Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.DibenzothiazepinesGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.JapanStichopus: A genus of very large, epibenthic SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Stichopodidae, commercially harvested in Southeast Asia for food.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.ArtiodactylaBody Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.BooksDrugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.SicilyBurkholderia cepacia complex: A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.

Characterization of toad liver glutathione transferase. (1/78)

The major form of glutathione transferase from the toad liver previously designed as Bufo bufo liver GST-7.6 (A. Aceto, B. Dragani, T. Bucciarelli, P. Sacchetta, F. Martini, S. Angelucci, F. Amicarelli, M. Miranda and C. Di Ilio, Biochem. J. 289 (1993) 417-422) has been characterized. According to its partial amino acid sequence, the toad enzyme may be included in the pi class GST and named bbGST P2-2. However, bbGST P2-2 appears to be immunologically, structurally and kinetically distinct from any other members of pi family, including bbGST P1-1, suggesting that it may constitute a subset of pi class GST. The data support the hypothesis that the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life causes a switch of the GST amphibian pattern promoting the expression of a GST form (bbGST P2-2) able to counteract, with higher efficiency, the toxic effects of reactive metabolites of oxidative metabolism and those of hydrophobic xenobiotics.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of active sodium transport in frog skin: the role of intercellular spaces. (2/78)

1. In agreement with previous observations the replacement of Cl by a nonpenetrating anion in the solution bathing either the outside or both sides of the frog skin causes a fall in the short-circuit current. 2. When Cl is replaced by a non-penetrating anion in the solution bathing the outside of the frog skin the Isc is still a correct measure of the net Na transport. 3. Under the same conditions both active and shunt paths seem to be affected since there is a decrease in Isc, Na influx, amiloride-dependent conductance, and initial Na uptake across the external barrier, together with a decrease in Cl-backfluxes and amiloride-independent conductance. There is also a decrease in water permeability and a reduction in size of the intercellular spaces. 4. The removal of Cl does not appear to affect the entry step of Na but may have an effect on the shunt path. This in turn may change the active Na transport.  (+info)

A visual evoked potential correlate of global figure-ground segmentation. (3/78)

Human observers discriminated the global orientation of a texture-defined figure which segregated from a texture surround. Global figure discriminability was manipulated through within-figure collinearity, figure-surround interaction, and figure connectedness, while the local orientation contrast at edges between figure and surround was kept constant throughout all the experiments. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during onset-offset stimulation in which the figure cyclically appeared and disappeared from a uniform texture background. A difference component was obtained by subtraction of offset-from onset-VEP. Two negative peaks of the difference component are found with latencies around 140-160 and 200-260 ms, respectively. Enhanced discriminability of the global figure reduced (11-25 ms) the latency of the second peak, hence indicating that the 200-260 ms component was produced by global figure-ground segmentation.  (+info)

Seeing better at night: life style, eye design and the optimum strategy of spatial and temporal summation. (4/78)

Animals which need to see well at night generally have eyes with wide pupils. This optical strategy to improve photon capture may be improved neurally by summing the outputs of neighbouring visual channels (spatial summation) or by increasing the length of time a sample of photons is counted by the eye (temporal summation). These summation strategies only come at the cost of spatial and temporal resolution. A simple analytical model is developed to investigate whether the improved photon catch afforded by summation really improves vision in dim light, or whether the losses in resolution actually make vision worse. The model, developed for both vertebrate camera eyes and arthropod compound eyes, calculates the finest spatial detail perceivable by a given eye design at a specified light intensity and image velocity. Visual performance is calculated for the apposition compound eye of the locust, the superposition compound eye of the dung beetle and the camera eye of the nocturnal toad. The results reveal that spatial and temporal summation is extremely beneficial to vision in dim light, especially in small eyes (e.g. compound eyes), which have a restricted ability to collect photons optically. The model predicts that using optimum spatiotemporal summation the locust can extend its vision to light intensities more than 100,000 times dimmer than if it relied on its optics alone. The relative amounts of spatial and temporal summation predicted to be optimal in dim light depend on the image velocity. Animals which are sedentary and rely on seeing small, slow images (such as the toad) are predicted to rely more on temporal summation and less on spatial summation. The opposite strategy is predicted for animals which need to see large, fast images. The predictions of the model agree very well with the known visual behaviours of nocturnal animals.  (+info)

The distribution of sodium, potassium and chloride in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Bufo bufo oocytes measured by electron microprobe analysis. (5/78)

1. Measurements of cytoplasmic and nuclear Na, K and Cl have been made by electron microprobe analysis on freeze-dried sections of oocytes of Bufo bufo, using standards of bovine plasma albumin and gamma-globulin. Concentrations were obtained per kilogram of dry mass, were converted to concentrations per litre of water content using known figures for water and solid concentration of nucleus and cytoplasm, and were then compared with measurements on cells from the same animal obtained by flame photometry. 2. In fresh oocytes concentrations were (mean +/- S.E. of mean in m-mole/l. H2O) in cytoplasm Na 10.9 +/- 1.95, K 70.2 +/- 3.22, Cl 98.8 +/- 11.0, and in nucleus Na 10.4 +/- 1.79, K 266.4 +/- 22.8, Cl 91.3 +/- 9.0. 3. After treatment with Na-free Ringer (Li substituted for Na) for 5 hr, concentrations were in cytoplasm Na 11.1 +/- 2.44, K 64.4 +/- 5.7, Cl 88.7 +/- 8.8, and in nucleus Na 2.4 +/- 0.73, K 141 +/- 13.9, Cl 75.0 +/- 6.7. Na inexchangeable with Li therefore lay in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus as previously shown by autoradiography. 4. For K electron microscopic analysis measurements agreed well with those obtained by flame photometry but the former measured only 35% of Na measured by flame photometry. This discrepancy may be due either to technical difficulties with the electron microprobe analysis or to localization of Na in the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Pepsin-mediated processing of the cytoplasmic histone H2A to strong antimicrobial peptide buforin I. (6/78)

The intestinal epithelium forms a first line of innate host defense by secretion of proteins with antimicrobial activity against microbial infection. Despite the extensive studies on the antimicrobial host defense in many gastrointestinal tracts, little is known about the antimicrobial defense system of the stomach. The potent antimicrobial peptide buforin I, consisting of 39 aa, was isolated recently from the stomach tissue of an Asian toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans. In this study we examined the mechanism of buforin I production in toad stomach tissue. Buforin I is produced by the action of pepsin isozymes, named pepsin Ca and Cb, cleaving the Tyr39-Ala40 bond of histone H2A. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that buforin I is present extracellularly on the mucosal surface, and unacetylated histone H2A, a precursor of buforin I, is localized in the cytoplasm of gastric gland cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that buforin I is also present in the gastric fluids, and immunoelectron microscopy detected localization of the unacetylated histone H2A in the cytoplasmic granules of gastric gland cells. The distinct subcellular distribution of the unacetylated histone H2A and the detection of the unacetylated buforin I both on the mucosal surface and in the lumen suggest that buforin I is produced from the cytoplasmic unacetylated histone H2A secreted into the gastric lumen and subsequently processed by pepsins. Our results indicate that buforin I along with pepsins in the vertebrate stomach may contribute to the innate host defense of the stomach against invading microorganisms.  (+info)

Recombinant human interleukins IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-7 show different and specific calcium-independent carbohydrate-binding properties. (7/78)

A method was developed for the determination of putative lectin activities of cytokines. It involved the immunoblotting measurement of the quantity of these cytokines unbound to a series of different immobilized glycoconjugates and displacement of the bound cytokines with oligosaccharides of known structures. This method allows demonstrating that the following interleukins specifically recognize different oligosaccharide structures in a calcium-independent mechanism: interleukin-1alpha binds to the biantennary disialylated N-glycan completed with two Neu5Acalpha2-3 residues; interleukin-1beta to a GM4 sialylated glycolipid Neu5Acalpha2-3Galbeta1-Cer having very long and unusual long-chain bases; interleukin-4 to the 1,7 intramolecular lactone of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid; interleukin-6 to compounds having N-linked and O-linked HNK-1-like epitopes; and interleukin-7 to the sialyl-Tn antigen. Because the glycan ligands are rare structures in human circulating cells, it is suggested that such activities could be essential for providing specific signaling systems to cells having both the receptors and the oligosaccharide ligands of the interleukin at their cell surface.  (+info)

