Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).CitratesChemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (1/2760)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (2/2760)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

Diffusion barriers limit the effect of mobile calcium buffers on exocytosis of large dense cored vesicles. (3/2760)

Fast exocytosis in melanotropic cells, activated by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, is very sensitive to mobile calcium buffers (complete block at 800 microM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)). This indicates that calcium diffuses a substantial distance from the channel to the vesicle. Surprisingly, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), having a similar KD for calcium as EGTA but a approximately 100 times faster binding rate, blocked exocytosis only twice as effectively as EGTA. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this result cannot be explained by free diffusion and buffer binding rates. We hypothesized that local saturation of calcium buffers is involved. A diffusion barrier for both calcium and buffer molecules, located 50-300 nm from the membrane and reducing diffusion 1000 to 10,000 times, generated similar calcium concentrations for specific concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA. With such barriers, calcium rise phase kinetics upon short step depolarizations (2-20 ms) were faster for EGTA than for BAPTA, implying that short depolarizations should allow exocytosis with 50 microM EGTA but not with 25 microM BAPTA. This prediction was confirmed experimentally with capacitance measurements. Coupling exocytosis to calcium dynamics in the model, we found that a barrier with a approximately 3000 times reduced diffusion at approximately 130 nm beneath the membrane best explains the experimentally observed effects of EGTA and BAPTA on block and kinetics of release.  (+info)

Ferroxidase activity of ferritin: effects of pH, buffer and Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations on Fe(II) autoxidation and ferroxidation. (4/2760)

It is widely accepted that iron deposition in the iron storage protein ferritin in vitro involves Fe(II) oxidation, and that ferritin facilitates this oxidation at a ferroxidase site on the protein. However, these views have recently been questioned, with the protein ferroxidase activity instead being attributed to autoxidation from the buffer alone. Ligand exchange between another protein with ferroxidase activity and ferritin has been proposed as an alternative mechanism for iron incorporation into ferritin. In the present work, a pH stat apparatus is used to eliminate the influence of buffers on iron(II) oxidation. Here we show that the recent experiments questioning the ferroxidase activity of ferritin were flawed by inadequate pH control, that buffers actually retard rather than facilitate iron(II) oxidation, and that horse spleen ferritin has ferroxidase activity when measured under proper experimental conditions. Furthermore, high pH (7.0), a high Fe(II) concentration and the presence of Fe(III) all favour Fe(II) autoxidation in the presence or absence of ferritin.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (5/2760)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Nonsaturable entry of neuropeptide Y into brain. (6/2760)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found and is active both in the periphery and brain, but its crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in either direction has not been measured. We used multiple time-regression analysis to determine that radioactively labeled NPY injected intravenously entered the brain much faster than albumin, with an influx constant of 2.0 x 10(-4) ml. g. -1. min-1. However, this rate of entry was not significantly changed by injection of 10 microgram/mouse of excess NPY, by leptin, or by food deprivation. HPLC showed that most of the NPY entering the brain was intact, and capillary depletion with and without washout showed that the NPY did not remain bound to endothelial cells or associated with vascular elements. Perfusion in a blood-free solution eliminated binding to serum proteins as an explanation for the lack of saturation. Efflux of labeled NPY from the brain occurred at the same rate as albumin, reflecting the normal rate of reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Thus NPY can readily enter the brain from blood by diffusion across the BBB.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (7/2760)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of buffer conditions on the position of tRNA on the 70 S ribosome as visualized by cryoelectron microscopy. (8/2760)

The effect of buffer conditions on the binding position of tRNA on the Escherichia coli 70 S ribosome have been studied by means of three-dimensional (3D) cryoelectron microscopy. Either deacylated tRNAfMet or fMet-tRNAfMet were bound to the 70 S ribosomes, which were programmed with a 46-nucleotide mRNA having AUG codon in the middle, under two different buffer conditions (conventional buffer: containing Tris and higher Mg2+ concentration [10-15 mM]; and polyamine buffer: containing Hepes, lower Mg2+ concentration [6 mM], and polyamines). Difference maps, obtained by subtracting 3D maps of naked control ribosome in the corresponding buffer from the 3D maps of tRNA.ribosome complexes, reveal the distinct locations of tRNA on the ribosome. The position of deacylated tRNAfMet depends on the buffer condition used, whereas that of fMet-tRNAfMet remains the same in both buffer conditions. The acylated tRNA binds in the classical P site, whereas deacylated tRNA binds mostly in an intermediate P/E position under the conventional buffer condition and mostly in the position corresponding to the classical P site, i. e. in the P/P state, under the polyamine buffer conditions.  (+info)

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The kinetic rate parameters for the interaction between a single domain analogue of staphylococcal protein A (Z) and a mouse-IgG3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) were measured in Hepes buffer with different chemical additives. Five buffer ingredients (pH, NaCl, DMSO, EDTA, and KSCN) were varied simultaneously in 16 experiments following a statistical experimental plan. The 16 buffers thus spanned a volume in chemical space. A mathematical model, using data from the buffer composition, was developed and used to predict apparent kinetic parameters in five new buffers within the spanned volume. Association and dissociation parameters were measured in the new buffers, and these agreed with the predicted values, indicating that the model was valid within the spanned volume. The pattern of variation of the kinetic parameters in relation to buffer composition was different for association and dissociation, such that pH influenced both association and dissociation and NaCl influenced only dissociation. This ...
In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another. Typically, the data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device (such as a microphone) or just before it is sent to an output device (such as speakers). However, a buffer may be used when moving data between processes within a computer. This is comparable to buffers in telecommunication. Buffers can be implemented in a fixed memory location in hardware-or by using a virtual data buffer in software, pointing at a location in the physical memory. In all cases, the data stored in a data buffer are stored on a physical storage medium. A majority of buffers are implemented in software, which typically use the faster RAM to store temporary data, due to the much faster access time compared with hard disk drives. Buffers are typically used when there is a difference between the rate at which data is received and ...
An optimal buffer system is essential to perform successful PCR. Reliable PCR results depend on many factors: the quality of the DNA and primers as well as the PCR instrument itself.. Ampliqon has developed different Tris-based buffer solutions to meet different requirements in PCR applications. The buffers are commonly supplied in 10x formulations with 15 mM MgCl2 included. Ampliqon buffers are also available without Mg2+ and Tween 20 or Triton X-100.. Buffer convenience and user-flexibility is achieved by the ability to choose either the right DNA Polymerase/buffer combination or the optimal buffer based Master Mix among the wide range of Ampliqons DNA polymerase products. All Ampliqon DNA Polymerases and Master Mixes are available with different buffer options, making it easy to choose either the right combination of DNA polymerase and buffer or the correct Master Mix, for matching different PCR applications and PCR assay conditions.. ...
MIME-version: 1.0 X-Mailer: 6.0 sub 10577 Content-type: multipart/alternative; boundary=Boundary_(ID_7iqcDLFRP7WCJxTbhUzRVQ) Full-name: WWmn916 --Boundary_(ID_7iqcDLFRP7WCJxTbhUzRVQ) Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT Sigma is no longer making premade Trisma Buffer pH 7.4 We have always used their product in making our solution for the NADH muscle stain. Ive experimented with a Sodium Phosphate diabasic/monobasic solution and the results looked the same as a NADH muscle stained with a Trisma buffer component. Can anyone tell me what the difference between the two buffers are and what factors I need to consider, if any, in transitioning to making the sodium phosphate buffer to replace the Trisma buffer? Lastly, does anyone know of a different supplier of premadeTrisma buffers, other than Sigma or Fisher (since Fisher gets their tris buffer from Sigma?) Thanks, Deb King HT Sacramento, CA --Boundary_(ID_7iqcDLFRP7WCJxTbhUzRVQ) Content-type: text/html; ...
hi. its true that the buffers are acidic for RNA work and slightly basic (usually around pH 8)for DNA extractions. If you place DNA in a strong bacic solution the bonds between the strands will be cleaved and the 2 stands will not be able to re join. RNA can survive and contaminate when preforming a DNA extraction, unless specific steps are used to remove the RNA ie using RNase. The acidic conditions for RNA extractions is due to a number of problems when dealing with RNA. DNA is a major contaminant which needs to be removed as it can interfer with RT-PCR etc. Also RNase has very little activity in acidic condition and is de-activated by guanidinium thiocyanate. Often the RNA extraction buffers are 5M G.thio and pH 4.8ish. hope that helps regards Sean Admin note: Another reason for the disparity in nucleic acid extraction buffers is tied to the phenol extractions commonly used to purify the nucleic acids away from cellular proteins: DNA is soluble in even mildly acidic phenol while RNA is not; ...
DR is curious as to how the SureFire Optimzed Bolt Carrier/H7S Buffer combo stacks up against both the FERFRANS DSAS/RRS (Delayed Sear Activation System/Rate Reduction System) BCG and Nemo Arms RRS BCG, respectively. Weve been writing about the FERFRANS BCG for years, and were BIG fans of it. Both the OBC-LS/H7 Buffer System and DSAS/RRS BCG essentially achieve a similar effect through two completely different designs. Where the SureFire OBC-LS/H7 Buffer System utilizes a springloaded weight in the back of the carrier and teams the BCG up with a proprietary buffer, the FERFRANS DSAS/RRS BCG utilizes a simple reciprocating metal piece that recipricates freely within the BCG, via inertia. The the OBC-LS/H7 Buffer System is a more sophisticated design than the FERFRANS DSAS/RRS BCG, so it will be interesting to see how they compare back-to-back at some point.. DR has only examined and written about the Nemo Arms RRS BCG once when it was pulled out of a Nemo Arms Omen Recon .300WM 18″ ...
Buffer capacity is a measure of a buffer solution\s resistance to changes in pH as strong acid or base is added. Suppose that you have 165 mL of a buffer that is 0.360 M in both benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) and its conjugate base (C6H5COO ...
Referencemateriale 0.01 S/m R03.001 (engelsk) Referencemateriale 0.1 S/m R03.002 (engelsk) Referencemateriale 1 S/m R03.003 (engelsk) Referencemateriale 10 S/m R03.004 (engelsk) Referencemateriale Primary pH buffer Phthalate (pH = 4.005) R03.101 (engelsk) Referencemateriale Primary pH buffer 1:1 phosphate (pH = 6.865) R03.102 (engelsk) Referencemateriale Primary pH buffer 1:3.5 phosphate (pH = 7.413) R03.103 (engelsk) Referencemateriale Primary pH buffer Borate (pH = 9.180) R03.104 (engelsk) Referencemateriale Primary pH buffer Carbonate (pH = 10.012) R03.105 (engelsk) ...
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Buffer Solution pH 7 (Phosphate) Color Coded Yellow - BB0360-1 BB0360-1 BB0360-5 BB0360-20 ph Buffers pH Buffers Chemicals, pH Buffers
Dear all, I intend to use citrate buffer at 100 mM for some experiments, but then I stumbled over a notice from Dionex, that citrate buffer can modify proteins and peptides. However, when searching for references I was not able to find information about it. Is this really a major artefact in citrate buffer ? Does anyone have some information or references about it ? Thanks, Werner ...
... safely buffers pH levels and prevents wide pH swings, with alkalinity for nitrification. Specifically formulated to control the event of fish toxicity due to potential overdosing.
