A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.

Metabolic behaviour and cleavage capacity in the amphibian egg. (1/28)

During the winter season the full grown Bufo arenarum oocyte shows the metabolic behaviour characteristic of differentiated tissues of the same species. Due to seasonal variations, during the amplexus period, it acquires the metabolic behaviour of the segmenting egg. Short-time-induced ovulations (5-6 h) determine germinal vesicle breakdown immediately before the expulsion of the oocyte, without modifying the ovarian metabolism of the same. The incidence of the operative type of metabolism upon their capacity to cleave after insemination and needle pricking, has been studied in coelomic oocytes, which have attained nuclear maturation and have not experienced oviducal secretion effects. The results obtained indicate that the segmenting capacity of the egg is attained only when, through biochemical modifications, the oocyte acquires the metabolic behaviour characterizing embryonic cells. It is postulated that the metabolic changes observed in the oocyte constitue a fundamental aspect of cytoplasmic maturation.  (+info)

Vitelline envelope of Bufo arenarum: biochemical and biological characterization. (2/28)

Vitelline envelopes (VEs) of Bufo arenarum were isolated in order to study their composition and their role in fertilization. VEs are composed of four glycoproteins, with molecular masses of 120, 75, 41, and 38 kDa. To characterize its biological properties, we quantitatively determined sperm-VE binding and the induction of the acrosome reaction. Heterologous binding of B. arenarum sperm to Xenopus laevis VE components was observed with about one-third the efficiency of homologous binding. Equivalent binding of X. laevis sperm to the B. arenarum VE was observed. When B. arenarum sperm were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled VE, the labeled glycoproteins bound to the anterior end of the sperm head, showing a lateral distribution. Induction of the acrosome reaction was evaluated by incubating sperm in hypotonic saline media with VE glycoproteins. VEs induced the acrosome reaction in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The acrosome reaction was maximal after 10 min. The half-maximal effect was obtained at a glycoprotein concentration of 1 microg/ml. Specificity was determined using fertilization envelope glycoproteins, which failed to induce the acrosome reaction. The B. arenarum VE is biochemically similar to other egg envelopes. It also seems that its biological properties are similar to other species in regard to sperm binding and induction of the acrosome reaction. However, as far as we are aware, this is the first observation of the VE inducing the sperm acrosome reaction in amphibians. The relatively small differences observed in heterologous sperm-VE binding in X. laevis and B. arenarum are inconsistent with the current paradigm that species specificity in fertilization is regulated at the sperm-VE binding step.  (+info)

The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum. (3/28)

A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1) when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE), 2) after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE), and 3) after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE). The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability) of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP) shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.  (+info)

The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity. (4/28)

The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.  (+info)

Synergistic effects of copper and butylic ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (Esternon Ultra) on amphibian embryos. (5/28)

Cu2+ and butylic ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as Esternon Ultra (2,4-D) toxicity on Bufo arenarum embryos were evaluated by means of a short-term chronic toxicity test (AMPHITOX). The NOEC values for Cu and 2,4-D were 0.02 mg/L and 2 mg/L respectively. The toxicity profile curves for Cu and 2,4-D were reported. The interactions of the metal and the herbicide were evaluated by combined treatments with different concentrations of Cu and 2,4-D. Although in all cases, a synergistic effect between these chemicals was observed, the combination of concentrations exerting low level effects in isolated treatments resulted in more adverse embryonic survival. Considering that both products are extensively used in agroecosystems, this fact could be of concern for non target species like amphibians.  (+info)

Egg water from the amphibian Bufo arenarum induces capacitation-like changes in homologous spermatozoa. (6/28)

Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing capacity after residing in the female tract, where physiological changes named capacitation take place. In animals with external fertilization as amphibians, gamete interactions are first established between sperm and molecules of the egg jelly coat released into the medium. Since dejellied oocytes are not normally fertilized, the aim of this study was to determine if the jelly coat of the toad Bufo arenarum promotes a "capacitating" activity on homologous sperm. We found that sperm incubation in diffusible substances of the jelly coat (egg water) for 90-180 s is sufficient to render sperm transiently capable of fertilizing dejellied oocytes. The fertilizing state was correlated with an increase of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and a decrease of sperm cholesterol content. Inhibition of either the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation or cholesterol efflux affected the acquisition of fertilizing capacity. Phosphorylation and fertilization could be promoted with NaHCO(3) and also by addition of beta cyclodextrin. Moreover, sperm could gain the ability to fertilize dejellied oocytes in the presence of these compounds. These data indicate that sperm should undergo a series of molecular changes to gain fertilizing capacity; these changes are reminiscent of mammalian sperm capacitation and take place before the acrosome reaction.  (+info)