Developmental expression and distribution of amphibian glutathione transferases. (8/78)

This work is aimed at detecting the expression and location of embryonic Bufo bufo GST (bbGSTP1-1) and adult B. bufo GST (bbGSTP2-2) during toad development, in order to assign a putative role to these enzymes also on the basis of their compartmentalization and to verify whether during the premetamorphic liver ontogeny the bbGSTP2-2 form appears. This study was also performed in the adult liver (the primary site of Pi class GST expression) and in the mature ovary, to discern if the embryonic form derives from maternal form. The results show that the embryos and the ovary express only bbGSTP1-1. Moreover, bbGSTP1-1 distribution is the same both in the early embryos and in the ovary: this strongly suggests that bbGSTP1-1 is of maternal origin. As development goes on, a wide distribution of bbGSTP1-1 all over the differentiating organs is observed. The embryonic liver expresses exclusively the bbGSTP1-1 form, while the adult liver is highly positive only towards the bbGSTP2-2 form. This implies that the switch towards the adult bbGSTP2-2 form occurs in metamorphic or postmetamorphic phases and that the detoxication metabolic requirements of the embryo may be completely fulfilled by the bbGSTP1-1 isoenzyme.  (+info)

To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate patterns of variation in molecular (a mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme assay and sequence data for two nuclear DNA fragments totalling 979 bp) and 17 morphological variables in Northern France where two of these groups meet (B. bufo sensu stricto and B. spinosus), in order to delineate their contact zone and uncover characters that would allow discrimination of the two taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data show an abrupt transition from areas where B. bufo is present to those inhabited by B. spinosus, with a narrow area of overlap east of the city of Caen. Morphometric characters, particularly those related to the positioning of the parotoid glands and metatarsal tubercle shape and size, proved useful in ...
A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2007 in a laboratory in Virginia, USA (Woodhams et al. 2012) found that survival of mountain yellow-legged frogs Rana muscosa naturally infected with chytridiomycosis was not increased by adding chytrid-inhibiting skin bacteria. Survival of frogs treated with bacteria was 50% compared to 39% for infected controls. Infection was not cleared in surviving frogs. However, weight loss was reduced with treatment (0.1 vs 0.4 g/week). Wild-caught frogs were randomly assigned to treatments. Twenty were bathed in water containing bacteria (Pedobacter cryoconitis) isolated from mountain yellow-legged frog and 13 control frogs in water alone for two hours. Frogs were swabbed and tested at seven and 13 days after treatment.. A randomized, replicated, controlled study in 2010 in a laboratory in Switzerland (Woodhams, Geiger, Reinert, Rollins-Smith, Lam, Harris, Briggs, Vredenburg & Voyles 2012) found that survival of common toad Bufo bufo toadlets was not ...
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the toads behavioral responses, Ewert performed a series of recording and stimulation experiments. First and foremost, the results allowed him to understand the way the visual system is constructed and connected to the central nervous system. Secondly, he discovered areas of the brain that were responsible for differential analysis of stimuli. First, the retina is connected to the optic tectum by at least three types of ganglion cells, each with an excitatory receptive field and a surrounding inhibitory receptive field, but they differ in the diameter of their central excitatory receptive fields. Diameters in Class II (R2) ganglion cells are approximately four degrees visual angle. Those in Class III (R3) cells are about eight degrees and Class IV (R4) ganglion cells range from twelve to fifteen degrees. As stimuli move across the toads visual field, information is sent to the optic tectum in the toads midbrain. The optic tectum exists as an ...
1. The upper thermal death-point of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis) is significantly above that of either the toad (Bufo bufo) or the frog (Rana temporaria). That of the toad differs only slightly from that of the frog.. 2. In response to external variation with respect to temperature and humidity, the body temperature of the toad behaves in a manner similar to that of the frog, being considerably below that of the air at low humidities, though appreciably above that of the wet-bulb thermometer. It is concluded that the toad loses water as freely as the frog.. 3. The body temperature of the slow worm and that of the alligator (A. mississippiensis) differs only slightly from that of the air under all conditions of sustained air temperature and humidity.. 4. The body temperature reaction of the alligator is more sluggish than that of the slow worm, presumably owing to the higher thermal capacity of the animal.. 5. The significance of these results in relation to the evolution of the terrestrial ...
The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell...
The epitope H contains an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue in a specific conformation and/or environment recognized by monoclonal antibody H (mAbH). We have previously shown that the epitope H is present in more than one polypeptide and in various types of normal and pathological cells. In the present study, we focused on mitochondria-rich normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic cells, prompted by our recent immuno-electron microscopy findings that mAbH clearly stains the mitochondria of breast epithelial cells in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas. The indirect immunoperoxidase method was applied using the mAbH to investigate the distribution of the epitope H in mitochondria-rich normal cells and in metaplastic and neoplastic oncocytic cells. Immunohistochemical staining for the mAbH was observed in oxyphil cells of parathyroid glands, in striated duct cells of parotid glands, in urinary tubules of kidneys, in parietal cells of gastric body mucosa, in oxyphil ...
My assumption was this was why toads tended to breed in larger ponds with fish - their toxins keep them relatively safe from fish predation, but the fish keep down numbers of other tadpole predators such as newts and invertebrates. This would also explain the shoaling behaviour - having tried one and found it unpalatable, a fish would be likely to leave the rest of the shoal alone. Having said that Ive never actually seen any data on how much different fish species do prey on / avoid toad tadpoles, so Id be interested if anyone knows of any research on the subject ...
The Common Toad...only smaller Shot Handheld with Canon 50mm 1.4 with stacked Macro filters on Canon TLb [IMG] [IMG] My GF found this little guy in...
Complex epithelia have multiple functions, including the regulation of ion transport and homeostasis. A failure to regulate ionic homeostasis is a hallmark of many human diseases. For example, defects in the function of epithelia whose primary function is ion transport, such as those found in kidney and epididymis, lead to abnormalities such as distal renal acidosis and male sterility. In addition, although ion transport is not the primary function of other epithelia, such as the secretory and mucociliary epithelia found in the gut and lung, ionic regulation is crucial for their normal function. In diseases such as cystic fibrosis, failure of ionic regulation is associated with abnormalities in mucus consistency and secretion, which has deleterious effects in the gut and lungs.. Most epithelia consist of several cell types, including specialised cells dedicated to ionic regulation (known as ionocytes, mitochondria-rich cells, proton-secreting cells or intercalated cells). Challenges in ...
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, suitable habitat which appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:[citation needed] Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo Gutturalis Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus ...
New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to res …
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). Under anaerobic conditions a rapid accumulation of lactic acid gives evidence of an intense glycolytic activity, which is inhibited when the eggs are returned to oxygen (Pasteur effect) (Barbieri & Salomón, 1963). Furthermore, an increase in oxygen uptake during the first 2 h of recovery has been observed (payment of the oxygen debt) (Legname, 1966). Taking into account the low value of the respiratory quotient (r.q. = 0·5-0·7) during this period it can be assumed that most of the oxygen is not involved in the oxidation of lactate (Legname, 1966).. ...
The collecting duct of the mammalian kidney is involved in urine acidification. Recent studies in the turtle bladder suggest that hydrogen ion secretion in response to elevated CO2 is regulated by insertion of hydrogen pumps into the luminal membrane of the mitochondria-rich cells. Because intercalated cells of the collecting duct are structurally similar to mitochondria-rich cells of the amphibian bladder, we studied the rat outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) during respiratory acidosis to determine whether changes compatible with hydrogen ion secretion occur in the intercalated cells. Rats were studied during normal acid-base conditions and after 4-5 h of respiratory acidosis. After collection of physiologic data, the kidneys were fixed by in vivo perfusion and processed for electron microscopy. No changes were observed in the principal cells of the OMCD. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the surface density of the apical plasma membrane and a decrease in the number ...
