Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.GTP Phosphohydrolase Activators: Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.WingLimb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Salicaceae: A plant family of the order Salicales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and simple. Staminate (male) flowers consist of from one to many stamens. Pistillate (female) flowers consist of a one-chambered ovary with several to many ovules (potential silky seeds).Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 126.96.36.199.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Andropogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Mesonephros: One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 9: A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.Mice, Inbred C57BLIndoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Mice, Inbred ICRCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Cornaceae: A plant family of the order Cornales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a loose grouping of woody ornamentals: 11 of its 14 genera have been placed in single families by some authorities. Some botanists combine members of NYSSACEAE into this family.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Nerve Tissue ProteinsPicea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
In T. gondii, MORN1 plays role in nuclear division and daughter cell budding. It is specifically associated with the spindle ... severe defects in nuclear segregation and daughter cell formation. It was hypothesized that "Morn1 functions as a linker ... poles, the anterior and interior rings of the inner membrane complex during asexual reproduction/sexual reproduction; budding; ...
This species also reproduces through budding. The formation of pseudohyphae has not been seen. C. albidus is able to use ...
Furthermore, Ascomycota also reproduce asexually through budding. 1) Conidia formation: Asexual reproduction may occur through ... 2) Budding: Asexual reproduction process in ascomycetes also involves the budding which we clearly observe in yeast. This is ... The initial events of budding can be seen as the development of a ring of chitin around the point where the bud is about to ... Formation of sexual spores. The sexual part of the life cycle commences when two hyphal structures mate. In the case of ...
Boron deficiency will often result in bud dieback. Chlorine is necessary for osmosis and ionic balance; it also plays a role in ... Zinc participates in chlorophyll formation, and also activates many enzymes. Symptoms of zinc deficiency include chlorosis and ... Manganese activates some important enzymes involved in chlorophyll formation. Manganese deficient plants will develop chlorosis ...
Kleinberg DL, Feldman M, Ruan W (2000). "IGF-I: an essential factor in terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis". J ... alveolar bud formation or ductal sidebranching) starting at puberty, specifically through activation of PRB (and ... "Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis during mammary development". ... the breast buds, in which networks of tubules are formed, are generated from the ectoderm. These rudimentary tubules will ...
Kleinberg DL, Feldman M, Ruan W (2000). "IGF-I: an essential factor in terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis". J ... Ruan W, Kleinberg DL (1999). "Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis ... This mechanism is closely related to formation, growth, and spreading of cancers with poor prognosis, and is in accordance with ...
They are essential for cell growth and bud formation. Anillins are required for the faithfulness of cytokinesis and its F-actin ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) also have two anillin-like proteins, Boi1p and Boi2p. Boi1p and Boi2p localize to the ... doi: 10.1083/jcb.200211126 Toya, M., Iino, Y., & Yamamoto, M. (1999). Fission Yeast Pob1p, Which Is Homologous to Budding Yeast ... a key regulator of contractile ring formation. The name of the protein anillin originates from a Spanish word, anillo. Anillo ...
Hickey, Leo (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota. ... Nelumbo nucifera bud. Fossil species. *†Nelumbo aureavallis Hickey - Eocene (North Dakota), described from leaves found ... in the Golden Valley Formation in North Dakota, USA.. *†Nelumbo changchangensis Eocene, (Hainan Island, China), described ...
Furthermore, Ascomycota also reproduce asexually through budding. 1) Conidia formation: Asexual reproduction may occur through ... The initial events of budding can be seen as the development of a ring of chitin around the point where the bud is about to ... 2) Budding: Asexual reproduction process in ascomycetes also involves the budding which we clearly observe in yeast. This is ... The formation of two parallel cross-walls then divides the hypha into three sections: one at the hook with one nucleus, one at ...
... nucleoplasmic bridge and nuclear bud formation in mammalian and human cells". Mutagenesis. 26 (1): 125-132. doi:10.1093/mutage/ ... Formation. Micronuclei primarily result from acentric chromosome fragments or lagging whole chromosomes that are not ... The formation of micronuclei can only be observed in cells undergoing nuclear division and can be clearly seen using ... The relationship between formation of micronuclei and exposure to environmental factors was first reported in root tip cells ...
Budding of the plasma membrane then occurs, forming a clathrin coated pit. Other receptors can nucleate a clathrin-coated ... The formation of these vesicles is sensitive to inhibition by wortmannin ... This became apparent when it was found that the association and formation of specific signaling complexes is required for the ... The initiation of vesicle formation can be delayed/inhibited by temperature variations ...
Sachse M, Strous GJ, Klumperman J (2004). "ATPase-deficient hVPS4 impairs formation of internal endosomal vesicles and ... "AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding". Cell. 114 (6): 689-99. doi:10.1016/S0092 ... "SKD1 AAA ATPase-dependent endosomal transport is involved in autolysosome formation". Cell Struct. Funct. 27 (1): 29-37. doi: ... "The protein network of HIV budding". Cell. 114 (6): 701-13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00714-1. PMID 14505570. ...