Acclimation to low level exposure of copper in Bufo arenarum embryos: linkage of effects to tissue residues. (7/28)

The acclimation possibilities to copper in Bufo arenarum embryos was evaluated by means of three different low level copper exposure conditions during 14 days. By the end of the acclimation period the copper content in control embryos was 1.04 +/- 0.09 microg g(-1) (wet weight) while in all the acclimated embryos a reduction of about 25% of copper was found. Thus copper content could be considered as a biomarker of low level exposure conditions. Batches of 10 embryos (by triplicate) from each acclimation condition were challenged with three different toxic concentrations of copper. As a general pattern, the acclimation protocol to copper exerted a transient beneficial effect on the survival of the Bufo arenarum embryos. The acclimation phenomenon could be related to the selection of pollution tolerant organisms within an adaptive process and therefore the persistence of information within an ecological system following a toxicological stressor.  (+info)

Inhibition of Bufo arenarum oocyte maturation induced by cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Role of low-density caveolae-like membranes. (8/28)

 (+info)

In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). Under anaerobic conditions a rapid accumulation of lactic acid gives evidence of an intense glycolytic activity, which is inhibited when the eggs are returned to oxygen (Pasteur effect) (Barbieri & Salomón, 1963). Furthermore, an increase in oxygen uptake during the first 2 h of recovery has been observed (payment of the oxygen debt) (Legname, 1966). Taking into account the low value of the respiratory quotient (r.q. = 0·5-0·7) during this period it can be assumed that most of the oxygen is not involved in the oxidation of lactate (Legname, 1966).. ...
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:[citation needed] Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo Gutturalis Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus ...
Amphibian Bufo Daylight Frog: 20 assigned downloads, like Natterjack Toads (Bufo calamita), pair before spawning from stock-photos
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Sarah Duckett had only been home from the hospital for a week with her second baby when she sensed something just wasnt quite right. She didnt feel like herself; something was off. Her heart was beating rapidly just from walking across a room. It was hard to get a breath in without coughing.. She remembered a handout her nurse had discussed with her-post-birth warning signs-could this really be happening to her? She never thought those warning symptoms her nurse discussed would happen to her. After all, hers had been a perfectly uneventful pregnancy and normal birth. She asked her mom to get the post-partum warning signs sheet from her stack of hospital discharge papers.. At first, her mom thought that she was just overly tired and perhaps a bit anxious since she was caring for 2 children, but then they read the handout together. As Sarah describes it, they read shortness of breath, 911 and said were going in.. Sarahs mom took her to the ER, where she received a blood pressure check, ...
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Plastic responses of embryos to developmental environments can shape phenotypes in ways that impact fitness. The mechanisms by which developmental conditions affect offspring phenotypes vary substantially among taxa and are poorly understood in most systems. In this study, we evaluate the effects of thermal and hydric conditions on patterns of egg water uptake, embryonic development and yolk metabolism in embryos of the lizard Anolis sagrei to gain insights into how these factors shape morphological variation in hatchlings. Our 3 × 2 experimental design (3 thermal and 2 hydric conditions) revealed that developmental temperature has strong effects on rates of development and yolk metabolism, but the impacts of moisture were minimal. Increased water uptake by eggs under relatively wet conditions resulted in larger hatchlings with less internalized residual yolk than hatchlings from dry-incubated eggs. However, the relatively small phenotypic differences among treatments may have small fitness ...
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To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
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May act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes, functionally participating in formation of caveolae or caveolae-like vesicles.
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Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
