Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
System of recording financial transactions.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
A method of examining and setting levels of payments.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Financial support of research activities.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Medical and skilled nursing services provided to patients who are not in an acute phase of an illness but who require a level of care higher than that provided in a long-term care setting. (JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.
A system wherein reimbursement rates are set, for a given period of time, prior to the circumstances giving rise to actual reimbursement claims.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Hospitals which provide care to the patient for the period following an acute illness until health is restored.
Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkmenistan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, known for its rich natural resources and unique cultural heritage. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
All organized methods of funding.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.
Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).

A comparison of three methods of setting prescribing budgets, using data derived from defined daily dose analyses of historic patterns of use. (1/372)

BACKGROUND: Prescribing matters (particularly budget setting and research into prescribing variation between doctors) have been handicapped by the absence of credible measures of the volume of drugs prescribed. AIM: To use the defined daily dose (DDD) method to study variation in the volume and cost of drugs prescribed across the seven main British National Formulary (BNF) chapters with a view to comparing different methods of setting prescribing budgets. METHOD: Study of one year of prescribing statistics from all 129 general practices in Lothian, covering 808,059 patients: analyses of prescribing statistics for 1995 to define volume and cost/volume of prescribing for one year for 10 groups of practices defined by the age and deprivation status of their patients, for seven BNF chapters; creation of prescribing budgets for 1996 for each individual practice based on the use of target volume and cost statistics; comparison of 1996 DDD-based budgets with those set using the conventional historical approach; and comparison of DDD-based budgets with budgets set using a capitation-based formula derived from local cost/patient information. RESULTS: The volume of drugs prescribed was affected by the age structure of the practices in BNF Chapters 1 (gastrointestinal), 2 (cardiovascular), and 6 (endocrine), and by deprivation structure for BNF Chapters 3 (respiratory) and 4 (central nervous system). Costs per DDD in the major BNF chapters were largely independent of age, deprivation structure, or fundholding status. Capitation and DDD-based budgets were similar to each other, but both differed substantially from historic budgets. One practice in seven gained or lost more than 100,000 Pounds per annum using DDD or capitation budgets compared with historic budgets. The DDD-based budget, but not the capitation-based budget, can be used to set volume-specific prescribing targets. CONCLUSIONS: DDD-based and capitation-based prescribing budgets can be set using a simple explanatory model and generalizable methods. In this study, both differed substantially from historic budgets. DDD budgets could be created to accommodate new prescribing strategies and raised or lowered to reflect local intentions to alter overall prescribing volume or cost targets. We recommend that future work on setting budgets and researching prescribing variations should be based on DDD statistics.  (+info)

Audit in the therapy professions: some constraints on progress. (2/372)

AIMS: To ascertain views about constraints on the progress of audit experienced by members of four of the therapy professions: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and clinical psychology. METHODS: Interviews in six health service sites with a history of audit in these professions. 62 interviews were held with members of the four professions and 60 with other personnel with relevant involvement. Five main themes emerged as the constraints on progress: resources; expertise; relations between groups; organisational structures; and overall planning of audit activities. RESULTS: Concerns about resources focused on lack of time, insufficient finance, and lack of access to appropriate systems of information technology. Insufficient expertise was identified as a major constraint on progress. Guidance on designing instruments for collection of data was the main concern, but help with writing proposals, specifying and keeping to objectives, analysing data, and writing reports was also required. Although sources of guidance were sometimes available, more commonly this was not the case. Several aspects of relations between groups were reported as constraining the progress of audit. These included support and commitment, choice of audit topics, conflicts between staff, willingness to participate and change practice, and concerns about confidentiality. Organisational structures which constrained audit included weak links between heads of professional services and managers of provider units, the inhibiting effect of change, the weakening of professional coherence when therapists were split across directorates, and the ethos of regarding audit findings as business secrets. Lack of an overall plan for audit meant that while some resources were available, others equally necessary for successful completion of projects were not. CONCLUSION: Members of four of the therapy professions identified a wide range of constraints on the progress of audit. If their commitment to audit is to be maintained these constraints require resolution. It is suggested that such expert advice, but also that these are directed towards the particular needs of the four professions. Moreover, a forum is required within which all those with a stake in therapy audit can acknowledge and resolve the different agendas which they may have in the enterprise.  (+info)

Challenges in implementing a budget-holding programme for primary care clinics. (3/372)

In 1990, Kupat Holim Clalit (KHC), Israel's largest sick fund, initiated a demonstration programme for transforming a number of primary care clinics in the Negev district of southern Israel into autonomous budget-holding units. Four programme components were implemented in the nine participating clinics: allocation of a fixed budget; expansion of day-to-day decision-making authority; establishment of a computerized information system to produce monthly reports on expenditure; and provision of incentives for budgetary control. The research findings are based on a four-year evaluation of the programme, which involved a longitudinal case study conducted with multiple research tools: in-depth interviews, a staff survey, and analysis of relevant documents. This article analyzes the challenges involved in implementing the demonstration programme. It examines clinic staff evaluation of the implementation process (e.g. overall staff had a positive attitude toward it); assesses staff satisfaction with clinic participation in the programme (while only 33% were satisfied, only 21% said they would like the clinic to revert to the pre-programme model) and factors influencing this satisfaction (among them intrinsic benefits, perception of the programme as fair and age); and discusses the lessons to be learnt from the programme regarding effective implementation of organizational change. The main lessons indicate the importance of certain factors in implementing such programmes: (a) long-term management commitment to the programme; (b) appointment of agents of change/programme administrators; (c) establishment of a formal agreement between the parties involved; (d) establishment of communication channels between the parties involved; (e) intrinsic benefits for staff, perceived as incentives to economize; (f) reliable data, perceived to be reliable by the parties involved; (g) staff participation in the process of change; and (h) involvement of the participating unit as a single entity.  (+info)

Reform follows failure: II. Pressure for change in the Lebanese health sector. (4/372)

This paper describes how, against a background of growing financial crisis, pressure for reform is building up in the Lebanese health care system. It describes the various agendas and influences that played a role. The Ministry of Health, backed by some international organizations, has started taking the lead in a reform that addresses both the way care is delivered and the way it is financed. The paper describes the interventions made to prepare reform. The experience in Lebanon shows that this preparation is a process of muddling through, experimentation and alliance building, rather than the marketing of an overall coherent blueprint.  (+info)

Looking beyond the formulary budget in cost-benefit analysis. (5/372)

With the introduction of newer, more expensive psychotropic medications, healthcare providers and managed care administrators must consider whether these drugs offer "value for the money." A true picture of the benefits of these drugs emerges only when all the costs of treatment are considered. Focusing exclusively on the acquisition cost of the drug can result in a misleading impression of the drug's worth. Although the medication costs associated with treating a patient with a newer drug increase, use of these agents may actually result in an overall decrease in healthcare costs, through reductions in hospitalization and length of stay, use of mental health services, and prescriptions for adjunctive drugs. In one study of the newer antipsychotic agent risperidone, the overall annual costs of treating a patient with schizophrenia were reduced by nearly $8,000 (Canadian dollars), even though medication costs increased by approximately $1,200 (Canadian dollars). Retrospective and prospective pharmacoeconomic studies can provide valuable data on the cost effectiveness of treatment with newer psychotropic medications.  (+info)

Public hospital resource allocations in El Salvador: accounting for the case mix of patients. (6/372)

National hospitals in developing countries command a disproportionate share of medical care budgets, justified on the grounds that they have a more difficult patient case mix and higher occupancy rates than decentralized district hospitals or clinics. This paper empirically tests the hypothesis by developing direct measures of the severity of patient illness, hospital case-mix and a resource intensity index for each of El Salvador's public hospitals. Based on an analysis of inpatient care staffing requirements, national hospitals are found to receive funding far in excess of what case-mix and case-load considerations would warrant. The findings suggest that significant system-wide efficiency gains can be realized by allocating hospital budgets on the bases of performance-related criteria which incorporate the case-mix approach developed here.  (+info)

Shaping the future of Medicare. (7/372)

This article suggests that further major changes in Medicare at this time are unwarranted. The enactment of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) has eliminated the need for quick action to assure solvency of the Part A Trust Fund, which is projected to be in balance for at least ten years. It will take time to implement and assess the effects of the BBA. The uncertainties of future trends in the health sector and Medicare suggest a go-slow approach. Future reforms to finance health care as the baby boom generation retires should be guided by the goals of continuing to assure health and economic security to elderly and disabled beneficiaries, with particular attention to the financial burdens on lower-income beneficiaries and those with serious illnesses or chronic conditions. Employers are cutting back on retiree health coverage, and the appropriate contribution of employers will need to be addressed. The BBA included major provisions to expand Medicare managed care choices. Special attention will need to be given to how well these innovations work, their cost impact on Medicare, the extent to which beneficiaries are able to make informed choices, and whether risk selection among plans and between traditional Medicare and plans can be adequately addressed. Most of the savings of BBA came from tighter payment rates to managed care plans and fee-for-service providers; it is unclear whether these will lead to rates well below the private sector or whether further savings can be achieved by extending these changes beyond 2002.  (+info)

Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices. (8/372)

Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices.  (+info)

In medical terminology, a budget is not explicitly defined. However, in a general sense, it refers to a financial plan that outlines the anticipated costs and expenses for a specific period. In healthcare, budgets can be used by hospitals, clinics, or other medical facilities to plan for and manage their finances.

