A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. They exist only as primary endosymbionts of five species of TSETSE FLIES, found in specialized organelles called mycetomes. The bacteria supply crucial B vitamins (VITAMIN B COMPLEX) which the flies require for fertility.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Phosphocarrier proteins in an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids. (1/120)

A GroEL homolog produced by Buchnera, an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids, is not only a molecular chaperone but also a novel phosphocarrier protein, suggesting that this protein plays a role in a signal transducing system specific to bacteria living in an intracellular environment. This prompted us to look into phosphocarrier proteins of Buchnera that may be shared in common with other bacteria. As a result, no evidence was obtained for the presence of sensor kinases of the two-component system in Buchnera, which are found in many bacteria. It is possible that the lack of sensor kinases is compensated for by the mulitifunctional GroEL homolog in this symbiotic bacteria. In contrast, we successfully identified three phosphotransferase system genes, ptsH, ptsI, and crr in Buchnera, and provide evidence for their active expression. While the deduced amino acid sequences of these gene products, histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Enzyme I, and Enzyme III were similar to their counterparts in Escherichia coli, the predicted isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins were strikingly higher. It was also suggested that Buchnera Enzyme I, when produced in E. coli, is able to accept the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate, but not from ATP.  (+info)

Sequence evolution in bacterial endosymbionts having extreme base compositions. (2/120)

A major limitation on ability to reconstruct bacterial evolution is the lack of dated ancestors that might be used to evaluate and calibrate molecular clocks. Vertically transmitted symbionts that have cospeciated with animal hosts offer a firm basis for calibrating sequence evolution in bacteria, since fossils of the hosts can be used to date divergence events. Sequences for a functionally diverse set of genes have been obtained for bacterial endosymbionts (Buchnera) from two pairs of aphid host species, each pair diverging 50-70 MYA. Using these dates and estimated numbers of Buchnera generations per year, we calculated rates of base substitution for neutral and selected sites of protein-coding genes and overall rates for rRNA genes. Buchnera shows homogeneity among loci with regard to synonymous rate. The Buchnera synonymous rate is about twice that for low-codon-bias genes of Escherichia coli-Salmonella typhimurium on an absolute timescale, and fourfold higher on a generational timescale. Nonsynonymous substitutions show a greater rate disparity in favor of Buchnera, a result consistent with a genomewide decrease in selection efficiency in Buchnera. Ratios of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions differ for the two pairs of Buchnera, indicating that selection efficiency varies among lineages. Like numerous other intracellular bacteria, such as Rickettsia and Wolbachia, Buchnera has accumulated amino acids with codons rich in A or T. Phylogenetic reconstruction of amino acid replacements indicates that replacements yielding increased A + T predominated early in the evolution of Buchnera, with the trend slowing or stopping during the last 50 Myr. This suggests that base composition in Buchnera has approached a limit enforced by selective constraint acting on protein function.  (+info)

Identifying the determinants in the equatorial domain of Buchnera GroEL implicated in binding Potato leafroll virus. (3/120)

Luteoviruses avoid degradation in the hemolymph of their aphid vector by interacting with a GroEL homolog from the aphid's primary endosymbiotic bacterium (Buchnera sp.). Mutational analysis of GroEL from the primary endosymbiont of Myzus persicae (MpB GroEL) revealed that the amino acids mediating binding of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Luteoviridae) are located within residues 9 to 19 and 427 to 457 of the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, respectively, of the discontinuous equatorial domain. Virus overlay assays with a series of overlapping synthetic decameric peptides and their derivatives demonstrated that R13, K15, L17, and R18 of the N-terminal region and R441 and R445 of the C-terminal region of the equatorial domain of GroEL are critical for PLRV binding. Replacement of R441 and R445 by alanine in full-length MpB GroEL and in MpB GroEL deletion mutants reduced but did not abolish PLRV binding. Alanine substitution of either R13 or K15 eliminated the PLRV-binding capacity of the other and those of L17 and R18. In the predicted tertiary structure of GroEL, the determinants mediating virus binding are juxtaposed in the equatorial plain.  (+info)

Prephenate dehydratase from the aphid endosymbiont (Buchnera) displays changes in the regulatory domain that suggest its desensitization to inhibition by phenylalanine. (4/120)