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To examine the role of primary amino acid sequence in the localization of proteins within the nucleus, we studied the nucleolar protein NO38 of amphibian oocytes. We synthesized NO38 transcripts in vitro, injected them into the oocyte cytoplasm, and followed the distribution of the translation products. The injected RNA contained a short sequence encoding an epitope derived from the human c-myc protein. We used an mAb against this epitope to detect translation products from injected RNAs by Western blots and by immunofluoresent staining of cytological preparations. When full-length transcripts of NO38 were injected into oocytes, the translation products accumulated efficiently in the germinal vesicle, and a major fraction was localized in the multiple nucleoli. To identify protein domains involved in this nucleolus-specific accumulation, we prepared a series of carboxy-terminal deletions of the cDNA. Oocytes injected with RNA encoding truncated forms of NO38 were examined for altered patterns of ...
Other articles where American toad is discussed: toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). The thick, dry, often warty…
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Doses of 6 mg/kg were curare-like in the dog; similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. Candicine (as ...
... is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid secreted by the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. It has effects similar to ... Experiments with [1,2-3H]cholesterol, [21-14C]coprostanol, and 5 beta-[21-14 °C]pregnanolone in the toad Bufo arenarum. ... such as the Bufo gargarizans or the Bufo melanostictus Suhneider. Arenobufagin is specifically secreted by the Rhinella ... arenarum, which is found in South America. The venom of these toad species contains about 1.75% of arenobufagin. The other ...
... synonym Bufo arenarum); Cinobufagin, from the Chusan Island toad (Bufo gargarizans); Gamabufagin, from the Japanese toad (Bufo ... synonym Bufo valliceps); Viridibufagin, from the European green toad (Bufo viridis) These bufagins, and especially cinobufagin ... Bufo marinus); Quercicobufagin, from the oak toad (Anaxyrus quercicus, synonym Bufo quercicus); Regularobufagin, from the ... synonym Bufo marinus, the cane toad). The toad produces this secretion when it is injured, scared or provoked. Bufagin ...
Ferrari, A. (2004). "Different susceptibility of two aquatic vertebrates (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Bufo arenarum) to azinphos ... Ferrari, A (2011). "Effects of azinphos methyl and carbaryl on Rhinella arenarum larvae esterases and antioxidant enzymes". ... Ambystoma gracile Toad Rhinella arenarum Rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss Comparison between the toad Rhinella arenarum and ...
Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Sclerophrys ... formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus Bufo regularis Bufo valliceps Bufo viridis Bufo ... Bufo gutturalis) Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina ( ... such as Bufo bufo gargarizans and Bufo melanostictus, is often ... They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and venom of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and ...
... bufo arenarum MeSH B01.150.900.090.180.210.108 - bufo bufo MeSH B01.150.900.090.180.210.580 - bufo marinus MeSH B01.150.900.090 ...
... although the initial 1948 discovery employed Bufo arenarum for the tests, it soon became clear that a variety of anuran species ... "Poisonous Bufo May Have Toad Hold On Temple Terrace". .tbo.com. 2007-11-02. Archived from the original on 2013-02-03. Retrieved ... "Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. Parrott, Marissa; Doody, Sean; Clulow, Simon (23 September 2019 ... In particular, it could be confused with the southern toad (Bufo terrestris), which can be distinguished by the presence of two ...
Bufo pisanoi ,' a Pliocene anuran from eastern Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (4): 767-773. doi:10.1080/ ... Rhinella arenarum is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is found in Argentina from the Chubut Province northward, ... Rhinella arenarum inhabits small ponds or bogs with stagnant water, in dry, temperate habitats, mostly in open areas. It is ... Kwet, A., Reichle, S., Silvano, D., Úbeda, C., Baldo, D. & di Tada, I. (2004). "Rhinella arenarum". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
The Rocky Mountain toad (Bufo woodhousii woodhousii) and Gulf Coast toad (Bufo valliceps) are able to discriminate between left ... Both the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) can learn to orient in an open ... Bufo marinus) learn to avoid electric shocks in a T-maze. Furthermore, American bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) learn to inhibit ... Rhinella arenarum): The role of distance to a goal". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 129 (3): 247-255. doi:10.1037/a0039461 ...
