Tiam1 is involved in the regulation of bufalin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. (1/125)Bufalin, a component of the Chinese medicine chan'su, induces apoptosis in various lines of human tumor cells, such as leukemia HL60 and U937 cells, by altering the expression of apoptosis-related genes, for example, bcl-2 and c-myc. In this study, we characterized a gene that is involved in bufalin-induced apoptosis by the differential display (DD) technique. The partial nucleotide sequence of one of the differentially expressed clones obtained after treatment with bufalin was identical to that of the human gene for Tiam1. When U937 cells were treated with 10(-7) M bufalin, expression of both Tiam1 mRNA and the protein was induced 1 h after the start of the treatment. The increase of Tiam1 mRNA was transient but the level of Tiam1 protein continued to increase at least for 6 h. In addition, the activities of Rac1 and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were also stimulated by bufalin treatment. To evaluate the role of Tiam1 in the apoptotic process, we examined the effects of the expression of sense and antisense RNA for Tiam1 in U937 cells. Apoptosis was strongly induced by bufalin in cells that expressed sense RNA for Tiam1 as compared to apoptosis in control cells treated with bufalin only. Cells expressing antisense RNA for Tiaml were significantly more resistant than the control bufalin-treated cells to induction of DNA fragmentation in response to bufalin. Moreover, sense transformants had elevated activities of PAK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggest that Tiaml might play a critical role in bufalin-induced apoptosis through the activation of Rac1, PAK, and JNK pathway. (+info)
Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors down-regulate gene expression of the intracellular signaling protein 14-3-3 in rat lens. (2/125)To identify genes that are differentially expressed by Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors, we used the differential display technique to compare mRNA expression patterns in rat lens. Lenses were treated with 10 microM ouabain, bufalin, or 19-norbufalin derivative for 24 h and were compared with control lenses. Differential display analysis revealed that one of the down-regulated genes was 14-3-3 theta. Down-regulation was confirmed by Northern blot and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of additional 14-3-3 isoforms revealed that the eta and gamma isoforms of 14-3-3 are also down-regulated by ouabain, bufalin, and 19-norbufalin derivative, whereas the zeta isoform is down-regulated only by bufalin. Down-regulation of the 14-3-3 isoforms occurred without a significant change in gamma-crystallin gene expression. These results demonstrate that one of the consequences of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition by exogenous or endogenous inhibitors is the down-regulation of mRNA transcripts encoding several isoforms of 14-3-3. Because the 14-3-3 proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins, the reduction in the abundance of various isoforms will have profound effects on cell function. (+info)
Induction of apoptosis by bufalin in human tumor cells is associated with a change of intracellular concentration of Na+ ions. (3/125)In an attempt to characterize the mechanisms that are operative at the early stages of the induction of apoptosis by bufalin, a component of the traditional Chinese medicine chan'su, we examined the effects of bufalin on plasma membrane potential, as determined by monitoring the uptake by cells of rhodamine 123. Bufalin induced apoptosis in human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells, in human lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-3 cells, and in human colon adenocarcinoma COLO320DM cells but not in normal human leukocytes, for example, polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes, and not in murine leukemia P388D1 and M1 cells. Treatment for 3 h with bufalin at 10(-6) M caused a decrease in the plasma membrane potential in several lines of human tumor cells but not in murine leukemia cells. No changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, as monitored with the fluorescent dye JC-1, and no release of cytochrome c were observed within at least 6 h after the start of treatment with bufalin. Moreover, overexpression of bcl-2 in human leukemia HL60 cells that had been transfected with cDNA for bcl-2 prevented bufalin-induced apoptosis but had no significant effect on the change in plasma membrane potential induced by bufalin. Since bufalin specifically inhibits the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of human but not murine tumor cells, and since this inhibition leads to a change in intracellular concentration of Na+ ions, our findings suggest that bufalin induces apoptosis in human tumor cells selectively via inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase, which acts upstream of the bcl-2 protein. (+info)
ERK signaling mediates the induction of inflammatory cytokines by bufalin in human monocytic cells. (4/125)Treatment of human leukemia THP-1 cells with bufalin, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, sequentially induces c-fos and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expressions before the appearance of mature phenotypes of monocytic cells. In this study we examined the signal transduction leading to bufalin-induced gene expressions. Bufalin selectively activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), compared with other mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with PD-98059, an inhibitor of the ERK-kinase cascade, abolished bufalin-induced c-fos and IL-1 beta gene expressions, indicating that the ERK-kinase cascade mediates the induction of inflammatory cytokines by bufalin. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by KB-R7943 and of protein kinase C (PKC) by Ro-31-8220 suppressed ERK activation and gene expressions of c-fos and IL-1 beta. These findings suggest that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition by bufalin induces calcium influx and thereby activates PKC and ERK. In cells treated with an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinases, SB-203580, bufalin-mediated ERK activation became persistent and the induction of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha expressions was significantly augmented. These results suggest that cross talk in bufalin-mediated ERK activation is negatively regulated by endogenous p38 MAP kinase activations. (+info)