Buchnera aphidicola, the prokaryotic endosymbiont of aphids, complements dietary deficiencies with the synthesis and provision of several essential amino acids. We have cloned and sequenced a region of the genome of B. aphidicola isolated from Acyrthosiphon pisum which includes the two-domain aroQ/pheA gene. This gene encodes the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase protein, which plays a central role in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis. Two changes involved in the overproduction of this amino acid have been detected. First, the absence of an attenuator region suggests a constitutive expression of this gene. Second, the regulatory domain of the Buchnera prephenate dehydratase shows changes in the ESRP sequence, which is involved in the allosteric binding of phenylalanine and is strongly conserved in prephenate dehydratase proteins from practically all known organisms. These changes suggest the desensitization of the enzyme to inhibition by phenylalanine and would permit the bacterial endosymbiont to overproduce phenylalanine.  (+info)

Decoupling of genome size and sequence divergence in a symbiotic bacterium. (5/120)

In contrast to genome size variation in most bacterial taxa, the small genome size of Buchnera sp. was shown to be highly conserved across genetically diverse isolates (630 to 643 kb). This exceptional size conservation may reflect the inability of this obligate mutualist to acquire foreign DNA and reduced selection for genetic novelty within a static intracellular environment.  (+info)

Polyamine composition and expression of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis in an aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera. (6/120)

Polyamine composition in an aphid endosymbiotic bacterium, Buchnera sp., was determined by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. We found that Buchnera contained virtually only a single polyamine, spermidine. The spermidine content of Buchnera was considerably higher in young aphids and tended to decrease with the age of the host. Expression of speD and speE, whose gene products are key enzymes in the synthesis of spermidine, was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. It was shown that the levels of their mRNAs fluctuated in line with the spermidine content.  (+info)

Decay of mutualistic potential in aphid endosymbionts through silencing of biosynthetic loci: Buchnera of Diuraphis. (7/120)

Buchnera, the primary bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, is known to provision essential amino acids lacking in the hosts' diet of plant sap. The recent discovery of silenced copies of genes for tryptophan biosynthesis (trpEG) in certain Buchnera lineages suggests a decay in symbiotic functions in some aphid species. However, neither the distribution of pseudogenes among lineages nor the impact of this gene silencing on amino-acid availability in hosts has been assessed. In Buchnera of the aphid Diuraphis noxia, tandem repeats of these pseudogenes have persisted in diverse lineages, and thpEG pseudogenes have originated at least twice within this aphid genus. Measures of amino-acid concentrations in Diuraphis species have shown that the presence of the pseudogene is associated with a decreased availability of tryptophan, indicating that gene silencing decreases nutrient provisioning by symbionts. In Buchnera of Diuraphis, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions are elevated in functional trpE copies, supporting the hypothesis that pseudogene origin and persistence reflect a reduced selection for symbiont biosynthetic contributions. The parallel evolution of trpEG pseudogenes in Buchnera of Diuraphis and certain other aphid hosts suggests that either selection at the host level is not effective or that fitness in these aphids is not limited by tryptophan availability.  (+info)

Postsymbiotic plasmid acquisition and evolution of the repA1-replicon in Buchnera aphidicola. (8/120)

Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and chromosomally encoded loci. We infer from these incongruencies a case of horizontal plasmid transfer in Buchnera. This process may have been mediated by secondary endosymbionts, which occasionally undergo horizontal transmission in aphids.  (+info)

Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
Obligate nutritional symbioses require balance between the energetic needs of the host and the symbiont. The resident symbiont population size within a host may have major impacts on host fitness, as both host and symbiont consume and supply metabolites in a shared metabolite pool. Given the massive genome degradation that is a hallmark of bacterial endosymbionts of insects, it is unclear at what level these populations are regulated, and how regulation varies among hosts within natural populations. We measured the titer of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from different clones of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and found significant variation in titer, measured as Buchnera genomes per aphid genome, among aphid clones. Additionally, we found that titer can change with the age of the host, and that the number of bacteriocytes within an aphid is one factor likely controlling Buchnera titer. Buchnera titer measurements in clones from a sexual cross indicate that the symbiont genotype is not
Author Summary Bacterial lineages have repeatedly evolved intimate symbioses with eukaryotic hosts, the most famous cases being those of the cell organelles, mitochondria, and plastids. Symbiont genomes typically lose many ancestral genes, raising the question of how they function with so few genes. In organelles, part of the answer involves gene transfer to the host genome, allowing maintenance of essential functions. So far, the extent of gene transfer to hosts has not been assessed for other cases of intimate, obligate symbiosis. Aphids harbor an ancient coevolved intracellular symbiont, called Buchnera. We used the newly available sequence of the pea aphid genome to conduct an exhaustive computational search for genes of bacterial ancestry. We found that no functional genes have been transferred from Buchnera, ruling out such transfer as a driving force in genome reduction in this symbiont. However, the aphid genome does contain eight transcribed genes of apparent bacterial origin, some of which
Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphids ...
The main question motivating this study was whether the elimination of ancestral regulatory genes in reduced and rearranged symbiont genomes corresponds to less responsive transcriptional control or whether these organisms have novel mechanisms for regulating gene expression. Specifically, we addressed whether amino acid biosynthetic genes are subject to transcriptional regulation in response to changes in amino acid concentrations encountered by the hosts. The amino acid biosynthetic pathways, some of the best-studied systems of transcriptional regulation, show dramatic responses in E. coli and related bacteria; for example, the combined mechanisms of trp operon regulation in E. coli can effect a change in transcription rates of up to 500-fold (38). In B. aphidicola, amino acid biosynthesis is central to its symbiotic role, yet the underlying genes have lost most of their ancestral regulatory systems (Table 1). Expression of these genes is relevant to the ecology of aphids/B. aphidicola. For S. ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Eukaryotes often form intimate endosymbioses with prokaryotic organisms. Cases in which these symbionts are transmitted cytoplasmically to host progeny create the potential for co-speciation or congruent evolution among the distinct genomes of these partners. If symbionts do not move horizontally between different eukaryotic hosts, strict phylogenetic congruence of their genomes is predicted and should extend to relationships within a single host species. Conversely, even rare host shifts among closely related lineages should yield conflicting tree topologies at the intraspecific level. Here, we investigate the historical associations among four symbiotic genomes residing within an aphid host: the mitochondrial DNA of Uroleucon ambrosiae aphids, the bacterial chromosome of their Buchnera bacterial endosymbionts, and two plasmids associated with Buchnera. DNA sequence polymorphisms provided a significant phylogenetic signal and no homoplasy for each data set, yielding completely and ...
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR further verified the conspicuous upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolisms (Figure 8 . 2A) . The bacteriocyte is
Our comparison highlights the first clear pattern of genome-scale evolution: obligately host-associated bacteria show enhanced stability of genome architecture relative to sequence evolution (Fig. 2), which is also indicated by comparisons of pathogen genomes (5).B. aphidicola is the most extreme organism analyzed so far, with no rearrangements or gene acquisitions and only a few gene losses during the past 50 My (Fig. 2, C and D). This stasis is remarkable because E. coli, S. typhi, and S. typhimurium, the closest relatives of B. aphidicola, have highly labile genomes (Fig. 2, C and D). The ratio of insertions and deletions (indels) and rearrangements per nonsynonymous substitutions is more than 2000-fold higher in modern E. coli and Salmonella spp.; this represents a massive difference even when normalized for the eightfold difference in genome size.. The B. aphidicola (Sg) genome sequence also provides insight into the ecological role of the endosymbionts in the supplementation of the hosts ...
Ligesom andre bladlus har ogs Cinara stammelusene mange fjender. Svirrefluer ses tit st stille i luften som sm helikoptere t t ved en bladluskoloni (svirrefluer kan forveksles med hvepse, men de har et tydelig rygvis flyvem nster), hvorved de fors ger at l gge ders g. Svirrefluens larver der mange bladlus. Flere arter af marieh ns (og deres larver) er ivrige bladluse spisere ligesom der ogs findes galmyg larver og snyltehvepse der kan parasitere lusene ...