Dai, L. P.; Wang, Z. M.; Gao, H. M.; Jiang, X.; Ding, G. Z. (2007). "Determination of bufothionine in skin of Bufo bufo ... and Chaunus arenarum. In ancient times, cinobufacini, which is extracted from the skin and the parotid venom glands of toad of ... "Isolation and structure identification of chemical constituents from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans". Yao Xue Xue Bao = Acta ... the bufo genus was used to treat symptoms like swelling and pain. In the present time, cinobufacinin injections are used to ...
Bufo bufo gredosicola and Salamandra salamandra almanzoris. There are also several mammals such as the European otter and the ... The most populous municipalities in the list above are Arenas de San Pedro and Candeleda, both located in the southern slopes ... Arenas de San Pedro, Bohoyo, Candeleda, La Carrera, Cuevas del Valle, Gil García, Guisando, El Hornillo, Hoyos del Collado, ...
3.5 million years ago). It is closely related to the present day Argentine toad Rhinella arenarum and represents to date the ... Bufo pisanoi ,' a Pliocene anuran from eastern Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (4): 767-773. doi:10.1080/ ...
Pitbull made his film debut Epic with a voice role of the character "Bufo". He embarked on the North American/Australian Summer ... On June 12, 2014, Pitbull performed at the Arena de São Paulo as part of the 2014 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony. This ...
Arenas, Antonio, "Sierras de Alhama, Tejeda and Almijara Natural Park", Waste Magazine (in Spanish), retrieved 2019-08-15 CS1 ... Bufo spinosus), Spanish painted frog (Discoglossus jeanneae), Natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita), Mediterranean tree frog (* ... Decreto 2/2016, p. II.1. Arenas. Decreto 2/2016, p. 1. Sierras de Tejeda... Gestión Turismo. Parque natural ... Junta de ... Arenas del Rey, Canillas de Aceituno, Canillas de Albaida, Cómpeta, Frigiliana, Jayena, Nerja, Otívar, Salares and Sedella in ...
He made his debut at the São Paulo Arena Theater in 1980, in Augusto Boal's Teatro Jornal 1ª Edição. He worked with some of the ... Police 1997 Os Matadores 1998 Contos de Lygia 2001 Bufo & Spallanzani - Dr. Ribeiroles 2001 Mater Dei 2001 Sonhos Tropicais - ...
Bufo bufo) Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) Japanese common toad (Bufo japonicus) Bufo minshanicus Bufo pentoni Korean water ... Rhinella abei Rhinella achavali Rhinella acutirostris Rhinella arenarum Rhinella beebei Rhinella bergi Para toad (Rhinella ... toad (Bufo stejnegeri) Tibetan toad (Bufo tibetanus) Bufo tihamicus Japanese stream toad (Bufo torrenticola) Balearic green ... Ansonia malayana Bufo andrewsi Bufo bankorensis Common toad ( ...
Bufo bufo(common toad) Insects: Vanessa atalanta(Butterfly) Cicadidae(Cicada) Angitola Abbazia della Certosa e Museo della ... Arena, Badolato, Bivongi, Brognaturo, Cardinale, Davoli, Fabrizia, Gerocarne, Guardavalle, Maierato, Mongiana, Monterosso ...
Bufo viridis), long-legged wood frog (Rana macrocnemis), tree frog (Hyla savignyi), Syrian spadefoot (Pelobates syriacus). The ... as well as the arena of historical events. It was also the place where famous personalities of religious and secular life, such ...
He had some experience in bufo, but had no formal training in music. With remarkable natural talent, he composed numbers in his ... He wrote the criolla Mares y Arenas in 1911, the workers' anthem Redencion in 1917, the bolero Confesion, the guajira Junto al ...
"Bufo bufo: Common toad". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2012-05-04. Fairchild, G. J. (2003). "Common Toad - Bufo bufo". Reptiles and ... Landler, Lukas; Gollmann, Günter (2011). "Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult ... The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an ... The remaining European lineage split into Bufo bufo and Bufo verrucosissimus less than three million years ago during the ...
North American species were thus products of a larger and more competitive arena, where evolution would have proceeded more ... Bufo) Hylid frogs Leptodactylid frogs - as far north as Texas Microhylid frogs Birds Parrots (Neotropical parrots: thick-billed ... Bufo)". Evolution. 58 (11): 2517-2535. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00881.x. PMID 15612295. S2CID 10281132. Faivovich, J.; ...
... type locality for species BufoBufo pliocompactilis †Bufo woodhousei Buteo †Buteo grangeri - type locality for species ... Merychyus arenarum †Merychyus minimus †Merychyus novomexicanus †Merycochoerus †Merycochoerus chelydra †Merycochoerus matthewi ...