A healthcare organization's budget may include expenses related to:

* Salaries and benefits for staff
* Equipment and supply costs
* Facility maintenance and improvements
* Research and development expenses
* Insurance and liability coverage
* Marketing and advertising costs

Budgets can help healthcare organizations manage their finances effectively, allocate resources efficiently, and make informed decisions about spending. They may also be used to plan for future growth and expansion.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Management" is not a medical term. Financial management refers to the process of managing the financial resources, such as budgeting, investing, raising funds, and planning for an organization or individual. It involves the application of management principles to the financial functions of an organization.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Cost control in a medical context refers to the strategies and practices employed by healthcare organizations to manage and reduce the costs associated with providing patient care while maintaining quality and safety. The goal is to optimize resource allocation, increase efficiency, and contain expenses without compromising the standard of care. This may involve measures such as:

1. Utilization management: Reviewing and monitoring the use of medical services, tests, and treatments to ensure they are necessary, appropriate, and evidence-based.
2. Case management: Coordinating patient care across various healthcare providers and settings to improve outcomes, reduce unnecessary duplication of services, and control costs.
3. Negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors to secure favorable pricing for medical equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
4. Implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines and pathways to standardize care processes and reduce unwarranted variations in practice that can drive up costs.
5. Using technology such as electronic health records (EHRs) and telemedicine to streamline operations, improve communication, and reduce errors.
6. Investing in preventive care and wellness programs to keep patients healthy and reduce the need for costly interventions and hospitalizations.
7. Continuously monitoring and analyzing cost data to identify trends, opportunities for improvement, and areas of potential waste or inefficiency.

Cost allocation is the process of distributing or assigning costs to different departments, projects, products, or services within an organization. The goal of cost allocation is to more accurately determine the true cost of producing a product or providing a service, taking into account all related expenses. This can help organizations make better decisions about pricing, resource allocation, and profitability analysis.

There are various methods for allocating costs, including activity-based costing (ABC), which assigns costs based on the activities required to produce a product or provide a service; traditional costing, which uses broad categories such as direct labor, direct materials, and overhead; and causal allocation, which assigns costs based on a specific cause-and-effect relationship.

In healthcare, cost allocation is particularly important for determining the true cost of patient care, including both direct and indirect costs. This can help hospitals and other healthcare organizations make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and reimbursement strategies.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

In the medical field, "accounting" generally refers to the process of tracking, analyzing, and reporting financial transactions related to the operation of a healthcare organization or practice. This can include recording revenue from patient services, managing expenses for supplies and personnel, ensuring compliance with government regulations, and producing financial statements for decision-making and tax purposes.

Some specific areas of accounting that are relevant to healthcare include:

* Revenue Cycle Management (RCM): the process of tracking and collecting payments for medical services provided to patients. This includes billing, coding, and managing insurance claims.
* Cost Accounting: the process of analyzing and allocating costs associated with providing medical services, including direct costs (such as supplies and labor) and indirect costs (such as rent and utilities).
* Financial Reporting: the process of producing financial statements that provide an overview of a healthcare organization's financial performance and position. This can include balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements.
* Compliance Accounting: the process of ensuring that a healthcare organization is following all relevant laws and regulations related to financial management, including those related to Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, tax reporting, and fraud prevention.

It's important to note that accounting in healthcare is a complex field that requires specialized knowledge and skills, and it is typically overseen by certified public accountants (CPAs) or other financial professionals who specialize in healthcare finance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Economic models in the context of healthcare and medicine are theoretical frameworks used to analyze and predict the economic impact and cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions, treatments, or policies. These models utilize clinical and epidemiological data, as well as information on resource use and costs, to estimate outcomes such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and budget impacts. The purpose of economic models is to inform decision-making and allocate resources in an efficient and evidence-based manner. Examples of economic models include decision tree analysis, Markov models, and simulation models.

Financial management in a hospital setting refers to the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of financial resources in order to achieve the hospital's mission, vision, and strategic objectives. This includes developing financial strategies, preparing budget plans, managing revenue cycles, controlling costs, ensuring compliance with financial regulations, and making informed decisions about resource allocation. Effective financial management is critical for the sustainability and growth of hospitals, as it enables them to provide high-quality patient care while maintaining fiscal responsibility.

Resource allocation in a medical context refers to the process of distributing and managing healthcare resources, such as budget, staff, equipment, and supplies, in an efficient and equitable manner to meet the health needs of a population. This involves prioritizing the use of resources to maximize benefits, improve patient outcomes, and ensure fair access to healthcare services. It is a critical aspect of healthcare planning and management, particularly in situations where resources are limited or there are competing demands for them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Cost savings in a medical context generally refers to the reduction in expenses or resources expended in the delivery of healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. This can be achieved through various means such as implementing more efficient processes, utilizing less expensive treatment options when appropriate, preventing complications or readmissions, and negotiating better prices for drugs or supplies.

Cost savings can also result from comparative effectiveness research, which compares the relative benefits and harms of different medical interventions to help doctors and patients make informed decisions about which treatment is most appropriate and cost-effective for a given condition.

Ultimately, cost savings in healthcare aim to improve the overall value of care delivered by reducing unnecessary expenses while maintaining or improving quality outcomes for patients.

"Competitive medical plans" is not a standard term in the medical field. However, in the context of health insurance and healthcare policy, it generally refers to multiple health plan options that are available for individuals or employers to choose from, typically within a regulated marketplace or exchange. These plans compete with each other to offer the best coverage, benefits, and costs to attract customers. The goal of having competitive medical plans is to increase access to quality healthcare, promote competition among insurers, and drive down healthcare costs through choice and negotiation.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Regional health planning is a process that involves the systematic assessment, analysis, and prioritization of healthcare needs for a defined geographic population in a specific region. It aims to develop and implement strategies, programs, and services to address those needs in a coordinated and efficient manner. This collaborative approach often involves various stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, working together to improve the overall health and well-being of the population in that region.

The medical definition of 'Regional Health Planning' can be outlined as follows:

1. Systematic assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the healthcare needs, resources, and infrastructure within a specific region, taking into account demographic, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors that influence health outcomes.
2. Analysis: The examination of data and information gathered during the assessment to identify gaps, priorities, and opportunities for improvement in healthcare services and delivery.
3. Prioritization: The process of ranking healthcare needs and issues based on their urgency, impact, and feasibility of intervention, to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently.
4. Strategy development: The creation of evidence-based, data-driven plans and interventions aimed at addressing the prioritized health needs and improving the overall health of the regional population.
5. Collaboration: The active engagement and partnership of various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional health initiatives.
6. Coordination: The alignment and integration of healthcare services, programs, and policies across different levels and sectors to ensure seamless care and avoid duplication of efforts.
7. Continuous improvement: The ongoing monitoring and evaluation of regional health programs and interventions to assess their effectiveness, make adjustments as needed, and incorporate new evidence and best practices into future planning efforts.