Именно поэтому редактирование на этом сайте. Единственная причина, почему мне нравится темная эстетика. Я заметил, как хорошо она выглядела, когда я поставил свежий влажный верхний слой почвы на. Вопросы о раст ...
article{931223, abstract = {Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and ...
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Background |p|In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid |i|Acyrthosiphon pisum|/i| exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs.|/p| Results |p|The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
Anyone who has grown anything has at one time or another come in contact with some type of Aphid. There are over 4,400 species of Aphids worldwide, and are affectionately termed plant lice. Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. They can take out a crop within a series of weeks due…
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
Our results confirmed that there were significant differences between the two strains of apterous A. pisum in host relocation. Some biological differences were observed between the two aphid strains. These two A. pisum strains were identified by COI sequences (primers shows in Table S1) and confirmed as the same species. Our preliminary tests also showed that the two A. pisum strains could mate and produce normally. The LZ strain was superior at host seeking and leaf identification under starvation, but the movement ability of the YL strain was actually stronger than the LZ strain. Considering the relationship between energy reserves and movement ability of the two aphid strains, this phenomenon was probably caused by higher glycogen reserves that provide more energy for walking a longer distance and spreading out a wider range. We found that the key enzyme activities between the two strains were not significantly different, and the differences in glycogen reserves between the two strains might ...
The bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments generated by PCR with general eubacterial primers. By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial taxa were also detected in all aphid lines except one of A. pisum. These latter bacteria, collectively known as secondary symbionts or accessory bacteria, comprised three taxa of -proteobacteria (R-type [PASS], T-type [PABS], and U-type [PAUS]) and a rickettsia (S-type [PAR]). Complementary analysis of aphids from natural populations of four aphid species (A. pisum [n 74], Amphorophora rubi [n 109], Aphis sarothamni [n 42], and Microlophium carnosum [n 101]) from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera ...
The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of nucleotidic composition and codon usage in the pea aphid genome (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A collection of 60,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the pea aphid has been used to automatically reconstruct 5809 coding sequences (CDSs), based on similarity with known proteins and on coding style recognition. Reconstructions were manually checked for ribosomal proteins, leading to tentatively reconstruct the nea-complete set of this category. Pea aphid coding sequences showed a shift toward AT (especially at the third codon position) compared to drosophila homologues. Genes with a putative high level of expression (ribosomal and other genes with high EST support) remained more GC3-rich and had a distinct codon usage from bulk sequences: they exhibited a preference for C-ending codons and CGT (for arginine), which thus appeared optimal for translation. However, the discrimination was not as strong as in drosophila, suggesting a reduced degree of translational
AANAT gene / Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) / Aphididae (aphids) / biological rhythm / central nervous system / circadian clock / clock gene / GT2. Adaptation of phytophagous species, their natural enemies and symbionts / Insecta / insulin-like peptide / life cycle / melatonin / parthenogenetic organism / photoperiodism / prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) / seasonality / sexual morph / signalling pathway ...
This study examines the effects of climatic conditions on interactions among pea and lentil yields, pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) infestations, and outbreaks of PEMV (Pea enation mosaic) and BLRV (Bean leaf roll) viruses in the Palouse region of easternWashington. The study analytically and empirically evaluates the effects of aphid outbreaks on per acre yields, implicitly including the effects of adopted pest management activities and explicitly taking into account possible effects of climatic conditions on the severity of pea aphid outbreaks. The results show that aphid outbreaks have historically decreased pea and lentil yields by approximately 5% and 7% on average respectively. Elbakidze, Levan; Lu, Liang; Eigenbrode, Sanford
Research Interests: ? Molecular, cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity ? Evolution of insect reproductive plasticity ? Developmental control of cell division Phenotypic plasticity, the expression of alternate physiological states, morphological forms and/or distinct behaviors in response to specific environments, is a universal phenomenon in animals. Although the evolution of plastic responses is well understood theoretically, little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of this response. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an emerging model system, exhibits an adaptive plasticity in which changes in environmental cues result in either clonal reproduction (via parthenogenesis) or sexual reproduction (via meiosis). How aphids have evolved plasticity in this fundamental process is unknown. The goal of my research program is to understand this reproductive plasticity at the molecular and cellular level. Aphid phenotypic plasticity offers a unique, ...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance. The pea aphid is a model organism for biological study whose genome has been sequenced and annotated. In the autumn, female pea aphids lay fertilized eggs overwinter that hatch the following spring. The nymphs that hatch from these eggs are all females, which undergo four moults before reaching sexual maturity. They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. Each adult female gives birth to four to 12 female nymphs per day, around a hundred in her lifetime. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. The life span of an adult is about 30 days. Population ...