Bufo cognatus †Bufo hibbardi †Bufo holmani - type locality for species †Bufo kuhrei - type locality for species †Bufo ... Merychyus arenarum †Merychyus crabilli - type locality for species †Merychyus elegans †Merychyus minimus - type locality for ... pliocompactilis †Bufo repentinus †Bufo rexroadensis †Bufo spongifrons - or unidentified comparable form †Bufo valentinensis - ...
Colombia Bertrana arena Levi, 1989 - Costa Rica Bertrana benuta Levi, 1994 - Colombia Bertrana elinguis (Keyserling, 1883) - ... India Cyrtarachne bufo (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) - China, Korea, Japan Cyrtarachne cingulata Thorell, 1895 - Myanmar ...
Cuban bufo theatre is a form of comedy, ribald and satirical, with stock figures imitating types that might be found anywhere ... The waltz has another characteristic: it is a 'travelling' dance, with couples moving round the arena. In Latin dances, ... In 1931 he co-founded a bufo company (comic theatre) at the Teatro Martí in Havana. He was the composer of the most well-known ... Bufo had its origin around 1800-15 as an older form, tonadilla, began to vanish from Havana. Francisco Covarrubias the ' ...
Bubo virginianus BufoBufo cognatus †Bufo douglassi †Bufo woodhousei †Bunophorus †Bunophorus grangeri †Bunophorus pattersoni † ... Merychyus arenarum †Merychyus elegans - type locality for species †Merycochoerus †Merycochoerus magnus †Merycochoerus matthewi ...
Freed, P.S.; Neitman, K. (1988). "Notes on predation on the endangered Houston toad, Bufo houstonensis". Texas Journal of ... to assess the aggressive behaviour of monogyne and polygyne red fire ant workers by studying interaction in neutral arenas, and ...
In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum ...
Bufo arenarum tadpoles of the control and acute bioassay survival at different doses (39, 156, 625 and 2,500 microg CY/L) and ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Axons / Brain / Bufo arenarum / Cell Adhesion Molecules / Apoptosis ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Axons / Brain / Bufo arenarum / Cell Adhesion Molecules / Apoptosis ... To start to elucidate their role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by cypermethrin (CY), the expression patterns ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-like immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in mature spermatozoa of Bufo arenarum. However, ... Presence and release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in Bufo arenarum spermatozoa after HCG treatment ... Presence and release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in Bufo arenarum s ... a study on Bufo arenarum adult males, has been performed. The in vivo treatment with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) induced ...
Effect of steroid hormones on Bufo arenarum oviduct. Ultrastructural study.. Medina MF, Crespo CA, Ramos I, Cisint SB, ... Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes. ... Changes in serum sex steroid levels throughout the reproductive cycle of Bufo arenarum females. ... Role of cations as components of jelly coats in Bufo arenarum fertilization. ...
Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella arenarum Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867, ... Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Klappenbach, 1968 ... See also account (under Bufo arenarum arenarum) by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, ... with Bufo arenarum) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 314. Considered a synonym of Bufo marinus by ...
Doses of 6 mg/kg were curare-like in the dog; similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. Candicine (as ...
Arenobufagin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid secreted by the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. It has effects similar to ... Experiments with [1,2-3H]cholesterol, [21-14C]coprostanol, and 5 beta-[21-14 °C]pregnanolone in the toad Bufo arenarum. ... such as the Bufo gargarizans or the Bufo melanostictus Suhneider. Arenobufagin is specifically secreted by the Rhinella ... arenarum, which is found in South America. The venom of these toad species contains about 1.75% of arenobufagin. The other ...
2: 10, provided for the Uruguayan population a brief account and photograph (as Bufo arenarum). Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, ... In the Bufo marinus group, most similar to Bufo rufus, according to the original publication. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, ... A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, noted that the species is most similar to Rhinella rubescens and Rhinella arenarum. Vallinoto, ... Bufo achavali Maneyro, Arrieta, and de Sá, 2004, J. Herpetol., 38: 161. Holotype: ZVCB 3779, by original designation. Type ...
