Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.GlucuronidaseHypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
They mine the shoots of their host plant. Larvae leave the stem to pupate. Full-grown larvae are light green and reach a length ... This species overwinters as an egg on leaf buds. mothphotographersgroup University of Alberta E.H. Strickland Entomological ... The Cherry Shoot Borer Moth (Argyresthia oreasella) is a moth of the Yponomeutidae family. It is found in North America, ...
Axillary bud: a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. It potentially gives rise to a shoot ... The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and ... Bud: an embryonic shoot with immature stem tip.. *Bulb: a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, ... In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. ...
Fruit tree pruning
On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone ... Remove lower shoots and prune between three and five of the best-placed shoots by half to an upwards or outwards facing bud to ... Side shoots should be shortened by two thirds of their length to an upward or outward facing bud. Lower shoots should be ... Remove any inward-facing shoots. Prune leading shoots of branches selected to extend the framework by half, to a bud facing in ...
Besides nuts, it feeds on buds, shoots, fruit, seedling plants and sometimes small invertebrates. Breeding takes place at any ... A litter of young is born in a nesting chamber lined with dry plant material and consists of two to eleven (usually five) ... bringing in dry plant material for this purpose. There are often mounds of earth outside the entrances to the burrow. It also ...
Propagation of the plant is achieved by rooting axillary shoots. Stem sections root poorly. The opening of axillary buds and ... The babaco plant can produce from 30-60 fruits annually, and has an average life span of about eight years. The small plant is ... After the end of the second season, cropping plants can be cut and rejuvenated from the base or replaced with new plants. It is ... meter after 12 months space at 3 plants sq. meter. Because of the heavy fruit load a support system for the plants was required ...
Almost completely white hairs cover all parts of the plant: leaves, shoots, and even the buds. These protect the plant from ... The minimum temperature during the period of dormancy is 10 °C. The plant can be divided in Spring, with any shoots which are ... Shoots and stems reach a height of 30-40 cm, first erect, later prostrate and rooting at the soil surface. The leaves are ... The plant quickly loses its desirable appearance with abundant watering, too dark a location, and an excess of nitrogen. ...
Newly planted bushes should be pruned severely, cutting all shoots back to two buds above ground level. This gives the plant a ... On a garden scale the plants can be set at intervals of 1.5 to 1.8 metres (5 to 6 ft) or they can be set in rows with planting ... Planting is usually done in the autumn or winter to allow the plants to become established before growth starts in the spring, ... "USDA Plant profile for Ribes nigrum L., European black currant". Plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2009-12-06. "Chapter 1: White Pine ...
Buddleja davidii 'Harlequin'
The plant also suffers from reversion, where non-variegated shoots emerge; these shoots should be removed immediately, with ... care taken to include the dormant buds on the stem. Hardiness: USDA zones 7-9. 'Variegated Royal Red' Hatch, L. (2007). ... RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0. ... Cultivars of Woody Plants. Vol. 1 (A-G) 2007 Edition. TCR Press Horticultural PDF. books. Hillier & Sons. (1977). Hilliers' ...
For example, media containing cytokinin are used to create branched shoots from plant buds. Multiplication is the taking of ... The plant tissues are removed from an intact plant in a sterile condition. Clean stock materials that are free of viruses and ... Not all plants can be successfully tissue cultured, often because the proper medium for growth is not known or the plants ... An infected plant sample can produce infected progeny. This is uncommon as the stock plants are carefully screened and vetted ...
... buds and shoots, which are very common in vascular plants. Adventitious buds develop from places other than a shoot apical ... Some plants normally develop adventitious buds on their roots, which can extend quite a distance from the plant. Shoots that ... The adventitious buds help to replace lost branches. Adventitious buds and shoots also may develop on mature tree trunks when a ... the bud being left there during the primary growth. They may develop on roots or leaves, or on shoots as a new growth. Shoot ...
Glossary of botanical terms
cataphyll Early leaf forms of plants or shoots, such as cotyledons, bud-scales, rhizome-scales; anatomically they are leaves, ... graft 1. of a plant, the artificial union of plant parts. 2. a plant shoot suitable for grafting; loosely means a scion, # ... sucker a shoot of more or less subterranean origin; an erect shoot originating from a bud on a root or a rhizome, sometimes at ... cutting a piece of plant, usually an apical tip of shoot structure but may be root or leaf, cut from plant and used for ...
More cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. Cytokinins are involved in many plant ... This theory states that auxin from apical buds travels down shoots to inhibit axiliary bud growth. This promotes shoot growth, ... When the apical bud is removed, the axillary buds are uninhibited, lateral growth increases, and plants become bushier. ... Cytokinin moves from the roots into the shoots, eventually signaling lateral bud growth. Simple experiments support this theory ...
The pink pigeon is herbivorous, feeding on both exotic and native plants - consuming buds, flowers, leaves, shoots, fruits and ... Invasive plant species such as the Chinese guava and privet dominate native forest plants, preventing their growth. Without ... these native plant species, the Pink Pigeon finds it hard to locate sound nesting locations or food sources. Extreme weather ...
From the cordon, plant shoots emerge from the bud that eventually develops mature bark and becomes the fruiting cane from which ... During the summer growing season, pruning can involve removing young plant shoots or excess bunches of grapes with green ... Even if the leaves at the top of the canopy are receiving plenty of sunlight, the young buds, grape clusters and leaves below ... A vine is described as "vigorous" if it has a propensity to produce many shoots that are outwardly observable as a large, leafy ...
Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called 'flushes'. A plant will grow a new ... but cultivated plants are generally pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Also, the short plants bear more new shoots ... Tea plants are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are needed for a plant to bear seed and about three years ... tea plants require at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils. Many high-quality tea plants are ...
It lays tiny eggs in small clusters on growing areas of the plant, such as flowers, shoots, and new leaf buds. These areas are ... Pickleworm damage on cucurbit crops is evidenced by the lack of flowers and new leaves and shoots, as these are the first parts ... In the southern United States, earlier plants are less affected compared to later plantings. It does not tolerate cold ... of the plant to be consumed. The larvae also eat the fruit, burrowing down into the flesh and leaving a hole marked with a pile ...
European snow vole
After flowering, which takes place in mid-summer, the shoots die back and the plant remains dormant until the following year. ... The flower buds have inflated pale green calyces and the sepals are extended backwards into a short spur. The relatively large ... The plant has small, rounded tubers which are buried deep in the ground and which enable it to survive being covered with snow ... It sends out long rhizomes from which shoots develop which trail over the ground. These are densely covered with silvery green ...
Larval damage to buds and shoots reduces the growth of the purple loosestrife plant and its ability to flower and produce seed ... It also results in less vigorous plants which do not compete so strongly with native plant species such as cattails, grasses ... Among the plants were several close relatives of purple loosestrife. Only winged loosestrife (Lythrum alatum) proved to be ... After feeding for about three weeks and undergoing further moults, the larvae move down the plant to pupate in the soil or leaf ...
... s are plant species that are able to survive fire by the activation of dormant vegetative buds to produce regrowth. ... Adventitiousness Coppicing Crown sprouting Cutting (plant) Epicormic shoot Geoxyle Water sprout Knox, Kirsten J. E., Morrison, ... Plants may resprout by means of lignotubers at the base or epicormic buds on the trunk or major branches. Resprouters ...
If shoot tips are removed, the plant does not react just by outgrowth of lateral buds - which are supposed to replace to ... For example, the ratio of auxin to cytokinin in certain plant tissues determines initiation of root versus shoot buds. On the ... In a living plant, auxins and other plant hormones nearly always appear to interact to determine patterns of plant development ... Auxin induces shoot apical dominance; the axillary buds are inhibited by auxin, as a high concentration of auxin directly ...
... it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a ... which are associated with buds (immature shoot systems in the leaf axils). These can further develop into either vegetative or ... 2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe ... Esau, Katherine (2006) . Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ...
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great ... Pinaceae: needle-like leaves and vegetative buds of Coast Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) ... The general short-term effect of nitrogen fertilization on coniferous seedlings is to stimulate shoot growth more so than root ... Seed germinates and seedling grows into a mature plant.. *When the plant is mature, it produces cones and the cycle continues. ...
Epicormic buds lie dormant beneath the bark, their growth suppressed by hormones from active shoots higher up the plant. Under ... An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a ... or light levels are increased following removal of nearby plants. Epicormic buds and shoots occur in many woody species, but ... these may be from epicormic buds, but they may also be other growth, such as normal buds or small shoots which are only partly ...
"RHS Plant Selector - Pinus patula". Retrieved 30 June 2013.. *^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. ... The shoots are rough and scaly when the leaf fascicles have fallen, yellow- to red-brown, foliage shoots with prominent, ... Vegetative buds oblong to cylindrical, the terminal bud 15-20 mm long, the laterals shorter, brown, not resinous; the scales ... It is planted at high altitudes in Ecuador (3500 m), Bolivia, Colombia (3300m), Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zimbabwe, Papua New ...
The next step after farmers ensure soil is well suitable for planting and growing is planting the rhizome seed. In India, ... Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the ... and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots. ... to the plant beds directly after planting and again 45 and 90 ... Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 398. ISBN 9781420073867. .. *^ a b Viestad A (2007). Where Flavor Was Born: ...
The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species ... The diet of parrots consists of seeds, fruit, nectar, pollen, buds, and sometimes arthropods and other animal prey. The most ... The nests of cockatoos are often lined with sticks, wood chips, and other plant material. In the larger species of parrots and ... wild-caught animal and plant species. In 1975, 24 parrot species were included on Appendix I, thus prohibiting commercial ...
These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5-15 m (16-49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots and ... which can sometimes revive a plant to produce new leaves and even flower buds within a few weeks under optimum conditions. A ... "Plant Scientist.. *^ Helgi Öpik; Stephen A. Rolfe; Arthur John Willis; Herbert Edward Street (2005). The physiology of ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World. 2. pp. 199-214. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9276-9_10. ISBN 978-94-017-9275-2. .. ...