New insecticidal bufadienolide, bryophyllin C, from Kalanchoe pinnata. (5/125)Two insecticidal bufadienolides (1 and 2) were isolated from a methanol extract of the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata by bioassay-guided fractionation. Compound 1 was identified as known bryophyllin A (bryotoxin C). The structure of new bufadienolide 2, named bryophyllin C, was determined by spectroscopic methods and the chemical transformation of 1. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong insecticidal activity against third instar larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mori), their LD50 values being evaluated as 3 and 5 microg/g of diet, respectively. (+info)
Positive and negative interference of the Chinese medicine Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Elimination of interference by using a monoclonal chemiluminescent digoxin assay or monitoring free digoxin concentration. (6/125)An over-the-counter Chinese medicine, Chan Su, is used as a cardiotonic agent. We demonstrated significant digoxin-like immunoreactivity in various organic and aqueous extracts of Chan Su. For example, when a 20-microL aliquot of an aqueous extract of Chan Su powder (1 mg/mL) was added to a 2-mL aliquot of a drug-free serum, the observed digoxin-like immunoreactivity was 2.76 ng/mL (3.53 nmol/L) digoxin equivalent using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The magnitude of interference was much lower (0.94 ng/mL [1.20 nmol/L]) with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), and no interference was observed with the chemiluminescent assay (CLIA). We also observed a significant positive interference of the extract with the serum digoxin measurement using FPIA. In contrast, we observed a negative interference (falsely lowered digoxin concentration) of the extract in the serum digoxin measurement with the MEIA. The extract had no effect on the serum digoxin measurement with the CLIA. By taking advantage of the high protein binding of Chan Su and only 25% protein binding of digoxin, we further demonstrated that positive interference of Chan Su in the FPIA and negative interference of Chan Su in the MEIA of digoxin could be eliminated by monitoring the free digoxin concentration. (+info)
Mammalian bufadienolide is synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex by a pathway that Is independent of cholesterol side-chain cleavage. (7/125)An increasing body of evidence suggests that an endogenous mammalian bufadienolide (BD) may be involved in the regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. We developed a purification scheme for marinobufagenin (MBG), an amphibian cardiotonic BD, and applied it to purify and characterize material in human plasma, culture medium conditioned by Y-1 adrenocortical cells, and rat adrenal tissue. MBG immunoreactivity purified from plasma and measured by ELISA showed important similarities (chromatography and antibody cross-reactivity) to material secreted into cell culture medium by Y-1 cells. This observation indicates that circulating mammalian BD may have an adrenocortical origin. Release of mammalian BD from adrenocortical cells grown in the absence of exogenous cholesterol was reduced by treatment of cultures with mevastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Supplementation of the serum and cholesterol-free cell culture medium with the LDL fraction of human plasma increased the production of MBG material in the presence of mevastatin, supporting its origin from cholesterol. We used Y-1 cell lines transfected with genes shown to inhibit steroidogenesis through cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Y-1/DAX and Y-1/RIAB) to investigate the dependence of MBG biosynthesis on side-chain cleavage. Our results indicate that the mammalian BD is synthesized in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol and shares important similarities with the amphibian BD MBG, that its biosynthesis is independent of transfer of cholesterol to the side-chain cleavage enzyme complex mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and that neither cAMP nor protein kinase A appears to be a critical component of the pathway controlling its biosynthesis. (+info)
Digitalis and digitalislike compounds down-regulate gene expression of the intracellular signaling protein 14-3-3 in rat lens. (8/125)Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the epithelial layer is fundamental to the maintenance of ionic concentration gradients and transparency of the lens. Recently we have identified endogenous digitalislike compounds (DLC), 19-norbufalin and its peptide derivatives, in human cataractous lenses (Lichtstein et al. Eur J Biochem 216: 261-268, 1993). Lenses were treated with 10 nM ouabain, bufalin or 19-norbufalin derivative for 24 h and were compared to control lenses. Differential display analysis revealed that one of the down-regulated genes was 14-3-3 theta. Down-regulation was confirmed by Northern blot and by RT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR of additional 14-3-3 isoforms revealed that the eta and gamma isoforms of 14-3-3 are also down-regulated by ouabain, bufalin and 19-norbufalin derivative, whereas the zeta isoform is down-regulated only by bufalin. These results demonstrate that one of the consequences of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition by exogenous or endogenous inhibitors is the down-regulation of mRNA transcripts encoding several isoforms of 14-3-3. Since the 14-3-3 proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins, the reduction in the abundance of various isoforms will have profound effects on cell function. Furthermore, These results, together with the demonstration of digitalislike compounds in the normal lens, and their increased level in human cataractous lenses, strongly suggests their involvement in the molecular mechanisms responsible for cataract formation. (+info)
Bufanolides are a type of chemical compound that are found naturally in certain plants and animals, particularly in the skin secretions of toads from the genus Bufo. These compounds have a steroid-like structure and can have various pharmacological effects, such as diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and cardiotonic activities. Some bufanolides are also known to have toxic or hallucinogenic properties.
In medical contexts, bufanolides may be studied for their potential therapeutic uses, but they are not currently used as medications in clinical practice due to their narrow therapeutic index and potential toxicity. It is important to note that the use of toad secretions or products containing bufanolides as alternative medicine or recreational drugs can be dangerous and is not recommended.