Currently, protocol buffers support generated code in programming languages such as C++, Java and Python. Protocol buffers are designed to be smaller and faster than XML and aim for both simplicity and performance. Similar to Microsoft Bond or Apache Thrift protocols, Protocol buffers offer a concrete RPC protocol stack to be used for defined services. A protocol buffer makes use of an interface description language that explains the data structure and an application which generates the source code based on that description. The source code is then used in parsing the bytes of the structured data. There are several advantages of using protocol buffers over XML. Protocol buffers are simpler to use, and they are 3-10 times smaller than XML with 20-100 times the speed. Another advantage is that they are less ambiguous and can generate data access classes that are simple to develop programmatically. There are few drawbacks associated with protocol buffers. Protocol buffers may not be an effective ...
Apologies in advance to anyone whos sick of watching from a distance as I dig through the buffer cache code; I never claimed to be well informed! After spending most of the night reading through parts of the kernel source in a diner I wanted a decent picture of what the _actual result_ of various parts of the buffer cache code looked like on one of my typical systems here at work. I built a kernel with DEBUG and turned on debug.syncprt with sysctl. One of my suspicions was immediately confirmed: There are *NO* buffers larger than 8K on my system, ever. The machine in question is a fairly small-memory machine, so I have nbuf=bufpages; however, within a minute or so of runtime, about 2/3 of the buffers are 8k, as Id expect (all of my filesystems have 8K blocks), and about 1/3 remain at 4K. This is the in-use buffers; the 8K buffers have been created, of course, by stripping pages from other buffers; at the default size of one page (4K, on the i386), this means that a lot of buffers went away ...
Hi Reinhard, I have undone the offending changeset in xine-lib as per your explanation there. http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/message.php?msg_name=4A15672E.5090908%40gmx.de Now, zapping time better. What is in your opinion the optimum buffer settings for vdr-xine and for .xine/config ? (I have a Hauppage S2-HD) These are my current settings: vdr/setup.conf xine.modeLiveTV.prebufferFrames = 11 xine.modeLiveTV.prebufferHysteresis = 4 .xine/config # number of audio buffers engine.buffers.audio_num_buffers:460 # number of video buffers engine.buffers.video_num_buffers:250 # number of video frames engine.buffers.video_num_frames:22 ...
Research Report on Global pH Buffer Market Professional Survey Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Hi Dima, K+ and Cl- (as maybe phosphate, too) are easiest to determine by subjecting a diluted aliquot to automated urine or serum analysis in the clinical chemistry lab of a hospital. Hoping that Gu doesnt interfere though. Usually, the machine will give you NH4+ and Na+ in the same run. But acetate? no idea.if youll get it there. K+ also should be able to be determined gravimetrically using SDS :) if there are lots present (add excess NaSDS, cool, filter through pre-weighted paper or collect by centrifugation in pre weighted tube, wash precipitate with NaSDS, allow to dry, weigh again) Assuming all volatiles present are water and ipropOH, one might distill the stuff and measure density of the condensate comparing against a standard curve. Unless there is ammonia present (NH4Cl and NH4OAc are volatile). If GuX is the same - no idea, but easily to be tested. More thoughts about acetate? might be concluded from potassium and sodium... does it form any insoluble precipitates making it accessible ...
BioAssay record AID 28475 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic parameter (K) was calculated at pH 7.4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (25 degrees Celsius).
It is not technically correct to say that a window displays the contents of a file , rather that each window displays the contents of a buffer . A buffer is an object that contains data from the point of view of the editor, whereas a file contains data from the point of view of the operating system. A buffer is a temporary storage area used by the editor to hold the contents of a file while the process of editing is taking place. When editing has finished the contents of the buffer can then be written to the appropriate file. When the user exits from the editor, no information concerning buffers or windows is saved.. A buffer is often displayed in its own window, although it is also possible for many buffers to be associated with a single window, and for a single buffer to be displayed in more than one window.. In most cases, there is one buffer for each file that is accessed, but sometimes there is more than one buffer for a single file. There are also some buffers (such as the Echo Area, which ...
alexandre -- to restore the window layout in your emacs frame, you can run M-x desktop-frame-save first, and then after youre finished with the maximized version you can do a M-x desktop-read followed by a M-x load-file emacs.frx. also, a frame (an m$windows window) is what contains emacs windows (these look like window panes) and any emacs buffer can be displayed in any emacs window (pane). also killing an emacs buffer doesnt touch the file which was copied into that buffer. emacs deals with frames, windows, buffers, and files separately so that you have a bit more control over things if you want. cheers. -- chuck Kevin Dziulko wrote: , , You can maximize the window you are currently in with C-x 1 which runs , delete-other-windows. This just hides the other buffers, they are not , deleted or destroyed dispite the name. , , There isnt a restore command. Youd have to use C-x 2 or and then load , another buffer in the new or current window with the buffers menu. , , ,From: Alexandre Brillant ...
The oxidation mechanism of hematoxylin was studied in phosphate buffers and 0.1 M KCl by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy under deaerated conditions. The redox potential of hematoxylin in buffered solution strongly depends on pH. A two electron oxidation is preceded by deprotonation. The homogeneous rate of deprotonation process of hematoxylin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer is kd = (2.5 ± 0.1) × 104 s-1. The cyclic voltammetry under unbuffered conditions shows the distribution of various dissociation forms of hematoxylin. The dissociation constants pK1 = 4.7 ± 0.2 and pK2 = 9.6 ± 0.1 were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The final oxidation product was identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection as hemathein. The distribution of oxidation products differs under buffered and unbuffered conditions. The dye degradation in natural unbuffered environment yields hemathein and hydroxyhematoxylin, which is absent in buffered solution.. Keywords: Hematoxylin; ...
Data blocks being read by DBMS from the hard drive are stored in the main memory in a fixed number of pre-allocated buffers. Each buffer can hold one data block. Each buffer can be either free (does not contain any useful information) or occupied by some data. When DBMS is going to read data block from the hard drive it has to decide which buffer to use for data storing. If there are any free buffers, then one of them is used for that purpose. If there are no free buffers, then one of the occupied buffers has to be flushed to become free, unless it was locked by some part of DBMS ...
A mutable array of bytes that can be passed to foreign functions.. The buffer is represented by a record, where the record contains the raw buffer and the start/end points of the filled portion. The buffer contents itself is mutable, but the rest of the record is immutable. This is a slightly odd mix, but it turns out to be quite practical: by making all the buffer metadata immutable, we can have operations on buffer metadata outside of the IO monad.. The live elements of the buffer are those between the ...
In molecular biology, TBE and TAE buffers are often used in procedures involving nucleic acids, the most common being agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Tris-acid solutions are effective buffers for the slightly basic conditions that keep DNA deprotonated and soluble in water. EDTA is a chelating agent for divalent cations, particularly magnesium (Mgsub2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many enzymes, including contaminant nucleases, one task of EDTA is to protect the nucleic acids against enzymatic degradation by nucleases. However, since Mgsub2+ is also a co-factor for many DNA-modifying enzymes such as restriction enzymes and DNA polymerases, its concentration in TBE or TAE buffers is generally kept low. Borate is a strong inhibitor for many enzymes, which makes its presence in TBE buffer very popular: the DNA sample run in a TBE buffer can better keep its integrity, which suits the purpose of many agarose gel electrophoreses runs, i.e. to analyze the size of DNA fragments.
Phosphate Buffer Ph7 found in: Phosphate Buffer pH 7, Phosphate Buffer, pH 7, D1253, BUFFER, PHOSPHATE pH 7.0, Buffer solution pH 7.00, Phosphate Buffer,..
Is there a way in Pic basic pro to empty the buffers on the SFE Logomatic if they are only partially filled? I do not send enough data to the logomatic for it to empty for it the fill the buffer and log on its own, so I end up losing some when I cut the power. This used in remote data collection so I cannot push the STOP button to empty them. Thank ...
Description: Hi dear experts, This report intended to clarify situation where i cant find any valuable information related to buffer pool size. All articles are about calculating gold size for buffer pool. It is great to have 80% of physical memory as buffer pool. OK. So the general description is -, I can start MySQL with 300GB buffer pool size in my 16G laptop Config: innodb_buffer_pool_size=300G innodb_buffer_pool_instances=64 Started as: 2016-01-05 15:23:58 16211 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 300.0G 2016-01-05 15:24:31 16211 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool I believe that i can give much more pool size if I could increase buffer pool instances from maximum 64. For eg, 300G with 8 buffer pool instances will fail. With 350G: 2016-01-05 13:04:47 13232 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 350.0G InnoDB: mmap(6009651200 bytes) failed; errno 22 2016-01-05 13:05:27 13232 [ERROR] InnoDB: Cannot allocate memory for the buffer pool 2016-01-05 ...
static inline __attribute__ ((nonnull (1))) void * alloc_buffer_alloc_bytes (struct alloc_buffer *buf, size_t length) { @@ -302,9 +302,13 @@ __alloc_buffer_next (struct alloc_buffer *buf, size_t align) alloc_buffer_alloc returns the same pointer). Note that the buffer is still aligned according to the requirements of TYPE. The effect of this function is similar to allocating a zero-length array from - the buffer. */ + the buffer. It is possible to use the return pointer to write to + the buffer and consume the written bytes using + alloc_buffer_alloc_bytes (which does not change the buffer + contents), but the calling code needs to perform manual length + checks using alloc_buffer_size ...
Use our Gaylord Archival® Unbuffered Shredded Tissue to cushion ornaments and other breakables or to pad small textiles such as gloves. Stuff it into stockinette tubing to make soft, round cushions for padding folded textiles.
Tissue samples are fixed with 2-4% Paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer, dehydrated through a graded series of ethyl alcohols and embedded in Unicryl (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Hatfield,PA). Thin sections (70-90nm) are mounted on Formvar/carbon coated nickel grids. After rinsing (see note above) with 0.1M Phosphate buffer or PBS, the grids are placed into the Blocking buffer for a block/permeablization step of 30-45 minutes.. The grids are then placed in the primary antibody overnight at 4°C. During the immuno-labeling process, the grids are not allowed to dry out. The grids are rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and then floated on drops of the appropriate secondary antibody attached with 10nm gold particles (AURION, Hatfield, PA) for two hours at room temperature. After rinsing with PBS, the grids are placed in 2.5% Glutaraldehyde in 0.1M Phosphate buffer for 15 minutes. After rinsed in distilled water, the grids are allowed to dry and then are stained for contrast with ...
get_buffer and release_buffer is more suitable for how this codec works and can result in better performance in some playback situations. Signed-off-by: Reimar Döffinger ,Reimar.Doeffinger at gmx.de, --- libavcodec/c93.c , 5 ++++- 1 files changed, 4 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-) diff --git a/libavcodec/c93.c b/libavcodec/c93.c index 1f4ed1f..2a36ed9 100644 --- a/libavcodec/c93.c +++ b/libavcodec/c93.c @@ -130,10 +130,13 @@ static int decode_frame(AVCodecContext *avctx, void *data, c93-,currentpic ^= 1; + if (newpic-,data[0]) + avctx-,release_buffer(avctx, newpic); + newpic-,reference = 1; newpic-,buffer_hints = FF_BUFFER_HINTS_VALID , FF_BUFFER_HINTS_PRESERVE , FF_BUFFER_HINTS_REUSABLE , FF_BUFFER_HINTS_READABLE; - if (avctx-,reget_buffer(avctx, newpic)) { + if (avctx-,get_buffer(avctx, newpic)) { av_log(avctx, AV_LOG_ERROR, reget_buffer() failed\n); return -1; } -- 1.7.7.1 ...