Nánnuò (南糯): a varietal of tea grows here called zĭjuān (紫娟, literally "purple lady") whose buds and bud leaves have a purple ... Plantation bushes (guànmù, 灌木; taídì, 台地): Cultivated tea bushes, from the seeds or cuttings of wild tea trees and planted in ... When preserved as part of a tong, the material of the tong wrapper, whether it is made of bamboo shoot husks, bamboo leaves, or ... The second is that pǔ'ěr leaves are picked as one bud and 3-4 leaves whilst green tea is picked as one bud and 1-2 leaves. This ...
Also known as root sprouts, suckers are plant stems that arise from buds on the base of parent plants stems or on roots. ... As the name suggests, bulbs are inflated parts of the stem within which lie the central shoots of new plants. They are ... A part of the plant, usually a stem or a leaf, is cut off and planted. Adventitious roots grow from cuttings and a new plant ... is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows ...
This allows them to feed on and extract energy and nutrients from coarse, fibrous plant material, such as buds, twigs, and ... Gallinaceous birds feed on a variety of plant and animal material, which may include fruits, seeds, leaves, shoots, flowers, ... There they are known to forage on slugs, snails, ants, and amphibians to the exclusion of plant material. How they forage in ... primarily adapted for foraging on the ground for rootlets or the consumption of other plant material such as heather shoots. ...
1943 - Bud Hollowell, American baseball player and manager (d. 2014). *1943 - Don Novello, American comedian (Father Guido ... 1812 - The Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners' strike in Chester-le- ... National Tree Planting Day (Tanzania). *New Year's Day (Gregorian calendar) *Japanese New Year ...
ഫലം - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
First-year seedlings are often killed, and larger plants may become too deformed for planting. Outbreaks involving , 30% of ... The fresh shoots of many spruces are a natural source of vitamin C. Captain Cook made alcoholic sugar-based spruce beer ... Foraging by squirrels for winter buds (Rowe 1952) has not been reported in relation to young plantations, but Wagg (1963)[ ... "Search results - The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.. *^ Douglas, G.W. (1975). Spruce (Picea) hybridization in west-central ...
... affects flowering by inducing the shoot to produce floral buds instead of leaves and lateral buds. ... Along with long-day plants and short-day plants, there are plants that fall into a "dual-day length category". These plants are ... Long-day plantsEdit. Long-day plants flower when the night length falls below their critical photoperiod. These plants ... They are classified under three groups according to the photoperiods: short-day plants, long-day plants, and day-neutral plants ...
Thorns, spines, and prickles
... stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant ... In common language the terms are used more or less interchangeably, but in botanical terms, thorns are derived from shoots (so ... Tropical Flowering Plants. Timber Press, Portland. 423 pp.. Footnotes. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Simpson, M. G. 2010. "Plant ... Plant defense against herbivory. References. General references. *Simpson, M. G. 2010. "Plant Morphology". In: Plant ...
International Association for Plant Taxonomy
... and systematics of plants-for both living and fossil plants. Additionally, it promotes the study and conservation of plant ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates ... The latter series includes the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Index Nominum Genericorum, and ... and the Stebbins Medal awarded for phylogenetic plant systematics and/or plant evolution. The medals honor Adolf Engler (24 Mar ...
Plant hormones act as a signal to the various tissues of plants inducing one or more responses, the class of plant hormone ... When frost severely damages a tree, the more productive branch and bud cultivar may be killed off, leaving the root to sprout ... "Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in ... Plants dwarfed due to environmental stress are said to be "stunted." The majority of dwarfing in plants occurs not from the ...
Peloric Antirrhinum plants have been produced by knocking out this gene. Many modern cultivars of Sinningia speciosa (" ... Darwin, Charles (1868). The variation of animals and plants under domestication. II. London: John Murray.. ... A few plant species have flowers lacking any symmetry, and therefore having a "handedness". Examples are Valeriana officinalis ... Neal P. R.; Dafni A.; Giurfa M. (1998). "Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, ...
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the ... A flower develops on a modified shoot or axis from a determinate apical meristem (determinate meaning the axis grows to a set ... This occurs as biochemical changes take place to change cellular differentiation of leaf, bud and stem tissues into tissue that ... All flowering plants are heterosporous, that is, every individual plant produces two types of spores. Microspores are produced ...
These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5-15 m (16-49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots and ... which can sometimes revive a plant to produce new leaves and even flower buds within a few weeks under optimum conditions. A ... Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops like oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pomelo and limes. ... International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) (1999): Descriptors for Citrus (Citrus spp.). PDF fulltext[permanent ...
In many plants scales do not form over the bud, and the bud is then called a naked bud. The minute underdeveloped leaves in ... Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized ... Buds are often useful in the identification of plants, especially for woody plants in winter when leaves have fallen. Buds ... There are alternate, opposite, and whorled buds, as well as the terminal bud at the tip of the stem. In many plants buds appear ...
اتیلن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Inhibits shoot growth and stomatal closing except in some water plants or habitually flooded ones such as some rice varieties, ... Ethylene prevents elongation of stem , Ethylene can break the dormancy of buds and seeds . ... The plant hormone ethylene is a combatant for salinity in most plants. Ethylene is known for regulating plant growth and ... Plants can be induced to flower either by treatment with the gas in a chamber, or by placing a banana peel next to the plant in ...
Buds also form in the axils of the leaves ready to produce new side shoots. A few trees, such as the eucalyptus, have "naked ... Zotz, Gerhard (2016). Plants on Plants - The Biology of Vascular Epiphytes. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-39237-0. .. ... Epiphytic plants such as ferns, some mosses, liverworts, orchids and some species of parasitic plants (e.g., mistletoe) hang ... Many towns have initiated tree-planting programmes. In London for example, there is an initiative to plant 20,000 new ...
Flowering plants. Main articles: Calyx and Corolla. In flowering plants, the perianth may be described as being either ... Beentje, H.; Williamson, J. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, ... An additional structure in some plants (e.g. Narcissus, Passiflora (passion flower), some Hippeastrum, Liliaceae) is the corona ... Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-051404-9. Retrieved 12 February 2014.. ...
CAM plants have a different leaf anatomy from C3 plants, and fix the CO2 at night, when their stomata are open. CAM plants ... Many important crop plants are C4 plants, including maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and millet. Plants that do not use PEP- ... In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to ... Jones HG (2014). Plants and Microclimate: a Quantitative Approach to Environmental Plant Physiology (Third ed.). Cambridge: ...
Bud scales two, ovate, coated with brown tomentum and growing with the shoot, become orange green, hairy and about one inch ... Gymnocladus dioicus is cultivated by specialty tree plant nurseries as an ornamental tree for planting in gardens and parks. ... The plant is toxic to some animals. Culture. In addition to use as a food, the seeds of Kentucky coffeetree were used ... Hightshoe, Gary L. (1988). Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: A Planting Design Manual for ...
... then planted out later. After at least four weeks, the young shoots should be ready to be planted out. They are also easily ... In culinary use, the scapes and the unopened, immature flower buds are diced and used as an ingredient for fish, potatoes, ... "Allium schoenoprasum - Plant Finder". mobot.org.. *^ a b c d Ernest Small North American Cornucopia: Top 100 Indigenous Food ... Uses in plant cultivationEdit. Retzius also describes how farmers would plant chives between the rocks making up the borders of ...
"Growing Native Plants: Wollemia nobilis". Australian National Botanic Gardens.. *^ "David Mackay". New England Focus. 2009-02- ... They are arranged spirally on the shoot but twisted at the base to appear in two or four flattened ranks. As the leaves mature ... New branches then arise from dormant buds on the main trunk. Rarely, a side branch will turn erect and develop into a secondary ... and Their Comparison to Cretaceous Plant Fossils". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 159 (1): 160-71. doi:10.1086/297534 ...
Plant Pest - Eelworms (leaf and bud) - Shoot
Hanging limply, they start to die from the bottom of the plant spreading upwards. Spot them... ... Symptoms Leaves and yound shoots look distorted and discoloured and growth is checked in early spring. ... Discuss Eelworms (leaf and bud) with other Shoot members. Login or register to add a comment or question about this plant ... Get expert info and easy to follow monthly care reminders for the plants in your garden by signing up for a free Shoot account. ...
Close Up Static Shot of Tall Marijuana Plant with Buds in Field with Leaves a ~ Hi Res #95082001
Stock video footage Close Up Static Shot of Tall Marijuana Plant with Buds in Field with Leaves at Indoor Cannabis Farm. 00:00: ... Close Up Static Shot Of Tall Marijuana Plant With Buds In Field With Leaves A ... Description: Close Up Static Shot of Tall Marijuana Plant with Buds in Field with Leaves at Indoor Cannabis Farm ...
Aliexpress.com : Buy Fashion Cartoon Enamel Brooch Lapel Pins Green Leaves Cactus Plant Sprout Budding Shoot Badge Corsage For...
Plant Pest - Lily beetle (Scarlet) - Shoot
As a result of this, bulb growth can become stunted and the plant may not flower... ... something attacking Lillie buds. Question from Wayne Boyes Can anyone tell me what this is thats attacking my lillie buds. ... Discuss Lily beetle (Scarlet) with other Shoot members. Login or register to add a comment or question about this plant problem ... Get expert info and easy to follow monthly care reminders for the plants in your garden by signing up for a free Shoot account. ...
Epicormic shoot - Wikipedia
Epicormic buds lie dormant beneath the bark, their growth suppressed by hormones from active shoots higher up the plant. Under ... An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a ... or light levels are increased following removal of nearby plants. Epicormic buds and shoots occur in many woody species, but ... these may be from epicormic buds, but they may also be other growth, such as normal buds or small shoots which are only partly ...
House plants for black thumbs and cave dwellers - CSMonitor.com
... there are plants that will be successful for you. ... Seek plants with new shoots, buds, and leaves. This is a sign ... If possible, slip the plant out of its pot to inspect the roots. If theyre dark brown, black, or mushy, the plant has been ... Some, even, infect other plants.. Pass up plants with foliage that is yellowed, limp, or has soft, discolored spots. All are ... Vivid hues are signs of health on colored foliage plants. Pick the smaller plant over the lanky, overgrown one, too. ...
