bufo bufo) on the way to spawning waters Author: Hans LangDate: 2009-06-30 Maximum available size: 19.8 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
- Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? (cambridge.org)
- The hypothesis regarding the use of Bufo marinus , whose secretions, like those of other toads, mainly contain bufotenin, is based on the presence of many iconographic and mythological representations of toads in the Olmec, Mayan and Aztec cultures, dating from 2000 BCE. (iceers.org)
- Moreover, some alkaloids present in the secretions of the toads of the Bufo genus can have cardiotoxic effects and be fatal, as certain reports of animals that have died after biting toads demonstrate. (iceers.org)
- To obtain comparative data on anurans, we exercised Fowler's toads (Bufo woodhousei fowleri, 25.8 g) on treadmills at speeds ranging from 0.09 to 0.63 km h-1 while measuring oxygen consumption (VO2), endurance or hop kinematics. (biologists.org)
- Many populations of toads occuring between west-central Mexico and Panama have been referred to Bufo coccifer Cope, 1866. (ku.edu)
- Cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia, carrying with them a nematode lungworm ( Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala ) congeneric with those found in Australian frogs. (bioone.org)
- The mating system of a population of individually marked common toads (Bufo bufo) was studied during two years at a pond on the island Öland, southern Sweden. (brill.com)
- In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). (nih.gov)
- The toads of the Bufo bufo species group are widely distributed in the Eurasian continent and Japanese Archipelago. (nih.gov)
- Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic. (semanticscholar.org)
- The growth and survival of juvenile toads, Bufo bufo, infected with a common lung nematode, Rhabdias bufonis, were studied. (semanticscholar.org)
- Ujvari, Beata and Madsen, Thomas 2009, Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) , Herpetological conservation and biology , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 248-251. (edu.au)
- To address threats to the persistence of boreal toads (Bufo boreas) in Glacier National Park, USA, I genotyped 551 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci and used spatially independent (STRUCTURE) and spatially explicit (GENELAND) Bayesian methods to describe population genetic structure and identify barriers to gene flow. (umt.edu)
- In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads ( Bufo gargarizans ), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Ulcerogenic effect of steroids in 'shay' operated toads Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (who.int)
- No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d' Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus , del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. (wikipedia.org)
- October Pests - Bufo Marinus Frogs? (constantcontact.com)
- Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular junction. (edu.au)
- 2010: The nomenclatural status of the nomina of amphibians and reptiles created by Garsault (1764), with a parsimonious solution to an old nomenclatural problem regarding the genus Bufo (Amphibia, Anura), comments on the taxonomy of this genus, and comments on some nomina created by Laurenti (1768). (wikimedia.org)
- Type species: Not designated although animal in figure, assuming it is from France, is tentatively identifiable as Rana bufo Linnaeus, 1758 (DRF). (amnh.org)
- Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Bufo Rana in traditional homeopathic usage , not approved by the FDA. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Rana Bufo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. (ittiofauna.org)
- We compared the genetic diversities across eight microsatellite loci of two widespread anurans, Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria , at multiple sites across their western and central European ranges. (thebhs.org)
- We suggest that distinct autecological features of the two species are the most likely explanation of the diversity differences, especially more limited historical gene flow among Bufo compared with Rana populations. (thebhs.org)
- The effects of solar UV-B radiation on embryonic mortality and development in three boreal anurans (Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo). (semanticscholar.org)
- Bufo alvarius is a semi-aquatic amphibian that lives in the Sonoran desert of Mexico. (iceers.org)
- Bufo alvarius have large parotid glands that secrete a viscous, milky-colored substance. (iceers.org)