Toads. Reptilia.. Toads belong to the most poisonous reptiles.. In olden times, being looked upon as horrible things, they were given in horrible diseases. During the rage of improvement the remedy was thrown overboard, and even the poisonous qualities doubted, until rare experiments, especially those by Vulpian, have settled the question. In 1832 Henke, our great prover, was the first in our school to call attention to it ; his observations were published in Meyers Monatsblatt, 1860 ; in 1834 the Hom opathic Society of Th ringen sent some symptoms to the Archives of Stapf (vol. xiv, No. 2, page 102). In 1849 Mure published a proving with his preparation, taken from the most common toad in Brazil, called by him Bufo satyhiensis. This was translated by Hempel and Allen. Houat published one of his provings in Nouvelles Donn es. This was translated three times --by Lippe, Lilienthal and Allen. In 1859, Destrone, in a French journal, collected notes from all old writers and also made some provings. ...
Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos
El gènere Bufo és molt cosmopolita, ja que sel pot trobar a tot el planeta sota condicions molt adverses. No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, dAustràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. ...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Common Frog is not common and Common Toads are occasionally seen but the commonest amphibian by far is the large and very noisy Marsh Frog. The first individuals of this species were originally introduced into Britain into a small garden pool at Stone-in-Oxney in the winter of 1934-35. Since then the population has increased and spread dramatically and they can now be seen or heard in many ditches and pools throughout Romney Marsh. ...
Bufotenin: A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
There was one thing different about the toad pools this spring that may have contributed to the toad visitations. Both pools were surrounded by a mass of Spring Peepers creating a loud chorus. Im wondering if the Peeper song alerted the toads to the fact that a suitable breeding pool was available. The newly hatched Peeper tadpoles shown above are just two of dozens hanging in the algae around the edge of the pools. This toad pool venture may just turn out to be a success ...
Biker Babe Toad - Green We were so excited to get this amazing new Biker Babe Toad - Green on the site, we havent even had the chance to write a whimsical description!We have loved these toads for the past few years and ...
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
The effect of past climatic changes on the distribution of organisms is a fertile field of research that has been tackled in many different ways. Because the fossil record provides direct access to the chronological and geographic dimensions of biological events occurred in the past, it can be a useful tool for assessing range contractions and expansions related to climatic changes. Here, we provide support for the recent shrinkage of the range of a frigophilous anuran, the common frog, Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, by analyzing the amphibian fossil assemblage coming from the Grotta di Equi, a Late Pleistocene site (about 45 ka) located in the Apuan Alps (northern Apennine chain, Massa-Carrara Province, Italy). Besides, R. temporaria, the assemblage includes cf. Salamandra salamandra Linnaeus, 1758 and Bufo bufo Linnaeus, 1758. The presence of R. temporaria in the Apuan Alps during a cold interglacial phase at an elevation that is much lower than the minimum current elevation in the region (about
In the Bufo spinulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Considered a distinct species by Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 82-92; still treated as a subspecies of Bufo spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 42-44, provided an account (as Bufo spinulosus atacemensis). Sallaberry-Ayerza and Méndez-Torres, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 218-219, commented on the range and provided a range extension. Sallaberry-Ayerza, Soto-M., Correa-Quezada, and Méndez-Torres, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 214, provided range extensions and discussed the range. Correa-Quezada, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Jara-Arancio, Lobos, Soto-M., and Méndez-Torres, 2008, Check List, 4: 478-484, detailed the range in and discussed all known records as well as providing evidence of allopatry of this species and Rhinella arunco. Veloso, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Correa-Quezada, and Méndez, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 568-577, found an area of contact in the Estero Pupío area ...
Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 73-93, removed Sclerophrys pusilla from the synonymy of Sclerophrys maculata and redescribed the holotype of this species. See comments under Sclerophrys maculata for relevant literature. Angola records in Poynton and Haacke, 1993, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 36: 1-16 (as Bufo maculata). Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 460-463, discussed the uncertainty of the synonymy of Bufo pusillus with Bufo maculatus, citing immunological evidence of Maxson, 1981, Herpetologica, 37: 96-104. See also Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 51, who recognized Bufo pusillus, and Channing, 1989, Lammergeyer, 40: 1, who disputed Lambiris conclusion. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 47-53, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 84, Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 14-15, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 146-147, provided ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric rela...
dinner, after : Aloe., anac., canth., cast., cycl., ferr., gamb., mag-c., mag-m., nat-c., nat-m., plb., psor., thuj., zinc.. dread of liquids, with : Agn., am-c., arn., bell., cann-i., canth., caust., cocc., hell., hyos., lac-c., lach., lyc., lyss., merc., nat-m., nux-v., rhus-t., samb., sel., stram., tarent.. eating, while : Ail., aloe., am-c., bufo., coc-c., cocc., lach., nat-c., psor.. after : Aloe., anac., bell., bry., calad., caust., coc-c., cocc., cycl., elaps., graph., guare., lyc., nat-c., nit-ac., phel., phos., sil.. extreme : Acet-ac., Acon., aesc., aeth., agar., all-c., all-s., alum., am-m., anac., anan., ant-c., ant-t., apis., Arg-n., arn., ars-h., ars-i., Ars., asar., aspar., aur-m., aur., bar-c., bar-i., bar-m., bell., bism., bor., bov., Bry., bufo., cadm., calad., Calc-s., Calc., camph., cann-s., canth., caps., carb-ac., carb-an., carb-s., carb-v., Caust., cedr., Cham., chel., Chin., chlor., cic., cina., coc-c., cocc., coff., colch., coloc., con., cop., croc., crot-c., crot-h., ...
O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino ...
Dubruille R, Murad A, Rosbash M, Emery P. A constant light-genetic screen identifies KISMET as a regulator of circadian photoresponses. PLoS Genet. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000787 ...
Live toads at Tesco? Like other Western firms, the store giant is having to adapt to local customs to cash in on Chinas economic boom
Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
In the late 1960s, LSD evangelist Art Kleps founded a psychedelic church called the Neo-American Church. The churchs newsletter was called "Divine Toad Sweat".[3] In 1984, Bufo toad evangelist Albert Most revealed his Church of the Toad of Light with his publication of the book Bufo Alvarius: Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert. The Sonoran Desert is in New Mexico. This small booklet details how to use the Bufo toad for ritual and pleasure, as well as how to catch the Bufo alvarius toad, extract or "milk" the glandular secretions, dry them, and "enjoy the smoked venom." Mosts book claims that 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is the active hallucinogen, not bufotenine. He is correct, as 5-MeO-DMT is the O-methylated version of bufotenine.[4] Again, it is important to mention that 5-MeO-DMT is present in only one of the more than 200 types of Bufo toads ...
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
Following freeze-fracture of the rat epididymis, a population of cells whose apical, but not baso-lateral, plasma membrane contains elongated intramembrane particles was found in the initial segment. From their size, shape and distribution, these cells are assumed to be the so-called apical cells of this segment. Apical cells also contain the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase which, together with the presence of rod-shaped particle on their membranes, permits their classification as mitochondria-rich cells, a specialized cell type found in some transporting epithelia. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that the apical cells may play a role in fluid and/or electrolyte transport in the initial segment of the epididymis. ...
View our Animals Amphibians Toads Nearctic Toads American Toad Gallery from Media Storehouse. Framed Prints, Posters, Canvas, Puzzles, Metal, Photo Gifts and Wall Art
It was the clear cellophane bags of toads that made us linger. As I stared at the toads, one of them suddenly moved. Holy moly. All the toads were alive.
A toad is an amphibian of the order Anura, a classification which also includes the frog. I always thought the difference between toads and frogs revolv...
... : Pulmonary respiration is breathing through the lungs, as human do. Lungs are the main respiratory organs of toad. The
See all of Nova Toads Xbox achievements, what theyve been playing, and their upcoming gaming sessions on trueachievements.com
... : Amiloride inhibition of basolateral membrane depolarization in response to increased bath osmolality correlates with afferent neural activity and behavior ...
Have you ever heard of the Cane Toad? If you havent, youre probably not from Australia. Hawaii was the source population for this introduction, otherwise known as the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus). After its introduction to the land-down-under, it has reached plague proportions. Its not as bad in Hawaii, yet, youd be challenged not to find one of these toads on any night in the back of a Hawaiian valley. The toads are unique in that they have toxic secretions that will ooze from glands on their neck if they feel threatened. Dogs can easily die after biting a marine toad. These same secretions, when scrapped from a frog, can be smoked or licked to receive a hallucination. This is not recommended however, as Hazen Audel has tried this, and subsequently come down with a tongue fungus that was not pretty.. ...