Burgeon - definition of burgeon by The Free Dictionary
2. to begin to grow, as a bud; put forth buds, shoots, etc., as a plant (often fol. by out, forth). ... 1300-50; Middle English burjon, burion shoot, bud , Old French burjon , Vulgar Latin *burriōnem] ... 1. (often foll by: forth or out) (of a plant) to sprout (buds) ... a. To put forth new buds, leaves, or greenery; sprout.. b. To ... vi (liter: also burgeon forth, flower) → knospen (liter); (plant) → sprießen (liter); (fig) → hervorsprießen (geh); when young ...
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin
... innovative approaches and tools to use native plants and preserve natural landscapes. ... Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center focused on protecting and preserving North Americas native plants through native plant ... Shot: Whole plants in bud.. Date Taken: 2012-03-18. NPIN Image Id: 30659. ... USDA: Find Chrysactinia mexicana images in USDA Plants. Google: Search Google Images for Chrysactinia mexicana. ...
Supplements & Herbs Archives - Homeopathic.com
Burgeoned | Define Burgeoned at Dictionary.com
to begin to grow, as a bud; put forth buds, shoots, etc., as a plant (often followed by out, forth). ... 1275-1325; (noun) Middle English burjon, burion shoot, bud < Anglo-French burjun, burg(e)on; Old French burjon < Vulgar Latin * ... early 14c., "grow, sprout, blossom," from Anglo-French burjuner, Old French borjoner "to bud, sprout," from borjon "a bud, ... bourrée, bureau), presumably from the down covering certain buds; (v.) Middle English burg(e)onen, borgen < Anglo-French, Old ...
Argyresthia oreasella - Wikipedia
They mine the shoots of their host plant. Larvae leave the stem to pupate. Full-grown larvae are light green and reach a length ... This species overwinters as an egg on leaf buds. mothphotographersgroup University of Alberta E.H. Strickland Entomological ... The Cherry Shoot Borer Moth (Argyresthia oreasella) is a moth of the Yponomeutidae family. It is found in North America, ...
Lateral shoot - Wikipedia
Vegetative propagation by modified stems by NIRMALA VENKATRAMAN on Prezi
African Journal of Biotechnology - in vitro multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration from plumule junction explants of...
... though in few cases shoot buds and shoot primoridia were also observed. Rooting of plumule junction derived shootlets was found ... The elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same medium and the nature of the regenerants in most of the cases ... Key words: Pigeon pea, cultivars, multiple shoot bud induction, organogenesis, acclimatization, elongation, Cajanus cajan (L) ... of TDZ gave the best response for these cultivars though higher concentration of BAP was also effective in multiple shoot bud ...
Gambel's Quail | Audubon Field Guide
They eat many fresh plant shoots, leaves, and buds, especially during spring. Cactus fruits and the berries of mistletoe, ... Does most feeding on ground, but readily goes up into shrubs and low trees for berries, leaves, buds. ... hackberry, and other plants are eaten when available. Seeds are important in the diet at all times. Usually few insects are ...
Sprout - definition of sprout by The Free Dictionary
1. To begin to grow; give off shoots or buds. 2. To emerge and develop rapidly: businesses that sprouted along... ... 1. Young plant growth, such as a bud or shoot.. 2. Something resembling or suggestive of a sprout, as in rapid growth: "a tall ... sprout - any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud. plant organ - a functional and structural unit of a plant or ... produce new shoots or leaves) [plant] → pousser; [vegetable, seed] → germer. (= grow) [leaves, plants] → pousser; [hair, ...
... axillary buds common, (producing short shoots, spur shoots), (plant deciduous); leaves with two vascular bundles; 2 ... Adult plants of Pinus have scale leaves alone on their long shoots; seedings may bear needles directly on long shoots. ... SEED PLANTS†. Growth of plant bipolar [roots with positive geotropic response]; plants heterosporous; megasporangium surrounded ... Roots with endomycorrhizal nodules; subsidiary cells 8-12/stoma; leaves on long shoots reduced to scales; short shoots +, ...
person - Everything2.com
What Are Rodents? - WorldAtlas.com
They forage for roots, shoots, seeds, buds, and fruits of plants. 8. Guinea Pig - The guinea pig is a rodent of the family ... They are omnivores and feed on both plant parts or hunt for insects. They have cheek pouches that extend to their shoulders ... These rodents feed on plant parts and vegetables. Their ability to destroy crops in the field often leads to their labelling as ... Voles feed on small plants, succulent root systems, and animal carcasses. They are excellent diggers and can dig deep into the ...
Field guide for the identification of damage on woody sentinel plants.
Damage to shoots and buds of broadleaf woody plants. Author(s): Matsiakh, I. Witzell, J. Poljaković-Pajnik, L. Kenis, M. Talgø ... Damage to buds and shoots of coniferous woody plants. Author(s): Witzell, J. Matsiakh, I. Poljaković-Pajnik, L. Kenis, M. Talgø ... Field guide for the identification of damage on woody sentinel plants.. Description. This guide is intended as an aid for ... Damage to flowers, cones and seeds of coniferous woody plants. Author(s): Roques, A. Talgø, V. Fan, J. T. Auger-Rozenberg, M. A ...
Break Out Dahlia | Brecks.com
Water after planting and not again until shoots appear. Stake plants. As plants grow increase watering. Fertilize sparingly. ... Buds tend to grow in threes; two-sided ones should carefully be pinched to develop the central bloom. This is especially ... Plant Calculator. How Many Plants Do I Need?. Determine the amount of square feet in the area to be planted. Use the calculator ... Planting Instructions2" deep and 30-36" apart. Plant when there is no chance of frost anymore. ...
Dahlia - Tips and Growing Instructions | Breck's
Buds tend to grow in threes; two-sided ones should carefully be pinched to develop the central bloom. ... Plant dahlias outdoors after all danger of frost has passed. Amend soil with peat moss or compost. Replace about half the soil ... Water after planting and not again until shoots appear. Stake plants. As plants grow increase watering. Fertilize sparingly. ... One good guideline is to plant dahlias at the same time you would plant tomatoes. If you want early blooms, start the tubers ...
Time to take softwood cuttings - Telegraph
... lavenders and other silver-leaved or short-lived plants. ... also take heeled cuttings by pulling a side shoot off the plant ... Remove any flower buds. Trim each cutting right under the node - the bumpy bit on the stem where leaves emerge. Remove the ... Thieves targeting rare plants prompt botanical gardens to beef up security Thefts at some of Britains most prestigious gardens ... Its bulb planting season! Browse our range of Narcissus bulbs at Telegraph Gardenshop ...
PNAS Plus Significance Statements | PNAS
Shoot-branching patterns affect key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still ... whether the axillary bud grows out to give a lateral shoot or remains dormant. Here we show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, ... Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP I cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds. Eduardo González-Grandío, ... Two independent S-phase checkpoints regulate appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae ...
Project : USDA ARS
Investigate changes in plant hormone levels and gene expression in leafy spurge roots, buds, and shoots. ... Location: Sunflower and Plant Biology Research 2013 Annual Report 1a. Objectives (from AD-416): ... ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center » Sunflower and Plant Biology ... Leafy spurge is perennial weeds that display dormancy in underground adventitious buds that can be manipulated by chemical, ...
How to Grow Broccoli | Garden Guides
Most varieties yield over an extended period and can be planted in early spring and again in the fall for two crops a year, ... After the main head is cut, the plant will develop side shoots. Harvest side shoots when 1 to 2 inches in diameter. ... Harvest sprouting broccoli regularly to encourage the plant to produce more buds. With good management, sprouting broccoli will ... Plant seeds in succession so they dont all mature at once.. Water the plants well and frequently during the summer. The plants ...
PlantFiles Pictures: Oriental Lily 'Casa Blanca' (Lilium) by RosinaBloom
Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants. ... The bigger the bulb is, the more buds are present. Plant oriental lilies in full sun as leaves and buds form. Once buds begin ... 2008 shot of my Casa Blanca planted back in 2002... Look at the size of the flowers! ... Bringing the plant indoors allow me to keep the flowers fresh for nearly 1 month, also it perfumes a 3 room dwelling. ...
Control of Outgrowth and Dormancy in Axillary Buds | Plant Physiology
The vegetative shoot of this plant produces approximately 20 nodes. The axillary buds at nodes 1 through 5 (counting ... The largest bud is called the main bud and the other buds are called the accessory buds. After decapitation of the terminal bud ... plants causes the outgrowth of axillary buds, but application of auxin to the stump prevents the outgrowth of axillary buds. ... The mRNA levels of all the genes were very low in the dormant axillary buds on intact plants. When the axillary buds were ...
Let orchid rebloom before cutting old flower stalks: Ask OSU Extension - cleveland.com
... which may come from the existing stalk or from new leaves at the base of the plant. ... an orchid plant will send out a new flower stalk, ... New shoots will begin to grow from buds lower on the stem. No ... Since the poinsettia is actually a perennial plant, it has to grow new shoots for the next set of flowers. The old bracts are ... Lower on the flower spike, the nodes may contain a small fleshy bump, which is a bud. These buds have the potential to grow ...
Garden Guides | How to Prune Silver Berry Shrubs
Remove suckers (shoots that sprout from the roots of the parent plant) using a sharp spade. Drive the spade 3 to 4 inches into ... Use pruning shears to remove broken branches just above a strong bud (the place where leaves emerge) Remove branches growing ... Silver berry shrubs planted as ornamentals will need pruning at least every other year to keep their exuberant growth in check. ... Plant silver berry shrubs on embankments, and allow them to act as erosion control. Their thicket-forming abilities will have ...