For example, in Rhabdoviruses, binding of M proteins to nucleocapsids is accountable for the formation of its "bullet" shaped ... This assembly complex will now bud out of the cell as new mature viruses. ... which allows formation at the membrane of a complex made of the viral ribonucleoprotein at the inner side indirectly connected ...
In fungi it forms at the mother-bud neck before mitosis. Septin is heavily involved in the formation of the fungal AMR. In most ... 2016). Actomyosin Ring Formation and Tension Generation in Eukaryotic Cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 26(15):719-737. Mana-Capelli, S ... 2016). Actomyosin ring driven cytokinesis in budding yeast. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 53:19-27. Alberts, B., A. ... formation of the ring, constriction of the ring, and disassembly of the contractile ring. It is composed of actin and myosin II ...
Protonema, bud and shoot formation is typical for all moss development. Asexual reproductive structures have not been reported ...
More cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. Cytokinins are involved in many plant ... When the apical bud is removed, the axillary buds are uninhibited, lateral growth increases, and plants become bushier. ... This theory states that auxin from apical buds travels down shoots to inhibit axiliary bud growth. This promotes shoot growth, ... This bud induction can be pinpointed to differentiation of a specific single cell, and thus is a very specific effect of ...
In every case, there was less trichome formation on both plant surfaces, as well as incorrect formation of the trichomes ... Bud and scape of a Stylidium species, displaying the trichomes that can trap and kill insects ... During the formation of trichomes and root hairs, many enzymes are regulated. For example, just prior to the root hair ... In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the GLABROUS1 protein. Knockouts of the ...
In plant anatomy, it is the arrangement of leaves in a bud. In pine trees new leaves are short and encased in sheaths. Each ... Vernation (from vernal meaning spring, since that is when leaves spring forth in temperate regions) is the formation of new ... Aestivation - the way in which the petals and sepals of a flower are arranged in a bud. Ptyxis - the way an individual leaf is ... folded within a bud.  Cameron, K. M.; Wurdack, K. J.; Jobson, R. W. (2002), "Molecular evidence for the common origin of ...
Whereas his predecessor Clark Shaughnessy had pioneered the T-formation, Tatum installed the split-T offense that his former ... Bud Wilkinson. In Tatum's initial season at Maryland, his results were similar to those at Oklahoma. After compiling a 3-6 ... Future Oklahoma coach Bud Wilkinson worked as an assistant coach alongside Tatum. In 1946, with the recommendation of Oklahoma ... Neyland considered the split-T offense used by Tatum gimmicky and relied on the more traditional single-wing formation. For the ...
Flower bud formation is visible by the time new leaves fully expand. The peduncle expands rapidly and the young bud slowly ... Flower buds at the top of the tree open first. Flowers are first seen from the last week in June to the first week of July and ...
The BMP4 signaling has been found in formation of early mesoderm and germ cells. Limb bud regulation and development of the ... Bone morphogenic proteins are known to stimulate eye lens formation. During early development of eyes, the formation of the ... Tooth formation relies on BMP4 expression, which induces Msx 1 and 2. These transcription factors turn the forming tooth to ... Digit formation is influenced by BMP4, along with other BMP signals. The interdigital mesenchyme exhibits BMP4, which prevents ...
No hyphae are present and it reproduces by budding. The individual cells are round and oval in shape. The formation of starch ...
... strongly induces mating and the formation of meiotic spores. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by ... The most common mode of vegetative growth in yeast is asexual reproduction by budding, where a small bud (also known as a ... The bud then continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell. The daughter cell produced ... The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota. ...
A difficulty is that the flowers of many cultivars exhibit different colours depending on the temperature during bud formation ... continuous darkness for at least 12 hours is necessary to induce bud formation. A period of about 8 days with 16 hours of ... In both cases, the areoles, which may have wool and bristles, are where the flower buds appear. The flowers either hang ... The advice sometimes given to withhold water to produce flower buds has been shown to be incorrect. Propagation - Both ...
Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, bud formation and root initiation. They also promote the ... In general, it acts as an inhibitory chemical compound that affects bud growth, and seed and bud dormancy. It mediates changes ... causing bud dormancy and the alteration of the last set of leaves into protective bud covers. Since it was found in freshly ... Without ABA, buds and seeds would start to grow during warm periods in winter and be killed when it froze again. Since ABA ...
Kleinberg DL, Feldman M, Ruan W (2000). "IGF-I: an essential factor in terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis". J ... Ruan W, Kleinberg DL (1999). "Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis ... Initially, the formation of the milk lines that run between the fore and hind limbs bilaterally on each side of the midline ... Terminal end buds, the highly proliferative structures found at the tips of the invading ducts, expand and increase greatly ...
Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... "Complete inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus Gag myristoylation is necessary for inhibition of particle budding". J. ...