The base question behind the process of genome miniaturization is whether is occur trough large steps or due to a constant erosion of the gene content. In order to assess the evolution of this process is necessary to compare an ancestral genome with the one where the shrinkage is supposed to be occurred. Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity for the 16S rDNA and 62% for orthologous genes was possible to shed light on the mechanism of genome miniaturization.[33] The genome of the endosymbiont B. aphidicola is characterized by a genome size that is seven times smaller than E. coli (643 kb compared to 4.6 Mb)[34][35] and can be view as a subset of the enteric bacteria gene inventory.[35] From the confrontation of the two genomes emerged that some genes persist as partially degraded.[35] indicating that the function was lost during the process and that consequent events of erosion shortened the length as ...
Given the phylogenetic similarity between the stinkbug symbionts and Buchnera, the researchers wondered whether their biology might be similar as well. They divided egg masses into two groups and deprived one group of capsules to generate sibling populations with and without gut symbionts. Adults lacking symbionts showed developmental delays, grew smaller, failed to copulate or reproduce, and died prematurely. Like aphids depend on their endosymbionts, plataspid stinkbugs depend on their gut symbionts to survive how they do this, however, will be interesting to discover. Like Buchnera, the gut endosymbionts also appear to have co-evolved with their host. The phylogenetic tree of the stinkbugs, the researchers found, perfectly agreed with the phylogenetic relationships of the gut symbionts. Maternal transmission of the symbiont capsule provides a means of stable transmission, but other factors such as physiological compatibility may come into play ...
The availability of genomic data in the last decade relating to different aphid species has allowed the analysis of the genomic variability occurring among such species, whereas intra-specific variability has hitherto very largely been neglected. In order to analyse the intra-genomic variability in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, comparative analyses were performed revealing several clone-specific gene duplications, together with numerous deletions/rearrangements. Our comparative approach also allowed us to evaluate the synteny existing between the two M. persicae clones tested and between the peach potato aphid and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Even if part of the observed rearrangements are related to a low quality of some assembled contigs and/or to the high number of contigs present in these aphid genomes, our evidence reveals that aphid clones are genetically more different than expected. These results suggest that the choice of performing genomes sequencing combining different
With the recent completion of the sequencing of the Aphid (aphis pisum) genome many new areas are now open for research and exploration. One thing that has been discovered is that there are multiple versions of
The most interesting and debated node in the whole tree of symbiotic bacteria is undoubtedly the putative origin of many symbiotic lineages within Enterobacteriaceae (Charles et al , 2001). In Figure 1 .1, this node is presented in its maximal version, encompassing several major P-symbionts and many minor lineages (node P). However, in the published studies, the whole issue has mostly been addressed by analyzing phylogenetic relationships of the two most popular groups, Buchnera and Wigglesworthia. Although retrieved by a majority of phylogenetic studies, the monophyly of the symbiotic cluster containing these two P-sym-biont lineages has been legitimately questioned This doubt arises because the genomes of P-symbionts meet typical conditions leading to phylogenetic artifacts Compared to their free-living relatives, P-symbiotic lineages display remarkably high frequency of AT in their sequences This bias is considered one of the most significant symptoms of genome degradation in symbiotic ...
Huerta-Cepas J, Marcet-Houben M, Pignatelli M, Moya A, Gabaldón T. 2010. The pea aphid phylome: a complete catalogue of evolutionary histories and arthropod orthology and paralogy relationships for Acyrthosiphon pisum genes.. Insect Mol. Biol.. 19 Suppl 2:13-21. Abstract ...
Spring is around the corner and so are the Conifer Aphids Aphids suck the sap from the green foliage causing unsightly brown dead patches which can destroy whole hedges.
The aim of this symposium is to bring together researchers in quite a number of diverse fields who are working on various aspects related to the origin and integration of cellular organelles (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts) and more general aspects of invertebrate and plant endosymbiotic systems (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, insects and endosymbiotic bacteria). In this volume we will discuss evidence for coevolution and integration of endosymbiotic partners. Contents of this volume include the following topics: Status of Cell Symbiosis Theories; Possible Codescendants of Cell Organelles; Coevolution of Associations: A View at the Organismic Level; Coevolution of Symbiont Genome and Plasmone; a View at the Cellular and Molecular Levels; and Model Developments and Behavioral Interactions. Keywords: Deoxyribonucleic acids.*CELLS(BIOLOGY)