StemsRootsVegetativeStemPrunePropagationSproutMeristemFlowerSeedsYoung shoots of plantsBulbFruitsBranchesSoilDormancyBloomEmbryonic shootsAxillary budMeristemsSpeciesSide shootsDevelopGrownGrowthGrowHormonesSeedlingsShrubsPrimordiaEmergeSwellFoliageLeaves and budsBranchOutgrowthFlowersTallPerennialAxilsBotanyFloweringNodeTerminalHardiness ZonePhysiologyProduce budsSmall budsLong shootsAdventitious shootsRegrowMulchGenerallyRootLeafyLateral budInflorescence shootDevelopsVerbExplantsHarvestTimeSoilsFertilizerReproductive structuresCharacteristicsTUBERVitro
- Damage to stems, branches and twigs of broadleaf woody plants. (cabi.org)
- rhizomes are underground vegetative stems with shoots/buds capable of producing new plants. (homebrewersassociation.org)
- If the light source is too faint or far away, the plant will strain toward the light, making the stems weak. (jg-tc.com)
- One caveat with this plant is that, although the stems are hardy, the flower buds are not. (dispatch.com)
- So, if the plant is heavily pruned, or if last winters weather killed back the stems, the plant will have no old wood on which to produce new flowering stems. (garden.org)
- Try cutting back the stems down to 18" above soil level in the early spring, just as the leaf buds begin to swell. (garden.org)
- When you make dill vinegar, you can use the stems, leaves, or flowers of the plant. (motherearthnews.com)
- Runners are horizontal stems that are produced from the mother plant and then creep along the ground. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- The connecting stems die in the late fall and winter, separating each daughter plant from the others. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- This easy to grow plant is very attractive because of its spectacular purple-blue stems with pronounced sculpture effects. (cactus-art.biz)
- The plants will stand but little cold and require a minimum winter temperature of about 10 C. (but can resist for short period to 0 C). Growth is rapid, and supports are needed for the stems. (cactus-art.biz)
- I usually take some of the oldest stems down to ground level to renew the plant. (garden.org)
- Any tall tree-like tropical or semitropical fast-growing grass of the genus Bambusa, having hollow woody-wall stems with ring joints and edible young shoots (bamboo shoots), including all types of bamboo. (ecode360.com)
- But the rest of the plant is edible, too, including the broad fuzzy leaves, prickly stems and curlicue climbing tendrils. (goupstate.com)
- Chia sent me home from his farm with a bristly bag of greens, including stems, flowers, buds and tendrils, and two immature kabocha squashes. (goupstate.com)
- If possible, slip the plant out of its pot to inspect the roots. (csmonitor.com)
- Damage to roots and collars of broadleaf woody plants. (cabi.org)
- It's important in nurturing the plants to produce stronger roots and a better bloom in 2016. (star-telegram.com)
- Investigate changes in plant hormone levels and gene expression in leafy spurge roots, buds, and shoots. (usda.gov)
- I'm certainly no gardening expert, but I have never heard of trimming the roots on any established plant as a matter of maintenance. (homebrewersassociation.org)
- New plants can emerge from seed or roots. (ufl.edu)
- Plant them out into the garden in the autumn, giving them the winter to settle their roots into the soil before coming into active growth the following spring. (rhs.org.uk)
- Xylem tissue conducts water and its dissolved minerals upward from the roots, and phloem conductive tissue transports plant-manufactured nutrients and products, for the most part, downward toward the roots. (ufl.edu)
- To split an herb this way, take a small garden shovel and divide the plant in two at its roots. (motherearthnews.com)
- As the plant grows, lateral roots branch off from the main taproot and fan out profusely in order to absorb water and nutrients for the plant. (berkeley.edu)
- Roots are very shallow, so try not to disturb the plants. (almanac.com)
- The entire plant, including all roots and root tendrils, must be gently dug up and removed. (almanac.com)
- Autumn is the best time to tackle the border, allowing winter rains to break-up freshly dug soil and wash nutrients down to the roots of dormant plants. (walesonline.co.uk)
- Herbaceous plants with fibrous crowns such as achillea, doronicum, geum, gypsophila, hemerocallis, montarda, phlox, rudbeckia, thalictrum and veronica are the easiest to divide, the best time after the flowers have died back and new shoots and roots are forming. (walesonline.co.uk)
- Nature's ecosystems always include not only annual vegetables, but also perennials - edible roots, shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits that produce year after year. (motherearthnews.com)
- As one of their responses to frequent bushfires which would destroy most other plants, many Eucalypt trees found widely throughout Australia have extensive epicormic buds which sprout following a fire, allowing the vegetative regeneration of branches from their trunks. (wikipedia.org)
- In other plants, including Arabidopsis, axillary meristems cannot be detected in the axils during the vegetative growth phase of the primary SAM. (plantphysiol.org)
- Since most vegetative shoots are located at the ends of branches, the plant is unlikely to respond to severe pruning. (anbg.gov.au)
- Internodal width along the shoot (vegetative through florescence --- more concerning S. splendens's heteroblastic nature later in the paper) follows a gradually decreasing Erstarkungswachstum rhythm. (berkeley.edu)
- Internodal elongation for the inflorescence part of the shoot follows a different rhythmic pattern than the vegetative part of the shoot, but there is a definite rhythm. (berkeley.edu)
- While the vegetative internode lengths gradually increase then decrease along the shoot, the inflorescence internode lengths start big and gradually decrease (see endnote 1). (berkeley.edu)
- Loss-of-function mutations in the EMBRYONIC FLOWER genes ( EMF1 and EMF2 ) cause Arabidopsis to flower directly, bypassing vegetative shoot growth. (plantcell.org)
- In situ hybridization studies have demonstrated that EMF2 RNA is found in developing embryos, in both the vegetative and the reproductive shoot meristems, and in lateral organ primordia. (plantcell.org)
- Timing of vegetative bud dormancy is an environmentally and economically important trait whose importance will grow due to rapid climate changes. (pnas.org)
- Apical meristems of the shoot and root are responsible for building the vegetative plant body. (springer.com)
- An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud , which lies underneath the bark of a trunk , stem , or branch of a plant . (wikipedia.org)
- The gametophytes of mosses and liverworts and the sporophytes of many higher plants have a shoot, or early stem, with a single cell at its tip, or apex, from which all the tissues of the stem arise. (britannica.com)
- Growth habit: A cluster-forming perennial with a short basal stem from which new leaves emerge growing plants to12 inches tall and twice as wide. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Don't place the mulch against the stem of the plant. (missouri.edu)
- n. a lateral shoot from the base of the stem, esp. (encyclopedia.com)
- The number of buds per stem depends on the size of the bloom. (davesgarden.com)
- New shoots will begin to grow from buds lower on the stem. (cleveland.com)
- To prepare the rootstock, cut off all shoots and leaves from the bottom 30cm (1ft) of stem. (rhs.org.uk)
- PIF (plantes issues de fragments de tiges) / plants resulting from stem fragments. (scribd.com)
- Its shoot exhibits the 'square stem' property characteristic of members of the Lamiaceae family. (berkeley.edu)
- Both the main axis and these axillary branches exhibit the square stem property, supporting the concept of the re-iterative nature of lateral branches relative to the main shoot. (berkeley.edu)
- Nodes interlink the cannabis plant's new shoots to the stem. (maximumyield.com)
- The nodes are also the area on the plant's stem that develops the buds. (maximumyield.com)
- The number of branches can be altered by adding the compound directly to the buds or by supplying it in a solution into the stem. (thaindian.com)
- The Canada thistle stem weevil ( Ceutorhynchus litura ), bud weevil ( Larinus planus ), and thistle stem gall fly ( Urophora cardui ) have been released as biocontrol agents. (ca.gov)
- Cut the plants at the ground level or where the stem tissue ceases to be tough and becomes succulent. (ufl.edu)
- Unlike most examples of stem cells in animals, where the potency of the differentiating daughter is restricted, cells produced by plant meristems have the capacity to differentiate as any cell type. (iastate.edu)
- Thus primary shoot growth involves the repetitive addition of stem segments and associated leaves to the end of the shoot. (iastate.edu)
- A total of eight compounds were extracted from six organs (rootlet, rhizome, shoot base, maroon stem, stalk, and leaf) of the CP and CPA plants. (hindawi.com)
- Usually new yucca plants are grown from cut off bits of main stem. (burkesbackyard.com.au)
- A small protuberance on a stem or branch, sometimes enclosed in protective scales and containing an undeveloped leaf, flower, or leafy shoot. (yourdictionary.com)
- You can prune the old spike down to this point -- where the new buds are held. (cleveland.com)
- When warm weather arrives, move the plant to a sheltered area outside, provide it with lots of fertilizer and water and prune it to the size and shape you want for next Christmas. (cleveland.com)
- If you prune these plants during the dormant season, you're pruning off flower buds, so don't prune until after the plants flower in the spring. (dispatch.com)
- Growers prune cannabis plants in a variety of ways, but they all involve cutting the plant at specific nodes. (maximumyield.com)
- How far back can I prune without hurting the plant? (garden.org)
- Although your winter weather is mild, I'd still wait until early spring to prune the crepe myrtle - just as the buds begin to swell. (garden.org)
- Do never prune the shoots as the buds are always terminal. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- Prune the long shoots. (wikihow.com)
- This is known as a "hard prune" and it will stimulate strong growth, as this is a plant that can grow aggressively. (wikihow.com)
- Epicormic shoots can be used in mass propagation of oak trees. (wikipedia.org)
- Propagation: Start plants from cuttings or by dividing older clusters. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Some Berberis have become invasive species when planted outside of their native ranges, including B. glaucocarpa and B. darwinii in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and B. thunbergii in some parts of North America. (wikibooks.org)
- The overall architecture of the shoot system is derived from the activity of the primary shoot apical meristem (SAM), arising during embryogenesis, together with the activity of the additional meristems subsequently formed after seed germination. (plantphysiol.org)
- The two decapitation techniques involve stimulating lateral bud production by destroying the active growing point (meristem) in the pseudostem. (scribd.com)
- All branching is acrogenous --- in the form of axillary branches, from buds originally produced at the meristem. (berkeley.edu)
- Each phase is characterized by lateral organs with distinct morphological features that are produced by the shoot apical meristem (SAM). (plantcell.org)
- The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a population of cells located at the tip of the shoot axis. (iastate.edu)
- Primary growth is the addition of tissue to the shoot by the apical meristem. (iastate.edu)
- cell division serves to constantly replenish the meristem and to provide cells that will differentiate into plant organs and tissues. (iastate.edu)
- In plants that normally produce a relatively fixed number of nodes, if the meristem is removed and allowed to reform a plant in culture, the plant will have the normal number of nodes. (iastate.edu)