Pancreatic development begins with the formation of a ventral and a dorsal pancreatic bud. Each structure communicates with the ... The ventral bud eventually rotates to lie next to the dorsal bud, eventually fusing. If the two buds, each having a duct, do ... Differential rotation and fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds results in the formation of the definitive pancreas ... The dorsal pancreatic bud forms the head, neck, body, and tail, whereas the ventral pancreatic bud forms the uncinate process. ...
It is made from cold pressed Japanese camellia (Tsubaki) buds, which is a member of the tea family. It is very lightweight and ... and to reduce the formation of wrinkles and scars. It will balance and moderate the extremes of oily and dry skin, in addition ...
Although bud formation seems to be the manifestation of a localized response of lung epithelial cells to FGF-1, it is unclear ... Bud formation precedes the appearance of differential cell proliferation during branching morphogenesis of mouse lung ... When explants were incubated with BrdU either before bud induction (0-18 hr in culture) or at the onset of budding (24-30 hr), ... In contrast, BrdU incubation after the onset of budding (30-48 hr) resulted in labeling concentrated in the budding areas, and ...
Pattern formation in epithelial development: the vertebrate limb and feather bud spacing. Lewis Wolpert ... Pattern formation in epithelial development: the vertebrate limb and feather bud spacing ... Pattern formation in epithelial development: the vertebrate limb and feather bud spacing. ... Pattern formation in epithelial development: the vertebrate limb and feather bud spacing ...
Asexual reproduction by formation of swimming buds which metamorphose directly into polyps plays a most important role in the ... We have defined five budding stages and investigated epithelial recruitment and dynamics during bud formation using ... Asexual reproduction by formation of swimming buds which metamorphose directly into polyps plays a most important role in the ... Metamorphosis starts with the settling of a bud, followed by the formation of the pedal disk in which desmocytes, as typical ...
2iP induced bud formation only when applied at 10-4M. NAA levels greater than 106M inhibited adventitious bud formation. Callus ... and again the NH4 ion concentration was found to affect bud formation. The ability to form buds declined the longer callus was ... In an attempt to understand the role of IAA in bud formation in Douglas-fir tissues in culture, a method for the rapid ... Only a two to three week culture period on the high cytokinin medium was necessary to induce adventitious bud formation. The ...
Requirement of the Auxin Polar Transport System in Early Stages of Arabidopsis Floral Bud Formation.. K. Okada, J. Ueda, M. K. ... Requirement of the Auxin Polar Transport System in Early Stages of Arabidopsis Floral Bud Formation. ... Requirement of the Auxin Polar Transport System in Early Stages of Arabidopsis Floral Bud Formation. ... Requirement of the Auxin Polar Transport System in Early Stages of Arabidopsis Floral Bud Formation. ...
... molecular mechanism of the regulation in the number of teeth by novel transcription factor Epiprofin in tooth germ formation ...
... ectopic formation of organs, and the formation of additional buds in the axils of cauline leaves and flowering time (Hsu et al ... G) to (I) Schematic representation of axillary bud formation in leaf axils of NIL713-C24 (G), NIL704 (H), and NIL713 (I) plants ... Axillary bud formation in the axils of rosette leaves was examined using a stereomicroscope as described by Raman et al. (2008) ... In this study, we identified a QTL for axillary bud formation that is due to allelic variation of AGL6 and is epistatic to loci ...
... which are important for the normal UB formation, were not augmented in such ectopic ureteric buds. While prominent c-Jun ... These results indicate that the presence of novel signaling pathway, other than GDNF/Ret, FGF and BMP, for the UB formation ... Hoxb7-Cre mediated removal of beta-catenin from the mouse Wolffian duct (WD) epithelium results in the ectopic ureteric bud (UB ... Journal Article] Developmental Contribution of Wnt-signal-responsive Cells to Mouse Reproductive Tract Formation2017. *. Author ...
Snf1/AMPK promotes the formation of Kog1/Raptor-bodies to increase the activation threshold of TORC1 in budding yeast. ...
The Ecm11-Gmc2 Complex Promotes Synaptonemal Complex Formation through Assembly of Transverse Filaments in Budding Yeast ... The Ecm11-Gmc2 Complex Promotes Synaptonemal Complex Formation through Assembly of Transverse Filaments in Budding Yeast ... In the absence of Corona, not only is SC formation abrogated, but polycomplex formation is also abolished . These apparent ... The Ecm11-Gmc2 Complex Promotes Synaptonemal Complex Formation through Assembly of Transverse Filaments in Budding Yeast ...
... including the site of bud emergence, the tip of the growing buds, and the mother-bud neck region of cells prior to cytokinesis ... Growth site localization of Rho1 small GTP-binding protein and its involvement in bud formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. W ... Growth site localization of Rho1 small GTP-binding protein and its involvement in bud formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J ... or small-budded cells in which cortical actin patches were clustered to buds at the restrictive temperature. Cell lysis and ...