by T. Kawauchi. Introduction. Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are "Asiatic toad", "Japanese toad", " Japanese stream toad ", and "Marine toad. " The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands. Description & Taxonomy. The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias is"Hiki","Gamagaeru","Gama","Ibogaeru" and "Senjo". Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toads web doesnt develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the ...
Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents. Has antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium S.aureus and against the Gram-negative bacterium E.coli with a MIC of 1 uM and 8 uM respectively. No antifungal activity against C.albicans.
1. Fragments of skin taken from the back of the leopard frog were cultivated in a mixture of plasma and muscle extract of the same species.. 2. A few hours after explanation, processes of activity are seen to arise, which finally lead to the formation of a compact epithelial rim around the fragment of skin.. 3. These epithelial cells undergo gradual transformation into a spindle-shaped type of cell; in this form they resemble the spindle cells which have been described as connective tissue cells.. 4. The growth of a rim of tissue around the explanted fragments of skin may be ascribed principally to the activity of a basal layer of epithelial cells, the units of which first advance into the medium as compact membranes by means of the so called epithelial movement, but which later become separated from the compact membrane, and having assume a spindle form, spread according to the manner of connective tissue cells.. 5. In contradistinction to this basal layer, the cells of an upper and middle ...
Background: Pregnancy is a condition that favors oxidative stress mostly because of the mitochondria-rich placenta. Transitional metals, especially Iron, which is particularly abundant in the placenta, are important in the production of free radicals. Also studies showed that free radicals has a role in GDM. This study was performed to compare Iron ...
Ohios 15 species of frogs and toads at a glance on TrekOhio | An article entitled, Ohios Frog and Toad Species, states that there are 15 species in our…
... : The membrane of buccal cavity and pharynx of toad is very thin and there are innumerable capillaries. When air
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). AU - Metts, Brian S.. AU - Buhlmann, Kurt A.. AU - Scott, David E.. AU - Tuberville, Tracey D.. AU - Hopkins, William A.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced ...
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Abstract Aim, To examine patterns in anuran species richness along an elevation gradient and identify factors that govern anuran species richness on a tropical elevational gradient. Location, Sampling for anurans was carried out in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) in the southern Western Ghats, India. Methods, Night-time sampling for anuran species richness was carried out from 20 November 2004 to 20 April 2005, during the north-east monsoon and dry seasons, using transects (50 2 m) and visual encounter surveys along the streams. The entire gradient was classified into thirteen 100-m elevation zones. Sampling at the alpha (single drainage basin) level was carried out in the Chinnapul River drainage basin (40,1260 m a.s.l.) and at the gamma (landscape) level in four drainage basins. Additionally, published records were used to arrive at an empirical species richness (S) for the entire landscape. Mid-Domain Null software was used to test for the possible influence of geometric constraints ...
A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was used to separate membrane fractions from a homogenate of maize root tips. Endoplasmic reticulum-, Golgi apparatus-, plasma membrane- and mitochondria-rich fractions were identified by their enzymic characteristics and by their appearance under the electron microscope. Maize roots were incubated in vivo with D-[U-14C]glucose, [Me-14C]choline chloride and diazotized [U-3H]sulphanilic acid. The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity into the various membrane fractions was investigated. Analyses of the polypeptide chains of the membrane fractions by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the mitochondria-rich fraction had a different pattern of polypeptides from that of the other membrane fractions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis of endomembrane flow and differentiation. ...
Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
Addresses: Merila J, Uppsala Univ, Evolut Biol Ctr, Dept Populat Biol, Norbyvagen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden. Uppsala Univ, Evolut Biol Ctr, Dept Populat Biol, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden. Univ Helsinki, Dept Ecol & Systemat, Div Populat Biol, Integrat EcAvailable from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-14 ...
... - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. The Toad of Dawn is the dramatic story of how Dr. Octavio Rettig Hinojosa - a Mexican doctor with a crack cocaine addiction - came to heal himself by employing an ancient
We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of Bufo arabicus (Duttaphrynus arabicus)from the Arabian Peninsula in Saudi Arabia, according to mitochondrial DNA (D-Loop). Samples were
Current or recent enteroviral infections show an association with type 1 diabetes. However, evidence for this has mainly been generated using a particular mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 5-D8/1) which binds the viral capsid protein VP1. Difficulty in confirming these findings using other independent methods has led to the concern that this might be artefactual. To address this, we examined the potential cross-reactivity of clone 5-D8/1 with normal islet proteins. Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to identify human islet proteins bound by the clone 5-D8/1. We found a distinct reactivity with two mitochondrial proteins, creatine kinase B-type and ATP synthase beta subunit. Immunohistochemistry using the clone 5-D8/1 revealed a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern in mitochondria-rich cells, ie hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, skeletal muscle cells, and the neoplastic salivary gland oncocytoma cells, whereas ...
Bufo Marinus is a large Cane Toad statue situated in the town centre of Sarina. He is fondly known as Buffy and is a tourist attraction.
mutation in these p53+ epithelial cells from the kidney transplant. These findings provide evidence for a donor epithelial cell contribution to the malignant skin epithelium in the recipient in the setting of allogeneic kidney transplantation. This finding has theoretical implications for cancer initiation and progression and clinical implications in the context of prolonged immunosuppression and longer survival of kidney transplant patients. ...
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Toad House with Snail11-1/2 Wide x 9-1/2 Deep x 7-1/2 Tall An Aluminum Hut for the Toads (and Snails!)Priced and sold individually. Designed and manufactured by SPI Home.
the last Coot I saw with a toad was also on Waters Edge -- it frequently shook the amphibian violently then appeared to break a bit off to eat before dropping it back into the water and upending to pick it out of the water again -- after photographing this action and the gulls I wandered off around the pits unaware that there was a Black Redstart about 200m away! in the opposite direction ...
Toad style? Shouldnt that be something along the lines of being fat and covered with warts - and making any dumbass kid who licks you for fun vomit ...
Danny the Dog here with another tale of lust and depravity, oh wait, thats Andrews bailiwick. Andrew, for the few of you who dont know, is my human. My stories have to do with the finer things in life. Such as rolling on the grass, sniffing where another dog has peed and most important of…
Promotion of muscle regeneration in the toad (Bufo viridis) gastrocnemius muscle by low-energy laser irradiation., Low-Dose D-Penicillamine Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis., Histomorphological and Angiogenic Analyzes of Skin Epithelium After Low Laser Irradiation in Hairless Mice., The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur., Reconstitution of the external granular layer of the cerebellar cortex in infant rats after low-level X-irradiation., Preservation of seminiferous epithelium and fertility in male rats on vitamin E-low rations supplemented by ╬▒-tocopherol., The fine structure of the mouse adrenal cortex and the ultrastructural changes in the zona glomerulosa with low and high sodium diets., Low molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitors of human articular cartilage. Isolation Characterization and Biosynthesis, Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 mediates leukocyte infiltration and articular cartilage destruction in rat zymosan
I dont suppose that there is anyone who reads this issue of the Naturalist who doesnt know what a frog or a toad looks like, but popular literature, childrens books, cartoons, and other characterizations depict "frogs" as fitting the general description of members of the genus Rana, and "toads" the genus, Bufo. But there are many other frogs and toads in the world having physical appearances which are at variance with both of these general types - and none of the frogs turn into princes and none of the toads "give warts." The objective of this issue of the Naturalist is to give a hasty overview of the Kansas frogs and toads, their habits, habitats, and distribution; and to describe the 20 forms that occur in the state in such a way that, hopefully, most can be identified. For those seeking more information or better guides, a short list of pertinent publications is given at the end of this issue.. Frogs and toads are members of the classification of vertebrate animals - Amphibia - which also ...
Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested.Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis.Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual.