"Rate setting and review" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field. However, I can provide you with information about what these terms might refer to in a broader healthcare context:

Rate setting generally refers to the process of determining the payment rates for healthcare services, programs, or products. This could involve setting reimbursement rates for medical procedures, medications, or durable medical equipment under government-funded health insurance programs like Medicare and Medicaid, or in the private insurance sector. Rate setting can be influenced by various factors, including the cost of providing care, resource utilization, quality metrics, and market competition.

Review, in this context, typically refers to the process of evaluating and assessing healthcare services, programs, or products to ensure their quality, effectiveness, and efficiency. This could involve reviewing medical records, clinical outcomes, and financial data to determine if the care provided is consistent with evidence-based guidelines, industry best practices, and regulatory requirements. Regular reviews are essential for maintaining high standards of care, identifying areas for improvement, and ensuring that resources are allocated efficiently.

Together, "rate setting and review" may refer to a comprehensive approach to managing healthcare costs and quality by establishing appropriate payment rates while continuously monitoring and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

"Financial Risk Sharing" in a medical context generally refers to the allocation of financial risk between parties involved in the provision, financing, or coverage of healthcare services. This can include arrangements such as capitation payments, where healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care, regardless of the number of services provided; or reinsurance, where insurance companies share the risk of large claims with other insurers. The goal of financial risk sharing is to create incentives for efficient and cost-effective care while also protecting against unexpectedly high costs.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Models, Econometric" is not a medical term. Econometric models are statistical tools used in the field of economics to estimate economic relationships and forecast future outcomes. They are based on economic theory and use historical data to estimate the parameters of mathematical equations that describe these relationships.

If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help! Just let me know what you're looking for.

"Medical Assistance" is a term used in the United States that primarily refers to government-funded health care programs for individuals who are unable to afford medical care on their own. The most well-known program is Medicaid, which is a joint federal-state program that provides health coverage for low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities.

Medical Assistance can also refer to other government-funded programs that provide financial assistance for medical care, such as the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which provides low-cost health insurance for children in families who earn too much to qualify for Medicaid but still cannot afford private insurance.

In general, Medical Assistance programs are designed to help ensure that all individuals have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. These programs are funded through a combination of federal and state funds, and eligibility criteria and benefits may vary from state to state.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

Subacute care is a level of medical care and support that is provided to patients who are in stable condition but still require close monitoring and treatment for complex medical issues, including wound care, pain management, and rehabilitation services. This type of care is typically provided in specialized units of hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, or standalone subacute care centers.

Subacute care is less intensive than acute care, which is provided to patients who are experiencing a severe illness or injury that requires immediate attention and constant monitoring. At the same time, subacute care is more complex and comprehensive than traditional long-term care services, such as those provided in nursing homes.

The goal of subacute care is to help patients recover from their medical issues and regain their independence and functionality as much as possible. This type of care typically involves a team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, therapists, and social workers, who work together to develop an individualized plan of care for each patient.

Examples of conditions that may require subacute care include:

* Complex wounds that require specialized treatment and monitoring
* Post-surgical recovery from major surgery or transplants
* Recovery from stroke or other neurological disorders
* Ventilator weaning for patients who no longer need acute care but are not yet ready to breathe on their own
* Management of chronic conditions, such as diabetes or heart failure, that require close monitoring and adjustment of medications.

A formulary is a list of prescription drugs, both generic and brand-name, that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. The formulary includes information on the preferred drugs within each therapeutic class, along with any restrictions or limitations on their use. Formularies are developed and maintained by a committee of healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and physicians, who evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of different medications.

The purpose of a formulary is to promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage healthcare costs. By establishing a preferred list of drugs, health plans and healthcare systems can negotiate better prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers and ensure that patients receive high-quality, evidence-based care.

Formularies may include various types of medications, such as oral solid dosage forms, injectables, inhalants, topicals, and others. They are typically organized by therapeutic class, and each drug is assigned a tier based on its cost and clinical value. Tier 1 drugs are usually preferred generics or lower-cost brand-name medications, while Tier 2 drugs may be higher-cost brand-name medications that have no generic equivalent. Tier 3 drugs are typically specialty medications that are used to treat complex or rare conditions and are often associated with high costs.

Healthcare providers are encouraged to prescribe drugs that are listed on the formulary, as these medications have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed safe and effective for use in their patient population. However, there may be situations where a non-formulary medication is necessary to treat a particular patient's condition. In such cases, healthcare providers can request an exception or prior authorization to prescribe the non-formulary drug.

Formularies are regularly updated to reflect new drugs that come on the market, changes in clinical guidelines, and shifts in the therapeutic landscape. Health plans and healthcare systems may also modify their formularies in response to feedback from patients and providers or to address concerns about safety, efficacy, or cost.

In summary, a formulary is a comprehensive list of prescription drugs that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. Formularies promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage costs by encouraging the prescribing of safe and effective drugs that have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed appropriate for their patient population.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

A capitation fee is a payment model in healthcare systems where physicians or other healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient assigned to their care, per period of time, whether or not that patient seeks care. This fee is intended to cover all the necessary medical services for that patient during that time frame. It is a type of risk-based payment model that encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and provide appropriate care to keep patients healthy and avoid unnecessary procedures or hospitalizations. The amount of the capitation fee can vary based on factors such as the patient's age, health status, and any specific healthcare needs they may have.

A Prospective Payment System (PPS) is a method of reimbursement in which the payment for a specific service is determined before the service is provided. It is commonly used in healthcare systems, including hospitals and post-acute care facilities, to control costs and promote efficiency. Under this system, providers are paid a predetermined amount based on the patient's diagnosis or the type of procedure being performed, rather than being reimbursed for each individual service provided. This encourages providers to deliver care in the most cost-effective manner possible while still meeting quality standards. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) uses PPS for many of its payment models, including the Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) and the Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nitrogen cycle" is not a medical term. It is a biological concept that refers to the process through which nitrogen, an essential element for life, is converted between various chemical forms as it circulates through the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and aquatic environments.

The nitrogen cycle includes several key processes:

1. Nitrogen fixation: Certain bacteria are capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), a form that can be used by plants and other organisms. This process is called nitrogen fixation.
2. Nitrification: Some types of bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites (NO2-) and then into nitrates (NO3-). This two-step process is known as nitrification.
3. Denitrification: Certain bacteria can convert nitrates back into nitrogen gas, releasing it into the atmosphere. This process is called denitrification.
4. Assimilation: Plants and other organisms take up nitrogen in the form of ammonia or nitrates from the soil or water and incorporate it into their tissues through a process called assimilation.
5. Ammonification: When organisms die and decompose, or when they excrete waste products, nitrogen is released back into the environment in the form of ammonia. This process is known as ammonification.

While not a medical term, understanding the nitrogen cycle is important for many areas of science, including environmental science, agriculture, and ecology.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Organizational decision-making is a management process in which a group or team within an organization makes a judgment or choice among several options or alternatives to achieve specific goals or objectives. This process involves collecting and analyzing information, evaluating alternatives, selecting the best option, and implementing and monitoring the decision. It often requires collaboration, communication, and consensus-building among team members with diverse perspectives and expertise. Effective organizational decision-making can lead to better outcomes, improved performance, and increased innovation, while poor decision-making can result in missed opportunities, wasted resources, and decreased competitiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

Capital financing refers to the process of raising funds to provide capital for a business, organization, or project, particularly in the medical field. This can include obtaining loans, issuing stocks and bonds, seeking grants, or attracting private investments. The goal of capital financing is to secure sufficient financial resources to support long-term growth, expansion, or modernization efforts, as well as to ensure ongoing operations and sustainability. In healthcare, capital financing may be used for various purposes such as building new hospitals or clinics, purchasing medical equipment, conducting research and development, or implementing new technology systems.

Hospital economics refers to the study and application of economic principles and concepts in the management and operation of hospitals and healthcare organizations. This field examines issues such as cost containment, resource allocation, financial management, reimbursement systems, and strategic planning. The goal of hospital economics is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital operations while maintaining high-quality patient care. It involves understanding and analyzing various economic factors that affect hospitals, including government regulations, market forces, technological advancements, and societal values. Hospital economists may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, consulting firms, academic institutions, and government agencies.