Formation of Dicentric and Acentric Chromosomes, by a Template Switch Mechanism, in Budding Yeast. Author:. Paek, Andrew Luther ... Formation of Dicentric and Acentric Chromosomes, by a Template Switch Mechanism, in Budding Yeast. en_US. ... Formation of Dicentric and Acentric Chromosomes, by a Template Switch Mechanism, in Budding Yeast ... Acentric Chromosomes; Budding Yeast; Dicentric Chromosomes; Genome Instability; Inverted Repeats; Template Switching. Degree ...
talk contribs 142 bytes +142 Day 9.5: Formation of the posterior neuropore and forelimb bud. Aa= Forelimb Bud 1= 1st ... talk contribs 649 bytes 0 uploaded a new version of File:Day 9.5 Formation of posterior neuropore and forelimb bud.JPG: ... talk contribs 493 bytes 0 uploaded a new version of File:Day 9.5 Formation of posterior neuropore and forelimb bud.JPG: ... talk contribs 493 bytes 0 uploaded a new version of File:Day 9.5 Formation of posterior neuropore and forelimb bud.JPG ...
Understanding liver bud emergence, formation and potential Tremblay, Kimberly D. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, ... Understanding liver bud emergence, formation and potential. Tremblay, Kimberly D. / University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Understanding liver bud emergence, formation and potential. Tremblay, Kimberly D. / University of Massachusetts Amherst. $ ... Understanding liver bud emergence, formation and potential. Tremblay, Kimberly D. / University of Massachusetts Amherst. $ ...
limb bud synonyms, limb bud pronunciation, limb bud translation, English dictionary definition of limb bud. n. 1. Botany a. A ... 1850-55, Amer.; back formation from buddy]. bud. (bŭd). Noun. 1. A small swelling on a branch or stem, containing an ... vb, buds, budding or budded. 9. (Biology) (intr) (of plants and some animals) to produce buds ... bud1. (bʌd) n., v. bud•ded, bud•ding. n. 1. any of the small terminal bulges on a plant stem, from which leaves or flowers ...
Nevertheless, cohesin-mediated domain formation should not yet be ruled out for budding yeast. ... Budding yeast TADs are ∼200 kb in size, which distinguishes them from recently reported self-associated domains, which are less ... Although budding yeast TAD boundary elements are enriched for transcriptional activity, we do not yet know the implication of ... Form and function of topologically associating genomic domains in budding yeast. Umut Eser, Devon Chandler-Brown, Ferhat Ay, ...
Golgi coated bud formation is blocked by ARF depletion and restored by purified ARF. Replicas of Golgi membranes after a 15-min ... Figure 6: Golgi coated bud formation is blocked by ARF depletion and restored by purified ARF. Replicas of Golgi membranes ... Figure 6: Golgi coated bud formation is blocked by ARF depletion and restored by purified ARF. Replicas of Golgi membranes ... does not support coated bud and vesicle formation on Golgi membranes (56). Since we have modified that original procedure to ...
... we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of axillary buds at the paradormancy, endodormancy, ecodormancy and bud flush ... we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of axillary buds at the paradormancy, endodormancy, ecodormancy and bud flush ... This study provides the global transcriptome profiles of overwintering buds at different dormancy stages and is meaningful for ... To discover the bud dormancy regulation mechanism of tea plant in winter, ...
The limb buds are the precursor structures of the limbs. Their formation begins in the 4th week, with the activation of ... The limb buds are the precursor structures of the limbs. Their formation begins in the 4th week, with the activation of ... Formation of Limb Buds. By Terrasigillata [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons ... Formation of Limb Buds. By Terrasigillata [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons ...
Formation of dermal condensation of a developing feather bud. Fluorescent images taken from E7 chick skin explant with dermal ... Melanocyte cell migration in feather buds. Note that melanocytes are moving toward the distal end of the bud and become blacker ...
This suggests that him-14, like its ortholog MSH4 from budding yeast (Ross-Macdonald and Roeder 1994), probably has no role in ... Role of him-14 in crossover formation: We have shown here that the C. elegans him-14 gene encodes a germline-specific member of ... Formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis requires the him-14 gene. Loss of ... him-14 is required for crossover formation during C. elegans meiosis: To identify components of the cellular machinery required ...
The limb bud remains active throughout much of limb development, and its signaling stimulates formation of another signaling ... The upper limb bud appears in the third week of development and the lower limb bud appears four days later. Limb buds form from ... The mesenchymal cells of the limb bud, which stimulate AER formation as well as maintain AER activity, determine what type of ... The lower limb buds, which will become hindlimbs (legs in humans), form a few days after the upper limb buds near the lumbar ...
Complex Formation between Esp1 and Pds1 Is Established Early in the Cell Cycle. To establish when in the cell cycle the complex ... The timing of budding, loss of cohesion (visualized using a GFP marker on chromosome IV; Clarke et al. 1999), and spindle ... A Novel Role of the Budding Yeast Separin Esp1 in Anaphase Spindle Elongation. Sanne Jensen, Marisa Segal, Duncan J. Clarke, ... Complex formation between Esp1 and Pds1. (A) A strain expressing endogenous myc18-tagged Esp1 and HA3-tagged Pds1 (SY109) was ...
