Buddhism: The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Schools: Educational institutions.IndiaSchool Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Sri LankaLaosCertification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Health Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of health information.Meditation: A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.

Neurosciences - A neurosurgeon's perspective. (1/39)

The advancements in the field of science in the past fifty years have highlighted the need to integrate all fields of human endeavours and have emphasised interdependency of various disciplines. The separation of humanities, therefore, from neurosciences is a preposterous practical joke on all thinking men. With the human genome project on the anvil, biotechnology is making significant headway holding out promise for organ regeneration. Macro evolution is over, but micro-evolution continues in the brain. Neural Darwinism thus, continues to evolve as long as individual remains conscious and has memory. In the milieu of widely varying internal physiological mechanisms and external stimuli, an alternative theory to preprogrammed directionalism is proposed by three mechanisms namely developmental variation and selection, experiential selections and reentrant signalling. Reentrant signalling reorients and correlates the external inputs leading to psychic development preceding the development of consciousness. The cholinergic and aminergic neuro-modelling systems are well suited to serve as value systems. The main achievement of consciousness is to bring together the many categorizations involved in perceptions into a SCENE. Another part of evolution involved capacity of reentrant signalling to be guided by a value system where it is provided with a lot of choices. With 10(13) neurons and 10(16) connections, freedom of choice may manifest into a 'Buddha' or a 'Hitler'. As part of the evolutionary process, it was interesting how capacity to categorize the need to worship by referring to environment outside evolved into a search within our minds. As the next stage of evolution, neuroscience may, thus, serve as the next gateway to understanding the mind and soul.  (+info)

Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan. (2/39)

The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture.  (+info)

Religious beliefs and practice, and alcohol use in Thai men. (3/39)

Buddhism, the Thai state religion, teaches that use of intoxicants should be avoided. Nonetheless, many Thai people drink alcohol, and a proportion are alcohol-dependent or hazardous or harmful drinkers. This study examines the relationship between Buddhist upbringing and beliefs and alcohol use disorders in Thai men. Three groups, comprising 144 non/infrequent/light drinkers, 77 hazardous/ harmful drinkers and 91 alcohol dependents were interviewed regarding their early religious life and current religious practices and beliefs. No protective association was shown between early religious life and later alcohol use disorders; indeed, having lived as a boy in a temple for a period was commoner in those with adult alcohol problems. Few subjects reported frequent involvement in current religious activities (9, 8 and 6% in the non/infrequent/light drinkers, hazardous/harmful drinkers, and alcohol dependents respectively). Hazardous/harmful drinkers [odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2-0.9] and alcohol dependents (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) were less likely to report being moderately to strongly religious, than were non/infrequent/light drinkers. Understanding the association between religious beliefs and drinking behaviour can potentially assist in the development of prevention and treatment programmes.  (+info)

Bhutan: the world's most advanced tobacco control nation? (4/39)

Significant achievements in the area of tobacco control have been made in the kingdom of Bhutan in the Eastern Himalayas, following the initiation of several tobacco control activities.  (+info)

Chinese and South Asian religious institutions and HIV prevention in New York City. (5/39)

Religious institutions in Asian immigrant communities are in a unique position to confront the challenges of the HIV epidemic for the populations they serve. However, there has been little research on whether these institutions are willing or able to take a role in HIV prevention. This article reports on findings from a qualitative study of three Asian immigrant religious institutions in New York City (a Buddhist temple, a Hindu temple, an Islamic center/mosque) that are part of a larger study of Asian immigrant community institutions and their response to the HIV epidemic. Several prominent themes arose that formed the basis of a preliminary theoretical framework describing the way Asian immigrant religious institutions may evaluate their role in HIV prevention. The interview data indicate that the institutions take a stance of "conservative innovation," weighing their role as keepers of morality and religious tradition against the changing needs of their communities and then adjusting their practices or positions incrementally (to varying degrees) to stay responsive and relevant.  (+info)

Therapeutic perspectives of human embryonic stem cell research versus the moral status of a human embryo--does one have to be compromised for the other? (6/39)