Expression of cell adhesion molecules in the normal and T3 blocked development of the tadpole s kidney of Bufo arenarum ( ... Efecto de la densidad poblacional en el crecimiento corporal y metamorfosis de larvas de Bufo arenarum producido a través de ... Immunocytochemical and morphometry study on the dynamics and evolution of TSH, PRL, GH and ACTH cells during Bufo arenarum ... Erythrocytic luminescence in Bufo arenarum larvae treated with an inhibitor of the thyroid function. ...
Previous Document: Lethal effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) on amphibian Bufo arenarum embryos.. Next Document: Route-dependent ...
The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity ...
Effect of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor stimulation on short-circuit current across isolated skin of the toad Bufo arenarum. ...
Acclimation to Low Level Exposure of Copper in Bufo arenarum Embryos: Linkage of Effects to Tissue Residues ...
The blood-testis barrier in the toad (Bufo arenarum hensel): A freeze-fracture and lanthanum tracer study (pages 387-396). Dr. ...
In toads (Bufo arenarum), mammalian GnRH (mGnRH or GnRH-I) inhibits basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated ... Bufo arenarum) testes, resulting in decreased testosterone secretion (Canosa, 2002). Thus this property may be evolutionarily ...
Predator-prey relationship between giant water bugs (Belostoma oxyurum) and larval anurans (Bufo arenarum). Alytes 9: 61-69. ...
Vitelline envelope formation during oogenesis in Bufo arenarum.. *Marcelo O. Cabada, Alicia N. Sánchez Riera, Hugo D. Genta, ... The formation of vitelline envelope (VE) during the oogenesis of Bufo arenarum (Amphibia Anura) is described. At the stage of… ...
Egg Water from the Amphibian Bufo arenarum Modulates the Ability of Homologous Sperm to Undergo the Acrosome Reaction in the ... Sperm from the toad Bufo arenarum must penetrate the egg jelly before reaching the vitelline envelope (VE), where the acrosome ... These data suggest that the acrosomal responsiveness of B. arenarum sperm, present during a narrow period, is acquired during ... arenarum sperm, promoting the acquisition of a transient fertilizing capacity. In the present work, we correlated this ...
Cavicchia, J. C. & Moviglia, G. A. The blood-testis barrier in the toad (Bufo arenarum, Hensel): a freeze-fracture and ... Atherton, R. W. A gradient analysis of spermatogenesis in the toad Bufo woodhousei Girard (1854). Herpetologica, 30:240-4, 1974 ... Bufo woodhouse (Atherton, 1974), Caudiverbera caudiverbera (Hermosilla et al.) and Scinax fuscovarius (Oliveira & Vicentini), ... similar observations to the Bufo arenarun (Cavicchia & Moviglia, 1983), Hyla ranki (Taboga & Dolder) and to the Scinax ...
In a second experiment exposure of both R. temporaria and Bufo bufo to elevated levels of nitrate but low levels of ammonium ... bufo and eggs of R. temporaria but indirectly enhance mass at metamorphosis. ... Hematological parameters of health status in the common toad Bufo arenarum in agroecosystems of Santa Fe Province, Argentina * ... In a second experiment exposure of both R. temporaria and Bufo bufo to elevated levels of nitrate but low levels of ammonium ...
Hematological parameters of health status in the common toad Bufo arenarum in agroecosystems of Santa Fe Province, Argentina * ...
This book covers the major aspects of phylogeny and reproductive biology of frogs in chapters written by major authorities. Topics treated are: anuran
Expression of cell adhesion molecules in the normal and T3 blocked development of the tadpoles kidney of Bufo arenarum ( ... moleculas de adesao celular no desenvolvimento normal e com a inibicao do hormonio tireoidea do rim nas larvas do Bufo arenarum ...
Alterations induced by E-cadherin and β-catenin antibodies during the development of Bufo arenarum (Anura-Bufonidae) ...
Expression of cell adhesion molecules in the normal and T3 blocked development of the tadpoles kidney of Bufo arenarum ( ... moleculas de adesao celular no desenvolvimento normal e com a inibicao do hormonio tireoidea do rim nas larvas do Bufo arenarum ...
Bufo arenarum hensel); González Nicolini MV; Orezzoli AA; Achi MV; Villar MJ; Tramezzani JH; Instituto de NeurobiologÆia, ...
Doses of 6 mg/kg were curare-like in the dog; similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. ...
Non-gametic factors involved in the fertilization of Bufo arenarum oocytes. By impeding the activation of TGFbeta receptor ...
Characterization and properties of steroid binding protein in Bufo arenarum serum. Therefore, we showed the functions of ...
  • Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical activation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) and its hydrogenated derivative (2H-DhL). (nih.gov)
  • Arenobufagin is specifically secreted by the Rhinella arenarum, which is found in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was use to analyze the diet of tadpoles and the size of larvae and metamorphs of the native species Rhinella arenarum in agroecosystems of central Argentina. (gob.ar)