In this article and accompanying poster Eric C. Arakel and Blanche Schwappach illustrate the different stages of formation of ... Loss of Orc2p function activates the budding-yeast metacaspase Yca1p. (A) Detection of signals by FACS in wild-type and GA1410 ... Apoptosis in budding yeast caused by defects in initiation of DNA replication ... Apoptosis in budding yeast caused by defects in initiation of DNA replication ...
OutgrowthSaccharomycesFlower budsBranching morphogenesisSignaling pathwayLimb buds first appearApicalTaste budsElongationMesenchymeLower limb budsOrganismGolgiReproduce asexuallyDormantEctopicProteinUreteric bud formationEndodermHaploidOccursChromosomesMechanismYeast geneticsEndothelial cellVitroEmbryoEmergencePrimary budsPathwaysLimbsAssaysExplantDispensableCellRetrovirusesNucleiInhibitDevelopmentalEpitheliumExplantsParticleAdventitious bud formationLungEpithelial cellsCellsTissueSiteVesiclesChromosomalFeather
- Thus, in the developing lung epithelium in vitro, bud outgrowth is not triggered by induction of localized cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
- At the tip of chick and mouse limb buds is a thickening, the apical ectodermal ridge, which is essential for limb bud outgrowth. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Most of the mutants found to show enhanced outgrowth of buds are defective in strigolactone biosynthesis or strigolactone signaling. (plantcell.org)
- In addition to limb outgrowth, the formation of a crucial signaling center, the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), in a small posterior portion of the limb bud helps to establish anterior-posterior polarity in the limb through secretion of the protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh). (wikipedia.org)
- Budding occurs when an outgrowth of the parent cell is separated into a new cell. (sparknotes.com)
- Auxin has an inhibitory effect on the growth of axillary buds, whereas cytokinin promotes axillary bud outgrowth. (plantphysiol.org)
- The mechanisms of axillary bud outgrowth depend on the ratio of these two hormones rather than the absolute levels of either hormone. (plantphysiol.org)
- A variety of experimental approaches have been used to examine the mechanisms controlling dormancy and outgrowth of axillary buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- Removal of the main bud promotes outgrowth of the accessory buds. (plantphysiol.org)
- Growth site localization of Rho1 small GTP-binding protein and its involvement in bud formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (rupress.org)
- Here, we show that this form of synthetic biology illuminates how cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mate efficiently. (genetics.org)
- Patterns of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Over the past century, studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have helped to unravel principles of nearly every aspect of eukaryotic cell biology from metabolism and molecular genetics to cell division and differentiation. (cshlpress.com)
- Goff E. S. Investigations of flower buds. (ucanr.edu)
- Night temperatures should remain as far as possible between 15-18°C (59-65°F) with a day temperature of 21-24°C (70-75°F) as fluctuations can damage flower buds. (rhs.org.uk)
- This improves the chances of the formation of flower buds. (wikihow.com)
- Newly forming flower buds. (davesgarden.com)
- Bud formation precedes the appearance of differential cell proliferation during branching morphogenesis of mouse lung epithelium in vitro. (nih.gov)
- This is followed by induction of primary lung buds, branching morphogenesis and establishment of specific cell fates in these primitive airways. (bu.edu)
- While prominent c-Jun phosphorylation was observed indicating GDNF/Ret signaling independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway during UB formation. (nii.ac.jp)
- These results indicate that the presence of novel signaling pathway, other than GDNF/Ret, FGF and BMP, for the UB formation giving better understanding for human congenital anomalies, e.g. (nii.ac.jp)
- Fig 1.1 Development of the limb bud showing the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying tissues. (teachmeanatomy.info)
- The limb bud remains active throughout much of limb development, and its signaling stimulates formation of another signaling center, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) as well as formation of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) within the mesenchyme. (wikipedia.org)
- This FGF10 expression stimulates WNT3 expression in the above ectodermal cells - resulting in formation of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) as well as inducing FGF8 expression. (wikipedia.org)
- HA assembles into a homotrimer in the ER and is transported via the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane, more specifically the apical plasma membrane in polarized (e.g., epithelial) cells, where virus assembly and budding take place [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Influenza virions bud preferentially from the apical plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells, by enveloping viral nucleocapsids located in the cytosol with its viral integral membrane proteins, i.e., hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M2 proteins, located at the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
- Because individually expressed HA, NA, and M2 proteins are targeted to the apical surface of the cell, guided by apical sorting signals in their transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains, it has been proposed that the polarized budding of influenza virions depends on the interaction of nucleocapsids and matrix proteins with the cytoplasmic domains of HA, NA, and/or M2 proteins. (asm.org)
- Interestingly, viral budding remained apical in C560Y virus-infected cells, and so did the location of NP and M1 proteins at late times of infection. (asm.org)
- These results are consistent with a model in which apical viral budding is a shared function of various viral components rather than a role of the major viral envelope glycoprotein HA. (asm.org)
- Analysis of the genetic pathway leading to formation of ectopic apical ectodermal ridges in mouse Engrailed-1 mutant limbs. (nih.gov)