An "Orphan Drug" is a pharmaceutical agent that is developed to treat a rare medical condition, disorder, or disease that affects a small number of people in comparison to other conditions. In the United States, this is defined as a condition or disease that affects fewer than 200,000 people nationwide. Due to the limited market for these drugs, pharmaceutical companies are often reluctant to invest in their development and production.

"Orphan Drug Production," therefore, refers to the manufacturing process of these rare disease treatments. To encourage the development and production of orphan drugs, governments and regulatory agencies offer incentives such as tax credits, grants, and exclusive marketing rights for a certain period of time. These measures help offset the higher costs and lower profit margins associated with developing and producing orphan drugs, ultimately benefiting patients with rare diseases who often have few or no treatment options available to them.

Ecological parameter monitoring is the systematic and ongoing observation, measurement, and tracking of specific physical and biological variables within an ecological system or community. This process involves regularly assessing various parameters, such as air and water quality, soil composition, climate conditions, species diversity, population dynamics, and habitat structure, to understand the current state and trends of the ecosystem. The data collected from ecological parameter monitoring are used to inform conservation efforts, land management practices, public health and safety measures, and climate change adaptation strategies. This information is also critical for evaluating the effectiveness of restoration and management actions over time.

Reimbursement mechanisms in a medical context refer to the various systems and methods used by health insurance companies, government agencies, or other payers to refund or recompense healthcare providers, institutions, or patients for the costs associated with medical services, treatments, or products. These mechanisms ensure that covered individuals receive necessary medical care while protecting payers from unnecessary expenses.

There are several types of reimbursement mechanisms, including:

1. Fee-for-service (FFS): In this model, healthcare providers are paid for each service or procedure they perform, with the payment typically based on a predetermined fee schedule. This can lead to overutilization and increased costs if providers perform unnecessary services to increase their reimbursement.
2. Capitation: Under capitation, healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care for a specified period, regardless of the number or type of services provided. This encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and focus on preventive care to maintain patients' health and reduce overall costs.
3. Bundled payments: Also known as episode-based payment, this model involves paying a single price for all the services related to a specific medical event, treatment, or condition over a defined period. This encourages coordination among healthcare providers and can help eliminate unnecessary procedures and costs.
4. Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS): RBRVS is a payment system that assigns relative value units (RVUs) to various medical services based on factors such as time, skill, and intensity required for the procedure. The RVUs are then converted into a monetary amount using a conversion factor. This system aims to create more equitable and consistent payments across different medical specialties and procedures.
5. Prospective payment systems (PPS): In PPS, healthcare providers receive predetermined fixed payments for specific services or conditions based on established diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or other criteria. This system encourages efficiency in care delivery and can help control costs by setting limits on reimbursement amounts.
6. Pay-for-performance (P4P): P4P models tie a portion of healthcare providers' reimbursements to their performance on specific quality measures, such as patient satisfaction scores or adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This system aims to incentivize high-quality care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.
7. Shared savings/risk arrangements: In these models, healthcare providers form accountable care organizations (ACOs) or other collaborative entities that assume responsibility for managing the total cost of care for a defined population. If they can deliver care at lower costs while maintaining quality standards, they share in the savings with payers. However, if costs exceed targets, they may be required to absorb some of the financial risk.

These various reimbursement models aim to balance the need for high-quality care with cost control and efficiency in healthcare delivery. By aligning incentives and promoting coordination among providers, these systems can help improve patient outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs and waste in the healthcare system.

A convalescent hospital is a type of healthcare facility that provides care and rehabilitation services to patients who are recovering from an illness, injury, or surgery. The main goal of a convalescent hospital is to help patients regain their strength, mobility, and independence so they can return to their normal lives.

Convalescent hospitals typically provide a range of services, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and nursing care. They may also offer recreational activities and social support to help patients recover both physically and emotionally.

These hospitals are often used for patients who require a longer period of recovery than what is typically provided in an acute care hospital, but who do not need the level of care provided in a skilled nursing facility. Convalescent hospitals may be standalone facilities or part of a larger healthcare system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Administration" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the management and oversight of libraries, including planning and policy-making, resource allocation, staff management, and service delivery. If you have a question about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help you.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Insurance benefits refer to the coverage, payments or services that a health insurance company provides to its policyholders based on the terms of their insurance plan. These benefits can include things like:

* Payment for all or a portion of medical services, such as doctor visits, hospital stays, and prescription medications
* Coverage for specific treatments or procedures, such as cancer treatment or surgery
* Reimbursement for out-of-pocket expenses, such as deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments
* Case management and care coordination services to help policyholders navigate the healthcare system and receive appropriate care.

The specific benefits provided will vary depending on the type of insurance plan and the level of coverage purchased by the policyholder. It is important for individuals to understand their insurance benefits and how they can access them in order to make informed decisions about their healthcare.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkmenistan" is a country located in Central Asia, and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or nutrition, feel free to ask!

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "investments" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an economic and financial term that refers to the allocation of resources, usually money, with the expectation of receiving future returns or benefits. This could include purchasing stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets with the goal of generating income or appreciating in value over time.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related concepts, I'd be happy to help!

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that provides health coverage for low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Eligibility, benefits, and administration vary by state, but the program is designed to ensure that low-income individuals have access to necessary medical services. Medicaid is funded jointly by the federal government and the states, and is administered by the states under broad federal guidelines.

Medicaid programs must cover certain mandatory benefits, such as inpatient and outpatient hospital services, laboratory and X-ray services, and physician services. States also have the option to provide additional benefits, such as dental care, vision services, and prescription drugs. In addition, many states have expanded their Medicaid programs to cover more low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Medicaid is an important source of health coverage for millions of Americans, providing access to necessary medical care and helping to reduce financial burden for low-income individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Programs" is a very broad term and can encompass many different fields, including healthcare, social services, education, and more. If you're looking for a medical definition related to government programs, you might be referring to initiatives like Medicare, Medicaid, or the Affordable Care Act in the United States, which are government-run health insurance programs or policies.

1. Medicare: A federal health insurance program in the United States, primarily for people 65 and older, but also for some younger people with disabilities and those with end-stage renal disease. Medicare provides coverage for hospitalization, doctor visits, and other healthcare services.

2. Medicaid: A joint federal-state health insurance program in the United States that provides coverage to low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Medicaid covers a range of medical services, including hospital stays, doctor visits, and long-term care.

3. The Affordable Care Act (ACA): Also known as "Obamacare," the ACA is a United States healthcare reform law that aims to increase the quality and affordability of health insurance, lower the uninsured rate, and regulate the health insurance industry. The ACA includes provisions such as mandated insurance coverage, subsidies for low-income individuals, and protections for those with pre-existing conditions.

Please provide more context if you were looking for information on a different government program related to the medical field.

A Prepaid Health Plan (PHP), also known as a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) or Point of Service (POS) plan, is a type of health insurance in which the insured pays a fixed, prepaid fee for access to specific healthcare services. These plans typically have a network of healthcare providers with whom they have contracts to provide services at reduced rates. The insured must choose a primary care physician (PCP) from within the network who will coordinate their care and refer them to specialists as needed, also within the network. Prepaid health plans may not cover services received outside of the designated network, except in emergency situations.

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

Medical fees are the charges for services provided by medical professionals and healthcare facilities. These fees can vary widely depending on the type of service, the provider, and the geographic location. They may include charges for office visits, procedures, surgeries, hospital stays, diagnostic tests, and prescribed medications. In some cases, medical fees may be covered in part or in full by health insurance, but in other cases patients may be responsible for paying these fees out of pocket. It is important for patients to understand the fees associated with their medical care and to ask questions about any charges that they do not understand.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taxes" is not a medical term. It refers to a compulsory financial charge or levy imposed on individuals or entities by a governmental authority to fund various public expenditures and services. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The greenhouse effect is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of environmental science and meteorology. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

The greenhouse effect refers to the warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, known as greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then re-emitted as heat energy, which would normally escape back into space. However, some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm up. This process is essential for life on Earth, as it helps to maintain a stable temperature that supports plant and animal growth.