- Thus node number is a property of the whole plant and not intrinsic to the meristem. (iastate.edu)
- The meristem produces modular units consisting of a lateral organ (leaf), axillary bud, node and subtending internode. (iastate.edu)
- Initiation of the shoot meristem in the embryo requires the action of several genes that were identified in genetic screens for mutants that lack a SAM. (iastate.edu)
- Occasionally, in weak stm alleles, adventitious shoots will form but the shoots progressively lose their meristem indicating that STM is required for both the initiation and maintenance of SAMs. (iastate.edu)
- EBB1 plays a major and integrative role in the reactivation of the shoot apical meristem after winter dormancy. (pnas.org)
- The EBB1 transcript was localized in the L1/L2 layers of the shoot meristem and leaf primordia. (pnas.org)
- an undeveloped embryonic shoot in a plant containing a meristematic area (see MERISTEM ) for cell division, surrounded by leaf primordia (immature leaves) with often an outer protective layer of scales formed from modified leaves. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As a result of this, bulb growth can become stunted and the plant may not flower the following year. (shootgardening.co.uk)
- Remove any flower buds. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Harvest calabrese broccoli when main head is 4 to 6 inches in diameter and flower buds are developed but closed. (gardenguides.com)
- If you see clubby shoots ending in browned, unopened flower bud clusters, your plants may be infected. (star-telegram.com)
- They look very similar, and many people have mistakenly removed flower buds thinking they were seeds/fruit, then wondered why their crape myrtles never bloomed. (star-telegram.com)
- View full size Timothy Malinich, Special to The PD When cutting back a flower spike on a Phalaenopsis orchid, look for new buds. (cleveland.com)
- Lower are buds that could grow into a new flower spike. (cleveland.com)
- After a period of rest, the plant will send out a new flower stalk, which may come from the existing stalk or from new leaves at the base of the plant. (cleveland.com)
- Lower on the flower spike, the nodes may contain a small fleshy bump, which is a bud. (cleveland.com)
- These buds have the potential to grow into a new flower spike. (cleveland.com)
- Most fruit plants require pollination (the transfer of pollen from a male flower to a female flower) and fertilization for fruit production. (missouri.edu)
- Dear Steve: From the photo, your plants appear to be big-leaf hydrangeas, which set flower buds in the fall for the next season. (dispatch.com)
- During a cold winter, the flower buds might be killed, although the plant would still grow and produce new shoots for you. (dispatch.com)
- During winter, flower buds develop in the leaf axils near the ends of the branches. (anbg.gov.au)
- Minor damage of flower buds by web-building caterpillars is easily controlled by physical removal. (anbg.gov.au)
- A point from which shoots, leaf, flower or leaves and flowers can grow. (ryobitools.com)
- That's an indication that the plant has finished resting and is ready to grow and flower. (garden.org)
- Remember to remove the flower buds as soon as they appear because the leaves will quickly lose their flavor once the flowers open. (newstimes.com)
- Erect prickly plants with purple, pink, or white flower heads that consist only of disk flowers. (ca.gov)
- The plant is grown for its tender leaves and flower shoots, which are used as greens or potherbs. (ufl.edu)
- Plants, which resemble both turnip tops and broccoli, develop quite rapidly and are harvested before the flower buds open. (ufl.edu)
- If planted too late in the spring, the warm weather hastens the opening of the flower buds, signaling that the plants have passed their peak of quality. (ufl.edu)
- As a general rule, plants that flower in spring and early summer are divided in late autumn, those that flower in late summer and autumn left until spring by which time new shoots will have formed. (walesonline.co.uk)
- of a plant shoot) not having all the axes terminating in a flower bud and so producing a shoot of indefinite length. (encyclopedia.com)
- Flavonoids are a group of heterocyclic organic compounds [ 14 ] that have many diverse functions in plants, including defense, pollination, protection from UV radiation, inhibition of auxin transport, and flower coloring [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- An example of a bud is a tiny flower that has not yet opened or reached maturity. (yourdictionary.com)
- Plants affected by this type of injury often try to leaf out or even flower in the spring. (oldhouseweb.com)
- Flower buds - cooked. (pfaf.org)
- Final height was recorded when the first flower was open on each plant. (ncsu.edu)
- The objectives of the breeding program at the Foundation include: shorter plants, earlier flowering plants, and plants with increased flower counts. (ncsu.edu)
- Dates of shoot emergence and first open flower were recorded. (ncsu.edu)
- Groundnut plants will vine and flower aboveground while growing round, tasty tubers beneath the soil. (motherearthnews.com)
- At this time of the year the shoot will grow rapidly, but will not initiate flower buds. (crfg.org)
- 1. a structure on a plant, often round, that encloses an undeveloped flower or leaf. (thefreedictionary.com)
- a rudimentary, undeveloped shoot, leaf or flower. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This improves the chances of the formation of flower buds. (wikihow.com)
- Damage to flowers, cones and seeds of coniferous woody plants. (cabi.org)
- Plant broccoli seeds in mid-spring through early summer, about 1/2 to 3/4 inch deep. (gardenguides.com)
- Plant in groups of 2 or 3 seeds positioned about 12 inches apart in rows at least 12 to 18 inches apart. (gardenguides.com)
- Plant seeds in succession so they don't all mature at once. (gardenguides.com)
- Start seeds of celery for planting in the vegetable garden. (cleveland.com)
- If you started seeds indoors, plant transplants that are 4 to 6 weeks old (and have 4 or 5 leaves) outdoors, 12 to 20 inches apart, in holes slightly deeper than their container depth. (almanac.com)
- You may even wish to plant nasturtium seeds. (newstimes.com)
- Gardeners trying this vegetable should plant seeds in the fall, winter, or very early spring. (ufl.edu)
- Seeds of the spring strain may be available through seed catalogs, while the fall strain is planted from seed saved by the growers. (ufl.edu)
- Seeds should be planted in rows spaced 12- to 24-inches apart, with an average of 12- to 15-plants per foot of row. (ufl.edu)
- These include ensuring that the appropriate conservation target is used (shoot tips, dormant buds, pollen, seeds) and that the cryopreservation strategy increases the likelihood of survival with less handling. (usda.gov)
Young shoots of plants1
- It's bulb planting season! (telegraph.co.uk)
- The bigger the bulb is, the more buds are present. (davesgarden.com)
- I personally feed the bulb during planting time with superphosphate and foliar feed with MG 15-30-15 once a week, during growing season until the leaves turn brown. (davesgarden.com)
- The Easter Lily bulb is a compressed shoot that functions as a storage and reproductive organ. (auburn.edu)
- Under the right environmental conditions, a central shoot arises from the center of the bulb producing leaves and flowers. (auburn.edu)
- Eden' averaged more than six buds per plant, regardless of bulb size grown. (ncsu.edu)
- bud of urethra bulb of urethra . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cactus fruits and the berries of mistletoe, hackberry, and other plants are eaten when available. (audubon.org)
- While normally an understory crop, shade strongly limits production, produces uneven plant growth, and fruits will be small and will ripen unevenly. (mofga.org)
- Sloths eat leaves, shoots and fruits from trees and get most of their water from juicy plants. (reference.com)
- The trunk that bore the current season fruits is cut back to the stump, to the point where the second shoot was left the year before. (crfg.org)
- Epicormic shoots are the means by which trees regrow after coppicing or pollarding , where the tree's trunk or branches are cut back on a regular cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The long-lived Pseudotsuga menziesii forms epicormic shoots not in response to damage but as a means of forming growth on existing branches. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, owing that each of these axillary branches is an image of the main shoot, they are each bilaterally symmetrical, with opposite and decussate phyllotaxis. (berkeley.edu)
- Bud means to put forth tiny swellings such as new branches, leaves or flowers. (yourdictionary.com)
- branches in full bud. (yourdictionary.com)
- The plant rarely branches but shoots often appear around the base. (crfg.org)
- The shoots are the new branches that have grown since the summer. (wikihow.com)
- For older plants, it is necessary to remove branches that are run-down and branches that have grown over structural features of buildings, such as windows and doors. (wikihow.com)
- BEGONIA (house plant varieties not including Christmas and tuberous begonia) Soil: 1/4 each: soil, sand, manure and peat or leafmold. (plant-care.com)
- Plants need a well-drained, preferably sandy soil and won't do well with a hardpan that holds a lot of water in spring. (mofga.org)
- If planting in a clay soil (which is not recommended), more S is required to lower the pH, and a lot of organic matter is needed to open the tight structure that otherwise hinders blueberry root growth. (mofga.org)
- Grow plants in a well-drained soil to avoid root-rot problems. (orlandosentinel.com)
- In soil properly prepared for planting, maintenance fertilization will be relatively simple. (missouri.edu)
- Spread the fertilizer evenly around the plants, and lightly work it into the soil surface. (missouri.edu)
- Ideally, a soil test should be taken and necessary amounts of limestone applied before roses are planted. (missouri.edu)
- However, my preference is to plant them in soil because the bulbs are well anchored and tip over less frequently. (jg-tc.com)
- However, because of differences in their requirements of weather and soil and in their susceptibility to pests, some fruit plants grow better than others. (missouri.edu)
- Blueberries require a low soil pH (4.8 to 5.2) and high organic matter, so soil amendments are often added before planting. (missouri.edu)
- Because of these special requirements, a soil test is always recommended before planting, and care should be taken to place all fruit plants in sites with full sun. (missouri.edu)
- Get information about sample submission and fees for the MU Soil and Plant Testing Laboratory is available online at http://soilplantlab.missouri.edu/soil . (missouri.edu)
- Checking the soil type is another important test to make when deciding which plants to choose for your garden. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- Or, you can get plants started by sifting a 2- to 3-inch layer of compost or garden soil on top of the newly formed bed and planting directly in the lasagna garden. (oregonstate.edu)
- Soil cultivation and cropping for 35 years had negligible effect on the plants' response to fertilizer level and on the soil mineralogical composition. (brill.com)
- Plant in a bed of moist, fertile soil that drains well. (almanac.com)
- Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting . (almanac.com)
- Mulching around plants will also help to keep soil temperatures down. (almanac.com)
- Quickly wilting plants may be due to this fungus in the soil. (almanac.com)
- Act quickly to remove the plants so that the fungus doesn't continue to live in the soil. (almanac.com)
- Chlorosis can sometimes develop as a result of iron deficiency when the plants are grown in alkaline soils, but in general maples are not fussy as to soil pH. (pfaf.org)