- We have previously shown that, in the absence of mesenchyme, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) elicits budding of the mouse lung epithelium cultured in a basement membrane matrix. (nih.gov)
- We performed continuous labeling and pulse-chase experiments in FGF-1-treated mesenchyme-free lung epithelial cultures at distinct stages of bud induction using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), to determine when and to what extent cell proliferation contributes to bud formation. (nih.gov)
- The spacing of feather buds involves signals from the epidermis to the underlying mesenchyme, which again include Wnt7a and fibroblast growth factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- One is to inhibit ectopic budding from the WD or the ureter stalk by antagonizing inductive signals from the metanephric mesenchyme to the illegitimate sites on the WD. (jci.org)
- Before limb development begins, FGF10 expression becomes restricted to the proliferating mesenchymal cells of the lateral plate mesoderm, which form the limb bud and become limb mesenchyme. (wikipedia.org)
- The ZPA also plays an important role in initially specifying digit identity, while later maintaining proper AER morphology and continued FGF8 secretion - to ensure proper mitotic activity of the limb bud mesenchyme beneath. (wikipedia.org)
- The transition into the third phase is then marked by changes in how the limb bud mesenchyme responds to Shh signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- These data suggest that establishment of a dorso-ventral ectodermal interface is not sufficient for AER formation and that restriction of lmx-1b to the dorsal mesenchyme is coordinately linked to AER formation. (nih.gov)
- The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is absolutely required for coatomer vesicle formation on Golgi membranes but not for anterograde transport to the medial-Golgi in a mammalian in vitro transport system. (nih.gov)
- These findings demonstrate that characteristics specific to transport between different Golgi compartments are reconstituted in the cell-free system and that vesicle formation is not required for in vitro transport at any level of the stack. (nih.gov)
- Boxed areas are presented at higher magnification in the panels on the right side of the figure, illustrating the punctate surface coating on Golgi buds in A and C. Buds in B lack this punctate coating and have a granular texture similar to the surrounding tubules. (nih.gov)
- does not support coated bud and vesicle formation on Golgi membranes (56). (nih.gov)
- Since we have modified that original procedure to retain additional factors required for transport to late Golgi compartments, we determined whether this ARF-depleted cytosol is also deficient in coated bud formation. (nih.gov)
- High-resolution images from replicas of quick-frozen, freeze-dried Golgi membranes reveal that Golgi incubated in vitro with unfractionated cytosol (Fig. 6 A) or reconstituted cytosol (not shown) exhibit abundant buds and vesicles with a punctate surface coating. (nih.gov)
- Hoxb7-Cre mediated removal of beta-catenin from the mouse Wolffian duct (WD) epithelium results in the ectopic ureteric bud (UB) formation. (nii.ac.jp)
- The expression of GDNF/Ret and its intracellular signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk, which are important for the normal UB formation, were not augmented in such ectopic ureteric buds. (nii.ac.jp)
- Analysis of mutant embryos suggests that the kidney hypo/dysplasia results from reduced branching of the ureter, whereas the ectopic UV junction and double collecting system are due to ectopic ureteral budding from the WD and accessory budding from the main ureter, respectively. (jci.org)
- In budding yeast, the Zip1 protein serves as the transverse filament . (prolekare.cz)
- This effect was suppressed by overexpressing ubiquitin and also by directly fusing ubiquitin to the C terminus of Gag, the viral protein that directs budding and particle release. (pnas.org)
- We and others have demonstrated that recruitment of an ESCRT-I subunit, Tsg101, a component of the class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) machinery, is required for the budding of viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ebola virus, that encode a PTAP-type L domain, but subsequent events remain undefined. (asm.org)
- Studies on the morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were the first to suggest that a virus-encoded function within the Gag protein was necessary for this late budding step to proceed efficiently ( 15 ). (asm.org)
- Budding progresses by protein- and lipid-mediated membrane bending and particle scission probably mediated by M2. (hindawi.com)
- Here, we summarize the experimental evidence for this model with emphasis on the raft-targeting features of HA, NA, and M2 and review the functional importance of raft domains for viral protein transport, assembly and budding, environmental stability, and membrane fusion. (hindawi.com)
- Since HA is the major protein component of the viral envelope, its polarized surface delivery may be a major force that drives polarized viral budding. (asm.org)
- The formation of functional vasculatures stimulated the maturation of hiPSC-LBs into tissue resembling the adult liver with multiple liver-specific functions such as protein production and human-specific drug metabolism. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Light and electronmicroscopic investigations revealed that no drastic changes occur at the cellular level, neither in the ectoderm nor in the endoderm which both participate in bud formation. (springer.com)
- Scanning and transmissionelectron microscopic investigations of the swimming bud revealed that the ectoderm is composed of three, and the endoderm of two, cell types. (springer.com)
- The liver bud emerges from the endoderm in a process that is typical of all endoderm-derived organs including the lung, pancreas and thyroid, using secreted signals from adjacent tissues. (grantome.com)
- We propose a genetic marking strategy, utilizing an endoderm-specific CreER line and the R26R reporter, to produce single recombination events in the liver bud that turns on the reporter in that cell and all of its descendants. (grantome.com)