However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has caused the natural greenhouse effect to become amplified. This has resulted in global warming and climate change, with potentially serious consequences for both human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A personal health budget can be managed in three different ways: A notional budget where no money changes hands and an NHS ... "Personal health budgets". NHS Choices. Retrieved 13 October 2015. "Personal Health Budgets". RCGP. Retrieved 2 September 2015. ... Personal budgets have been widely adopted in social care and have been championed by, among others, Liz Kendall, who advocated ... According to him "If you don't tell people what the budget is, as a local authority you are forced into a position of planning ...
... released three albums and toured throughout North America and Europe. The Low Budgets formed in 2000 after the ... The Low Budgets was an American punk/garage rock band based in Philadelphia. They were a project of Dead Milkmen guitarist Joe ... The Low Budgets went on hiatus and ultimately disbanded after Seegel emigrated to Berlin. Genaro and Stevens played in the ... Go Bargain Hunting With the Low Budgets (2001, 7-inch - Nancy Boy Records) Buy One Song, Get One Free (2002, 7-inch - ...
The Mother of all Budgets was the nickname given to the 1991 New Zealand budget. It was the first budget delivered by the new ... The finance minister Grant Robertson referenced the mother of all budgets in his budget speech stating that the benefit ... mother of all budgets'. The budget cut spending on many of the welfare state institutions established in the 1930s by the First ... "Grant Robertson's budget is overtly driven by politics and the desire to pay off Labour supporters", as opposed to her budget, ...
There are two types of budget bill veto: the line-item veto and the veto of the whole budget. A personal budget or home budget ... the operating or current budget, the capital or investment budget, and the cash or cash flow budget. The federal budget is ... budget execution), performance (budget accountability), and zero-based budgeting. The Department of Budget and Management (DBM ... Zero based budget - A budget type where every item added to the budget needs approval and no items are carried forward from the ...
The Committee on Budgets (BUDG) is a committee of the European Parliament. It has 41 members plus 39 substitute members. The ... Budget of the European Union, Committees of the European Parliament, All stub articles, European Union stubs). ...
"MP Budget". "Maharashtra Budget, 2023". cnbc tv18. 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023. "Manipur CM Presents Budget With ... "Arunachal Pradesh Budget tabled, total outlay at Rs 29,657 crore". "Assam finance minister tables budget 2023-24 with focus on ... "Chhattisgarh Budget 2020: Baghel presents Rs 95,650-crore budget, announces 'Rajiv Gandhi Kisan Nyay Yojana' with Rs 5,100 ... "Budget 2023-24 For Making New, Strong Uttarakhand: CM Dhami". Outlook. Retrieved 15 March 2023. "UP Budget Analysis 2022-23". ...
... may refer to: July 2020 United Kingdom summer statement, also known as the Coronavirus mini-budget September 2020 ... sometimes referred to as a mini-budget September 2022 United Kingdom mini-budget, a fiscal event that led to market disruption ... sometimes referred to as a mini-budget This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Mini-budget. If an ...
A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by ... "The Biggest Military Budgets As A Share Of GDP In 2018 [Infographic]". Forbes. April 29, 2019. Tian, Nan; Silva, Diego Lopes da ... Military budgets often reflect how strongly a country perceives the likelihood of threats against it, or the amount of ... The size of a budget also reflects the country's ability to fund military activities. Factors include the size of that ...
The South Australian Football Budget, official programme of the South Australian National Football League The Football Budget ( ... Football Budget may refer to one of two separate Australian rules football match-day programmes: ... of the West Australian Football League This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Football Budget. If an ...
Carbon budgets are applicable to the global level. To translate these global carbon budgets to the country level, a set of ... Carbon budgets are applicable to the global level. To translate these global carbon budgets to the country level, a set of ... Global carbon budgets can be further divided into national emissions budgets, so that countries can set specific climate ... 2220 A carbon budget consistent with keeping warming below a specified limit is also referred to as an emissions budget, an ...
... may refer to: Budget Committee (Iceland), a standing committee of the Icelandic parliament Committee of the ... a committee of the European Parliament United States House Committee on the Budget, a standing committee of the United States ... a standing committee of the United States Senate This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Budget ... a standing committee of Ukraine's unicameral parliament European Parliament Committee on Budgets, ...
Statement of Paul N. Van de Water, Assistant Director for Budget Analysis Congressional Budget Office on Budget Projections and ... House Budget Committee (Democratic Site) Senate Budget Committee (Republican Site) Senate Budget Committee (Democratic Site) ( ... 2018 Congressional Budget Act Office of Management and Budget Government Accountability Office House Budget Committee ( ... Zero based budgeting requires that all spending must be re-justified each year or it will be eliminated from the budget ...
... may refer to A line or item within a budget Budget constraint, a limit to consumer purchases Value brand, a lower- ... priced product This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Budget line. If an internal link led you here ...
The operating budget will not, therefore, contain capital expenditures and long-term loans; for these see capital budgeting. ... Jonas Elmerraji (2021). How Budgeting Works for Companies, Edriaan Koening (N.D.) What is Corporate Budgeting ... see Budget § Corporate Budget. It concentrates on the operating expenditures, i.e.: cost of goods sold (COGS), the cost of ... The operating budget contains the revenue and expenditure generated from the daily business functions of the company; ...
... a sediment budget can be determined. Rivers are major point sources of sediment contribution to the coastal sedimentary budget ... Sedimentary budgets are used to assist in the management of beach erosion by trying to show the present sediment movement and ... Incorporating a sediment budget into a coastal plan has been recognised as highly important in the Hawke's Bay of New Zealand ... The sediment budget takes into consideration sediment sources and sinks within a system. This sediment can come from any source ...
The measurement uncertainty budget is determined once and remains constant. With a constant measurement uncertainty budget, ... constant measurement uncertainty budget and changeable measurement uncertainty budget. The measurement uncertainty is neither ... The measurement uncertainty budget must be re-determined for each measured value. Examples 1. A measured temperature value is ... The uncertainty budget is an aid for specifying the expanded measurement uncertainty. The individual measurement uncertainty ...
An energy budget is a balance sheet of energy income against expenditure. It is studied in the field of Energetics which deals ... Staples, D.J. and M. Nomura (1976): Influence of body size and food ration on the energy budget of rainbow trout, Salmo ... Kerr, S.R. (1982): Estimating the energy budgets of actively predatory fish. Can. J.Fish Aqual. Sci, 39-371. Kleiber, M. (1961 ... Wiley, New York Prabhakar, A. K. (1997): Studies on energy budget in a siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), Ph.D ...
Often Federal budget reports will contain two sets of numbers for the yearly Federal Budget: an 'off-budget' deficit (or ... but by law for purposes of balancing the budget they are 'off-budget'. United States budget process Social Security (United ... In the United States a unified budget is a federal government budget in which receipts and outlays from federal funds and the ... The United States government adopted a unified budget in the Johnson administration in 1968, beginning with the 1969 budget. ...
Line-item budgeting: In line-item budgeting (also known as the traditional budgeting), the government budget is divided into a ... budgets and achievements. Supplementary budget: This budget forecasts the budget of the coming year with regards to revenue and ... Why The Federal Budget Is Not Like a Household Budget Budget Deficits and Net Private Saving Sectoral Balances in State Budget ... State budget: In federal systems, individual states also prepare their own budgets. Plan budget: It is a document showing the ...
Film budgeting Television crew Budget "Accounting for Management". Production Budget. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05 ... In business, "production budget" refers to the budget set by a corporation for the number of units of a product that will be ... Production budget is a term used specifically in film production and, more generally, in business. A "film production budget" ... archived) Film Budgeting by Ralph S. Singleton (1996) Film Production Management by Bastian Clevé (2nd ed, 2000) The Complete ...
The Weekly Budget, originally the North British Weekly Budget, was a journal published in Britain between 1861 and 1910. It ... By 1865 it was claimed that the Budget had the largest provincial circulation of any British newspaper. As well as news and ... In 1910, his sons sold the rights to the Weekly Budget to the American publisher Randolph Hearst. Penny Press, p.396, in Andrew ... The North British Weekly Budget, in January 1861. The newspaper, priced at 1d., contained both news items and fiction, and sold ...
... is an American lodging chain. It was founded in 1975 in Fort Worth, Texas by Ray Sawyer and Ed Semmler. Unlike most ...