Super-resolution imaging methods have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy by revealing the nanoscale organization of labeled proteins. In particular, single-molecule methods such as Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) provide resolutions down to a few tens of nanometers by exploiting the cycling of dyes between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states to obtain a sparse population of emitters and precisely localizing them individually. This cycling of dyes is commonly induced by adding different chemicals, which are combined to create a STORM buffer. Despite their importance, the composition of these buffers has scarcely evolved since they were first introduced, fundamentally limiting what can be resolved with STORM. By identifying a new chemical suitable for STORM and optimizing the buffer composition for Alexa-647, we significantly increased the number of photons emitted per cycle by each dye, providing a simple means to enhance the resolution of STORM independently of the optical
This is a very important report because we see three object types (tables, indexes, and partitions), and we also see the sub-sets of the DEFAULT pool for KEEP and RECYCLE. Also, note that all indexes are defined in the largest supported block size (db_32k_cache_size), and multiple buffer pools of 4K, 8K, 16K and 32K sizes are defined. The output of this script is somewhat confusing because of the repeated DEFAULT buffer pool name. This is misleading because the KEEP and RECYCLE buffer pools are sub-sets of db_cache_size and can ONLY accommodate objects with the DEFAULT db_block_size. Conversely, any block sizes that are NOT the default db_block_size, go into the buffer pool named DEFAULT. As you can see from the output listing, there are really 6 mutually exclusive and independently-sized buffer pools, and four of them are called "DEFAULT." It is valuable to run this report repeatedly because the Oracle data buffers are dynamic and constantly changing. Running this script frequently allows us to ...
you have a 0.200L of solution containing 250mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. An equivalent amount of HCl/NaOH with respect to the total amount of phosphate in the buffer --, mmol of NaH2PO3 + mmol of NaH2PO4 = 50 mmoles. What would ...
... It is a bug to set a page dirty if it is not uptodate unless it has buffers. If the page has buffers, then the page may be dirty (some buffers dirty) but not uptodate (some buffers not uptodate). The exception to this rule is if the set_page_dirty caller is racing with truncate or invalidate. A buffer can not be set dirty if it is not uptodate. If either of these situations occurs, it indicates there could be some data loss problem. Some of these warnings could be a harmless one where the page or buffer is set uptodate immediately after it is dirtied, however we should fix those up, and enforce this ordering. Bring the order of operations for truncate into line with those of invalidate. This will prevent a page from being able to go !uptodate while were holding the tree_lock, which is probably a good thing anyway. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds ,[EMAIL ...
Get an answer for How do you calculate the molarity of NaOH? I am just very confused on which formula I use to calculate.I am given the equation for calculating the concentration of NaOH with (molarity of acid)(volume of acid)(#hydrogen ions)in acid =(molarity of base )(volume of base)(# of hydroxide ions) in base. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
A buffer is a mixture of molecules that release or bind H+ in order to maintain a relatively stable pH. Note that the function of a buffer is NOT to keep a solution neutral (at pH 7); its function is to minimize the change in pH when base or acid is added to the solution. Also note that there are many different buffers, and each one will stabilize the pH of a solution only within a specific pH range. One buffer may be effective within a range of pH 2 to pH 6, while another may be effective within a range of pH 10 to pH 12. Beyond its buffering range, a buffer no longer acts to stabilize the pH of the solution ...
First adjust pH to 7.5 with an increaser (MICROBE-LIFT/pH Increase) and then add 1 scoopful (5 grams) of this buffer/10 Gal. (37.8 L). Check your pH regularly and add Buffer when needed ...
|p|The HI-7004/1G is a 1 Gallon (US gallon) bottle of 4.01 pH buffer solution.|/p| |p|Hanna buffer solutions are prepared according to precise formulas and are standardised with a pH meter calibrated according to NIST standards. All solutions show batch
Argument buffers can assign a group of resources all at once to a single index in the function argument table. The main benefit of using argument buffers is to reduce the overhead incurred by assigning the same multiple resources to individual indices of the same function argument table. This is particularly beneficial for resources that do not change from frame to frame, because they can be assigned to an argument buffer once and reused many times.. Encoding resources into argument buffers eliminates the need for the Metal driver to capture state and track residency when individual resources are assigned to the indices of a functions argument table. Instead, argument buffers provide greater control over resource residency that you must explicitly declare before issuing draw or dispatch calls.. Using resource heaps is already a great way to reduce resource overhead. When you combine resource heaps with argument buffers, you can further reduce overhead by:. ...
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The SetNetBufferListSwitchContext APIs allow extensions to attach context to a NET_BUFFER_LIST on ingress and retrieve it on egress. Even so, extensions should be resilient to the ingress context not being present on egress. The switch context is not preserved when an NET_BUFFER_LIST is cloned, so in scenarios where the NET_BUFFER_LIST is cloned between ingress and egress, the NET_BUFFER_LIST will not have the originals switch context. The extension must manage the lifetime of the context. One approach is to allocate NDIS NET_BUFFER_LIST context (using NdisAllocateNetBufferListContext, or preconfigured if the extension owns the NET_BUFFER_LIST pool), and use the SetNetBufferListSwitchContext to associate a context type identifier with the NDIS NET_BUFFER_LIST context. When the NBL is completed, the extension can free the NDIS NET_BUFFER_LIST context (using NdisFreeNetBufferListContext, or freeing the NET_BUFFER_LIST itself if it was originated by the extension).. For more information about the ...
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Question for you about "PS It can look like DBCC CHECKDB isnt using any pages in the buffer pool but it does, via its hidden snapshot, but then it removes them all once the hidden snapshot is removed."…. I was researching a drop in buffer pool usage and PLE right after my DBCC CHECKDBs. You explained the drop in PLE above, but its the removal of pages from the buffer pool that concerns me. Ive been testing this on a test server with 8GB RAM allocated to SQL. I ran queries in three databases to fill the buffer pool fairly equally between the three databases, as verified by by looking at sys.dm_os_buffer_descriptors. One of the databases had 1.5GB of the buffer pool. When I ran a DBCC CHECKDB on this database, it pushed out pages from the other two databases and used 6GB of the buffer pool, then, when the DBCC completed, buffer pool usage for this database went down to 59MB.. Is what Im seeing is that the original 1.5GB of buffer pool associated with this database being replaced by pages ...
Hello, Im having a bit of a problem with the depth buffer. When Im using blending, it seems that the depth buffer gets mixed together with the blended image. As soon as I call glDisable(GL_DEPTH_TEST), the entire contents of the depth buffer get written over the render target. If I keep the depth buffer on but disable blending, everything is fine. Heres what I mean: http://i42.tinypic.com/2n1gkld.png Heres the render code: glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
SERVA IEF sample buffer is suited to all vertical and horizontal IEF applications and systems. The sample buffer is supplied as 2x concentrate. It is sterile filtered, beneficial to long shelf life and absence of contaminants. Simply mix the liquid sample 1:1 with the buffer or dissolve a solid sample in the buffer first and dilute with water 1:1. When performing IEF in the presence of urea mix the sample with the buffer and add solid urea or use concentrated urea solution.The buffer contains 4 % SERVALYT™ 4 - 9 T, 30 % glycerol and 0.005 % phenol red.
It is defined as the ratio of increment of a strong base or acid to a small change in ph brought about by this addition.. ref:1st b-pharm .essentials of physaical pharmacy,cvs.subrahmanyam.pg-330. ...
Hi everybody! I want to prepare 1000 ml of 0.1M phosphate buffer solution, pH = 7.0. I used Henderson Hasselbachs equation: pH = pka + log [salt]/[acid]...
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The Department of Natural Resources has issued a timeline and other details as it works to implement Gov. Mark Daytons buffer strip law.
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https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-12327?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Kai Zheng updated HADOOP-12327: ------------------------------- Attachment: HADOOP-12327-v3.patch Updated patch according to review comments. Note the introduced behavior can be well covered by existing HDFS tests. , Initialize output buffers with ZERO bytes in erasure coder , ---------------------------------------------------------- , , Key: HADOOP-12327 , URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-12327 , Project: Hadoop Common , Issue Type: Sub-task , Reporter: Kai Zheng , Assignee: Kai Zheng , Fix For: HDFS-7285 , , Attachments: HADOOP-12327-HDFS-7285-v1.patch, HADOOP-12327-v2.patch, HADOOP-12327-v3.patch , , , Make sure output buffers are initialized with ZERO bytes in order for: , * Coder callers wont have to bother doing that; , * Avoid possible buggy codes if caller forgets doing that; , * More efficiency, with a shared, length enough empty buffer allocated. -- ...
Several pre-formulated buffers are available for Alpha assays. These have have been developed to meet the varying needs of different Alpha assays, and one of them may be a good choice for an assay that you are developing. This buffer contains SDS in order to lyse cells and solubilize proteins in cell-based assays. This buffer is required when detecting intracellular proteins.. Formulation: proprietary. ...
GrandMasters L.L.C., Gunsmithing, Ruger 10-22, AK-47, Ruger, AR-15, Ruger Accessories AR-1522 Conversion Recoil Buffer [BJB-] - Recoil buffers are an easy and inexpensive way to eliminate damage of critical components by preventing the metal to metal contact of the slide or breech block with the frame. Made from a high density polyurethane formulated for maximum shock-absorbing characteristics, the recoil buffer is a drop-in part. For use
PVTOL Conduits are responsible for managing the data buffers, data transfers, and synchronized data communication between Tasks. PVTOL Conduits can manage data communication between two Tasks utilizing separate or a shared memory system. In the case where a Conduits endpoint Tasks use separate memory systems, separate data buffers are allocated on each and transferred from source to destination as soon as the data is available at the source. If the Conduits two endpoints share the same memory system, a single data buffer is allocated. Whenever the source endpoint has completed filling a buffer with data, it releases control of the data and the destination endpoint takes control of the same buffer for reading. To alleviate potential data hazards, PVTOL Conduits supports multi-buffering. Once the source Task fills a data buffer, it can begin filling the next consecutive data buffer, while the destination task reads available data from the first buffer. Figure 1 shows an example pipeline ...
In this interesting article by Chondronikola et al. (1), the measurements of adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration are reported. The authors use a study by López et al. (2) as a reference for details of the used methods. A list of the substrates used for mitochondrial respiration (octanoyl-carnitine, pyruvate, glutamate, malate, ADP, succinate, and oligomycin) is given. In the results (see Fig. 6G), they report data on the "uncoupled mitochondrial respiration" (1). There are several problematic issues here. First, in the study by López et al. (2), mitochondrial respiration was not measured and therefore there is no description of the method. Second, basic information about the handling of the biopsies is missing (e.g., time from sampling to measurement, buffer composition). Third, temperature and oxygen concentration during the measurements are important confounders, but this information is not given. Fourth, the sequence of substrate addition and the respiratory data from the mentioned ...
If you feel you need a buffer on the edge, then the network connection between the origin and edge(s) is not adequate. Still, the issue is probably between the edge and the client, and standard practice of buffer on the client can help some, but streaming at an appropriate bitrate per client connection is the best solution. Use multi-bitrate streaming to accomplish that, see that section in the live tutorial ...