- These observations led us to hypothesise that three-dimensional (3D) liver bud formation can be mimicked in vitro by culturing hepatic endoderm cells with endothelial and mesenchymal lineages. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MAT a and MAT α. (genetics.org)
- The segregation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I is essential for the formation of haploid reproductive cells. (prolekare.cz)
- Y. lipolytica , in which most of the natural isolates are haploid and which has a well characterized sexual cycle, buds with a polar budding pattern independently of the degree of ploidy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- As a result of interactions between the ectoderm and underlying mesoderm, formation occurs roughly around the fourth week of development as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm and the somites begin to proliferate to the point where they create a bulge under the ectodermal cells above. (wikipedia.org)
- Budding also occurs in flatworms, which divide into two and then regenerate to form two new flatworms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Although similar structures appear to be conserved in fission yeast, computational modeling and analysis of high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data have been used to argue that the small, highly constrained budding yeast chromosomes could not have these structures. (pnas.org)
- Formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis requires the him-14 gene. (genetics.org)
- FAITHFUL segregation of homologous chromosomes at the meiosis I division is dependent on the formation of crossovers between the two homologs ( H awley 1988 ). (genetics.org)
- At the heart of reproductive cell formation is a nuclear division process (meiosis) whereby homologous chromosomes segregate from one another. (prolekare.cz)
- The final goal of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the regulation in the number of teeth by novel transcription factor Epiprofin in tooth germ formation and development. (nii.ac.jp)
- Thus, our work defines spatial organization within the budding yeast nucleus, demonstrates the conserved role of genome architecture in regulating DNA replication, and identifies a molecular mechanism specifically regulating interactions between pericentric origins. (pnas.org)
- To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. (bvsalud.org)
- in vitro multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration from plumule junction explants of pigeon pea [cajanus cajan (l.) mill sp. (academicjournals.org)
- The response of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea for in vitro multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration from plumule junction explants under variable concentration of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin and thiadiazuron (TDZ) was assessed in the present study. (academicjournals.org)
- Takanori Takebe and Hideki Taniguchi at Yokohama City University showed the generation of vascularized and functional human liver from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by transplantation of in vitro grown liver buds (rudimentary liver). (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Self-formation of three-dimensional liver bud from human iPSC in vitro. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Surprisingly, we observed a formation of developing endothelial networks along with homogenously distributed hiPSC-liver progenitors even in vitro (Figure2, lower). (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Immunostaining and gene expression analyses revealed resemblance between in vitro grown hiPSC-LBs and in vivo liver buds. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- These results highlight the enormous therapeutic potential using in vitro grown organ bud transplantation for treating organ failure. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- Indirect immunofluorescence microscopic study demonstrated that Rho1p was concentrated to the periphery of the cells where cortical actin patches were clustered, including the site of bud emergence, the tip of the growing buds, and the mother-bud neck region of cells prior to cytokinesis. (rupress.org)
- The M and I domains lead to the emergence of buds on the surface of the cell, but these are not efficiently released unless the "late" (L) domain is present. (pnas.org)
- Site selection for bud and germ tube emergence in Candida albicans. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Local expression of Fgf10 in the foregut mesoderm is required to activate Fgfr2b signaling in lung epithelial progenitors and form the lung primary buds. (bu.edu)
- Colonies include three blastogenetic generations represented by mature, filter-feeding zooids, primary buds on zooids, and secondary buds (budlets) emerging from the primary buds (Manni et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Aim 1 is to test the role of candidate signaling pathways in liver budding. (grantome.com)
- This differential reliance may reflect differential stability of crossover-competent recombination intermediates, or alternatively, the presence of two different pathways for crossover formation in yeast, only one of which predominates during nematode meiosis. (genetics.org)
- Murine micromass models have been extensively applied to study chondrogenesis and osteogenesis to elucidate pathways of endochondral bone formation. (mdpi.com)
- The limb buds are the precursor structures of the limbs. (teachmeanatomy.info)
- Parallel results were obtained in chimeric limbs made by transplanting a quail limb bud to a chick host at different times during the migratory period, an experimental situation in which the limbs were not depleted of muscle precursors or nerves. (nih.gov)
- When explants were incubated with BrdU either before bud induction (0-18 hr in culture) or at the onset of budding (24-30 hr), labeled nuclei were found distributed throughout the entire explant. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, BrdU incubation after the onset of budding (30-48 hr) resulted in labeling concentrated in the budding areas, and a decrease of labeling toward the proximal region of the explant, between buds. (nih.gov)