Madagascar isnt called the Eighth Continent for nothing. Biologists are always turning up interesting and hitherto unknown species of plants and animals from its rainforests, and certain kinds of creatures-lemurs come to mind-are found only there.. The New York Times reports that a paleontologist at Stony Brook University, David Krause, has turned up fossil remains of a frog that weighed at least 10 pounds and was big enough to eat lizards, small mammals, and even dinosaur hatchlings. The creature bears the unfortunate but inventive name Beelzebufo ampinga, or "armored devil toad"-unfortunate because it was only doing its job in the food chain 65 million years ago.. According to the evidence, Beelzebufo lived at a time when Madagascar had a semiarid climate. Ill think of it when the occasional rains out where I live bring the giant Colorado River toads from out of their burrows. I say giant, but Bufo alvarius, the largest native toad in North America, weighs in at a tenth the mass of ...
Check Rana Tigrina: Indian Bull Frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, India, Biology, Frogs, Daudin, Zoology, Amphibia, Anatomy, Thái Lan, Books, Binomial, Bufo
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
Taxonomy of the frogs of the genus Mannophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae) by Enrique La Marca; 1 edition; First published in 1994; Subjects: Mannophryne
This short video gives excellent real life footage of the spawn development of the Common Frog. Undoubtedly Britains most well-known amphibian, the common frog (Rana temporaria) is often found in garden ponds. They are typically brown or greyish in colour, but some individuals may be yellow or reddish. Students will enjoy the close up shots of the different stages of spawn development. This is a great resource to help build background knowledge and to help make real world connect ...
The discovery of a huge toad set this young naturalist on a path to investigate these amphibians and their life cycle. See what he learned about the Eastern American toad.
What is it with small dogs and toads? We had a plague of tiny 2 inch toads in our garden years ago and our beloved but now deceased miniature Schnauzer used to catch them ever so gently and carry them around for a while and then release them uninjured but, I imagine, badly traumatized. Your little poodle is adorable and very photogenix! ...
Hello again everyone. I would really appreciate some help. The thing is, my garden is full of slugs and snails. Oh, and aphids too. I just read last night that if I introduce frogs and toads into my garden, it will help to get rid of these pesky pests. But I dont know how to lure a toad/frog into my garden. Or should I buy them? If so from where? A normal pet shop? ...
Remember, a tip is not the whole iceberg! Use these tips as part of a totality of symptoms. Let them inspire further research. Using specifics ("take this for that") in isolation may prove disappointing and can lead to suppression.. ??Stramonium. In eczematous eruption after fright, studyStramonium - Dr. J. H. Clarke. ??Lobelia. In deafness due to suppressed discharges, study Lobelia inflata - Dr. K.N Mathur. ??Aesculus Hippocastanum. In hemorrhoids, blind or bleeding, where bleeding gives relief. Aching in lumbar area, stiffness of back, almost impossible to walk.Explore Aesculus hip. - Dr. J. H. Clarke. ??Arsenicum Iodatum. In cases of weekend heart when associated with chronic lung conditions, explore Arsenicumiodatum. - J. H. Clarke. ??Bufo. When epileptic attacks occur at night during sleep, investigate Bufo. - Dr. Lippe. ??Condurango. In cancer of lip with painful cracks in the corners of the mouth, explore Condurango. - Dr. Burnett. ??Lactic Acid. When there is concomitance of rheumatic ...
2005). At concentrations that have little effect on cell viability, it has been shown to inhibit recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity. Research on anti-fungal and anti-parasitic effects of toad skin toxins is still under way. Exhibition of microbicidal effect of the protein could be a result of its ability to form channels or pores within the microbial membrane causing permeation and lysis of the cell. While mechanisms by which bufadienolides exert their bactericidal effect are still debatable the effect of antimicrobial peptides present in these secretions seems to be understood. Since these peptides are generally cationic, they have been proposed to mostly act by disrupting and permeabilizing the target cell membrane (Shai 2002) which thereby prevents the target organism from developing resistance to this defense mechanism, implying a potential therapeutic use of these peptides (Jacob and Zasloff 1994). Gene families coding for such antimicrobial peptides show gene diversification ...
True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]. True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Incilius alvarius,[2] have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin. Male toads possess a Bidders organ. Under the right conditions, the organ ...
The main finding of the current study is that effector CD8+ T cells in skin epithelium approach clusters of infected cells by subtle chemotaxis. This directed migration can be described as a small preference for movements toward the microlesion in an otherwise highly irregular trajectory, and in fact the T cells move away from the sites of infection almost as often as they move toward it.. The observed CXCR3-mediated attraction of T cells by clusters of infected cells implies the existence of a chemoattractant gradient, and the finding that the strength of T cell attraction correlates with lesion size is also consistent with this notion. If T cells are guided to sites of infection by a gradient, why is their migration pattern so erratic? One explanation is that T cell migration has to occur through a bed of tightly linked keratinocytes, thereby severely limiting the number of potential trajectories. This, however, does not seem to explain why T cells also frequently move away from the site of ...
There was a small problem with this: Dr. Pfennig was in North Carolina, and all of the toads were at a field station in Arizona! Plane tickets are expensive, so she sent the instructions for the experiment to researchers who already worked there. Here there was another problem; none of them spoke English. Luckily, Dr. Pfennig had a graduate student in the lab with a basic understanding of Spanish. He translated the instructions, and the experiment began. When the tapes that had recorded the results were mailed back to NC, there was a problem with the results. According to the tapes, the Plains toads greatly preferred the New Mexico toads over their own species. Assuming there had to have been a mistake with the translation of the instructions, Dr. Pfennig threw out the tapes and gave up on the experiment. Years later, she had some free time in the lab and decided to pick up the experiment again. Unexpectedly, she found the same results as those that had been recorded at the field station years ...
Sartorius™ Cubis™ Series MSE225P Model Semi-micro Analytical Balance Capacity: 60/120/220g Sartorius™ Cubis™ Series MSE225P Model...
Thanks to the Switch and (3DS) Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker was given a new lease on life. The 2014 Wii U puzzler made some waves several years ago, but a modern update and some paid DLC is shooting it to the forefront in a way the origin...
Toad Lady was slightly more efficient today, but she did call my name and then stand right in the middle of the doorway while having a conversation with the other person in the waiting room about how wearing ten-year-old shoes is perfectly fine as long as they were resoled as needed and the stitching was very high quality. The other person then took off her ugly perforated pink sandal so they could inspect the stitching together. It was decided that the shoe, being German-made, was a good candidate for the ten-year-plan. Yay! Congratulations on your ugly, worn-out shoe, lady ...
... a Brown Ale beer by Trader Joelj (Steinhaus Brewing / JosephsBrau), a brewery in Monrovia, California
Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Does the p53 up-regulated Gadd45 protein have a role in excision repair?
The sympathetic trunk commences at the Gasserian ganglion, is connected with the vagal ganglion, and passes out with the vagus through a foramen in the exoccipital. A ramus communicans connects it wit...
Who is this gorgeous toad in the picture you ask? Why thats Stumpy, and Im here to tell you her story. Stumpy is a Houston toad survivor, which is an amazing accomplishment as there are so few left. It is because of this that I decided she needed her story told.. Stumpys ancestors hail from a pond in Bastrop state park, and are uniquely grouped together as "strand 4". Stumpy was born at the Houston Zoo on March 30, 2009 making her 4 years old. Originally, Stumpy was going to be part of assisted reproduction program, which would aim to produce tadpoles from viable female and male toads. But an infection would soon halt any future reproduction efforts on Stumpys part.. On November 6, 2012 Stumpy was taken to the zoos veterinary clinic. She was showing signs of swelling in her front right digits, which is a tell tale sign of a mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium is a genus of bacteria, which is notoriously hard to treat. It usually proves fatal for the toads. Luckily for Stumpy, the ...
For many years we lived in Toad Hall, an old American Gothic Foursquare house named for the mansion in Wind in the Willows although ours wasnt really a mansion, the kids just thought it was. Now we live in a different home - one more suited to aging with dignity - yes, well, we can hope - The House Between. "Between" because we are living that stage of life between now and what is to come. Sound a little macabre? Its not. We needed move to a space with main floor accessibility for older people who may not always be able to climb stairs to sleep and eliminate. We love this home in a quiet neighborhood with offices overooking the wooded ravine behind where we feed birds and watch coyotes play leap frog. We love knowing, too, that this is not our final place - there is more healing and goodness in the next life. Ive kept the name of my blog toadsdrinkcoffee because I dont know how to migrate to a new one. The name is now even more obscure, but it had to do with living in Toad Hall and my ...