Aphids. Aphids Aphids Aphids. Aphids everywhere. Plum Tree Aphids. Blue Shirt Aphids. You know what... Lets not even talk about aphids today. Here are some pretty pictures of things that are not covered in aphids ...
Parasitised aphids (superfamily Aphidoidea). These aphids have been infected by the wasp Praon sp. by being injected with its eggs. Here, the larva of the wasp have left the hollowed shell of the aphid after feeding on its innards, and have begun to pupate within the volcano-like cocoon beneath it. - Stock Image C003/5811
We spent a good hour picking aphids today. Our friends recommended an easy aphid control method: they wrap a piece of tape around their fingers and run it across the leaves and stems. All the aphids stick to the tape, … Continue reading →. ...
When it comes to ways on how to get rid of aphids, most people prefer using some sort of woolly aphid treatment to eliminate them.
Aphids may be little in size, but are a big problem. Here are a couple ways to control aphids naturally. Continue reading →. ...
I keep seeing people experiencing Root Aphid issues. There is a ton of confusion about combating this pest out there, and for good reason. They are...
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
The high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. The genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (SUC1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), and aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of the Drosophila integral protein (DRIP) family of aquaporins. Here, we describe molecular analysis of GH13 and AQP genes in phloem-feeding representatives of the four phloem-feeding groups: aphids (Myzus persicae), coccids (Planococcus citri), psyllids (Diaphorina citri, Bactericera cockerelli) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED). A single candidate GH13-SUC gene and DRIP-AQP gene were identified in the genome/transcriptome of most insects tested by the criteria of sequence motif and gene expression in the gut. Exceptionally, the psyllid Ba. cockerelli transcriptome included a ...
Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
Sabri, A.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Hance, T.; Frere, I.; Destain, J.; Thonart, P. (2010). Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (9): 2081-2088. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.024133-0. ISSN 1466-5026 ...
هدف:شته سبز گندم، Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) یکی از آفات مهم گندم است که با تغذیه از گیاه و انتقال ویروس‌های بیماری‌زا، تولید این محصول را محدود می‌کند. کفشدوزک شکارگر Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) از شکارگرهای مهم شته‌ها بوده و توانایی بالایی در کنترل آن‌ها در اکوسیستم‌های زراعی مختلف از قبیل محصولات باغی، زراعی و گلخانه‌ای دارد. حشرات در مواجه شدن با ترکیبات شیمیایی ممکن است از مقاومت بیوشیمیایی استفاده کنند که در آن آفت‌کش قبل از رسیدن به جایگاه تاثیر، توسط یک یا چندین آنزیم مختلف خنثی می‌شود. در بررسی حاضر، اثر غلظت‌های زیرکشنده دو آفت‌کش تیاکلوپرید و افوریا روی ...
Here and in and a previous article (8), we have identified a protein, Protein C002, that appears to play an essential role (or roles) in the foraging and feeding of the pea aphid on fava beans, a typical host plant for this aphid species.. Protein C002 can, on the basis of our results, be considered a specialized, salivary gland protein, which does not exclude the possibility that it is synthesized in other organs in small amounts. Indeed, we have a preliminary indication that transcript c002 occurs in gut, but at ≈100-fold lower amounts than in salivary gland (10). The organ distribution of transcript c002 (and Protein C002) is one of the many aspects of this transcript and protein that will be under continued investigation in our laboratories.. Both Protein C002 and its transcript occur in the principal salivary glands in the pea aphid but apparently in only some of those cells (≈5 of the 21 cells within each lobe). This restriction of expression of the c002 gene to a subset of secretory ...
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have already been discovered in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but simply no such example continues to be discovered from extracellular types. obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These results suggest that not really the endocellular circumstances themselves however the inhabitants genetic qualities of the vertically transmitted symbionts are most likely in charge of the peculiar hereditary traits of the insect symbionts. We suggested the designation Ishikawaella capsulata for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont organizations could be manipulated quickly, give a novel system that allows experimental methods to untouched areas of the insect-microbe mutualism previously. Furthermore, comparative analyses from the sister groupings, the endocellular as well as the extracellular would result in insights into the way the different symbiotic life-style have got affected their genomic ...
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By Iqbal Pittalwala, University of California - Riverside Aphids are devastating insect pests and cause great losses to agriculture worldwide. These sap-feeding plant pests harbor in their body cavity bacteria, which are essential for the aphids fecundity and survival. Buchnera, the bacterium, benefits also because it cannot grow outside the aphid. This mutually beneficial relationship is sabotaged, however, by the bacterium which proceeds to betray the aphid, a research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside has found.. Although this betrayal is unintentional, it nevertheless alerts the plant about the aphids presence and the aphids are unable to reproduce in large numbers, said Isgouhi Kaloshian, a professor of nematology, who led the research project. A protein from the bacterium, found in the aphid saliva and likely delivered inside the plant host by the aphid, triggers plant immune responses against the aphid. It seems that the plant immune system targets the ...
Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence? Hamiltonella defensa has an extremely dynamic genome. It is relatively small, only 2.1 Mb which consists of a 2,110,331-bp circular chromosome. It encodes 2,100 protein-coding genes, has a relatively large number of pseudogenes, and is littered with mobile DNA, insertion sequences, and phage remnants. Horizontal gene transfer plays a role in its dynamic genome. Additionally, approximately half of H. defensas DNA comes from toxin-encoding bacteriophages called APSEs. APSEs are similar to lamda-like phages, which are bacterial viruses that infect E. coli. It has other similarities to the E. coli bacterium, including a similar number of pseudogenes. H. defensa is auxotrophic for 8 of its 10 essential amino acids. It relies on Buchnera, a primary endosymbiont of aphids, to synthesize these amino acids. However, despite H. defensas limited biosynthetic ...
1. Facultative endosymbiotic bacteria of insects are known to affect life-history traits of their hosts, and can provide important fitness benefits under certain environmental conditions. While several distinct endosymbiont-induced effects have been reported, there is no data on whether heritable facultative endosymbionts in any species affect their hosts performance at low temperatures, something that could have a major effect on insect physiology and survival, and thus population structure and distribution. 2. The original facultative endosymbionts were experimentally removed from five clonal genotypes of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fab., which were then exposed to frost. 3. Aphid genotypes differed considerably in survival following the exposure and in fecundity of the survivors. However, the presence of the facultative symbionts had no overall effect on the studied traits. 4. The results suggest that the facultative symbionts have limited effects on the cold hardiness of their grain aphid
This chapter talks about the symbiosis of microbes and mitochondria. Mutations, including deletions of DNA, happen constantly, so the unused genes have long since disappeared from the genomes of mitochondria that inhabit our cells. In fact, mutations are still raining down on the genomes of our mitochondria, and these continue throughout our lives, contributing to various diseases and disorders. These malfunctions are the main reason we even think about our mitochondria. Another reason the mitochondria can live with so few genes is that many of the ancient genes of the mitochondrial ancestor have changed addresses, moving from the chromosome of the mitochondrion to our own chromosomes but sending their working products back to the mitochondrial homeland to carry out needed work. Some symbiotic bacteria have fewer than 200 genes, and the symbionts we call organelles can have even fewer, as in our own mitochondria with their miserly 15. Buchnera uses its ancestral genes for making the amino acids ...
Phloem feeding insects, such as aphids, feed almost continuously on plant phloem sap, a liquid diet that contains high concentrations of sucrose (a disaccharide comprising of glucose and fructose). To access the available carbon, aphids hydrolyze sucrose in the gut lumen and transport its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Although sugar transport plays a critical role in aphid nutrition, the molecular basis of sugar transport in aphids, and more generally across all insects, remains poorly characterized. Here, using the latest release of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, genome we provide an updated gene annotation and expression profile of putative sugar transporters. Finally, gut expressed sugar transporters are functionally expressed in yeast and screened for glucose and fructose transport activity. In this study, using a de novo approach, we identified 19 sugar porter (SP) family transporters in the A. pisum genome. Gene expression analysis, based on 214, 834 A. pisum expressed
Acyrthosiphon loti (green trefoil aphid). Identification, biology, distribution, host plants, natural enemies, damage caused. Creative commons images.
Moroldo, M, Paillard, S, Marconi, R, Legeai, F, Canaguier, A, Cruaud, C, De Berardinis, V, Guichard, C, Brunaud, V, Le Clainche, I, Scalabrin, S, Testolin, R, Di Gaspero, G, Morgante, M, Adam-Blondon, AF (2008). A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance. BMC Plant Biol., 8:66. Legeai, F, Paux, E, Guilhot, N, Adam-Blondon, AF, Alaux, M, Salse, J, Sourdille, P, Leroy, P, Feuillet, C (2008). Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis. Funct. Integr. Genomics, 8, 1:29-32. Rispe, C, Kutsukake, M, Doublet, V, Hudaverdian, S, Legeai, F, Simon, JC, Tagu, D, Fukatsu, T (2008). Large gene family expansion and variable selective pressures for cathepsin B in aphids. Mol. Biol. Evol., 25, 1:5-17. Rispe, C, Legeai, F, Gauthier, JP, Tagu, D (2007). Strong heterogeneity in nucleotidic composition and codon bias in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) shown by ...
Two of the groups in our programme (Gabaldón and Guigó) have participated in the analysis of the genomic sequence of the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum, published this week in PLoS Biology. This first published genome of a basal hemimetabolous insect, provides an out-group for comparison with other sequenced insects, and pavesthe way to elucidate molecular mechanisms in. ...
Although pea aphid populations can vary quite a bit from field to field it is important to monitor their populations to ensure that loss due to their feeding doesnt occur.
The giant willow aphid is a European or Asian aphid species that has spread to other regions of the world. The aphids can form dense colonies on host trees.