- There are at least two cases of deaths documented in the medical literature where the combination of Bufo alvarius with harmalines, compounds present in ayahuasca, was the cause. (iceers.org)
- The secretions of Bufo alvarius (correct name Incilius alvarius ) contains more than a dozen tryptamine compounds , the most important of which are bufotenin and 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine). (iceers.org)
- The secretions of Bufo alvarius (correct name Incilius alvarius ) contains more than a dozen tryptamine compounds,the most important of which are bufotenin and 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-imethyltryptamine). (psychoactiveplants.info)
- Chris talks about the Bufo Alvarius frog (DMT frog) and tells the story of a friend that smoked the frog after it died (it didnt do anything). (podbean.com)
- The phylogeny of this group of Bufo species was taken from Pauly et al. (tolweb.org)
- 2004). Note that not all species of Bufo occurring in the United States are part of this clade, but most are. (tolweb.org)
- Behind their eyes, Bufo species have wart-like structures, the parotoid glands. (wikipedia.org)
- Formerly, the genus Bufo encompassed many species and was divided into several subgenera. (wikipedia.org)
- 2006) removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo bufo group of earlier authors. (wikipedia.org)
- In the archaeological remains of the Olmec culture of San Lorenzo, Veracruz, Mexico, skeletal remains of Bufo species have been found dating from 1250-900 BCE. (iceers.org)
- We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. (scielo.br)
- Both species showed similar levels of differentiation across their European range as estimated by F -statistics, but whereas R. temporaria exhibited isolation by distance effects, B. bufo did not. (thebhs.org)
- Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. (nih.gov)
- How Complex Is the Bufo Bufo Species Group? (nih.gov)
- By far the most problematic taxon in bufonid systematics is Bufo which, in 'traditional' classifications, is a virtually globally distributed genus that contains more than 250 species. (scienceblogs.com)
- And Bufo s. l. is so morphologically diverse, and so unwieldy and massive, that anuran workers have long taken to referring to 'species groups' within the assemblage (about 40 such groups have been recognised). (scienceblogs.com)
- Genus Bufo. (wikipedia.org)
- This was also the case in a broader analysis within the genus Bufo in which vocal fold mass was directly correlated with both sound frequency and body size . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Evolution in the Genus Bufo. (sciencemag.org)
- Alan Channing, in 1978, said that 'splitting a large cosmopolitan genus like Bufo can only aid our understanding of the group' (Channing 1978, p. 396), and from the 1980s onwards it began to be realised that Bufo s. l. is paraphyletic. (scienceblogs.com)
- Although Bufo bufo embryo GSTs do not correspond to any other known GSTs, the results of our experiments indicate that amphibian GSTs could be included in the Pi family of GSTs. (portlandpress.com)
- Zare Zardini H, Hashemi A, Tolueinia B, Bitaraf A. Purification and Characterization of a New Antimicrobial Peptide from Skin Secretions of Bufo Kavirensis. (ac.ir)
- Thus, the aim of this study is to purify and determine biochemical properties (especially antimicrobial effect) of new antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of bufo kavirensis. (ac.ir)
- The skin secretions of bufo was purified by biochemical manners and antimicrobial effects was characterized by radial dffusion assay and minimal inhibitory concentration. (ac.ir)
- Venenum bufonis can be sourced from two types of animals: Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor and Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (alliedacademies.org)
- To extract, isolate and identify active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider, and to study their anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on human gastric cancer MGC803 cells. (alliedacademies.org)
- Anti-proliferative effects of different concentrations of Bufo melanostictus Schneider extracts on gastric cancer MGC803 cells were detected by MTT, and their morphological changing effects on these cells were observed by microscopy. (alliedacademies.org)
- Four compounds were isolated from the skin of Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (alliedacademies.org)
- The anti-proliferative effects of Bufo melanostictus Schneider extracts on gastric cancer MGC803 cells were enhanced with increasing concentration and action time. (alliedacademies.org)