  • Toads of Rhinella (=Bufo) arenarum were subjected to a condition of forced submersion duringa 40-minute period, to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control ofboth submersion and emersion. (caicyt.gov.ar)
  • To evaluate the toxicity of two D formulations were selected as test organisms tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the last few years our interest has been devoted to the energy metabolism of the eggs of the common toad Bufo arenarum Hensel which, like some other amphibian eggs, can cleave at a normal rate in the absence of oxygen or in the presence of cyanide (Barbieri & Legname, 1957). (biologists.org)
  • Alimentación de larvas de Bufo arenarum Hensel (Amphibia: Bufonidae) en ambientes del río Paraná, Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • Hensel ME, Negron M, Arenas-Gamboa AM. Brucellosis in Dogs and Public Health Risk. (cdc.gov)
  • similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arenobufagin is a cardiotoxic bufanolide steroid secreted by the Argentine toad Bufo arenarum. (wikipedia.org)
  • of the common toad (Bufo vulgaris 1. (tripsit.me)
  • The formation of vitelline envelope (VE) during the oogenesis of Bufo arenarum (Amphibia Anura) is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dinámica trófica de juveniles de Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia: Anura), en una isla del Paraná, Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • Contribución al conocimiento de la alimentación de larvas de la rana criolla Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae) en el Paraná medio, Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • Hábitos alimentarios de Bufo paracnemis (Amphibia Bufonidae) en el Paraná medio, Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • Lethal effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) on amphibian Bufo arenarum embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results suggest that ammonium nitrate can be detrimental to amphibian development but that increased nitrate levels have no direct adverse effects on tadpoles of R. temporaria and B. bufo and eggs of R. temporaria but indirectly enhance mass at metamorphosis. (brillonline.com)
  • Bufo arenarum tadpoles of the control and acute bioassay survival at different doses (39, 156, 625 and 2,500 microg CY/L) and times (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) of CY treatment were fixed in Carnoy, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. (bvsalud.org)
  • Corticosterone stimulates the development of preoptic catecholamine neurons in tadpoles Bufo bufo japonicus. (storysteel.gq)
  • It is derived from the dried skin of giant toads, such as the Bufo gargarizans or the Bufo melanostictus Suhneider. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecotoxicidad de fármacos: efectos del diclofenac en el desarrollo y comportamiento de larvas de anfibios anuros. (blogspot.com)
  • Alimentación de larvas de anuros en ambientes temporales del sistema del río Paraná, Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • In a second experiment exposure of both R. temporaria and Bufo bufo to elevated levels of nitrate but low levels of ammonium did not affect larval survival and larval period, but caused an increase in mass at metamorphosis for both species. (brillonline.com)
  • Dinámica, biología y ecotoxicología de anfibios y reptiles en agroecosistemas del Litoral Fluvial de Argentina. (blogspot.com)
  • Los trabajos publicados en esta revista están bajo la licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 2.5 Argentina . (caicyt.gov.ar)
  • A person exists on many levels and is connected to everything, there are no limits to the arena in which homeopathy can work. (homeopathyonline.org.uk)
  • To clarify if the loss of ANP -like immunoreactivity in spermatozoa is a direct effect of GnRH or pituitary gonadotropins , a study on Bufo arenarum adult males , has been performed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Slightly disturbing captive common lizards , Lacerta vivipara , by movement and noise while they are basking in laboratory arenas resulted in an increase in respiration frequency (R f ) and a decrease in the probability that a lizard would respond to the introduction of a potential prey item. (thebhs.org)
  • This time here we have a green toad - Bufo viridis , one of only 3 species of this genus known from Poland. (treknature.com)
  • As all other Bufo species, also this one is protected in Poland by the law. (treknature.com)
  • It is confirmed by the elasticity of the system species Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758). (dp.ua)
  • Dynamics of groups depends on the action of possible predictors in response to which the population of B. bufo is not changed. (dp.ua)