Eventbrite - OG Art - Local Paint Events! presents Hidden Gem OG Art Painting @Toad N Turtle AIRDRIE - Monday, 9 July 2018 at Toad n Turtle Pubhouse & Grill, Airdrie, AB. Find event and ticket information.
The back-color of the Natterjack toad is a brown to olive-green pattern on a light background. The typical toad warts have a reddish to red-brown color. However, the unique and most significant feature of B. calamita is the yellow (or white) stripe, which runs from the forehead to the base of the tail. Unlike other toads or frogs, the skin on the back is very dry and not mucous. The belly has a white color with some darker spots. Some male toads also have a dark-violet spot on their throat. ...
Browse and Shop Toad Lily Online - Perennials from Garden Crossings - We are a family owned small business specializing in high quality, locally grown garden plants here in West Michigan.
... - POTTERY, CERAMICS, POLYMER CLAY - One of my recent clay projects is a toadhouse. Im posting it even tho I didnt quite finish it---I intended to enhance the colors on
WATCH: The Bombay night frog has a unique mating behavior, and its been captured on camera for the first time. Video footage courtesy SD Biju.
Information portal for reptile and amphibian hobbyists offering classifieds, forums, photo galleries, events, business listings and much more for various species
p. As woman with no formal training in combat, Zia Faydigs prominent position as the right hand and most trusted advisor of Callum Rivers, a high ranking offic
A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Bufo *Llorente, Gustavo: Els vertebrats de les zones humides dels ... Bufo és un gènere d'amfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies. ... No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d'Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo. *Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, i D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: ...
Bufo tuberosus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
... , Bufo quercicus. USGS, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Checklist of Amphibian Species and Identification ... Bufo quercicus. Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries. 2004. Retrieved on 20 October 2005. Bowler, J. K., 1975. ... 2004). The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution ...
The Rio Perene Toad (Bufo iserni) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Peru. Its natural habitats are ... Bufo iserni. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo perreti. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 21 July ...
Europäsche Fauna (1840). Bufo spp. from "Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen Der Reptilien" Greek tortoise from "Naturgeschichte ...
"Bufo rangeri". 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ... Poynton raised Bufo rangeri of Hewitt, 1935 to full species status, distinguishing it from co-occurring related forms. More ... as subspecies of the widespread African Toad Bufo regularis (a species which is now considered absent from Southern Africa, ...
"Bufo valliceps Gulf Coast Toad". Herps of Texas. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2015-08-21. ... "Bufo valliceps". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Conant, Roger; Joseph T. Collins (1998). A ...
Bufo alvarius". Journal of Morphology. 148 (2): 137-60. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051480202. PMID 1254079. Hutchinson DA, Savitzky AH ( ... May 2004). "Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo)". Journal of Morphology. 260 (2): 247 ...
African Bufo. In: Blair, W.F. (ed.), Evolution in the genus Bufo, pp. 119-170. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas Inger, ... Robert F.; Menzies, J. I. (25 Oct 1961). "A new species of toad (Bufo) from Sierra Leone" (PDF). Fieldiana Zoology. 39: 589-594 ...
Originally placed in the genus Bufo but was placed in the African genus Amietophrynus for the former 20-chromosome "Bufo" in ... "Bufo mauritanicus". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2016-11-13. Christopher Lever (2003). Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians ...
"Bufo asper". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 19 March 2006. Frogs of the Malay Peninsula: Bufo asper. ...
STÖCK M., R. GÜNTHER AND W. BÖHME (2001). Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian Bufo viridis group: Current status ... Stöck, M., Papenfuss, T. & Khan, M.S. (2004). Bufo pseudoraddei. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 ... Bufo viridis complex) in Asia including new data from Iran and Pakistan. Asiatic Herp. Res. (Berkeley) 9: 77-100. ... Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41:663-689. ...
"Bufo bufo: Common toad". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2012-05-04. Fairchild, G. J. (2003). "Common Toad - Bufo bufo". Reptiles and ... The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an ... The remaining European lineage split into Bufo bufo and Bufo verrucosissimus less than three million years ago during the ... the Austrian naturalist Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti placed the common toad in the genus Bufo, naming it Bufo bufo. The toads in ...
bufo (Lindl.) Govaerts 1996: Sickle-shaped Leaf Bulbophyllum Bulbophyllum falcatum var. falcatum Bulbophyllum falcatum var. ...
The Ailao toad (Bufo ailaoanus) is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to China. Its natural habitats are ... Datong, Y.; Shunqing, L. (2004). "Bufo ailaoanus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54566A11152659. doi: ...
The Iranian earless toad, Iranian toad, or Pakistan toad (Bufo surdus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is ... Bufo surdus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. Toads of Pakistan. ...
The Japanese common toad or Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Japan ... "Bufo japonicus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54673A11184598. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS. ...
Bufo hypomelas ? - Sapo Mamboré Dendrobates lehmanni - Red-banded poison frog or Oophaga lehmanni On the western slope, between ...
... , formerly Bufo ceratophrys, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is sometimes known as the ... Bufo ceratophrys. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
In 2006, members of the Bufo margaritifera complex were recognized as the new genus Rhinella, leading to the current name. The ... The species was first described under the name Bufo proboscideus by Johann Baptist von Spix in 1824. Spix collected the ... Chaparro, J. C.; Pramuk, J. B.; Gluesenkamp, A. G.; Frost, D. R. (2007). "Secondary homonymy of Bufo proboscideus Spix, 1824, ... Menin, M. (2005). "Bufo proboscideus. Predation". Herpetological Review. 36 (3): 299. ...
The Japanese stream toad or Honshū Toad (Bufo torrenticola) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to ... Bufo torrenticola. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo blanfordii. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo oblongus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo verrucosissimus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007. Media related to Bufo ... The Caucasian toad (Bufo verrucosissimus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Azerbaijan, Georgia, ...
... s are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete ...
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the toad's behavioral responses, Ewert performed a series of recording and stimulation experiments. First and foremost, the results allowed him to understand the way the visual system is constructed and connected to the central nervous system. Secondly, he discovered areas of the brain that were responsible for differential analysis of stimuli. First, the retina is connected to the optic tectum by at least three types of ganglion cells, each with an excitatory receptive field and a surrounding inhibitory receptive field, but they differ in the diameter of their central excitatory receptive fields. Diameters in Class II (R2) ganglion cells are approximately four degrees visual angle. Those in Class III (R3) cells are about eight degrees and Class IV (R4) ganglion cells range from twelve to fifteen degrees. As stimuli move across the toad's visual field, information is sent to the optic tectum in the toad's midbrain. The optic tectum exists as an ...
... is a species of Curculionidae family, Brachycerinae subfamily. Brachycerus bufo reaches a length of about 20 millimetres (0.79 in). The body is black, with yellowish spots. The abdomen is rounded. Zipcodezoo Catalogue of ...
El gènere Bufo és molt cosmopolita, ja que se'l pot trobar a tot el planeta sota condicions molt adverses. No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d'Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. ...
... s are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]. True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Incilius alvarius,[2] have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin. Male toads possess a Bidder's ...
... s are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete ...
Testua Creative Commons Aitortu-PartekatuBerdin 3.0 lizentziari jarraituz erabil daiteke; baliteke beste klausularen batzuk ere aplikatu behar izatea. Xehetasunen berri izateko, ikus erabilera-baldintzak ...
... s are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]. True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad Incilius alvarius,[2] have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin. Male toads possess a Bidder's ...