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Buffer objects are general purpose memory storage blocks allocated by OpenGL. They are intended to be used in a great many ways. To give the implementation great flexibility in exactly what a particular buffer objects data store will be, so as to better optimize performance, the user is required to give usage hints. These provide a general description as to how exactly the user will be using the buffer object. There are two independent parts to the usage pattern: how the user will be reading/writing from/to the buffer, and how often the user will be changing it relative to the use of the data. There are two ways for data to cause a change in the data contents of a buffer object. One way is for the user to explicitly upload some binary data. The other way is for the user to issue GL commands that cause the buffer to be filled in. For example, if you want to have a buffer store the results of a vertex shader computation through the use of transform feedback, the user is not directly changing the ...
dlls/secur32/schannel.c , 27 +++++++++++++++++++++++++-- 1 files changed, 25 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/secur32/schannel.c b/dlls/secur32/schannel.c index 70458fa..0e8b9e2 100644 --- a/dlls/secur32/schannel.c +++ b/dlls/secur32/schannel.c @@ -1187,6 +1187,19 @@ static int schan_validate_decrypt_buffer_desc(PSecBufferDesc message) return data_idx; } +static void schan_decrypt_fill_buffer(PSecBufferDesc message, ULONG buffer_type, void *data, ULONG size) +{ + int idx; + SecBuffer *buffer; + + idx = schan_find_sec_buffer_idx(message, 0, SECBUFFER_EMPTY); + buffer = &message-,pBuffers[idx]; + + buffer-,BufferType = buffer_type; + buffer-,pvBuffer = data; + buffer-,cbBuffer = size; +} + static SECURITY_STATUS SEC_ENTRY schan_DecryptMessage(PCtxtHandle context_handle, PSecBufferDesc message, ULONG message_seq_no, PULONG quality) { @@ -1198,6 +1211,7 @@ static SECURITY_STATUS SEC_ENTRY schan_DecryptMessage(PCtxtHandle context_handle ssize_t received = 0; ssize_t ret; int idx; + ...
Online molarity calculator from Sigma-Aldrich.com makes calculating molarity and normality for common acid and base stock solutions easy with most common values pre-populated.
Eli Zaretskii ,[email protected], writes: ,, From: kj ,[email protected], ,, Date: Thu, 30 Aug 2007 16:46:27 +0000 (UTC) ,, ,, I run into this *all* the time: Ive been coding for several days, ,, working on 20-30 files simultaneously, and I need to get back to ,, the one among these many buffers that contains a particular string ,, or regex. , , Then just search the files for that regex, e.g. with the Direds `A , command. Emacs will notice when a particular file is already in a , buffer and will search that buffer instead. But the A (dired-do-search) key seems to work only for the files which are present in the current Dired buffer not necessarily for all opened buffers. Wouldnt be--in this context--dired-do-search in the buffer *Buffer List* a better idea (if it only were available there)? -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Darmstadt, Germany ...
LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #-} -- Handles indentation in the keymaps. Includes: -- * (TODO) Auto-indentation to the previous lines indentation -- * Tab-expansion -- * Shifting of the indentation for a region of text module Yi.Buffer.Indent where import Yi.Buffer.Basic import Yi.Buffer.Misc import Yi.Buffer.HighLevel import Yi.Prelude import Yi.Buffer.Normal import Yi.Buffer.Region import Prelude () import Data.Char import Data.List (span, length, sort, nub, break, reverse, filter, takeWhile, dropWhile) import Yi.String {- , Return either a \t or the number of spaces specified by tabSize in the IndentSettings. Note that if you actually want to insert a tab character (for example when editing makefiles) then you should use: @insertB \[email protected] -} tabB :: BufferM String tabB = do indentSettings ,- indentSettingsB return $ if expandTabs indentSettings then replicate (tabSize indentSettings) else "\t" {-, Retrieve the current indentation settings for the buffer. -} indentSettingsB :: BufferM ...
A chemical reagent containing at least any one of the many phosphoric acid derivatives, usually in salt form. The phosphoric salt may be one of three types: strongly acid monometallic, neutral or mildly alkaline dimetallic, and strongly alkaline tri-metallic. Phosphate buffers are typically adjusted to maintain a certain pH or are buffered with other chemical compounds. Phosphate reagents are used in research laboratories, medicine or industry in various technical procedures. (NCI04)
* found in: pH Buffer Powders, Buffer Capsules, Triple protective foil envelope of aluminum, polyethylene and paper which keeps the buffers dry and free..
By: Selina Urbina. ABSTRACT. The effects of a strong acid and strong base were determined by measuring the pH of a buffered and unbuffered systems. Moreover, one observes the common-ion effect on a dynamic equilibrium in this experiment. One observes the way equilibrium shifts when the concentration of one species changes. This also applies to changes in temperature in the system. Overall, this experiment take a look at LeChateliers principle.. INTRODUCTION. The purpose of this experiment was equilibrium shifts in a system when the concentration of one species changes. The common ion effect on equilibrium is observed. The effects of temperature changes on the position of the equilibrium is also observed. (Beran). Moreover, we measured the effects of a strong acid and strong base by measuring the pH of a buffered and unbuffered system.. RESULTS. In experiment 16 part A: Metal-Ammonia Ions, one comes to find that when adding NH3 drops to .1M CuSO4 the system turns blue. Thus, [NH3] increased. The ...
Am 23.07.2013 00:54, schrieb Jan Kotek: ,, very high contention so I had a deep look at leaving ,, out most positions where contention can arise. , My solution was global structural lock with segment locks (I think you call it , partitions). Depending on the Partitioning algorithm a partition is assigned to a core, thread, ... and the partition pool is only locked to assign a new partition if all fragments are used. , Record layout change (allocate/deallocate) is done under global lock, this , code is optimized and requires typically 16 bytes IO. Here I normally never need to lock since there can only one thread at a time for core local or thread local. , Than reading/writing actual data is done in parallel under segmented lock. , , It will be interesting to compare those two approaches. Sure :-) , J. , , On Monday 22 July 2013 22:43:17 Christoph Engelbert wrote: ,, Am 22.07.2013 22:28, schrieb Jan Kotek: ,,, Hi, ,,, ,,, I have something similar in MapDB. It is in Volume.java, a light growable ...
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The exact composition of Buffer RW1 is confidential. Buffer RW1 is a proprietary component of RNeasy Kits. Buffer RW1 contains a guanidine salt, as well as ethanol, and is used as a stringent washing buffer that efficiently removes biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids etc., that are non-specifically bound to the silica membrane. At the same time, RNA molecules larger than 200 bases remain bound to the column. Note: Buffer RW1 should not be used for isolation of small RNAs, for example, microRNAs or fragmented RNA from formalin-fixed tissues, as these smaller fragments will be washed away. Buffer RWT should be used instead.. ...
Regulatory guidelines that cover the development of biopharmaceutical products require testing of host-cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) impurities. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a popular technology for DNA quantitation and monitoring of process impurities associated with biomanufacturing. One critical challenge associated with host-cell DNA impurity testing is that recombinant proteins (e.g., monoclonal antibodies, MAbs) and their corresponding buffer components often interfere with DNA quantitation in real-time PCR reactions (1, 2). Some sample types do not require a full extraction…. ...
stack, {{infobox feature , core = 4.3 , core_extension = {{extref,shader_storage_buffer_object}} }} ,{{object float}} }} A Shader Storage Buffer Object is a [[Buffer Object]] that is used to store and retrieve data from within the [[OpenGL Shading Language]]. SSBOs are a lot like [[Uniform Buffer Object]]s. Shader storage blocks are defined by [[Interface Block (GLSL)]]s in almost the same way as uniform blocks. Buffer objects that store SSBOs are bound to SSBO binding points, just as buffer objects for uniforms are bound to UBO binding points. And so forth. The major differences between them are: # SSBOs can be much larger. The OpenGL spec guarantees that UBOs can be up to 16KB in size (implementations can allow them to be bigger). The spec guarantees that SSBOs can be up to 128MB. Most implementations will let you allocate a size up to the limit of GPU memory. # SSBOs are writable, even atomically; UBOs are {{code,uniform}}s. SSBOs reads and writes use [[Incoherent Memory ...
The exact composition of Buffer RLT is confidential. This buffer is a proprietary component of RNeasy Kits. Buffer RLT contains a high concentration of guanidine isothiocycanate, which supports the binding of RNA to the silica membrane. Buffer RLT can be purchased separately (cat. no. 79216) Note: note that ß-mercaptoethanol should be added to Buffer RLT before use to effectively inactivate RNAses in the lysate (10 µl ß-Mercaptoethanol per 1 ml Buffer RLT). ...
From Bugzilla Helper: User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:0.9.3) Gecko/20010803 Description of problem: Allocated memory increases with filesystem use. That is, if I boot my Dell Inspiron 7000 laptop to runlevel 5, it will be using about 20MB plus buffers and cache. If I run run-parts /etc/cron.daily, during slocate especially, memory use will increase at a rate faster than buffers and cache. Afterward, about 110MB of RAM will be in use, plus buffers and cache. How reproducible: Always Steps to Reproduce: 1. Reboot, check RAM use 2. run-parts /etc/cron.daily (or anything that uses the filesystem a lot) 3. check RAM use again. Actual Results: ----- $ free total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 223160 210852 12308 1400 16144 83944 -/+ buffers/cache: 110764 112396 Swap: 264560 0 264560 ----- Memory use is much higher than it should be. Expected Results: Buffers and cache are expected to increase, but allocated memory is not. Additional info: I can reproduce this problem on ...
On 21/06/2017 17:21, Florian Weimer wrote: , On 06/21/2017 09:44 PM, Adhemerval Zanella wrote: , ,, Some functions like alloc_buffer_add_byte does have a check to mark ,, the buffer failed, but alloc_buffer_size will return a bogus value if ,, start plus size overflows. It might not get caught in ,, alloc_buffer_alloc_bytes for instance, where the length can be ,, potentially lower than the returned value of alloc_buffer_size ,, (since a signed ptrdiff_t will be converted to size_t). Maybe to add ,, the same check from alloc_buffer_add_byte might be suffice. , , I added out-of-line process termination in the attached version. I , assume thats what you had in mind. , ,, Indeed, but check_add_wrapv_size_t (or check_add_overflow_size_t as you ,, suggested) might use a GCC builtin for newer compiler (which might use ,, more optimized instructions). , , GCC recognizes the idiom and should optimize it just like the built-in. , The value of the built-in primarily lies in the accurate, ...
defun ask-before-killing-buffer () (let ((buffer (current-buffer))) (cond ((equal (buffer-name) "*scratch*") ;; Never kill *scratch* nil) ((and buffer-file-name (buffer-modified-p)) ;; If theres a file associated with the buffer, ;; make sure its saved (y-or-n-p (format "Buffer %s modified; kill anyway? " (buffer-name)))) ((get-buffer-process buffer) ;; If theres a process associated with the buffer, ;; make sure its dead (y-or-n-p (format "Process %s active; kill anyway? " (process-name (get-buffer-process buffer))))) (t t)))) (add-to-list kill-buffer-query-functions ask-before-killing-buffer ...
defun ask-before-killing-buffer () (let ((buffer (current-buffer))) (cond ((equal (buffer-name) "*scratch*") ;; Never kill *scratch* nil) ((and buffer-file-name (buffer-modified-p)) ;; If theres a file associated with the buffer, ;; make sure its saved (y-or-n-p (format "Buffer %s modified; kill anyway? " (buffer-name)))) ((get-buffer-process buffer) ;; If theres a process associated with the buffer, ;; make sure its dead (y-or-n-p (format "Process %s active; kill anyway? " (process-name (get-buffer-process buffer))))) (t t)))) (add-to-list kill-buffer-query-functions ask-before-killing-buffer ...
Tell av_vsrc_buffer_add_video_buffer_ref() to overwrite the already cached video buffer with the new added one, otherwise the function will complain and exit. Definition at line 36 of file vsrc_buffer.h.. Referenced by av_vsrc_buffer_add_video_buffer_ref(), and transcode_video().. ...
A hash table is used to figure out what page frame a given disk page (i.e., with a given pageId) occupies. A buffer descriptor object is associated with every page frame in the buffer pool. It contains a dirty bit, the page number, and the pin count for the page occupying that frame. When a page is requested, the buffer manager brings it in and pins it. The buffer manager does not keep track of all the pages that have been pinned by a transaction. It is up to the various components (that call the buffer manager) to make sure that all pinned pages are subsequently unpinned. See the text for a more detailed description of the buffer manager. ...