- It cannot be too clearly stated that chemicals are the natural food of plants and, therefore, there is nothing unnatural in the application of chemical fertilisers to the soil. (walesonline.co.uk)
- The tuber became so big that it raised the soil around the plant. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- On this page we answer common gardening questions about Gardening for Beginners, Garden Design, Plant Care, Gardening in Pots, Pollinators and Soil. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- Use a moistened potting mix and give the pot a good soaking after planting, then let the soil dry to the touch before watering again. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- Most plants will thrive in moist, well-drained soil. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- If your drainage is less than perfect -- too slow or too fast -- it can be improved somewhat by adding organic matter, but it is often the best course to start with plants suited to your existing soil. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- If you provide the ideal environment, add phosphorus to the soil, and do the necessary pruning, it will be possible to get your own wisteria plant to bloom. (wikihow.com)
- This is a fluid solution that is dissolved in water and is sprayed onto the soil and the plants. (wikihow.com)
- Leafy spurge is perennial weeds that display dormancy in underground adventitious buds that can be manipulated by chemical, physical, and environmental treatments. (usda.gov)
- A variety of experimental approaches have been used to examine the mechanisms controlling dormancy and outgrowth of axillary buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- This review focuses on recent findings uncovered by physiological, genetic, and molecular studies and approaches to investigate the control of shoot branching, apical dominance, and dormancy in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
- Winter dormancy is an important biological feature for tea plant to survive cold winters, and it also affects the economic output of tea plant, one of the few woody plants in the world whose leaves are harvested and one of the few non-conifer evergreen species with characterized dormancies. (frontiersin.org)
- To discover the bud dormancy regulation mechanism of tea plant in winter, we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of axillary buds at the paradormancy, endodormancy, ecodormancy, and bud flush stages by RNA-Seq analysis. (frontiersin.org)
- This study provides the global transcriptome profiles of overwintering buds at different dormancy stages and is meaningful for improving the understanding of bud dormancy in tea plant. (frontiersin.org)
- Dormancy" is a key biological event affecting the yield of tea plant over the course of the year. (frontiersin.org)
- Tea plant has two kinds of "dormancy," one called 'Banjhi dormancy' and the other called 'winter dormancy. (frontiersin.org)
- However, a phenomenon of growth suspension known as 'Banjhi dormancy' is observed several times in 1 year in unpruned and even harvested tea plants and is recognized as a specific form of 'endogenous rhythmic growth' ( Tanton, 1981 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In New Jersey, one is planted in the fall so that some growth occurs before the plant goes into a wintering-over dormancy. (ufl.edu)
- Dormancy is short, my plant always sprang back to life at the end of August. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- We used activation tagging to isolate a dominant mutation affecting release from dormancy and identified the corresponding gene EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 ( EBB1 ). (pnas.org)
- Native EBB1 expression was highest in actively growing apices, undetectable during the dormancy period, but rapidly increased before bud-break. (pnas.org)
- For mums to bloom to their maximum ability they should be "pinched" when the shoot is 4 inches tall. (gardenguides.com)
- The Frosty mum has a dense bloom that covers the entire outer surface of the plant, making it look similar to a giant snowball. (gardenguides.com)
- Once buds begin to form, move in partial shade to protect the bloom from discoloring or drying out. (davesgarden.com)
- Properly cared for, they will bloom for one to three months, after which the plant is left with a naked stalk and no flowers. (cleveland.com)
- To achieve cross-pollination, it is necessary to plant two different cultivars of the same fruit crop with overlapping bloom periods (consult nursery catalogs for availability). (missouri.edu)
- Hydrangeas bloom on new shoots that develop on old wood. (garden.org)
- Axillary bud. (uvm.edu)
- Auxin has an inhibitory effect on the growth of axillary buds, whereas cytokinin promotes axillary bud outgrowth. (plantphysiol.org)
- The mechanisms of axillary bud outgrowth depend on the ratio of these two hormones rather than the absolute levels of either hormone. (plantphysiol.org)
- Many factors contribute to the ability of an axillary bud to grow out to form a branch, including developmental, positional, genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. (plantphysiol.org)
- Precise patterns of cell division and differentiation at the shoot apex result in the iterative formation of modules or phytomers comprised of a leaf, an axillary bud, a node and an internode (Sussex, 1989). (springer.com)
- Control of axillary bud growth by the terminal bud is called apical dominance. (springer.com)
- Changes after decapitation of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the larger axillary bud of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Tender Green. (springer.com)
- Plant architecture is further modified by shoot branching that results from the activity of the additional meristems. (plantphysiol.org)
- The shoot branching process generally involves two developmental stages: the formation of axillary meristems in the leaf axils and the growth of axillary buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- In many plant species, the growth of axillary meristems is inhibited by the primary shoot or primary inflorescence. (plantphysiol.org)
- In some plants, axillary meristems undergo immediate development to form an axillary shoot. (plantphysiol.org)
- In other plants, axillary meristems might initiate a few leaves and then become developmentally arrested or dormant because the terminal bud inhibits the growth of axillary buds to grow predominantly. (plantphysiol.org)
- EBB1 -overexpressing transgenic plants displayed enlarged shoot meristems, open and poorly differentiated buds, and a higher rate of cell division in the apex. (pnas.org)
- Epicormic buds and shoots occur in many woody species, but are absent from many others, such as most conifers . (wikipedia.org)
- These epicormic buds are highly protected, set deeper beneath the thick bark than in other tree species, allowing both the buds and vascular cambium to be insulated from the intense heat. (wikipedia.org)
- This species overwinters as an egg on leaf buds. (wikipedia.org)
- Multiple shoots from cultured explants of pigeon pea and Atylosia species. (academicjournals.org)
- It also contains plants such as tomato, potato, eggplant, petunia, and many invasive species such as tropical soda apple, aquatic soda apple and horsenettle. (ufl.edu)
- Many Solanum species are listed as Category II exotic invasives by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. (ufl.edu)
- The developmental program that specifies branching patterns in different plant species is fundamentally important for generating species-specific plant forms. (plantphysiol.org)
- An exception, the cosmopolitan species Phragmites australis , the giant reed grass , has the widest geographic range of any flowering plant . (britannica.com)
- Bear in mind that named cultivars do not come true from seed, but species plants usually do. (rhs.org.uk)
- These species hybridize, and plants with intermediate characteristics may occur where their ranges overlap. (ca.gov)
- Recently we have identified successful methods for conserving diverse Citrus species using shoot tips derived directly from screenhouse-grown plants. (usda.gov)
- There are a few reports on micropropagation of this species through adventitious shoot multiplication method (Madhuri et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Berberis ( Barberry , Pepperidge bush , Pepperidge-bushis ) is a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. (wikibooks.org)
- After the main head is cut, the plant will develop side shoots. (gardenguides.com)
- Harvest side shoots when 1 to 2 inches in diameter. (gardenguides.com)
- Once you harvest the main head of a broccoli plant, it will often keep producing smaller side shoots that can be enjoyed for months to come. (almanac.com)
- Don's Expert Answers: my yucca has multiple side shoots up its trunk. (burkesbackyard.com.au)
- Under certain conditions, they develop into active shoots, such as when damage occurs to higher parts of the plant, or light levels are increased following removal of nearby plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly, ash trees may develop epicormic shoots when infested by the emerald ash borer . (wikipedia.org)
- Shoots of the current year's growth develop buds that will produce fruit next summer. (mofga.org)
- You really don't want to let flowers develop on any of these plants. (star-telegram.com)
- However, proper care after planting is essential to develop plants into beautiful, productive specimens. (missouri.edu)
- The axillary buds of each opposite leaf pair develop simultaneously so that the main shoot remains bilaterally symmetrical. (berkeley.edu)
- During reproductive development, the main inflorescence shoot produces lateral buds that develop into additional inflorescences or flowers. (plantcell.org)
- New shoots will develop at the base of the plant. (garden.org)
- Our discovery provides the first biosynthetic mutants to study these important interactions with plants and to develop ways of plant improvement and weed management. (thaindian.com)
- An international team of scientists led by the University of Cambridge has discovered the 'thermometer' molecule that enables plants to develop according to seasonal temperature changes. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1-2 years old. (wikibooks.org)
- Shoots that form around the base of the plant should be removed, although a second shoot is allowed to develop from about September. (crfg.org)
- Like people, plants have specific needs that when met, allow them to develop to their full potential. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- limb bud one of the four lateral swellings appearing in vertebrate embryos, which develop into the two pairs of limbs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This list includes plants commonly grown as houseplants. (plant-care.com)
- Raspberry plants favor cool summer and fall temperatures, so plants grown in Missouri are often stunted and produce small fruit. (missouri.edu)
- When located in a free-draining situation the plant has also grown reasonably on some heavier imported soils. (anbg.gov.au)
- Since the only plants I had ever grown before were vegetables, I asked my mom some questions before I got started. (motherearthnews.com)
- When my pot grown specimen was planted in a well lit corner of my former greenhouse in Germany more than 10 years ago it became a showstopper. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- To update on my plant that was grown from the division: it is okay in its pot but has not flowered. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- The distribution patterns of flavonoids and cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives in conventional propagated (CP) and in vitro -derived (CPA) field-grown plants of an important medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda , are described. (hindawi.com)
- Bamboo whose rhizomes originate from a culm, bud or shoot located on one property and which have grown to encroach upon another property. (ecode360.com)