... s are active from January to October, depending on latitude and elevation, and hibernate over the winter.[12] Boreal toads in one Colorado population used natural chambers near a small stream bed. The high water table, constantly flowing stream, and deep winter snow served to maintain the air temperature within the hibernaculum at a point slightly above freezing. Emergence from hibernation followed a few days of warm temperatures that freed the entrance and increased temperatures within the chamber to about 39.2 °F (4.0 °C).[10][13] At low elevations western toads are active at night; at high elevations and in the northern parts of their range they are diurnal.[12] Body temperature of western toads is closely correlated with the substrate temperature. Basking and conduction from the substrate are primary means of increasing body temperature and cooling is achieved by evaporative cooling and conduction of heat to a cooler medium. Diurnal and nocturnal activity are often related to ...
Hyla andersonii, only about 1-3 inches (25-76 mm) long, is one of the smaller species of tree frogs. Members of the species are predominantly green, with wide, dark stripes. They often have spotted, orange-gold markings on the hidden surfaces of their legs and tend to have large toe pads. The key to distinguishing the Pine Barrens tree frog from the similar-appearing American green tree frog (H. cinerea) is the white-bordered lavender stripe on each side of the body in the Pine Barrens tree frog. H. cinerea has only a white stripe in this location. ...
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the toad's behavioral responses, Ewert performed a series of recording and stimulation experiments. First and foremost, the results allowed him to understand the way the visual system is constructed and connected to the central nervous system. Secondly, he discovered areas of the brain that were responsible for differential analysis of stimuli. First, the retina is connected to the optic tectum by at least three types of ganglion cells, each with an excitatory receptive field and a surrounding inhibitory receptive field, but they differ in the diameter of their central excitatory receptive fields. Diameters in Class II (R2) ganglion cells are approximately four degrees visual angle. Those in Class III (R3) cells are about eight degrees and Class IV (R4) ganglion cells range from twelve to fifteen degrees. As stimuli move across the toad's visual field, information is sent to the optic tectum in the toad's midbrain. The optic tectum exists as an ...
The Wyoming toad, common until their sharp decrease in population in the 1970s, was officially listed as endangered in January 1984. Their only known habitat was located within the Laramie Basin, which was within 30 miles (48 km) of Laramie, Wyoming. The Wyoming toad was most often found along the shores of Mortenson Lake, located southwest of Laramie, Wyoming. This lake, an alpine lake situated at 7,256 feet (2,212 m) above sea level, had maintained a healthy and reproductive population of Wyoming toads. However, recent research shows that the toad has become less procreative, possibly due to a red leg bacteria that was discovered in 1990.[9]. The Wyoming Toad Recovery Group, formed in 1987, was established to help initiate a plan for recovery efforts and extended research. The Group has been focusing primarily on monitoring and protecting the Laramie population and searching for additional habitats or other populations. They also maintain efforts in maintaining a healthy habitat for the ...
El gènere Bufo és molt cosmopolita, ja que se'l pot trobar a tot el planeta sota condicions molt adverses. No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d'Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. ...
Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bufo_marinus&oldid=231150176" ...
Containing group: Bufo. Introduction. The phylogeny of this group of Bufo species was taken from Pauly et al. (2004). Note that ... Nearctic Bufo Clade clade Anaxyrus. David Cannatella Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Nearctic Bufo Clade. clade Anaxyrus. Authored by David Cannatella. The TEXT of this page is licensed under ... The history of a Nearctic colonization: molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58(11 ...
2006) removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo bufo group ... Two species are found in the British Isles: the common toad (Bufo bufo), and the natterjack toad, (Bufo calamita). The former ... Bufo is a large genus of about 150 species of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae. Bufo is a Latin word for toad. True ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo Blair (ed.), 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo. Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept ...
A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Bufo *Llorente, Gustavo: Els vertebrats de les zones humides dels ... Bufo és un gènere damfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies. ... No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, dAustràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus, del qual se sospita que hi va ser ... amphibiaweb.org - Bufo. *Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, i D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: ...
Bufo stuarti is a species of toad found in Southeast Asia. Known only from northern Myanmar and northeastern India.. The type ...
Bufo linquensis is a prehistoric species of toad that lived in the Miocene of China. It is known from Shanwang, Shandong ... Bufo linquensis Yang 1977". Paleobiology Database. Fossilworks. Retrieved 6 May 2016. ...
Apomempsis bufo is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Chevrolat in 1855. It is known from ... BioLib.cz - Apomempsis bufo. Retrieved on 8 September 2014.. ...
Satipoella bufo is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Thomson in 1868. Bezark, Larry G. A ...
Bufo ocellatus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Brazil. Its natural habitats are moist savanna, ...
Bufo stomaticus (commonly known as the Indian marbled toad, Assam toad, Indus Valley toad, or marbled toad) is a species of ... Khan, MS (2002) Riparian Tadpoles of Punjab, Pakistan: Bufo stomaticus Lütkin, 1862. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 37(12):216-219 ...
Bufo sternosignatus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Colombia and Venezuela. Its natural habitats ...
Bufo dapsilis is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural ...
It was previously considered to be a subspecies of the Caucasian toad (Bufo verrucosissimus). Bufo eichwaldi is a large toad ... Bufo eichwaldi, commonly known as Eichwalds toad or the Talysh toad, is a species of true toad in the family Bufonidae. It was ... Bufo eichwaldi is believed to occur in south east Azerbaijan and northern Iran in the Talysh and Elburz Mountains. It also ... Nowhere is Bufo eichwaldi abundant or easily seen as it hides during the day, emerging after nightfall to forage for small ...
Bufo multiverrucosus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical or ...
The Gansu toad or Minshan toad (Bufo minshanicus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to China. Its ... Bufo minshanicus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo tihamicus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It can be found in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Its natural habitats ... Bufo tihamicus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo stanlaii is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Bolivia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or ...
Chionodes bufo is a moth in the Gelechiidae family. It is found in Mexico (Guerrero). The wingspan is 13-14 mm. The forewings ...
Bufo tuberculatus, commonly known as the Qinghai Lake toad or round-warted toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. ... It has been treated as a synonym of Bufo tibetanus but is now considered a valid species. Its natural habitats are pools, ... Fei Liang; Ye Changyuan (2004). "Bufo tuberculatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54782A11189817. ... Also transliterated as "Zarevsky" Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Bufo tuberculatus Zarevskij, 1926". Amphibian Species of the World ...
Tutufa bufo (Röding, 1798). WoRMS (2010). Tutufa (Tutufa) bufo (Röding, 1798). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010 ... Tutufa bufo, common name the red-mouth frog shell, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Bursidae ... Cossignani (2009). Malacologia Mostra Mondiale 63 (2) : 27 Gastropods.com: Tutufa (Tutufa) bufo; accessed: 27 June 2011. ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 100 m. Marsupina bufo (Bruguière, 1792). WoRMS (2010). Marsupina bufo ... Marsupina bufo, common name the chestnut frog shell, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ... Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas Gastropods.com : Bufonaria (Marsupina) bufo. ...
LOmino Bufo is an Italian comic strip created by Alfredo Castelli. The comics started in 1972 and it was first published by ... Lomino bufo. 33 anni per niente!. Coniglio Editore, 2006. Davide Barzi. Le regine del terrore. BD, 2007. ...
The olive toad, Bufo olivaceus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Iran, Pakistan, and possibly ... Bufo olivaceus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo pentoni is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Djibouti, Eritrea, Gambia, ... Bufo pentoni. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 July 2007.. ...
Bufo bankorensis is a large toad that can reach 15 cm (5.9 in), even 20 cm (7.9 in) in snout-vent length. Females are larger ... While Bufo bankorensis is a very common species, habitat loss remains a threat to it. It is also collected for food and ... Bufo bankorensis are found in a range of habitats at elevations up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft): broadleaf forests, cultivated fields ... Bufo bankorensis (vernacular names: Central Formosa toad, Bankor toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is ...
  • No obstant això, és absent de les regions polars, d' Austràlia -llevat de Bufo marinus , del qual se sospita que hi va ser introduït-, de Nova Guinea i illes adjacents. (wikipedia.org)
  • October Pests - Bufo Marinus Frogs? (constantcontact.com)
  • The Giant Bufo Marinus Toad is the largest of the frogs and toads found in Florida. (constantcontact.com)