- Active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider can induce apoptosis of gastric cancer MGC803 cells. (alliedacademies.org)
- Bufo melanostictus Schneider contains a variety of chemical constituents, which have been proven by modern pharmacological studies to have cardiotonic, hypertensive, analgesic and antitumor pharmacological activities [ 1 - 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- With the deepening of research, Bufo melanostictus Schneider extract has been found to exert anticancer effects by induction of tumor cell apoptosis and differentiation by inhibiting endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and other ways [ 5 - 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In this paper, spectral characteristics of major active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider are studied in depth, and their inhibitory effects on human gastric cancer cells are explored by MTT assay and observation of morphological changes. (alliedacademies.org)
- Bufo melanostictus Schneider was purchased from Anguo Market, which was identified as Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (alliedacademies.org)
- amphibiaweb.org - Bufo Blair (ed.), 1972, Evol. (wikipedia.org)
- Bufo fowleri lives in cultivated fields and river valleys. (amnh.org)
- As is so often the case with huge, traditionally recognised genera of this sort, Bufo of tradition ( Bufo sensu lato from hereon) encompasses a pretty substantial degree of morphological disparity, the extremes of which easily 'look distinct enough' to belong to different genera. (scienceblogs.com)
- We have investigated the refugia used by Bufo calamita and Bufo bufo throughout the year on heathland, sand dune and saltmarsh habitats in Britain. (thebhs.org)
- Therefore, the Anatolian part of Turkey, as well as the Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon, are considered to be inhabited by B. verrucosissimus and not B. bufo , despite the record provided by Hraoui-Blouqet et al. (amphibiaweb.org)
- Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. (fluoridealert.org)
- Exemplar de Bufo boreas . (wikipedia.org)
- We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of Bufo arabicus (Duttaphrynus arabicus)from the Arabian Peninsula in Saudi Arabia, according to mitochondrial DNA (D-Loop). (journalijar.com)
- Nucleotide diversity of Bufo arabicus from Abha region was the highest population. (journalijar.com)
- Tajima's D test showed significant results from neutrality for all Bufo arabicus populations with P? (journalijar.com)
- Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. (scielo.br)
- The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. (scielo.br)
- Foi determinada a dieta das duas espécies mais abundantes de anuros que ocorrem na serrapilheira de uma floresta semidecídua (Lençóis, Bahia, Brasil), Physalaemus cf. cicada e Bufo granulosus , nas estações seca e chuvosa. (scielo.br)
- Physalaemus cf. cicada estava presente em ambas as estações e Bufo granulosus , só na estação chuvosa. (scielo.br)
- O índice de eletividade de Jacobs indicou que Physalaemus cf. cicada e Bufo granulosus são especialistas em Isoptera. (scielo.br)
- Bufo granulosus Spix and Physalaemus cf. cicada Bokermann. (scielo.br)
- No recent bottlenecks were observed in B. bufo or R. temporaria populations. (thebhs.org)
- According to allozyme data, Bufo bufo from the Anatolian part of Turkey is closer to B. verrucosisimus , in comparison to B. bufo or B. spinosus (from Tunisia, for example). (amphibiaweb.org)
- Dermatan sulfate is the major metachromatic glycosaminoglycan in the integument of the anuran Bufo ictericus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Glycosaminoglycans from the ventral and dorsal integuments of the anuran Bufo ictericus were characterized based on biochemical and histochemical methods. (biomedsearch.com)
- Six forms of glutathione transferase (GST) were resolved from the cytosolic fraction of Bufo bufo embryos at developmental stage 4 by GSH-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by f.p.l.c. chromatofocusing in the 9-6 pH range. (portlandpress.com)
- A total of 20 both males and females mature Bufo gargarizans were collected in July 2016 in Baiguihu lakeside (112°50′E′33°40′N), Pingdingshan, Henan Province, China. (conicyt.cl)
- Our evidence infers that this difference is unlikely to be a feature of the specific marker loci used, nor is it a probable consequence of the different phylogeographic histories of B. bufo and R. temporaria . (thebhs.org)
- Bufo bufo consistently exhibited less genetic diversity than R. temporaria . (thebhs.org)