- Full sun plants were grown in row-type beds 3' wide with a 7' grass alley. (uaex.edu)
- Plants were grown in a glass house with no light reduction. (ncsu.edu)
- In Israel and other parts of the Middle Eastern the plant is also being grown commercially in greenhouses. (crfg.org)
- Leaves and yound shoots look distorted and discoloured and growth is checked in early spring. (shootgardening.co.uk)
- Epicormic buds lie dormant beneath the bark, their growth suppressed by hormones from active shoots higher up the plant. (wikipedia.org)
- Human horticultural practices that exploit epicormic growth rely on plants that have epicormic budding capabilities for regenerative function in response to crown damage, such as through wind or fire . (wikipedia.org)
- Pruning leads to growth of suppressed shoots below the cut - these may be from epicormic buds, but they may also be other growth, such as normal buds or small shoots which are only partly suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
- 1. Young plant growth, such as a bud or shoot. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The two senses of burgeon, "to bud" ( The maples are burgeoning ) and "to grow or flourish" ( The suburbs around the city have been burgeoning under the impact of commercial growth ), date from the 14th century. (dictionary.com)
- Plant Growth Regul. (academicjournals.org)
- Still another complication results because the apex is in a state of constant change during the growth of the plant. (britannica.com)
- Reshape the plants to remove errant growth. (star-telegram.com)
- These plants' flowers are insignificant, yet harmful to good foliar growth. (star-telegram.com)
- Keep the planted bulbs in a warm, light place and growth will begin immediately. (jg-tc.com)
- These molecular genetic approaches combined with the conventional physiological studies, such as grafting experiments, revealed that not only do auxin and cytokinin function to control the growth of axillary buds, but other factors and/or signals also have important roles. (plantphysiol.org)
- After 2 to 3 d, the main bud grows predominantly, and inhibits the growth of the other smaller axillary buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- Tea plants growing at latitudes beyond approximately 16° north or south will halt their growth in winter, and the duration of growth cessation lasts longer with increasing latitudes. (frontiersin.org)
- Most samples are obtained in early Aug. from the middle portion of the current season's shoot growth, using fully expanded leaves. (missouri.edu)
- From mid-summer choose the buds you wish to chip bud, by selecting non-flowering shoots that are a similar diameter to the rootstock, from well-ripened, current season's growth. (rhs.org.uk)
- When propagating from runners, it is better to have a few larger plants than lots of small ones, so select only runners with vigorous growth. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- We found that SL-deficient plants are more sensitive to stimulation of bud growth by low concentrations of locally applied CK than wild-type plants. (plantphysiol.org)
- The expression of pea BRANCHED1 , a TCP transcription factor expressed strongly in buds and thought to act downstream of SLs in shoot branching, is regulated by CK and SL without a requirement for protein synthesis and in a manner that correlates with observed bud growth responses. (plantphysiol.org)
- Shearing--pruning plants with hedge shears resulting in a very formal growth habit, used for hedges within formal gardens. (ryobitools.com)
- Shoot-One season of growth for a branch. (ryobitools.com)
- This ultimately allows them to control plant growth based on the confines of their growing space. (maximumyield.com)
- Long nodes indicate that the plant is not receiving adequate light and is stretching in its growth habits in an effort to reach more light. (maximumyield.com)
- We are very excited about this discovery because hormones in plants and animals are an amazingly powerful and natural way to modify and investigate growth and development. (thaindian.com)
- Most maples are bad companion plants, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants[18, (pfaf.org)
- Strictly speaking division applies to plants that produce a mass of closely-knit shoots or buds forming a clump or crown of growth. (walesonline.co.uk)
- Shoot growth consists of primary and secondary growth. (iastate.edu)
- Occasionally, one can get a shoot to form in tissue culture and then growth is fairly normal up to flowering. (iastate.edu)
- To be like a bud in respect to youth and freshness, or growth and promise. (yourdictionary.com)
- The warmer it is, the faster the molecular change - stimulating plant growth. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- In their active state, phytochrome molecules bind themselves to DNA to restrict plant growth. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Warm temperatures accelerate dark reversion, so that phytochromes rapidly reach an inactive state and detach themselves from DNA - allowing genes to be expressed and plant growth to resume. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- After 1-2 months culture, the adventitious shoot growth of red pitaya was suitable for rooting induction. (thefreedictionary.com)
- According to Gahan and George (2008), the high competence of the morphogenetic system in vitro culminates in the multiple productions of adventitious shoots under adequate growth conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- No growth regulator was used and no effort was made to control plant height with negative DIF or with cool temperatures during the first two hours of light each morning. (ncsu.edu)
- As any gardener or keeper of house plants knows, removing the terminal bud promotes the growth of dormant axillary buds and gives rise to bushier plants. (springer.com)
- 2. any small part of the embryo or adult metazoon more or less resembling the bud of a plant and presumed to have potential for growth and differentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Then, pruning in the summer will cut back on the unruly growth and keep the plant in check. (wikihow.com)
- The two senses of burgeon , "to bud" and "to grow or flourish," date from the 14th century. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As plants grow increase watering. (brecks.com)
- After decapitation of the terminal bud, all four axillary buds start to grow. (plantphysiol.org)
- Since the poinsettia is actually a perennial plant, it has to grow new shoots for the next set of flowers. (cleveland.com)
- Homoranthus flavescens appears to grow best in situations of diffuse light for the most attractive plants are found in semi-shaded locations. (anbg.gov.au)
- In strawberries, these runners grow out from the main crown to start new plantlets at every other node, but remain attached to a mother plant. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- Use the results of the test to choose which plants to grow in your garden. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- Nodes that grow too long or short also might indicate that the plant is experiencing too great of a temperature change at night/day. (maximumyield.com)
- Here's how to plant, grow, and harvest broccoli in your garden! (almanac.com)
- When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions. (pfaf.org)
- It can of course grow in pots but the difference to a plant in the open ground is striking. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- To begin to grow, or to issue from a stock in the manner of a bud, as a horn . (yourdictionary.com)
- If a plant finds itself in shade, phytochromes are quickly inactivated - enabling it to grow faster to find sunlight again. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- This is why plants are slower to grow in winter. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- First of all, you need to have a background in plant physiology so you can predict how your bonsai tree will grow. (bonsaitreegardener.net)
- If working with an older plant, you will have to take special steps to restructure the nebari if it did not originally grow in a proper fashion. (bonsaitreegardener.net)
- In response to such treatments, physiological and biochemical methods will be employed to determine changes in the level of plant hormones. (usda.gov)
- This analysis examined hormones in aerial tissue of leafy spurge treated with 0 and 2 lbs/acre glyphosate after 7 day old plants were decapitated and regrown for 6 weeks. (usda.gov)
- These range from physiological studies, such as measurement and exogenous application of plant hormones, to analyses of transgenic plants overexpressing hormone biosynthetic genes to alter endogenous hormone levels. (plantphysiol.org)
- Bioidentical hormones are hormones derived from plants, such as soy or wild yams, and are designed to be structurally identical to the hormones produced naturally inside the human body. (westonaprice.org)
- According to Dr. Laura Streicher, MD, "The only thing that is natural is to drink the horse urine or eat the soy plant (both are used in the manufacturing of hormones). (westonaprice.org)
- Promoters of compounded plant-derived hormones use the terms 'natural' and 'bioidentical' because it is appealing to consumers and implies that it is not synthetic. (westonaprice.org)
- Plant-derived estrogen from soybeans is molecularly very similar but not identical to human hormones. (westonaprice.org)
- Cytokinin (CK) has long been implicated as a promoter of bud outgrowth in plants, but exactly how this is achieved in coordination with other plant hormones is unclear. (plantphysiol.org)
- Regardless of whether the exogenous hormones were supplied locally or to the xylem stream, SL and CK acted antagonistically on bud outgrowth. (plantphysiol.org)
- These hormones may converge at a common point in the bud outgrowth regulatory pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
- Prior to their identification as hormones involved in shoot branching, certain properties of SLs were characterized based on studies of the long-distance branch-inhibiting signal in a series of increased branching mutants. (plantphysiol.org)
- Dominance-A plant's hormones are concentrated at the shoot tips. (ryobitools.com)
- Thin the seedlings, leaving the strongest plant in each group and removing the others. (gardenguides.com)
- Repeat applications will be necessary to control plants from seedlings. (ufl.edu)
- Water regularly, as needed, and feed with liquid fertiliser every month, growing the seedlings on into small plants. (rhs.org.uk)
- Once seedlings reach a height of 2 to 3 inches, thin them so that plants are 12 to 20 inches apart. (almanac.com)
- Does most feeding on ground, but readily goes up into shrubs and low trees for berries, leaves, buds. (audubon.org)
- The Solanaceae plant family includes a very large genus of herbs, shrubs, trees and even climbing plants. (ufl.edu)
- Imagine being able to hop back in time 20 years to dissuade a client from planting a row of baby camellias (mature size 12+') as foundation shrubs. (ryobitools.com)
- After the new shoots die, shrubs may send up new, more vigorous shoots from the base. (oldhouseweb.com)
- But containers offer the broadest design opportunities for every plant type -- from annuals, bulbs, and perennials to shrubs and trees. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- Pass up plants with foliage that is yellowed, limp, or has soft, discolored spots. (csmonitor.com)
- Vivid hues are signs of health on colored foliage plants. (csmonitor.com)
- Damage to foliage of coniferous woody plants. (cabi.org)
- The foliage of this plant is unusual and distinctive. (anbg.gov.au)
- This provides overlapping layers of foliage both at the centre and at the extremities of the plant. (anbg.gov.au)
- When daffodil foliage begins to shoot up, pruning is the topic du jour. (ryobitools.com)
- This forces the plant to make new shoots and branch out. (gardenguides.com)