Our acidulant portfolio is used to meet diverse demands across the food and beverage, animal feed, pharmaceutical and industrial markets. Offering pH reduction and improved solubility, our product range can also act as a buffer component in your product formulations.
i Would really hopefull for anybody helps me learning the Overflow And overrun with any tutorials , books or texts. i readed the things about them in hacker Jargons Section.. but i need sumthing that may help learning that..
Date: Wed, 30 Apr 2014 08:33:21 -0700 From: Kees Cook ,[email protected], To: Dan Carpenter ,[email protected], Cc: LKML ,[email protected],, [email protected], [email protected], "[email protected]" ,[email protected],, Dave Jones ,[email protected],, Andrew Morton ,[email protected], Subject: Re: [patch] lib: check for strcpy() overflows to fixed length buffers On Wed, Apr 30, 2014 at 8:08 AM, Dan Carpenter ,[email protected], wrote: , There are sometimes where we know that we are doing an strcpy() into a , fixed length buffer. In those cases, we could verify that the strcpy() , doesnt overflow. This patch introduces DEBUG_STRICT_SLOW_STRCPY_CHECKS , if you want to check for that. The downside is that it makes strcpy , slower. , , I introduced __compiletime_size() to make this work. It returns the , size of the destination buffer or zero if the size isnt known. The , __compiletime_object_size() is similar but if ...
... ,Tris-EDTA Buffer Solution, 1X, pH 8.0, sterile,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Find Buffer Solution related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Buffer Solution information.
A method of reducing voltage spikes on voltage supply lines of an integrated circuit having a plurality of data signal lines each coupled to a tristate output buffer. The voltage spikes are reduced by enabling and disabling output buffers one at a time such that no two buffers become enabled or disabled simultaneously and by providing a different prespecified delay to each of the plurality of data signal lines so that no two output buffers are toggled simultaneously.
Information from ISBN 0-19-963142-5 pg 321. 1) Chose the pH range you want. Use a buffer that is within pK± 1 because the buffering capacity will be low outside that range. The range that is used may be varied if it is known that a buffer has only to counter the effects of acid or base but not both. (Is only H+ produced?) The edge of a working range can be more satisfactorily used if the change in pH is towards the pK. 2) Stability of the buffer, whether it interacts with the substrates, cofactors, or metal ions, the temperature coefficients of its pK, the ionic strength at which it is used, its absorbance in the UV region of the spectrum, its cost, and its availability free from contaminants. Most of the newer zwitterionic buffers do not appreciably bind divalent metal ions, are chemically stable, do not appreciably absorb light at wavelengths longer than 240nm, and can be made up as a concentrated stock solutions. Many of the buffers which have been in longer use have one or more ...
Information from ISBN 0-19-963142-5 pg 321. 1) Chose the pH range you want. Use a buffer that is within pK± 1 because the buffering capacity will be low outside that range. The range that is used may be varied if it is known that a buffer has only to counter the effects of acid or base but not both. (Is only H+ produced?) The edge of a working range can be more satisfactorily used if the change in pH is towards the pK. 2) Stability of the buffer, whether it interacts with the substrates, cofactors, or metal ions, the temperature coefficients of its pK, the ionic strength at which it is used, its absorbance in the UV region of the spectrum, its cost, and its availability free from contaminants. Most of the newer zwitterionic buffers do not appreciably bind divalent metal ions, are chemically stable, do not appreciably absorb light at wavelengths longer than 240nm, and can be made up as a concentrated stock solutions. Many of the buffers which have been in longer use have one or more ...
Pro Lift Buffers are designed for polishing and buffing. With the random orbit polishing movement, it ensures the swirl free finish. The ergonomic grip design offers the ease of using. At the same time, it gets your job done quickly and efficiently ...
Efficient algorithms for the automatic insertion of flip-flops and buffers are presented. The algorithms have been implemented as pan of an automatic repea
A String_Buffer_Reader provides methods to manipulate a character stream as if it were a String_Buffer by backing it with a Reader to provide the characters for the String_Buffer. The intended use is to consume a character stream, in a semi-sequential manner, processing statements as they are encountered by moving along the stream from statement to statement. A statement is composed of a contiguous sequence of characters of variable length. The character stream may be sourced from a Reader or a String. A String source is a convenience that allows a String_Buffer to be used transparently in the same context where a Reader might also be used, but instead a "pre-read" source of characters is provided directly (a StringReader could also be used). For a Reader source the character stream is buffered using a sliding window. The source contents are referenced by virtual Location values that act as indexes into the entire character stream; the first character of the stream is at location 0. The buffer ...
Leinco Technologies is a premier manufacturer of bulk and bottled biological buffers. We offer a variety of common in stock packaged biological buffers as well as bulk buffers packaged in bioprocess sterile bags on a custom basis upon request. Leincos biological buffers have important attributes that make them suitable for use in biological experiments or manufacturing. Please take a moment to click on the learn more button to see why Leinco is a good source for your important biological buffer needs. ...
Antoine Pitrou, 03.09.2010 12:56: , On Fri, 3 Sep 2010 20:44:01 +1000 , Nick Coghlan wrote: ,, ,, It actually strikes me as a fairly bad thing, so I think youre right ,, to distrust it. +1 ,,, It could not be resized, but it could be modified (same as what happens ,,, with bytearrays today). Actually, the buffer itself would be writable, ,,, and allow modifying the BytesIO contents. ,, ,, You may need to be careful with reads and writes while the buffer is ,, exposed (e.g. throwing an exception until the buffer is released ,, again). Perhaps the buffer accessor should be a context manager so it ,, is easy to enforce prompt release? , , Thats an interesting idea. I was planning to return a memoryview , object (in order to hide the intermediate object, and make it really , minimal), so perhaps the context protocol should be enabled on , memoryviews? , , (__enter__ would be a no-op, and __exit__ would release the internal , buffer and render it invalid, a bit like closing a file) I cant see a ...
Hi all, In a bit of a rut. Have a file with a lot of text. I want to seperate the text in this file as entries. Each entry that I would be seperating, would be done so using IO.pos and when that cursor reaches a certain character in the file, it will ideally place all the content before that character into a buffer. Then the cursor will continue reading until it hits that same character again and put that content into a buffer, so on and so forth. (Character Ill be reading would be a greater than symbol) Would I use a do iterator or use a while loop with a gets method? Or readlines perhaps? File: ,entry 1 rubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyruby (newline here which I dont want) ,entry 2 rubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyruby Entry1 and entry2 will be in seperate buffers which I would be able to access again. buffer1 = ,entry 1 rubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyruby buffer2 = ,entry 2 rubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyrubyruby PS. The file is huge, so I dont want to read it into memory. What is the best way to approach ...
A method and apparatus for managing effectively data and command buffers in an I/O subsystem utilizes a content addressable memory (CAM) array (36) having a plurality of CAM storage locations (SL1 . . . SLn). The CAM array is used to store a plurality of SCSI Nexus entries and generates a unique address pointer when there is a match between an incoming SCSI Nexus value and one of the plurality of SCSI Nexus entries. A command buffer (24) or user data buffer (26) is responsive to the unique address pointer for storing and retrieving the command/data section of a Command Control Block in a corresponding one of a plurality of buffer storage locations. As a result, the host CPU (12) or adapter (22) is relieved of much of the overhead associated with managing these buffers.
org Subject: buffer busy waits explanation Hi I am trying to understand what is buffer busy waits. I was reading this: * The block is being read into the buffer by another session, so the waiting session must wait for the block read to complete. * Another session has the buffer block locked in a mode that is incompatible with the waiting sessions request. In the first case, shall I asume that the block has two different rows that are needed by two different sessions. The first session is bringing the block into the buffer from disk and the second session is also waiting for that block. Second session can then read the block for the second row. Why does it matter if the block is being read by another session or current session? Some session has to bring up the block into memory if a current session needs the block. ,,, they dont have to be different rows. This is simply that the second session waits if the first has already started the read, because it likely would be a waste of resources ...
buffer pool. For efficiency of high-volume read operations, the buffer pool is divided into pages that can potentially hold multiple rows. For efficiency of cache management, the buffer pool is implemented as a linked list of pages; data that is rarely used is aged out of the cache, using a variation of the LRU algorithm. For more information, see Section 14.6.3.1, "The InnoDB Buffer Pool", and Section 14.6.3, "InnoDB Buffer Pool Configuration". ...
define MAX_CB 3 #define NULL_HANDLE -1 typedef void (*FnMap)(); struct MapStruct { FnMap Function; SV * PerlSub; int Handle; }; static void fn1(); static void fn2(); static void fn3(); static struct MapStruct Map [MAX_CB] = { { fn1, NULL, NULL_HANDLE }, { fn2, NULL, NULL_HANDLE }, { fn3, NULL, NULL_HANDLE } }; static void Pcb(index, buffer) int index; char * buffer; { dSP; PUSHMARK(SP); XPUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSVpv(buffer, 0))); PUTBACK; /* Call the Perl sub */ call_sv(Map[index].PerlSub, G_DISCARD); } static void fn1(buffer) char * buffer; { Pcb(0, buffer); } static void fn2(buffer) char * buffer; { Pcb(1, buffer); } static void fn3(buffer) char * buffer; { Pcb(2, buffer); } void array_asynch_read(fh, callback) int fh SV * callback CODE: int index; int null_index = MAX_CB; /* Find the same handle or an empty entry */ for (index = 0; index , MAX_CB; ++index) { if (Map[index].Handle == fh) break; if (Map[index].Handle == NULL_HANDLE) null_index = index; } if (index == MAX_CB && null_index == MAX_CB) ...
define MAX_CB 3 #define NULL_HANDLE -1 typedef void (*FnMap)() ; struct MapStruct { FnMap Function ; SV * PerlSub ; int Handle ; } ; static void fn1() ; static void fn2() ; static void fn3() ; static struct MapStruct Map [MAX_CB] = { { fn1, NULL, NULL_HANDLE }, { fn2, NULL, NULL_HANDLE }, { fn3, NULL, NULL_HANDLE } } ; static void Pcb(index, buffer) int index ; char * buffer ; { dSP ; PUSHMARK(SP) ; XPUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSVpv(buffer, 0))) ; PUTBACK ; /* Call the Perl sub */ call_sv(Map[index].PerlSub, G_DISCARD) ; } static void fn1(buffer) char * buffer ; { Pcb(0, buffer) ; } static void fn2(buffer) char * buffer ; { Pcb(1, buffer) ; } static void fn3(buffer) char * buffer ; { Pcb(2, buffer) ; } void array_asynch_read(fh, callback) int fh SV * callback CODE: int index ; int null_index = MAX_CB ; /* Find the same handle or an empty entry */ for (index = 0 ; index , MAX_CB ; ++index) { if (Map[index].Handle == fh) break ; if (Map[index].Handle == NULL_HANDLE) null_index = index ; } if (index == ...
Primary reference: Brautigan, D.L.; Ferguson-Miller, S.; Margoliash, E. Methods in Enzymology 1978, volume 53D, pp 131-132.. A. Preparation of 0.076 M Sodium Phosphate Buffer, pH 7.0. Primary reference: Perrin, D.D.; Dempsey, B. Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control. Chapman and Hall: New York, 1974; p. 138.. B. Preparation of 250 mL of 0. 15 M Na2HPO4. Calculation: 0.15 mol/L * 0.25 L * 141.96 g/mole = 5.324 g needed. I weighed 5.3240 g Na2HPO4 and transferred it quantitatively into a 250 mL volumetric flask to which I added distilled (DI) H2O to the mark. I mixed the solution 20x by inversion.. C. Preparation of 250 mL of 0. 15 M H2NaPO4. Calculation: 0.15 mol/L * 0.25 L * 130.99 g/mole = 5.175 g needed. I weighed 5.1750 g H2NaHPO4.H2O and transferred it quantitatively into a 250 mL volumetric flask to which I added DI H2O to the mark. I mixed the solution 20x by inversion.. D. Preparation of 500 mL of 0. 076 M Sodium Phosphate Buffer, pH 7.0. I combined 97.5 mL of 0.15 M NaH2PO4 (part A) and ...