- Although bud formation seems to be the manifestation of a localized response of lung epithelial cells to FGF-1, it is unclear whether budding results from induction of differential rates of cell proliferation within the epithelium. (nih.gov)
- These results demonstrate that differential rates of cell proliferation between bud and nonbud areas do not appear until when buds are almost completely formed. (nih.gov)
- The region of cell recruitment was found to encircle the budding site asymmetrically. (springer.com)
- This retrospective lineage analysis will demonstrate how the liver grows and if the two liver cell-types are derived from a common liver bud precursor. (grantome.com)
- Melanocyte cell migration in feather buds. (usc.edu)
- An individual cell is easy to follow from birth to death because yeast divides asymmetrically by budding off new daughters. (encyclopedia.com)
- The L domain is required for the virus-cell separation steps that occur late in the budding pathway. (pnas.org)
- Further, we demonstrate that Ccw12p is present at the cell periphery and highly concentrated at the presumptive budding site, around the bud, at the septum and at the tip of the mating projection. (ethz.ch)
- Moreover, the enrichment of Ccw12p in bud, septum and mating projection is consistent with a role of Ccw12p in preserving cell wall integrity at sites of active growth. (ethz.ch)
- These growth regulators are also used to promote cell enlargement and bud formation. (businesswire.com)
- In the budding process, a bulge forms on the outer edge of the yeast cell as nuclear division takes place. (encyclopedia.com)
- One of these nuclei moves into the bud, which eventually breaks off completely from the parent cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cytological analysis showing that homologs are paired and aligned in him-14 pachytene nuclei, together with temperature-shift experiments showing that him-14 functions during the pachytene stage, indicate that him-14 is not needed to establish pairing or synapsis and likely has a more direct role in crossover formation. (genetics.org)
- Slow and fast muscle fibers are preferentially derived from myoblasts migrating into the chick limb bud at different developmental times. (nih.gov)
- We used in vivo surgical transplantation and anatomical analyses of thigh muscle patterns to ask whether myoblasts migrating into the limb bud at different developmental times adopt different fates. (nih.gov)
- Here, we found that, although cells were plated on 2D conditions, hiPSC-derived liver progenitos organised into macroscopically visible 3D liver bud (hiPSC-LBs, or "rudimentary liver") by cultivating with human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal cells, presumably mimicking the above stated early developmental interactions (Figure2, upper). (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- The cultivar IPA-3088 showed best response with a maximum of 20 buds per explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 0.05 mgL -1 TDZ. (academicjournals.org)
- Among the hormones tested, lower concentration of TDZ gave the best response for these cultivars though higher concentration of BAP was also effective in multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration from plumule junction explants. (academicjournals.org)
- It is believed that the ability of a virus to bud apically or basolaterally from epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenicity and invasiveness of the virus (for a review, see reference 63 ). (asm.org)
- In fact, the budding site of Sendai virus in polarized epithelial cells, in addition to the cleavage-activation of the fusion glycoprotein by ubiquitous proteases, has been shown to be one of the determinants for organ tropism and pathogenicity in mice ( 60 ). (asm.org)
- Strains bearing the rho1-104 mutation accumulated tiny- or small-budded cells in which cortical actin patches were clustered to buds at the restrictive temperature. (rupress.org)
- Fate mapping experiments have demonstrated that the liver is derived from two discreet populations of cells that contribute differently to the liver bud. (grantome.com)
- Aim 3 is designed to test the potential of individual liver bud cells, also termed hepatoblasts. (grantome.com)
- To investigate the molecular basis of TAD formation, we performed Hi-C experiments on cells depleted for the Forkhead transcription factors, Fkh1 and Fkh2, previously associated with replication timing. (pnas.org)
- In practical terms, yeast life span is measured by observing individual cells periodically under a microscope and removing buds with a micro-manipulator. (encyclopedia.com)
- The mesenchymal cells of the limb bud, which stimulate AER formation as well as maintain AER activity, determine what type of limb will form. (wikipedia.org)
- Limb buds form from cells located in the greater limb field region. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been hypothesized that specific interactions between the polarized viral glycoproteins and the capsid or matrix components of the virus may mediate the transport of the latter to the budding surfaces in infected cells. (asm.org)
- This manual is therefore an essential resource for all researchers, from graduate level upward, who use budding yeast to explore the intricate workings of cells. (cshlpress.com)
- Generation of Liver Bud from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking early organogenesis. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- During the early liver organogenesis, liver progenitor cells delaminate from the foregut endodermal sheet and form a three-dimensional liver bud (LB) (Figure1), a condensed tissue mass that is soon vascularized. (yokohama-cu.ac.jp)
- The absence of either Ecm11 or Gmc2 substantially compromises the chromosomal assembly of Zip1 as well as polycomplex formation, indicating that the complex is required for extensive Zip1 polymerization. (prolekare.cz)
- Remarkably, in the unSUMOylatable ecm11 mutant, assembly of chromosomal Zip1 remained compromised while polycomplex formation became frequent. (prolekare.cz)
- We propose that the Ecm11-Gmc2 complex facilitates the assembly of Zip1 and that SUMOylation of Ecm11 is critical for ensuring chromosomal assembly of Zip1, thus suppressing polycomplex formation. (prolekare.cz)