- The recent discovery of strigolactones (SLs) as the long-sought branch-inhibiting hormone allowed us to test how CK and SL coordinately regulate bud outgrowth in pea ( Pisum sativum ). (plantphysiol.org)
- These studies also indicated that the branch-inhibiting signal or its precursor(s) may be translocated over long distances and may act locally in, or near, axillary buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- Removal of the main bud promotes outgrowth of the accessory buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- Rather, these data combined with dose-response experiments suggest that SLs and CK can act directly in buds to control their outgrowth. (plantphysiol.org)
- but how SL and CK integrate to antagonistically control bud outgrowth remains unclear. (plantphysiol.org)
- Auxin originating from the shoot tip has long been known to repress the outgrowth of axillary buds located at nodes below ( Thimann and Skoog, 1933 , 1934 ). (plantphysiol.org)
- An outgrowth that resembles the bud of a plant, usually pluripotential, and capable of differentiating and growing into a definitive structure. (thefreedictionary.com)
- ureteric bud an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct giving rise to all but the nephrons of the permanent kidney. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These flowers do well when large area planting is required. (gardenguides.com)
- Pruning Pinching of the secondary bud will lead to larger flowers, but less of them. (brecks.com)
- You'll get bigger, healthier plants with more flowers. (brecks.com)
- Here are some tips for buying and storing the bulbs: Buy only firm, shiny brown-coated bulbs and purchase enough to plant new pots every two weeks for a steady supply of flowers through the winter. (jg-tc.com)
- Bringing the plant indoors allow me to keep the flowers fresh for nearly 1 month, also it perfumes a 3 room dwelling. (davesgarden.com)
- The red, pink, white and multicolored leaves at the top of the plant are actually bracts that surround the true flowers. (cleveland.com)
- Shortly after flowering, the true flowers drop from the plant, but the showy bracts remain, sometimes for many months. (cleveland.com)
- Nellie White' is a shorter plant, has fewer but wider leaves, more basal leaves, fewer flowers, and does not suffer from leaf tip burn as much as 'Ace. (auburn.edu)
- buds point upward but curve suddenly downward when the flowers open. (cactus-art.biz)
- Give them no plant food, or you get lots of leaves but few flowers. (newstimes.com)
- Harvest of this strain occurs following regrowth of new shoots and flowers in the early spring. (ufl.edu)
- Farmers and gardeners have known for hundreds of years how responsive plants are to temperature: warm winters cause many trees and flowers to bud early, something humans have long used to predict weather and harvest times for the coming year. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Flowers and buds were also counted. (ncsu.edu)
- Try these plants in dusky foyers, near north windows, and where trees or tall buildings cast shadows across windows. (csmonitor.com)
- The sky was cloudless, the tall trees had burgeoned , a few green shoots were already brightening their myriad of brown twigs. (dictionary.com)
- The half‑erect habit of the moderately tall plants makes them desirable for middle foreground position in landscap ing, while the comparatively small room needed for potted plants makes it an acceptable group for greenhouse culture. (cactus-art.biz)
- Thin when young plants reach 2 to 3 inches tall. (almanac.com)
- Eliminate perennial weeds with cover crops, crop rotation or fallow periods, ideally for a couple of years before planting. (mofga.org)
- Tea plant is a thermophilic perennial evergreen woody plant, generally cultivated between latitudes 45° north and 35° south ( Barua, 1969 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The Project is directed at enabling designers of 'carbon farms' and 'food forests': agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. (pfaf.org)
- Our perennial vegetable beds planted 11 years ago still bear food, and all we do is add compost and mulch once a year. (motherearthnews.com)
- As soon as these plants finish their flowering, remove spent seed heads. (star-telegram.com)
- Total tannin content is highest when the buds are forming, just prior to flowering, in June (85,86). (healthy.net)
- This will provide old wood for flowering shoots and also help keep the plant looking neat and well-maintained. (garden.org)
- The nutrient treatments significantly affected plant development and flowering. (brill.com)
- The mother plant in Germany has not suffered and is flowering. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
- An example of bud is for a tree to show its first signs of flowering in the spring. (yourdictionary.com)
- slang) Potent cannabis taken from the flowering part of the plant (the bud), or marijuana generally. (yourdictionary.com)
- Eden' looks very promising as a new cultivar for forcing as a flowering pot plant. (ncsu.edu)
- Currently, over 80% of all Easter lilies forced as a flowering potted plant are the cultivar 'Nellie White' (Miller, 1992). (ncsu.edu)
- The second node of pea plants has four dormant axillary buds, and all of the axillary buds are different sizes. (plantphysiol.org)
- A leaf scar can be found at the node when the leaf drops off the plant. (ufl.edu)
- Normally, one bud is present on each node, and they alternate between one side of the stalk to the other. (ufl.edu)
- True to its opposite and decussate nature, the shoot of S. splendens exhibits bilateral symmetry --- even in the axillary branching pattern at each node. (berkeley.edu)
- Roses benefit from organic mulch placed over the bed or around individual plants. (missouri.edu)
- In full sun, despite the presence of a mulch, leaf fall occurs and the plants are sparse and slow growing. (anbg.gov.au)
- Or, if you're willing to wait a year to plant, follow Weick's easy sheet mulch method to prepare the site: "Cover your lawn with four layers of cardboard, and top that with a thick layer of wood chips," she says. (motherearthnews.com)
- Within a year, the grass will die and the mulch will become rich organic matter ready for planting. (motherearthnews.com)
- Generally, when a complete fertilizer is used, about 3 pounds should be applied per 100 square feet or 1 heaping tablespoon per plant. (missouri.edu)
- Generally, 1 level tablespoon applied around each plant is adequate. (missouri.edu)
- Pruning in the winter is generally easier because the leaves have been shed and the framework of the plant is exposed. (wikihow.com)
- Voles feed on small plants, succulent root systems, and animal carcasses. (worldatlas.com)
- Most plants root willingly at this time of year without the need for bottom heat. (telegraph.co.uk)
- EXAM 2 - 1 Discuss the plant body including the root system. (coursehero.com)
- Based on the contents of your order we always strive to ship your order complete, and as early as possible in the planting season to allow for the best root development once planted. (brecks.com)
- Root buds on existing plants are able to generate shoots, producing new plants. (ufl.edu)
- such as a dwarfing habit that makes fruit trees more compact, or a rootstock that resists root diseases, or one that is easier to propagate than the scion (top part of the budded tree). (rhs.org.uk)
- The main parts of the sugarcane plant are the stalk, leaf, and root system. (ufl.edu)
- New plantlets usually root easily and produce new mature plants successfully. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- A plant that has been injured by frost is susceptible to root rot. (crfg.org)
- It develops from axillary buds on the stem's surface. (wikipedia.org)
- Insert a cane and tie in the new shoot as it develops. (rhs.org.uk)
- the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. (wikibooks.org)
- 2. something resembling the bud of a plant, especially a protuberance in the embryo from which an organ or part develops. (thefreedictionary.com)
- in vitro multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration from plumule junction explants of pigeon pea [cajanus cajan (l.) mill sp. (academicjournals.org)
- High frequency induction of multiple shoots and plant regeneration from seedling explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Curr. (academicjournals.org)
- Organogenesis and embryogenesis from diverse explants in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Plant Cell Rep. 13: 417-420. (academicjournals.org)
- Harvest sprouting broccoli regularly to encourage the plant to produce more buds. (gardenguides.com)
- Use a floating row cover just after planting through harvest to prevent caterpillars. (almanac.com)
- Plants are ready for harvest when they reach a height of 10 to 15 inches. (ufl.edu)
- when to harvest buds. (yourdictionary.com)
- There is still time to take cuttings of pinks, penstemons, salvias, artemisias, lavenders and other silver-leaved or short-lived plants. (telegraph.co.uk)
- By this time in the summer, the plants can start to look really shaggy, which means it's time for the long-handled loppers to clip off the shoots. (star-telegram.com)
- If you don't have time to plant immediately, keep the dahlia tubers in their original bags at about 40-45°F (4-7°C). The vegetable drawer of a refrigerator is ideal for temporary storage. (brecks.com)
- One good guideline is to plant dahlias at the same time you would plant tomatoes. (brecks.com)
- These dormant axillary buds resume development at a later time depending on their developmental program or in response to environmental cues. (plantphysiol.org)
- Fall is an excellent time to sheet compost as the material breaks down slowly over the winter and is ready for planting in the spring. (oregonstate.edu)
- The burlap will gradually decompose over time but may be removed when planting the bed. (oregonstate.edu)
- Water well at the time of planting. (almanac.com)
- Tapirs like to spend a lot of time in the water, eating aquatic plants, cooling off, or washing away skin parasites. (wildrepublic.com)
- You might have imagined that since autumn is such an ideal time for planting, garden centres would be stocked to the rafters with herbaceous perennials. (walesonline.co.uk)
- Fortunately, however, the government, by dismissing the ringleader, Dr Campanozzi, in time nipped the agitation in the bud , and it did attempt to redress some of the genuine grievances. (yourdictionary.com)
- The latest research pinpoints for the first time the molecular mechanism in plants that reacts to temperature - often triggering the buds of spring we long to see at the end of winter. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Selecting plants whose cultural requirements suit the conditions of your garden is the best way to assure success and cut down on time caring for them. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- It is important to check a soils pH to ensure that you get the best out of your garden plants and crops. (globalactionplan.org.uk)
- Although not as fussy about cold, wet soils as the papaya, the plants perform best in moderately dry winter conditions. (crfg.org)
- for these soils, select plants that tolerate abundant moisture. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- for these soils, plants that tolerate drought will perform best. (whiteflowerfarm.com)
- Variations in size, shape, and other characteristics of the bud provide a means of distinguishing between varieties. (ufl.edu)
- The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. (hindawi.com)
- The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. (hindawi.com)
- In vitro adventitious shoot formation on cotyledons of Pinus pinea. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In vitro adventitious shoot development in absence or low concentrations of BAP has been reported for Rangpur lime (ALMEIDA et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Position diferences in size, morphology, and in vitro performance of pea axillary buds. (springer.com)