Stem cells are unspecialized cells able to divide and produce copies of themselves and having the potential to differentiate, i.e. to produce other cell types in the body. Because of the latter ability, the scientists investigate their possible use in regenerative medicine. Especially embryonic stem cells have huge therapeutic potential because they can give rise to every cell type in the body as compared to stem cells from certain adult tissues which can only differentiate into a limited range of cell types. For this reason scientists stress the importance of embryonic stem cell research. However, this research raises sensitive ethical and religious arguments, which are balanced against possible great benefit of such research for the patients suffering from so far incurable diseases. The objective of this literature review is to present the main arguments in favor and against human embryonic stem cell research. Since the sensitivity of the latter issue to a large extent stems from the position of predominant religions in a given society, the positions of the main religions regarding embryo research are also presented. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus regarding ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell research. The article presents both the arguments supporting human embryonic stem cell research and the arguments opposing it.  (+info)

Thailand's unsung heroes. (7/39)

The success of primary health care programmes in Thailand over the past three decades can be attributed not only to medical advances but to the role of community health volunteers. Buddhist monks and their temples have been strongly involved in health promotion and education, particularly in remote, rural communities.  (+info)

Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators. (8/39)


  • Imagine Buddhism without rebirth and without a karmic system that guarantees justice ultimately will be served, without nirvana, without bodhisattvas flying on lotus leaves, without Buddha worlds, without nonphysical states of mind, without any deities, without heaven and hell realms, without oracles, and without lamas who are reincarnations of lamas. (existentialbuddhist.com)
  • As we know well, in Mahāyāna Buddhism, the attainment of the Buddhahood is to become a Buddha, the ultimate enlightenment. (suanmokkh.org)
  • Buddhism Where Did It Start Buddhism was founded by the historical Buddha Shakyamuni or Gautama, in the. (preservatifadomicile.com)
  • Honored Sir, I write to you in your official capacity simply to ask: to what extent have you empowered a Tulku named "Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo" (also known as Alyce Zeoli and Catharine Burroughs) to act as a wrathful defender of Palyul, and/or to attack those she believes are engaged in "defiling" Vajrayana Buddhism? (blogspot.com)
  • Here, the meaning of self-nature could not be understood from the viewpoint of the original or sectarian Buddhism, or the older stage of Mahāyāna Buddhism. (suanmokkh.org)
  • Some other categories might be Buddhist Art, Tibetan Buddhism, Buddhist Scripture/Writings, etc., as well as additional levels to Buddhist History and Teachings. (bellaonline.com)
  • NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Nepal has reversed a decision to allow a monk prominent in Tibetan Buddhism to be cremated on its soil after what media reports said was pressure from China and his organisation said on Monday they were in talks with the government in Kathmandu. (reuters.com)
  • There are different versions of Buddhism in Asia, and in addition to that, in, in recent decades, we've seen the emergence of something that some people are calling a Western Buddhism. (coursera.org)
  • Now, one distinctive feature of this Western Buddhism is that these people don't pay a lot of attention to what some people would call the supernatural. (coursera.org)
  • But this, this Western Buddhism doesn't really pay much attention to these kinds of ideas. (coursera.org)
  • And in that sense, the focus of this course will have something in common with the Western Buddhism, because we won't be talking much about things like Buddhist deities or reincarnation. (coursera.org)
  • By contrast, Japanese Buddhism as well as the traditions out of which a more lenient approach emerges are more recent and Mahaayaana traditions. (urbandharma.org)
  • With deep insight into both Buddhism and Christianity, he explores such issues as the nature of genuine human existence, the major role of conscience in our advance to authenticity, and the needed transformation of religion. (abebooks.com)
  • Keown does comment in an endnote that Buddhism would surely have sided with a woman seeking an abortion in order to save her own life, a position he attributes to Hindu jurists of the time. (urbandharma.org)