  • Known scientifically as Bufo Marinus, the Cane Toad, Giant Toad, or Marine Toad is native to an area extending from Mexico and Central America to the Amazon Basin and was introduced to Florida in 1966 in an attempt to control the population of a type of beetle that was ravaging the sugar cane crops. (constantcontact.com)
  • Royalty free photos: Aga Toad or Cane Toad (Bufo marinus, Rhinella marina) Author: Florian KoppDate: 2009-05-17 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? (cambridge.org)
  • The scientific name of the toad is Bufo marinus, which somehow seems to fit. (tbo.com)
  • Cane toads ( Bufo marinus ) are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia, carrying with them a nematode lungworm ( Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala ) congeneric with those found in Australian frogs. (bioone.org)
  • Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH changes and cholinergic agents on the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Role for the skeletal muscle action potential in non-Hebbian long-term depression at the amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular junction. (edu.au)
  • Ujvari, Beata and Madsen, Thomas 2009, Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native can toads (bufo marinus) , Herpetological conservation and biology , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 248-251. (edu.au)
  • Proponents of biological control introduced the South American Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) into the sugar cane fields of Queensland in 1935. (edu.au)
  • Though controversial (with many traditional herpetologists still using Bufo marinus) the binomial Rhinella marina is gaining in acceptance with such bodies as the IUCN, Encyclopaedia of Life, Amphibian Species of the World and increasing numbers of scientific publications adopting its usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The giant Cane toad [shown here, from wikipedia], for example, is a thoroughly different beast from the tiny Lugh toad (conventionally B. lughensis ) of eastern Africa (SVL less than 33 mm): they look about as different from one another as either does from any of the traditionally recognised non- Bufo bufonid genera. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, acquire information about the changes in the molecular content of Bufo regularis during metamorphosis has been estimated. (scirp.org)
  • Sakr, S.A. and Shalaby, S.Y. (2012) Effect of Gibberellin-A3 on Metamorphosis in the Egyptian Toad Bufo regularis. (scirp.org)
  • Sakr, S.A., Badawy, G.M. and El-Borm, H.T. (2014) Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis. (scirp.org)
  • We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of Bufo arabicus (Duttaphrynus arabicus)from the Arabian Peninsula in Saudi Arabia, according to mitochondrial DNA (D-Loop). (journalijar.com)
  • Exemplar de Bufo boreas . (wikipedia.org)
  • To address threats to the persistence of boreal toads (Bufo boreas) in Glacier National Park, USA, I genotyped 551 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci and used spatially independent (STRUCTURE) and spatially explicit (GENELAND) Bayesian methods to describe population genetic structure and identify barriers to gene flow. (umt.edu)
  • It is very similar to the Common Toad ( Bufo bufo ), but differs from it mainly by having spines on the dorsal skin tubercles and a black band which extends from the outer surface of the parotoid onto the body flank. (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Fine Art Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), female with egg string, Oberaegeri, Switzerland, Europe Author: Rolf NussbaumerDate: 2009-06-19 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
  • Photo cd: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo) Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2009-08-15 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Photography: Common Toad (Bufo bufo), juvenile Author: Herbert KehrerDate: 2005-08-28 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Digital Photography: Young Common Toad (Bufo bufo), Waldviertel region, Lower Austria, Austria, Europe Author: Christian HandlDate: 2009-08-13 Maximum ava. (tradebit.com)
  • Thalamus, pretectum, tectum: Retinal topography and physiological interactions in the toad Bufo bufo (L. (springer.com)
  • Purification and characterization of the major glutathione transferase from adult toad (Bufo bufo) liver. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Five forms of glutathione transferase (GST) were resolved from the cytosol of adult common toad (Bufo bufo) liver by GSH-affinity chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. (springer.com)
  • We studied the mechanisms of K + transport in cells from isolated and perfused collecting tubules and ducts from the mesonephric kidney of the toad Bufo bufo . (biologists.org)
  • The aim of our study was to characterize K + transport by the cells within these tubule segments of a terrestrial anuran, the common European toad Bufo bufo . (biologists.org)
  • He began by observing the natural prey catching behavior of the common European toad ( Bufo bufo ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European common toad (Bufo bufo) seems to have arisen more recently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bufo eichwaldi is believed to occur in south east Azerbaijan and northern Iran in the Talysh and Elburz Mountains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowhere is Bufo eichwaldi abundant or easily seen as it hides during the day, emerging after nightfall to forage for small invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nine to thirteen million years ago, Bufo eichwaldi, a recently described species from south Azerbaijan and Iran, split from the main lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • To extract, isolate and identify active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider, and to study their anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on human gastric cancer MGC803 cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Anti-proliferative effects of different concentrations of Bufo melanostictus Schneider extracts on gastric cancer MGC803 cells were detected by MTT, and their morphological changing effects on these cells were observed by microscopy. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Four compounds were isolated from the skin of Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The anti-proliferative effects of Bufo melanostictus Schneider extracts on gastric cancer MGC803 cells were enhanced with increasing concentration and action time. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider can induce apoptosis of gastric cancer MGC803 cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bufo melanostictus Schneider contains a variety of chemical constituents, which have been proven by modern pharmacological studies to have cardiotonic, hypertensive, analgesic and antitumor pharmacological activities [ 1 - 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • With the deepening of research, Bufo melanostictus Schneider extract has been found to exert anticancer effects by induction of tumor cell apoptosis and differentiation by inhibiting endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and other ways [ 5 - 8 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In this paper, spectral characteristics of major active constituents in Bufo melanostictus Schneider are studied in depth, and their inhibitory effects on human gastric cancer cells are explored by MTT assay and observation of morphological changes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bufo melanostictus Schneider was purchased from Anguo Market, which was identified as Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (alliedacademies.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Ulcerogenic effect of steroids in 'shay' operated toads Bufo melanostictus Schneider. (who.int)
  • Tutufa bufo, common name the red-mouth frog shell, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Bursidae, the frog shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tutufa bufo (Röding, 1798). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosaicism in somatic triploid specimens of the Bufo viridis complex in the Karakoram with examination of calls, morphology and taxonomic conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of the distribution of diploid, triploid and tetraploid green toads (Bufo viridis complex) in Asia including new data from Iran and Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006) removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo bufo group of earlier authors. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is so often the case with huge, traditionally recognised genera of this sort, Bufo of tradition ( Bufo sensu lato from hereon) encompasses a pretty substantial degree of morphological disparity, the extremes of which easily 'look distinct enough' to belong to different genera. (scienceblogs.com)
  • According to allozyme data, Bufo bufo from the Anatolian part of Turkey is closer to B. verrucosisimus , in comparison to B. bufo or B. spinosus (from Tunisia, for example). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. (nih.gov)
  • It is now accepted as Bufo spinosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now considered to be a synonym of Bufo spinosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further divisions occurred with Bufo spinosus splitting off about five million years ago when the Pyrenees were being uplifted, an event which isolated the populations in the Iberian Peninsula from those in the rest of Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T54732A97117736.en. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bufo stomaticus (commonly known as the Indian marbled toad, Assam toad, Indus Valley toad, or marbled toad) is a species of toad found in Asia from Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan to Nepal extending into Peninsular India from the plains to about 1800m. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bufo bankorensis is a large toad that can reach 15 cm (5.9 in), even 20 cm (7.9 in) in snout-vent length. (wikipedia.org)