The Budget League was a British pressure group formed in 1909 by Winston Churchill to publicly campaign in favour of David ... Lloyd George's People's Budget in reaction to the activities of the Budget Protest League. The foundation of the League had not ... Bruce K. Murray, The People's Budget 1909/10: Lloyd George and Liberal Politics (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). (Liberal Party ... along with gramophone recordings of pro-Budget speeches by H. H. Asquith, Lloyd George and Churchill. Sir Henry claimed that " ...
"Budget Cuts: Un bon jeu d'infiltration en VR, pas dénué de défauts" [Budget Cuts: A good stealth game in VR, not without flaws ... "Budget Cuts Is Coming To PlayStation VR In May". VR Focus. Retrieved July 16, 2020. "Budget Cuts on Steam". Retrieved July 16, ... The sequel, Budget Cuts: Mission Insolvency, released in 2019. Budget Cuts has the player move around the office building using ... "Budget Cuts for PC Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic. Retrieved Jul 16, 2020. "Budget Cuts for PS4 Reviews - Metacritic". ...
One of the broadest distinctions is between general budget support and sector budget support. General budget support is ... With budget support, money is given directly to a recipient country government, usually from a donor government. Budget support ... Sector budget support, like general budget support, is an un earmarked financial contribution to a recipient government's ... Budget support is a method of financing a recipient country's budget through a transfer of resources from an external financing ...
Fertilizer Nutrient management Sustainable agriculture Nutrient Budgets Make Bigger Cash Budgets Archived 2016-03-03 at the ... A nutrient budget takes into account all the nutrient inputs on a farm and all those removed from the land. The most obvious ... An accurate nutrient budget is an important tool to provide an early indication of potential problems arising from (i) a ... Nutrient budgets offer insight into the balance between crop inputs and outputs. In short, they compare nutrients applied to ...
Budget implementation should be monitored. iv. Budget implementation should be reported and accounted for. For a gender budget ... In 2004-2005, the first real gender budgeting was included in the Budget Call Circular (country's budget) by the Ministry of ... During this period, FOWOD collaborated with the Parliamentary Budget Office and budget officers to evolve in gender budgeting. ... Gender budgeting is not intended to look only at female budgets or policies but to rather examine the effects that gender has ...
A personal budget (for the budget of one person) or household budget (for the budget of one or more person living in the same ... "Key Differences in Household Budgeting vs. Personal Budgeting". US Lending Co. Retrieved 2022-04-30. "Definition of BUDGET". ... In zero-based budgeting, all of one's net income must be allocated ahead of spending. Zero-based budgeting involves dividing ... "The 7 Best Budgeting Methods". Atypical Finance. 2021-02-16. Retrieved 2022-04-30. "Cash Envelope Budgets for the Modern Age: ...
Budget League Budget Protest League The Land (song) Welfare state in the United Kingdom Geoffrey Lee, The People's Budget: An ... Despite the King's private urgings for the budget to be passed to avoid a crisis, the House of Lords vetoed the new budget on ... Lloyd George argued that the People's Budget would eliminate poverty, and commended it thus: This is a war Budget. It is for ... online From Hansard indexes: "Finance Bill" (references dated 1909-04-29 to 1911-03-02 are to the People's Budget) "Budget ...
In general, the budget set (all bundle choices that are on or below the budget line) represents all possible bundles of goods ... Choosing to borrow would expand the budget constraint in this period and contract budget constraints in future periods. ... Lending contracts the budget constraint in the current period but expands budget constraints in future periods. According to ... representing a downward sloping budget line. The factors that can shift the budget line are a change in income (m), a change in ...
  • Following the dissolution of Parliament, PwC Malaysia's Budget 2023 Webinar that was initially scheduled for Monday, 17 October, will be postponed to a future date. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has had marked impacts on career services operations, including on budgets and staffing, according to NACE's 2020-21 Career Services Benchmark Survey Report . (
  • But even in the face of a troubling 2020 crime wave, the police budget was reduced, and the council gave itself more power over funding for overtime and new recruit classes. (
  • That's down from the $193 million initially budgeted in 2020. (
  • A pack of 20 cigarettes will increase from about $20 now to around $30 in 2020 after hefty new excise increases were announced as part of the Budget. (
  • TALLAHASSEE, Fla. (AP) - Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis recommended Florida eliminate more than 1,000 state jobs in a spending proposal released Tuesday that cuts the current budget by more $4.6 billion while maintaining popular sales tax holidays. (
  • The Bush budget cuts technology and science programs in the Department of Energy and the Department of Commerce. (
  • In addition to R&D cuts, the Bush administrations proposed budget ignores needed upgrades to our national labs and dismisses worthwhile efforts at the DOE to seek viable alternative-energy sources. (
  • How Are B2B Marketing Teams Responding to Layoffs and Budget Cuts? (
  • Beyond earmarks, the pollster also recently presented data to GOP House and Senate leaders showing that the public is more interested in balanced budgets than tax cuts. (
  • Overall, more than one-third of career centers (33.6%) reported cuts to their personnel budgets-a sharp contrast from the nearly 36% that reported increases in their personnel budgets last year. (
  • That meant a $4.23 billion budget shortfall was erased solely through shifts, cuts and fees. (
  • Dan McElroy told the Twin West Chamber of Commerce on Friday that spending cuts have to be fair, and Pawlenty won't balance the budget on the backs of poor people. (
  • Still, the council plan cuts an additional $7.7 million from the police budget and moves that amount to other departments to support mental health crisis teams and violence prevention efforts and have other employees handle lower-level nonviolent crimes such as theft and property damage. (
  • After first suggesting he may veto the new budget bill passed by Congress yesterday, President Donald J. Trump signed the huge $1.3 trillion budget bill today that will fund the federal government through the rest of its fiscal 2018 year, including some big increases for health programs and money to fight the opioid crisis, flouting cuts that had been called for by the president. (
  • The median annual wage for budget analysts was $82,260 in May 2022. (
  • Employment of budget analysts is projected to grow 3 percent from 2022 to 2032, about as fast as the average for all occupations. (
  • Treasurer Josh Frydenberg addresses the media ahead of delivering the 2022 budget. (
  • By May 2019 54,143 people had used a Personal Health Budget. (
  • From December 2019, about 100,000 people eligible for an NHS wheelchair or requiring aftercare services under the Mental Health Act 1983 are entitled to a personal health budget. (
  • Learn where business leaders will spend their tech budgets in 2019 and what their top priorities are. (
  • The previous budget agreement - enacted February 9, providing short-term funding for most of the federal government through March 23 - extended many health programs for 2 years, cut Medicare physician fees in fiscal year 2019 (FY19), and added payment for stroke telemedicine services. (
  • In order to sustain progress in WHO's enhanced emergency response operations and align funding more effectively with approved Programme budget priorities, more predictable and flexible financing is needed. (
  • In May 2015, the Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA68.1, approving a total of US$ 4385 million for the Programme budget 2016-2017. (
  • The budget comprised a base programme component (US$ 3194 million) and a component on polio eradication, outbreak and crisis response, tropical disease research and research in human reproduction (US$ 1191 million) separate from the base programme. (
  • Subsequently, in May 2016, the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly adopted decision WHA69(9), approving an increase of US$ 160 million for the Programme budget 2016-2017 for the new WHO Health Emergencies Programme. (
  • Programme budgeting in WHO and prioritization of activities. (
  • Programme budgeting revisited : special reference to people with learning disabilities / Christopher Jones, Ken Wright. (
  • As part of a broader government effort to make progress on gender equality goals, gender budgeting helps ensure that the budget promotes priorities related to gender equality, such as reducing the gender pay gap and closing gender gaps in the labour market, bringing social and economic gains. (
  • The budget documents provide information on the allocation of public resources to the portfolio's priorities. (
  • One of the committee members - known as the budget rapporteur - is appointed to draw up a report outlining Parliament's work priorities and proposing how much money should be spent on them. (
  • Recent days have made clear that Republicans are in no position to do battle against Democrats until they resolve any increasingly irritable dispute among themselves over budget priorities. (
  • The intent of this page is to serve this goal by providing detailed, up-to-date information about budget priorities, provide information about the budget process, provide links to budget policies originally generated by the SJSU Academic Senate. (
  • There are several approaches to making a budget, and the right way to do it depends on your priorities, preferences and goals. (
  • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Acting Director Thomas Homan addresses the President's Fiscal Year 2018 Budget for ICE, and ICE's priorities and continued efforts toward efficient and effective use of congressionally provided resources in carrying out the homeland security mission. (
  • It is through the budget approval process that the Government gains the Parliament's authority to spend relevant money via the passage of the annual appropriation acts and other legislation that establishes special appropriations. (