  • In August of 2019, we searched on Apple's App Store and Google Play and found over 500 apps associated with Buddhism. (fastcompany.com)
  • But, in our assessment , mindfulness , when stripped of all its religious elements, may distort understandings of Buddhism. (fastcompany.com)
  • This year, Woodenfish Foundation is hosting its third annual Buddhism, Science, and Future conference in Shenzhen to both cultivate the link between mindfulness and technology, and make more accessible the discourse of mental health to Chinese families. (woodenfish.org)
  • What has psychological and neuropsychological research on meditation, mindfulness, Buddhism, and well-being proven at this point? (existentialbuddhist.com)
  • So what is caste in Sinhala Buddhism At the apex, one has the Govigama or agriculturalist land owning castes who account for roughly 50% of the Sinhalese population. (colombotelegraph.com)
  • He was born and buried an Anglican although he espoused a Buddhism and Sinhala nationalism to win the polls in 1956 even if his shrill demagoguery triggered a Tamil separatist response. (colombotelegraph.com)
  • As it was not seen to conflict with the rites of nature worship , Buddhism was allowed by adherents of Shamanism to be blended into their religion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This quiz tests your knowledge of the Buddha's life story, and some basics on the development of Buddhism over time. (bellaonline.com)
  • He also wonders, once one has stripped Buddhism of everything supernatural or dualistic, whether what remains is recognizably Buddhist, and whether it is philosophically deep, interesting, or useful. (existentialbuddhist.com)
  • On Buddhism presents the first English-language translation of a series of lectures by Keiji Nishitani (1900-1990), a major Buddhist thinker and a key figure in the Kyoto School of Japanese philosophy. (abebooks.com)
  • The fact that Buddhist apps exist is not surprising, as Buddhism has always been skillful at using new media technologies to spread its message . (fastcompany.com)
  • Buddhism itself, therefore, speaks with more than one moral voice on this issue, and furthermore, the nature of the moral debate may have important applications for similarly situated others and constitute an enlargement of the repertoire of applicable moral theories and rationales. (urbandharma.org)
  • Contrary to views of this kind, it seems to me that Buddhism believes there is something intrinsically wrong with taking one's own life (or indeed taking any life), and that motivation-- although of great importance in the assessment of the moral status of actions-- is not the sole criterion of rightness. (quangduc.com)
  • A core aspect of Buddhism is the concept of no-self: the belief that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or other essence. (fastcompany.com)
  • A place to post questions about Buddhism, comment on articles you read here, and share your own practices and thoughts. (bellaonline.com)
  • Just because at a time like this, some are curious to know about the Buddhism, & with the psychological background, which adds more value for this. (coursera.org)
  • One of the strongest antiabortion cases from a Buddhist perspective emerges in Damien Keown's wonderfully thorough and insightful analysis of Buddhism's bioethical ramifications in the book Buddhism and Bioethics . (urbandharma.org)
  • 3 ) The second line of argument concerns his interpretation of these sources and their connection to the basic tenets of Buddhism regarding the nature of personal identity and the skandhas , karma and rebirth, life and death. (urbandharma.org)
  • Nishitani criticizes contemporary Buddhism for being too esoteric and asks that it "come down from Mt. Hiei" to reestablish itself as a vital source of worthy ideals and to point toward a way of remaining human even in a modern and postmodern world. (abebooks.com)
  • From the point of view of early Buddhism, suicide is a normal matter in the case of the Noble Ones who, having completed their work, sever their last link with the world and voluntarily pass into Nirvaa.na , thus definitively escaping from the world of rebirths (1965:106f). (quangduc.com)
  • The endless knot is one of the 8 Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism & represents the interweaving of the Spiritual path. (spreadshirt.co.uk)
  • From Josephine's philosophical, spiritual and physical battle with eating meat came, Buddhism for Meat Eaters - a book for animal lovers, the environmentally and ethically conscious, and generally thoughtful people who eat meat but perhaps aren't entirely comfortable doing so. (theresasmithwrites.com)
  • In other words, I am not so much concerned to show that Buddhism has, does, or will support the choice to abort or one's right to make such a choice as I am to show that such a choice can be made in a manner consistent with Buddhist principles. (urbandharma.org)