In this buffer overflow tutorial you will learn how to find exploits and vulnerabilities and prevent attacks. You will also receive advice and best practices on buffer overflow testing and memory leakage defense.
The text buffer data can be read and written, and bitwise operations can be applied. A part of text buffer memory above the ... Text buffer[edit]. Each screen character is actually represented by two bytes aligned as a 16-bit word accessible by the CPU in ... The VGA text buffer is located at physical memory address 0xB8000. Since this is usually used by 16-bit x86 processes operating ... Text mode output signal is essentially the same as in graphic modes, but its source is text buffer and character generator, not ...
Buffer solutions[edit]. Buffer solutions are used to correct acidosis or alkalosis. Lactated Ringer's solution also has some ... A solution more specifically used for buffering purpose is intravenous sodium bicarbonate. ...
Stack buffer overflow is a type of the more general programming malfunction known as buffer overflow (or buffer overrun). ... which is usually a fixed-length buffer. Stack buffer overflow bugs are caused when a program writes more data to a buffer ... which is usually a fixed-length buffer. Stack buffer overflow bugs are caused when a program writes more data to a buffer ... Overfilling a buffer allocated on the stack is more likely to influence program execution than overfilling a buffer on the heap ...
Buffer overruns[edit]. Older Linux distributions were relatively sensitive to buffer overrun attacks: if the program did not ... care about the size of the buffer itself, the kernel provided only limited protection, allowing an attacker to execute ...
... borate buffered tris-hydroxymethylaminomethonium)[17][18][19] or the newer SB buffer or BBS buffer (borate buffered saline) in ... pH buffer. Borate ions (commonly supplied as boric acid) are used in biochemical and chemical laboratories to make buffers, e.g ... Swimming pool buffering agent to control pH. *Neutron absorber, used in nuclear reactors and spent fuel pools to control ... It is used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of ...
These benefits are present even if the buffered data are written to the buffer once and read from the buffer once. ... Buffer vs. cache[edit]. The semantics of a "buffer" and a "cache" are not totally different; even so, there are fundamental ... Translation lookaside buffer[edit]. Main article: Translation lookaside buffer. A memory management unit (MMU) that fetches ... Also, a whole buffer of data is usually transferred sequentially (for example to hard disk), so buffering itself sometimes ...
Cisco AQM: Dynamic buffer limiting[edit]. Cisco Systems (Engine IV and V) has the capability to classify flows as aggressive ( ... One solution is to use random early detection (RED) on the network equipment's port queue buffer.[11][12] On network equipment ... All flows that experience port queue buffer tail-drop begin a TCP retrain at the same moment - this is called TCP global ... Active queue management (AQM) is the reorder or drop of network packets inside a transmit buffer that is associated with a ...
Green-roof water buffering[edit]. Water run-off and flash floods have become a problem especially in areas where there is a ... By buffering rainfall, such as by fitting green roofs, floods can be reduced or avoided: the rain is absorbed into the soil/ ... If well planned and fitted, the mass of the soil or growth medium can provide a good heat buffer for the building - storing the ... Sudden cold spells are also buffered from the building. One predicted problem with large green roofs is that fire may be able ...
... protection[edit]. Main article: Buffer overflow protection. Buffer overflow protection is used to detect the ... or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites ... A buffer overflow occurs when data written to a buffer also corrupts data values in memory addresses adjacent to the ... Buffer overflows must thus be avoided by maintaining a high degree of correctness in code which performs buffer management. It ...
Buffer. Esters are prone to producing allergic reactions, which may necessitate the use of an amide. The names of each locally ... A number of methods can be used to decrease this pain, including buffering of the solution with bicarbonate and warming.[28] ...
Vegetative practices: buffers; channels; green roofs; wetlands; functional art;[further explanation needed] stormwater wetland ...
Buffer zone. 7,024.65 ha (17,358.3 acres). Meymand (Persian: ميمند‎, also Romanized as Maymand, Meimand and Maimand)[1] is a ...
Buffer zone. 2,824.9 ha. Villa Tugendhat is a historical building in the wealthy neighbourhood of Černá Pole in Brno, Czech ...
Buffer zone. 559.7 ha (1,383 acres). Coordinates. 26°12′31″N 127°40′58″E / 26.20861°N 127.68278°E / 26.20861; 127.68278 ...
Regardless of the type of buffer there is general consensus among practitioners that a minimum 35" buffer on either side of a ... Buffer strip effectiveness. Buffer Type Width (M) % Sediment Reduction % Nitrogen Reduction % Phosphorus Reduction Grass 4.6 61 ... Thicker and forested buffer strips provide the best return on value for stream protection and nutrient removal. They have an ... Grass and shrub buffers are still beneficial to the health of the watershed and conserving nutrients and soil on surrounding ...
Buffer zone. 766.7 ha. Miraflores Skyline.. The Historic Centre, made up of the districts of Lima and Rímac, was declared a ...
Buffer zone. 20.063 ha (0.07746 sq mi). Coordinates. 40°20′38″N 1°06′26″W / 40.34389°N 1.10722°W / 40.34389; -1.10722. ...
Buffer zone. 19.16 ha. Coordinates. 42°54′27″N 43°0′39″E / 42.90750°N 43.01083°E / 42.90750; 43.01083. ...
"Branch Target Buffers".. (EE461). *. Fog, Agner. "The microarchitecture of Intel, AMD and VIA CPUs" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-09 ...
Buffer beams vermilion and cab interiors grained pine.. *Goods classes - holly green edged in black and lined in light green. ... Vermilion buffer beams and buff footplate interior.. *Goods classes - unlined Indian red. Older engines painted black until ... black wheels and red buffer beams seems to have become standard. ... Buffer beams vermilion. Smokebox, chimney, frames etc. black.. ...
... and the episodic buffer. One component of this model, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, is said to be responsible for the temporary ...
Together they also developed a complex aqueous solution (a buffer), or perfusion ex vivo, for studying blood flow in arteries, ... "Krebs-Henseleit Buffer Modified". Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC. Retrieved 28 July 2014.. ... Bailey, Leslie E; Ong, Seok D (1978). "Krebs-Henseleit solution as a physiological buffer in perfused and superfused ... which is now called the Krebs-Henseleit buffer.)[12][13] In 1932 he published the basic chemical reactions of urea cycle, which ...
Rotate: the operand is treated as a circular buffer of bits so its least and most significant bits are effectively adjacent. ... Rotate through carry: the carry bit and operand are collectively treated as a circular buffer of bits. ...
BUFFER /*target*/, 1 /*TRANSFORM0, index*/, bufferName.get(2) /*TRANSFORM, buffer*/); gl4.glBindTextureUnit(0 /*diffuse*/, ...
Glycogen fuel reserve buffer: Astrocytes contain glycogen and are capable of gluconeogenesis. The astrocytes next to neurons in ...
4. Dissociation of buffer least influenced by buffer concentration, temperature and ionic composition. ... 1. the buffering capacity in the desired pH range with the ability to maintain constant pH during fixation. ... 1. Good buffering capacity at higher pH required for some tissues and some cytochemical procedures. ... 1. Not suitable as buffer during primary fixation with osmium tetroxide due to considerable extraction of tissue components. ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=buffers&oldid=50805530" ...
list-buffers. ). To display a list of existing buffers, type C-x C-b. . This pops up a buffer menu in a buffer named *Buffer ... Next: Misc Buffer, Previous: Select Buffer, Up: Buffers 19.2 Listing Existing Buffers. C-x C-b. List the existing buffers (. ... Buffer List*. buffer and the commands available there. . .. in the first field of a line indicates that the buffer is ... list-buffers. omits buffers whose names begin with a space, unless they visit files: such buffers are used internally by Emacs ...
... see screenshots and learn more about Buffers. Download Buffers and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. ... Buffers is a scientific tool for designing buffer solutions for pH control. Buffers is useful both as a handy reference of ... To use Buffers, just choose a buffering agent and target pH along with the desired solution volume, temperature and buffer ... Akkyra Systems Web SiteBuffers Support. Whats New in Version 1.5.0 - Updated for iOS 8. - Improved accuracy for some buffers. ...
... buffers extension is part of the WebGL API and enables a fragment shader to write to several textures, which is useful for ... ext.MAX_DRAW_BUFFERS_WEBGL. A GLint. indicating the maximum number of draw buffers.. Methods. This extension exposes one new ... WEBGL_draw_buffers. The definition of WEBGL_draw_buffers in that specification.. Recommendation. Initial definition.. ... specifying a color buffer.. ext.DRAW_BUFFER0_WEBGL. ext.DRAW_BUFFER1_WEBGL. ext.DRAW_BUFFER2_WEBGL. ext.DRAW_BUFFER3_WEBGL. ext ...
Buffer overflow protection[edit]. Main article: Buffer overflow protection. Buffer overflow protection is used to detect the ... or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffers boundary and overwrites ... A buffer overflow occurs when data written to a buffer also corrupts data values in memory addresses adjacent to the ... Buffer overflows must thus be avoided by maintaining a high degree of correctness in code which performs buffer management. It ...
Double buffering and Triple buffering for techniques mainly in graphics. *Depth buffer, Stencil buffer, for different parts of ... It is not to be confused with memory buffer register.. In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a ... The BUFFERS command/statement in CONFIG.SYS of DOS.. *The buffer between a serial port (UART) and a MODEM. The COM port speed ... Telecommunication buffer[edit]. A buffer routine or storage medium used in telecommunications compensates for a difference in ...
Buffer[edit]. Buffer creates an environment for isolated proteins. Each buffer choice has a specific pH range, so the buffer ... Commonly used buffers[edit]. NP-40 lysis buffer[edit]. It may be the most widely used lysis buffer. The solubilizing agent is ... RIPA (RadioImmunoPrecipitation Assay) lysis buffer[edit]. RIPA buffer is a commonly used lysis buffer for immunoprecipitation ... Other such lysis buffers include the proprietary Qiagen product Buffer P2. References[edit]. *^ Posch, Anton (2014-12-01). " ...
Double buffering and Triple buffering for techniques mainly in graphics. *Depth buffer, Stencil buffer, for different parts of ... It is not to be confused with memory buffer register.. In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a ... Buffer versus cache[edit]. A cache often also acts as a buffer, and vice versa. However, caches operate on the premise that the ... The BUFFERS command/statement in CONFIG.SYS of DOS.. *The buffer between a serial port (UART) and a MODEM. The COM port speed ...
... Praveen Kumar N Fri, 08 Sep 2006 07:31:24 -0700 ... postgresql shared buffers. Praveen Kumar N wrote: Following is the output of query i have executed. Looks like Alvaro guessed ...
The tutorials dont assume that you know anything about protocol buffers, but do assume that you are comfortable writing code ... Each tutorial in this section shows you how to implement a simple application using protocol buffers in your favourite language ... introducing you to the languages protocol buffer API as well as showing you the basics of creating and using .proto files. The ...