  • U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Office of Field Operations Deputy Executive Assistant Commissioner John Wagner, and CBP U.S. Border Patrol Acting Chief Carla Provost address the President's Fiscal Year 2018 budget request for CBP and how it supports CBP's continued effort to secure the Nation's borders, and promote international commerce and tourism. (
  • The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology had been slated for a huge budget cut under the Trump Administration's request for 2018, but Congress instead approved a $60 million budget. (
  • So, the very timeline devoted to creating an accurate budget might end up being its downfall. (
  • Survey results illustrate the hit that career center budgets took during the pandemic. (
  • When the 2003 Legislature convenes Jan. 7, the main task facing lawmakers and Gov.-elect Tim Pawlenty is how to deal with a $4.5 billion budget deficit. (
  • The budget briefs aim to synthesize complex budget information and offer recommendations to strengthen budgeting for children. (
  • Only the Coalition can responsibly manage the budget and strengthen our nation's finances. (
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) - California is facing a record $68 billion budget deficit, state officials announced Thursday, forcing hard choices for Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom in his final term as he works to build his national profile. (
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) - California's nonpartisan legislative analyst says state faces record $68 billion budget deficit. (
  • Mitt Romney delivered a speech today about the budget deficit. (
  • In the real world, the following things are true: The budget deficit was projected to top $1 trillion even before President Obama took office , and that was when forecasters were still radically underestimating the depth of the 2008 crash. (
  • I didn't post about this when it happened, but yesterday the Republican brain trust in the House decided to show their seriousness about cutting the deficit by publishing a "budget" that contained no actual numbers. (
  • Nearly every group that depends on state funding is nervous, in light of the $4.5 billion projected budget deficit announced Wednesday. (
  • State finance officials say that Minnesota's budget deficit over the next two-and-a-half years is expected to top $4.5 billion. (
  • The deficit is larger than any legislative leaders had predicted, and is the biggest challenge facing Gov.-elect Tim Pawlenty, who says he won't raise taxes to fill the budget gap. (
  • Minnesota's looming budget deficit is even larger than expected, with a projected shortfall expected to hit $4.56 billion over the next 2-and-a-half years, state finance officials announced Wednesday. (
  • The forecast is expected to show a budget deficit of at least $3 billion. (
  • The OECD best practices for gender budgeting highlight the core features common to successful implementation of gender budgeting. (
  • These best practices identify elements that contribute to the sustainability of gender budgeting and help governments ensure that the budget helps achieve broader government objectives relating to gender equality. (
  • The best practices draw on gender budgeting practices in Member countries and the OECD's work with countries in designing and implementing gender budgeting. (
  • Basic budgeting practices for librarians / Margo C. Trumpeter, Richard S. Rounds. (
  • Gender budgeting is an important public governance tool that governments can use to assess how budget decisions impact gender equality. (
  • Gender budgeting (GB) can help promote gender equality by applying a gender perspective to fiscal policies and the budget process. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Budgets. (
  • ST. PAUL, Minn. (AP) - Minnesota's budget picture remains stable in the near term, with a slightly higher than expected surplus heading into the 2024 legislative session. (
  • A listing of Department of Homeland Security budget documents from FY 2003 to FY 2024, including budget in briefs, fact sheets, and overviews. (
  • Congressional Budget Justification FY 2024 - Please note these are large documents and will take a long time to download. (
  • Today, the Biden Administration released the President's FY 2024 budget. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) budget request for FY 2024 includes $11.581 billion in discretionary budget authority, Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF), and PHS Evaluation Funds. (
  • Full HHS FY 2024 budget information can be found at . (
  • CDC/ATSDR's full FY 2024 request can be found at , however this link will go live on Monday, March 13. (
  • When implemented effectively, gender budgeting helps expose how gender inequalities may have inadvertently become embedded in public policies and the allocation of resources and promotes budget measures that will be effective at closing gender gaps. (
  • Portfolio Budget Statements inform members of Parliament and the public of the proposed allocation of resources to outcomes. (
  • Just like marathon training takes months of preparation, crafting a budget involves a lot of data collection, metrics analysis, resource allocation and collaboration. (
  • Money provided is based on the school budget allocation model . (
  • The briefs analyse the size and composition of budget allocations to the education sector, as well as the adequacy of past spending. (
  • This budget proposal template comes equipped with all the sections you need to seamlessly plan your budget, including cost elements, timeframe, and performance requirements. (
  • Connect this sample budget proposal template to a project proposal or project request form so new proposals are created automatically every time someone wants to work on a new project. (
  • Cuomo and lawmakers agreed to add up to $290 million in school aid statewide beyond the 4 percent increase included in the governor's $142.6 billion budget proposal in January. (
  • The pols said inclusion of a casino proposal in the budget that they hope to wrap up Thursday - before this year's early Passover holiday - also remains possible.But Deputy Senate Republican Leader Thomas Libous said he doesn't think voters will approve a constitutional amendment in November to legalize up to seven casinos unless there are more proposed this year - though not necessarily in the city. (
  • Occasionally, budget analysts evaluate how well a program is doing, assess policy, and draft budget-related legislation. (
  • The bureau, composed of the President and the 14 Vice-Presidents, use this as the basis for adopting preliminary draft estimates and submits them to the budgets committee . (
  • These estimates are then incorporated in the EU's draft budget for the following year, which MEPs amend and adopt during a plenary session in December at the latest. (
  • The first draft of the budget then goes through many reviews. (
  • Repairing the budget without increasing taxes. (
  • The early stages of the budget debate have put people into two camps: those who say the state has to raise taxes to solve the budget shortfall and those who say the state spends too much and it's time to cut back. (
  • Gov.-elect Tim Pawlenty says he won't raise taxes to balance the budget, and he may be eyeing the state's tobacco endowments as part of his budget solution. (
  • In addition to providing technical analysis, budget analysts must communicate their recommendations effectively within the organization. (
  • Congressional Budget Justification FY 2016 - Please note this is an extremely large document and will take a long time to download. (
  • They prepare annual and special reports and evaluate budget proposals. (
  • Tired of drafting up budget proposals by hand? (
  • Host Gary Eichten is joined in the MPR studios by state economists to discuss what the next move could be, the condition of Minnesota's economy, and the revenue and budget situation. (
  • Although government officials or top executives in a private company usually decide on an organization's budget, they rely on the work of budget analysts to prepare the information for that decision. (
  • Budget analysts also may examine past budgets and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization's income and expenditures. (
  • 2 Excludes US$ 538 million for outbreak and crisis response, for which no budget was established. (
  • NHS Choices describes personal health budgets as a way "to give people with long-term conditions and disabilities greater choice and control over the healthcare and support they receive. (
  • The RCGP explained that "At the heart of a personal health budget is a care or support plan - an agreement between the local NHS and the individual that sets out the person's health needs, the amount of money available to meet those needs and how this money will be spent. (
  • Parliament is able to support the work of its 705 MEPs and operate in 24 different languages thanks to its annual budget. (
  • Non-recurring budgets support date ranges longer than a month, up to a maximum of one year. (
  • All schools have annual budgets that are used to support classroom programs. (
  • South Dakota Gov. Kristi Noem outlined her budget vision on Tuesday, emphasizing tighter spending amid rising inflation, while also proposing funding increases for K-12 education, health care providers and state employees. (
  • I'm very much concerned about the fact that the budget has a reduction of … almost 1 percent, and that is in the face of the inevitable problem of inflation," Sen. Arlen Specter, R-Pa. (
  • Higher fuel, food and shipping costs are increasing inflation and stretching household budgets. (
  • RICHMOND, Va. (AP) - Republican Virginia Gov. Glenn Youngkin announced Thursday that the proposed budget he will soon unveil for the next two fiscal years will include an increase in state spending on early learning and child care programs. (
  • The second-term Republican governor's budget plan through. (
  • The Defence budget is guided by the Defence Corporate Plan and actual spend is reported each year in the Annual Report . (
  • The paradox of traditional budgeting is that the more time and effort spent creating a detailed annual budget, the quicker that budget might lose its relevance. (
  • These are a dynamic alternative to traditional static annual budgets. (
  • Seamlessly plan monthly, quarterly, or annual budgets with Formstack Documents' ready-to-go template. (
  • Annual budget reports can be downloaded from the University Budget Office website . (
  • This approach provides flexibility to adapt, aligning the budget closer to real-time market conditions. (
  • Although a model is used to determine amounts, schools have flexibility in administering their budgets. (
  • Budget analysts advise organizations-including governments, private companies, and universities-about the details of their finances. (
  • While the uptake of gender budgeting among OECD countries is growing, challenges remain in its implementation. (
  • Sometimes, budget analysts use cost-benefit analyses to review financial requests, assess program tradeoffs, and explore alternative funding methods. (
  • By integrating the financial planning process with sales, the workforce and beyond, an organization ensures that the budget reflects both the larger strategic vision and the ground-level operational needs. (
  • Budget analysts help public and private organizations plan their finances. (
  • Throughout the year, budget analysts oversee spending to ensure that organizations comply with the budget and to determine whether certain programs need changes in funding. (
  • Budgeting, an essential pillar of financial planning for organizations, often presents a unique dilemma known as the "Budgeting Paradox. (
  • While organizations gather data and undergo detailed reviews to craft a budget, the market doesn't stand still. (
  • While other formats exist, many organizations still heavily use spreadsheets for budgeting. (
  • To navigate the Budgeting Paradox, organizations are leaning towards more agile budgeting models like rolling forecasts and zero-based budgeting with other strategies, such as integrated business planning . (
  • Defence budgets prior to 2011 can be accessed via the Trove Government web archive . (
  • Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements outline additional funding requirements being sought by Defence and explain the variation from the Portfolio Budget Statement. (
  • The procedure for drawing up Parliament's budget normally starts in February. (
  • Contact the VP of Administration and Finance for the most up-to-date information on the university's budget. (
  • On the surface, the Bush administrations proposed fiscal year 2005 budget looks as if it gives technology investment its due. (
  • Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings confers with colleague Thomas Skelly last week during her first appearance before a Senate subcommittee to discuss the budget request for fiscal 2006. (
  • Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for budget analysts. (
  • Learn more about budget analysts by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. (
  • To use budgets, you must be in a group that can use "usage-budgets" in the tenancy (which is the root compartment) or be able to use all resources in the tenancy. (
  • note that changing some attributes on Budget resources will result in an error. (
  • The Minneapolis police budget adopted last week after deeply divided citizen input yielded mixed results - and no guarantee that the city will have the necessary resources to stem rising violent crime while also enacting effective policing reforms. (
  • You can view fields that show the current spend, the forecast, and the % Spent in period field that shows you the time period over which the budget was evaluated. (
  • Slightly more than half of paid media budgets are being spent on consideration and conversion. (
  • The remainder of the budget is spent for sponsoring event attendees . (
  • Budget analysts work in government agencies, private companies, and universities. (
  • Budget analysts working in government may attend committee hearings to explain their recommendations to legislators. (
  • Moreover, proposed flat spending on IT initiatives within government agencies-after several years of 10 to 11 percent increases-may seem to make budget sense in tight economic times, but it isnt likely to help improve an overall government technology infrastructure that consistently gets poor marks from its own auditors for performance, integration and security. (
  • These education budget briefs explore the extent to which the Government of Rwanda addresses the educational needs of children under 18 years of age. (
  • This indicator represents the response to the survey question 1.2 Does it have a budget allocated by Parliament or Government? (
  • As for balanced budgets, the current public relations drubbing the party is taking in its battle with Democrats over the SCHIP health care program for needy children is a vivid illumination of the dangers of actually trying to draw sharp lines over spending. (
  • The Joint Legislative Budget Committee met Wednesday, and members were scheduled. (
  • First the budgets committee votes on the report and then all MEPs vote on it during a plenary session, usually in May. (
  • Committee on the Budget. (
  • Members of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program Total Deposition Science Committee (NADP/TDep), along with collaborators from federal agencies and academia, recently completed a review of the state of the science of Nr deposition budgets in the United States. (
  • In addition, more than half (56.7%) of respondents to the current survey reported decreases in their non-personnel budgets. (
  • That represents a cut of $530 million, or nearly 1 percent, from the current budget. (
  • About 3,600 openings for budget analysts are projected each year, on average, over the decade. (
  • The report highlights that while much progress has been made in improving deposition budgets over the past decade, further improvements remain limited by important data and knowledge gaps. (
  • Gender Budgeting Action Plan, assessing the extent to which the necessary foundations are in place to develop and implement an effective approach to gender budgeting in Thailand. (
  • When you're preparing to come to university, it's key that you investigate possible sources of funding and income, and make a budget to estimate how much you can expect to spend. (
  • The total fixed costs budget estimate is $5,000 USD, though this can fluctuate a bit depending on location. (
  • It's usually safe to estimate $2,000 USD for this cost, which should cover the production of the shirts and leave some money leftover for other parts of the budget. (
  • However, the traditional budgeting process, in its pursuit of precision and consensus, can take several months. (
  • In today's rapid pace of change and unpredictability, the conventional budgeting process is coming under scrutiny. (
  • Negotiations and complicated financial models add depth and time to the budgeting process. (
  • When the budgeting process takes too long, the data it's based on might become less relevant. (
  • Even if there are good reasons for a long budgeting process, the consequences cannot be ignored. (
  • F96-4 [pdf] § 1.31 states that the budget process should be fair and open to all members of the SJSU community. (
  • The Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley is piloting both individual social care budgets and the Right to Control scheme to provide personal budgets integrated across different services. (
  • Big changes can happen in regulations or economic conditions while still preparing the budget. (
  • All advanced practice nurses (APNs) who see Medicare patients must make certain they are following the new rules and regulations that evolved from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. (
  • For example, if there is a difference between the approved budget and actual spending, budget analysts may write a report explaining those discrepancies and recommend changes to reconcile them. (
  • Report assesses Canada's progress in gender budgeting and provides recommendations for developing a more comprehensive, systematic and sustainable approach. (
  • One common take on the problem comes from Rep. Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.). The 44-year-old conservative sees many of his colleagues publicly applauding his attempts to kill pork-barrel spending while privately working to keep alive the budget "earmark" system that has already been the wellspring of several recent corruption cases. (
  • GOP congressional aides are agitating for Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell to make a balanced-budget promise with a specific year attached, an idea likely to be discussed when the Senate returns next week. (
  • By the end of the forward estimates, the budget is $100 billion better off compared to last year. (
  • You should use this page as the basis for a FUDCon:$CITY $YEAR budget page. (
  • Sources said the pols have also discussed extending the top 8.82 percent income-tax rate on seven-figure earners beyond its scheduled expiration at the end of 2014 - Cuomo's re-election year - as part of an effort to craft two-year budget components. (
  • Inform the staff that it is your exam budget you are using. (
  • Professor Lord Darzi's review of the NHS in 2008 introduced the idea of personal health budgets (PHBs) in the English National Health Service. (
  • WHOTERM : budget and finance, English/French/Spanish. (
  • Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Budget Travel site. (
  • Ideally, a budget should give the most accurate and timely idea of anticipated revenues and expenses. (
  • Since October 2014 people eligible for NHS Continuing Healthcare were given the legal right to have a personal health budget. (
  • A personal health budget may be used by a patient to buy a range of services to meet their health and well-being needs. (
  • Birmingham Hospice has a Personal Health Budget Team which brings personalised social care to end of life patients. (
  • At present only people receiving continuing healthcare funding have a right to a personal health budget, though clinical commissioning groups may offer personal health budgets to others. (
  • Personal budgets have been widely adopted in social care and have been championed by, among others, Liz Kendall, who advocated extending the idea into health services. (
  • Transformation in action : budgeting for health service delivery / Iraj Abedian, Brigid Strachan, Tania Ajam. (
  • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) would receive a $1.3 billion increase in its budget, bringing it to $5 billion. (

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