Therefore, protocol buffer parsers must be able to parse fields in any order. Implications. *Do not assume the byte output of a ... Protocol buffer parsers must be able to parse repeated fields that were compiled as packed. as if they were not packed, and ... As you know, a protocol buffer message is a series of key-value pairs. The binary version of a message just uses the fields ... You dont need to understand this to use protocol buffers in your applications, but it can be very useful to know how different ...
... buffers buffers ON (pools.pool_id = buffers.pool_id) WHERE buffers.is_free = 0 ... Returns information about memory buffers belonging to a specific memory pool that are used as part of a full-text crawl or a ... SELECT SUM(pools.buffer_size) FROM sys.dm_fts_memory_pools pools JOIN sys.dm_fts_memory_ ... The following example returns the average percentage of memory that is being used for all active full-text memory buffers. ...
struct iio_buffer * iio_buffer_get. (struct iio_buffer * buffer)¶. Grab a reference to the buffer ... struct iio_buffer * buffer. The buffer to release the reference for, may be NULL. void iio_device_attach_buffer. (struct iio_ ... The device the buffer should be attached to. struct iio_buffer * buffer. The buffer to attach to the device. Description ... iio_buffer_set_attrs. (struct iio_buffer * buffer, const struct attribute ** attrs)¶. Set buffer specific attributes ...
Download Protocol Buffers. Release Packages. Latest Version. The latest release of Protocol Buffers can be found on the release ... Protocol Buffers source code is hosted on GitHub: https://github.com/protocolbuffers/protobuf. Google Code Repository. Our old ...
... pH buffer, buffer, hydrogen ion buffer, Buffers (en); محلول وقاء, Buffer solution, BUFFER, مادة موقية, محلول موقي, المحلول ... buffer (nn); buffer (nb); Bufferoplossing, Zuurteregelaar, Chemische buffer (nl); 완충용액 (ko); Solució tampó, Solució amortidora ... buffer solution (bn); Solution tampon (fr); Kapasite tanpon (ht); Puhverlahus (et); Буфердик эритме (ky); Buffer (nl); Dung ... Solución buffer, Soluciones tampón, Buffer, Solución tampón, Tampón, Regulador de la acidez, Sustancias reguladoras (es); מתריס ...
Buffers PNs 28333 and 28769 are designed for use in automotive manufacturing (AOEM) paint shop applications for buffing or ... 3M™ RO Buffer Elite Series Instruction Manual Palm Buffer 3" (PDF, 347.0KB) ... 3M™ Buffers PNs 28333 and 28769 are designed for use in automotive manufacturing (AOEM) paint shop applications for buffing or ... Not exclusive to paint shops, 3M™ Buffers are an excellent choice for a variety of repairs (PDF, 1.47 Mb) on different ...
The Protocol Buffer wire format is not self-delimiting, so protocol buffer parsers cannot determine where a message ends on ... Even though Protocol Buffers cannot handle the entire set at once, using Protocol Buffers to encode each piece greatly ... When you read the messages back in, you read the size, then read the bytes into a separate buffer, then parse from that buffer ... Protocol Buffers are not designed to handle large messages. As a general rule of thumb, if you are dealing in messages larger ...
Join Angie Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Adding object buffers, part of Learning Cinema 4D Lite for After ... You can also add passes for object buffers and an object buffer is basically a matte…that you can then use in After Effects to ... Join Angie Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Adding object buffers, part of Learning Cinema 4D Lite for After ... I could create object buffers for each of…them, and isolate them. And thats what were going to do here.…Im in Chapter12_02. ...
You write to the depth buffer using gl_FragDepth. So do that.. You attach the depth buffer to the GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT, set the ... So the question is - how can i put my float point depth values to depth buffer (GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT render buffer). Am I right ... combining Z-buffers. Hi, All. The thing i want to do is a combination of conventional rendering (say render something into ... Though really, itd probably be quicker to just upload your values directly to the depth buffer with glTexSubImage2D. Though it ...
... buffer-base-buffer. &optional buffer. This function returns the base buffer of buffer. , which defaults to the current buffer. ... whose base buffer is base-buffer. . The argument base-buffer. may be a live buffer or the name (a string) of an existing buffer ... the indirect buffers state is set to the default state for new buffers. If base-buffer. is an indirect buffer, its base buffer ... Buffers 27.11 Indirect Buffers. An indirect buffer. shares the text of some other buffer, which is called the base buffer. of ...
display-buffer. which eventually handles all incoming requests for buffer display (see Choosing Window). display-buffer. ... Buffer Display Action Functions: Support functions for buffer display. *Buffer Display Action Alists: Alists for fine-tuning ... Next: Window History, Previous: Switching Buffers, Up: Windows 28.13 Displaying a Buffer in a Suitable Window. This section ... The Zen of Buffer Display: How to avoid that buffers get lost in between windows. ...
buffer-live-p. (see below). - Command: kill-buffer. &optional buffer-or-name. This function kills the buffer buffer-or-name. , ... Next: Indirect Buffers, Previous: Creating Buffers, Up: Buffers 27.10 Killing Buffers. Killing a buffer. makes its name unknown ... If you kill a buffer that is the base buffer of one or more indirect buffers (see Indirect Buffers), the indirect buffers are ... of a buffer is nil. if, and only if, the buffer is killed. A buffer that has not been killed is called a live. buffer. To test ...
Stack buffer overflow is a type of the more general programming malfunction known as buffer overflow (or buffer overrun). ... which is usually a fixed-length buffer. Stack buffer overflow bugs are caused when a program writes more data to a buffer ... which is usually a fixed-length buffer. Stack buffer overflow bugs are caused when a program writes more data to a buffer ... Overfilling a buffer allocated on the stack is more likely to influence program execution than overfilling a buffer on the heap ...
Next: Article Buffer, Previous: Group Buffer, Up: Top 3 Summary Buffer. A line for each article is displayed in the summary ... Summary Buffer Format: Deciding how the summary buffer is to look. *Summary Maneuvering: Moving around the summary buffer. * ... The most common way to a summary buffer is to select a group from the group buffer (see Selecting a Group). You can have as ... Exiting the Summary Buffer: Returning to the Group buffer, or reselecting the current group. *Crosspost Handling: How ...
  • TSE or Tris/Saline/EDTA, is a buffer solution containing a mixture of Tris base, Sodium chloride and EDTA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry and molecular biology, the saline-sodium citrate (SSC) buffer is used as a hybridization buffer, to control stringency for washing steps in protocols for Southern blotting, in situ hybridization, DNA Microarray or Northern blotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBE buffer SB buffer Sodium borate as an electrophoresis buffer Brody, J.R., Kern, S.E. (2004): History and principles of conductive media for standard DNA electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For alkaline buffers, a strong base such as sodium hydroxide may be added. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, an acetate buffer can be made from a mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This buffer is more denaturing than NP-40 or Triton X-100 lysis buffer because it contains the ionic detergents SDS and sodium deoxycholate as active constituents and is particularly useful for disruption of nuclear membranes in the preparation of nuclear extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIPA buffer recipe for total protein extract is as follows: 25mM Tris (10 mM sodium phosphate may be used instead), pH 7-8 150 mM NaCl 0.1% SDS (optional) 0.5% sodium deoxycholate 1% Triton X-100 or NP-40 Protease inhibitors such as PMSF or cocktail protease inhibitors which are commercially available (use according to the manufacturer's guide) Alcaraz C, De Diego M, Pastor MJ, Escribano JM (July 1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tris-acid solutions are effective buffers for slightly basic conditions, which keep DNA deprotonated and soluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAE buffer is a buffer solution containing a mixture of Tris base, acetic acid and EDTA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made up of Tris-acetate buffer, usually at pH 8.3, and EDTA, which sequesters divalent cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAE (Tris-acetate-EDTA) buffer is used as both a running buffer and in agarose gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 10497279 Stellwagen, E., and Stellwagen, N.C. (2002) The free solution mobility of DNA in Tris-acetate-EDTA buffers of different concentrations, with and without added NaCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • TE" is derived from its components: Tris, a common pH buffer, and EDTA, a molecule that chelates cations like Mg2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make a 100 ml solution of T10E1 Buffer, 1 ml of 1 M Tris base (pH 8.0) and 0.2 ml EDTA (0.5 M) are mixed and made up with double distilled water up to 100ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • ph7.4 TE buffer=100mM/L Tris(pH7.4)+10mM/L EDTA(pH8.0) from Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Yagi N, Satonaka K, Horio M, Shimogaki H, Tokuda Y, Maeda S (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tris (with HCl) has a slightly alkaline buffering capacity in the 7-9.2 range. (wikipedia.org)
  • omits buffers whose names begin with a space, unless they visit files: such buffers are used internally by Emacs. (gnu.org)
  • This section describes lower-level functions Emacs uses to find or create a window for displaying a specified buffer. (gnu.org)
  • If you kill a buffer that is current or displayed in a window, Emacs automatically selects or displays some other buffer instead. (gnu.org)
  • If the buffer is already being shown in a window on another frame, Emacs selects that window and frame instead of creating a new frame. (gnu.org)
  • Emacs uses buffer names that start with a space for internal purposes. (gnu.org)
  • Are their 'hidden buffers' in emacs? (gnu.org)
  • This makes the gap buffer a simpler alternative to the rope for use in text editors such as Emacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • emacs gap buffer info Accessed 2013-01-30. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the list of buffers we never want to see (defvar crs-hated-buffers '('KILL' '*Compile-Log*' '*scratch*')) (setq iswitchb-buffer-ignore (append '('^ ' '*Buffer') crs-hated-buffers)) (defun crs-hated-buffers () 'List of buffers I never want to see, converted from names to buffers. (gnu.org)
  • 1. Most physiological of common buffers. (ou.edu)
  • Killing the base buffer effectively kills the indirect buffer in that it cannot ever again be the current buffer. (gnu.org)
  • If the current buffer is not indirect, it is used as the base buffer. (gnu.org)
  • which defaults to the current buffer. (gnu.org)
  • This means that killing a buffer can change the current buffer. (gnu.org)
  • See Current Buffer . (gnu.org)
  • or omitted, it kills the current buffer. (gnu.org)
  • The buffer being killed is the current buffer when they are called. (gnu.org)
  • This function does not change which window is selected, nor does it directly change which buffer is current (see Current Buffer ). (gnu.org)
  • in the most recently selected buffer other than the current buffer, in another window. (gnu.org)
  • goes to line 4 in the current buffer, without reading a number from the minibuffer. (gnu.org)
  • in the current buffer. (gnu.org)
  • A buffer amplifier (sometimes simply called a buffer) is one that provides electrical impedance transformation from one circuit to another, with the aim of preventing the signal source from being affected by whatever currents (or voltages, for a current buffer) that the load may produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main types of buffer exist: the voltage buffer and the current buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ideal current buffer in the diagram, the output impedance is infinite (an ideal current source) and the input impedance is zero (a short circuit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some rode on the steps, on the roofs of carriages, on the buffers even. (dictionary.com)
  • The hooks and chain hold the carriages together, while the buffers keep the carriages from banging into each other so that no damage is caused. (wikipedia.org)
  • In violent collisions, the buffers of adjacent carriages may become displaced relative to one another, allowing the carriages to telescope which is very dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • As you saw in the previous section, all the protocol buffer types associated with wire type 0 are encoded as varints. (google.com)
  • Stack buffer overflow is a type of the more general programming malfunction known as buffer overflow (or buffer overrun). (wikipedia.org)
  • As you can see, the message format is simple - each message type has one or more uniquely numbered fields, and each field has a name and a value type, where value types can be numbers (integer or floating-point), booleans, strings, raw bytes, or even (as in the example above) other protocol buffer message types, allowing you to structure your data hierarchically. (google.com)
  • Note that field numbers in the range 1 through 15 take one byte to encode, including the field number and the field's type (you can find out more about this in Protocol Buffer Encoding ). (google.com)
  • contains an arbitrary serialized protocol buffer message along with a URL that describes the type of the serialized message. (google.com)
  • A protocol buffer message type. (google.com)
  • The standard type of coupling on railways following the British tradition is the buffer and chain coupling used on the pioneering Planet class locomotive of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway of 1830. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, several well-known commercialized software products have been developed to manage this type of burst buffer, such as DataWarp and Infinite Memory Engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A victim buffer is a type of write buffer that stores dirty evicted lines in write-back caches so that they get written back to main memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of buffer cushions the battering force of repeated metal on metal impact, reducing wear on parts and lengthening the service life of the firearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduction of perceived recoil discomfort is an immediate added benefit of this type recoil buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of buffer strip is most effective when runoff water enters uniformly as sheetflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can lead to distinct TLBs for each access type, an instruction translation lookaside buffer (ITLB) and a data translation lookaside buffer (DTLB). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a fiber optic cable, a buffer is one type of component used to encapsulate one or more optical fibers for the purpose of providing such functions as mechanical isolation, protection from physical damage and fiber identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are additional fields in every entry of the buffer: Instruction type (jump, store to memory, store to register) Destination (either memory address or register number) Result (value that goes to destination or indication of a (un)successful jump) Validity (does the result already exist? (wikipedia.org)
  • Proposed changes are called BIRDs (Buffer Issue Resolution Documents), a play on the word ibis, a type of bird. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are widespread in operating system (OS) code, so it is possible to make attacks that perform privilege escalation and gain unlimited access to the computer's resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The techniques to exploit a buffer overflow vulnerability vary by architecture , by operating system and by memory region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capital buffers help to ensure a more resilient global banking system. (investopedia.com)
  • in EU standards, it's two devices: buffers and draw gear and screw coupling) is the standard train coupling system used in Europe, outside the former Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPlayer) feature the ability to drop frames if the system is overloaded, intentionally allowing a buffer underrun to keep up the tempo. (wikipedia.org)
  • BurstMem: A High-Performance Burst Buffer System for Scientific Applications" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • An Ephemeral Burst-Buffer File System for Scientific Applications" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • BurstFS: A Distributed Burst Buffer File System for Scientific Applications" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • On some early home computers, to minimize the necessary hardware, a CPU interrupt checked the keyboard's switches for key presses multiple times each second, and recorded the key presses in a keyboard buffer for the operating system or application software to read. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Buffer Island" (content from the Geographic Names Information System). (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer gas adds pressure to a system and controls the speed of combustion with any oxygen present. (wikipedia.org)
  • system moves "started " from the first buffer to the second buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be somewhat dangerous, because if power is lost before the data is permanently fixed in the magnetic media, the data will be lost from the disk buffer, and the file system on the disk may be left in an inconsistent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of a read/write FPDMA command with Force Unit Access (FUA) bit set to 0 and enabled write buffering, an operating system may see the write operation finished before the data is physically written to the media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A riparian buffer is usually split into three different zones, each having its own specific purpose for filtering runoff and interacting with the adjacent aquatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ion (HCO− 3), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to maintain pH in the blood and duodenum, among other tissues, to support proper metabolic function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human stomach and duodenum, the bicarbonate buffer system serves to both neutralize gastric acid and stabilize the intracellular pH of epithelial cells via the secretion of bicarbonate ion into the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffer over-reads can result in erratic program behavior, including memory access errors, incorrect results, a crash, or a breach of system security. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer is a part of the buffers-and-chain coupling system used on the railway systems of many countries, among them most of those in Europe, for attaching railway vehicles to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, we have reclaimed the space of the buffer zone to create events (screenings, talks etc.) and media of these events, which relate to the system as a whole and its numerous and diverse consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desalting and buffer exchange are methods to separate soluble macromolecules from smaller molecules (desalting) or replace the buffer system used for another one suitable for a downstream application (buffer exchange). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sealed chromatography cartridges or columns work similarly except the sample and buffer is pumped into and through the resin by an external device such as a liquid chromatographic (LC) system, also requiring collection and monitoring of several fractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ship-Shore-Ship Buffer (SSSB) is a real-time data link buffer system supporting data exchange between naval forces, including airborne assets, and their associated air defence ground environment units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green solutions to addressing runoff pollution include using natural filtration systems like a buffer strip or bio filtration system to treat storm water and reduce the volume and velocity in which the storm water enters the drainage system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2007 AMD stopped delivery of Barcelona processors after a bug in the translation lookaside buffer (TLB) of stepping B2 was discovered that could rarely lead to a race condition and thus a system lockup. (wikipedia.org)
  • glDeleteBuffersARB(sizei n, const uint *buffers) Deletes the specified number of VBOs from the supplied array or VBO id. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer routine or storage medium used in telecommunications compensates for a difference in rate of flow of data , or time of occurrence of events, when transferring data from one device to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that protocol buffer style has evolved over time, so it is likely that you will see .proto files written in different conventions or styles. (google.com)
  • Finally, argument buffers allow resources to be indexed dynamically at function execution time by greatly increasing the limit on the number of resources that can be placed inside them. (apple.com)
  • This buffer-local variable records the time at which a buffer was last displayed in a window. (gnu.org)
  • Previously he was saying it took a long time to buffer but was fine once the picture appeared. (mail-archive.com)
  • You can have just one element in the array and retrieve events one at a time until the buffer is empty. (microsoft.com)
  • Even if a buffer depth SNMP poll object existed it would not possible to interrogate it on a time scale short enough to catch microbursts. (ucsc.edu)
  • Since that time, the "buffers" part of the name has lost its meaning, but it is still the name we use. (google.com)
  • Buffer underruns are often the result of transitory issues involving the connection which is being buffered: either a connection between two processes, with others competing for CPU time, or a physical link, with devices competing for bandwidth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In real-time applications, a large buffer size also increases the latency between input and output, which is undesirable in low-latency applications such as video conferencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this technique, the laser is indeed able to stop writing for any amount of time and resume when the buffer is full again. (wikipedia.org)
  • the data are then asynchronously flushed from burst buffer to the storage systems at the same time with the next round of computation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his fifth start, and first at stakes level, Buffering was beaten for the first time in the Group 2 Bollinger Champagne Classic, finishing third with future Group 1 winners Pressday and Spirit of Boom finishing ahead of him in first and second respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Coolmore Stud Stakes as a three year old, he competed in a further 16 Group 1 races before he won one, with Black Caviar, Sepoy, Foxwedge, Hay List and Sea Siren among the horses that defeated Buffering during this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffering was then sent abroad for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until his eight year old season, in Spring 2015 that Buffering returned to the track, winning his track return in the Moir Stakes, making him a three time winner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In time-sharing systems, the location of the buffer depends on whether communications is full-duplex or half-duplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer in GIS is a zone around a map feature measured in units of distance or time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as in the case of a regular buffer, it is a storage medium that enables compensation for a difference in time of occurrence of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A-buffer method is a descendant of the well known Z-buffer, which provides good quality results in moderate time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are used for many purposes, including: Interconnecting two digital circuits operating at different rates, Holding data for later use, Allowing timing corrections to be made on a data stream, Collecting binary data bits into groups that can then be operated on as a unit, Delaying the transit time of a signal in order to allow other operations to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lot of the time contour buffers can be used as a very inexpensive substitute for terraces. (wikipedia.org)
  • A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) is a memory cache that is used to reduce the time taken to access a user memory location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The irregular Z-buffer is an algorithm designed to solve the visibility problem in real-time 3-d computer graphics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A larger buffer size simply means that the decoder will tolerate high bitrates for longer periods of time, but no buffer is infinite, so eventually even a large buffer will overflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBR - The decoder's buffer is filled over time at a constant data rate in the case of CBR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional model is generated in text format and consists of a number of tables that captures current vs. voltage (IV) and voltage vs. time (Vt) characteristics of the buffer, as well as the values of certain parasitic components. (wikipedia.org)
  • An empty input specifies the buffer that was current most recently among those not now displayed in any window. (gnu.org)
  • Specifies the maximum number of frames that the video capture source will buffer for this stream. (microsoft.com)
  • Radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (RIPA buffer) is a lysis buffer used to lyse cells and tissue, for radio immunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A digital buffer (or a voltage buffer) is an electronic circuit element that is used to isolate the input from the output, providing either no voltage or a voltage that is same as the input voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also called a unity gain buffer because it provides a gain of 1, which means it provides at most the same voltage as the input voltage, serving no amplification function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A voltage buffer has a very high input impedance(the opposition to current flow viewed from the load). (wikipedia.org)
  • The high input impedance is the reason a voltage buffer is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • A circuit with a voltage buffer will always draw a little amount of current because of the high input impedance of the buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A digital buffer serves to transfer a voltage from a circuit that has a high output impedance level, to a second circuit with a low input impedance level. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we have a power source and a low impedance(resistor) load without a buffer, according to ohm's law(voltage is equal to current times resistance), a huge amount of current is drawn from the source. (wikipedia.org)
  • the voltage across the buffer impedance is the input voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the output current is generated by the voltage source via buffer, the buffer acts as a barrier between the source and load, thus preventing the load resistance affecting the source network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single input voltage buffers are used in many places for measurements including: In strain gage circuitry to measure deformations in structures like bridges, airplane wings and I-beams in buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • A voltage buffer amplifier is used to transfer a voltage from a first circuit, having a high output impedance level, to a second circuit with a low input impedance level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ideal voltage buffer in the diagram, the input resistance is infinite, the output resistance zero (output impedance of an ideal voltage source is zero). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the voltage gain of a voltage buffer amplifier may be (approximately) unity, it usually provides considerable current gain and thus power gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the Thévenin source drives a unity gain buffer such as that in Figure 1 (top, with unity gain), the voltage input to the amplifier is VA, and with no voltage division because the amplifier input resistance is infinite. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the output the dependent voltage source delivers voltage Av VA = VA to the load, again without voltage division because the output resistance of the buffer is zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Thévenin equivalent circuit of the combined original Thévenin source and the buffer is an ideal voltage source VA with zero Thévenin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer zone in Cyprus was first established in 1964, when Major-General Peter Young was the commander of the British peace force (a predecessor of the present UN force) set up in the wake of the inter-communal violence of the early 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capital buffers identified in Basel III reforms include countercyclical capital buffers , which are determined by Basel Committee member jurisdictions and vary according to a percentage of risk-weighted assets , and capital conservation buffers , which are built up outside periods of financial stress . (investopedia.com)
  • The term 'buffer zone' initially gained prominence in the conservation of natural and cultural heritage through its usage in the establishment of UNESCO's World Heritage Convention, and the term was intended to be used as follows: -World Heritage Convention A buffer zone is intended to avert the effect of negative environmental or human influences, whether or not it embodies great natural or cultural value itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance and function of a buffer zone and the necessary protective measures derived thereof is a relatively new concept in conservation science and can differ greatly for each site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffer zones are an important tool for conservation of properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the decline of many aquatic ecosystems due to agriculture, riparian buffers have become a very common conservation practice aimed at increasing water quality and reducing pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many country, state, and local governments provide financial incentives for conservation programs such as buffer strips because they help stabilize the environment even when the land is being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rigid buffers can only safely cope with very low-speed impacts (i.e., nearly stationary). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the buffers in the very earliest days of railways were rigid (dumb buffers), they soon came to be spring-loaded, while those fitted to modern locomotives and rolling stock incorporate oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. (wikipedia.org)