Aphids are serious agricultural pests, not only because they consume plant saps, but also because they transmit plant diseases that destroy all kind of crop plants.
Its possible that humidity could be an issue, but to be honest Ive never had much of a problem with it. Usually the problems are temperature - too high = poor quality wilting plants and very few aphids, or cultures only produce one yielld, or too many peas added to a culture/too wet culture = rotten peas and a bad smell ...
Many aphid species feed above ground on stems and leaves; but root aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hide below the soil line as they feast on plant roots. Typically wingless, these tiny, yellowish-green pests ...
They are! Look, my trap plant is a complete surprise. It wasnt intentional, it just happened that way. Let me tell you about the rose trap plant! I think it is just a matter of having plants that can be sacrificed to the aphids. These broccoli, with heads already cut seem to be perfect for trapping aphids, or is it increasing aphids. Aphids are like tornados -neighboring house is perfectly fine and yours is destroyed. Aphids all over one rose, not at all on the other. Soap sprays work, plus shooting with strong water or straight out squishing with fingers.. ReplyDelete ...
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Useful tips on aphids removal. Aphids removal is important for a healthy garden. Having pests in your garden can be a real problem, and aphids can be one of those major problems. These little insects feed off of your plants; they have a sharp mouth that helps them to pierce plant tissue so that that they can eat the plant sap of your beautifully cultivated garden. All types of vegetation can be vulnerable to aphids, but especially new growth and those that have been recently planted.
Aphids- Synonyms Of Aphids | Aphids - (সমার্থক, প্রতিশব্দ)|All Type of Online Bangla Dictionary en2bn, bn2en, Definition, synonym, Thesaurus and Language Center.
Buy Ants And Aphids Close-Up 2 by illych on VideoHive. Ants and aphids close-up. Shooting by two objectives. Depth of sharpness 1-3??.
Observation - Funky siphunculi: aphid off Buddleia - UK and Ireland. Description: This long-legged aphid with long siphunculi struck me as unfamiliar and possibly distinctive. One seen, off Buddleia.
It seems I am not alone in the aphid battle, as many of you have asked about this gardeners quandary. So heres the latest. I recently went away for a couple of days and thought the aphids would get out of hand, to my delight when I returned everything looked super happy and healthy...though when…
Endosymbiotic theory It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Transfer of
Now I have aphids. Arghh! I sprayed some organic bug killer but what about lady bugs? They sell them at the gardening store, would the bug spray kill the lad
aphids_that_eat_brussels_sprouts_are_smaller_than_normal_and_live_in_undersized_populations_which_has_a_negative_knockon_effect_up_the_food_chain_according_to_new_research_published_today_8_february_in_science
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Last week we began to explore the role of beneficials in our gardens. After all, not every little critter we find in our outdoor space is bad, even if attractive! e us begin with one of the . . .
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Do you like the idea of entertaining bugs in your garden or are you a little averse to it? Youll be amazed to know that many ...
Buchnera pedunculata. Calycanthus glaucus, Bot. Reg. t. 404. - laevigatus, Bot. Reg. t. 481. Carex Fraseriana, Bot. Mag. t. ...
Buchnera bowalensis A.Chev. Buchnera capitata Benth. Buchnera hispida Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Buchnera leptostachya Benth. ...
Buchnera asperata R.Br. Buchnera gracilis R.Br. Buchnera linearis R.Br. Buchnera ramosissima R.Br. Buchnera tenella R.Br. ... Buchnera tetragona R.Br. Buchnera urticifolia R.Br. Bulbine bulbosa (R.Br.) Haw. Bulbine semibarbata (R.Br.) Haw. Burchardia ...
Examples include species of Buchnera, Chlamydia, Treponema, Mycoplasma, and many others. One of the most reduced genomes in ... "Extreme genome reduction in Buchnera spp.: Toward the minimal genome needed for symbiotic life". Proceedings of the National ...
"Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (2): 581-6. Bibcode: ...
One can consider the variant Buchnera genomes as alleles for the larger hologenome. The association between Buchnera and aphids ... Gil R, Sabater-Muñoz B, Latorre A, Silva FJ, Moya A (April 2002). "Extreme genome reduction in Buchnera spp.: toward the ... They rely on their Buchnera endosymbiotic population for essential amino acids, supplying in exchange nutrients as well as a ... The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum maintains an obligate symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola, which is ...
2003). "Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (2): 581-6. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100 ... 2000). "Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature. 407 (6800): 81-6. Bibcode: ...
Buchnera, synthesize the needed ones in an obligate relationship. The head louse (Pediculus humanus) has an obligate symbiotic ... Wernegreen, J. J.; Moran, N. A. (1999-01-01). "Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein- ... Buchnera symbiotic system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (8): E1819-E1828. doi:10.1073/pnas.1720237115 ...
One exception is the Buchnera, an obligate maternally transmitted symbiont of aphids. It retains 54 genes for biosynthesis of ... Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ...
Gammaproteobacteria: Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Buchnera, Haemophilus, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, etc. ...
High-elevation herbs include bracken, Buchnera rungwensis, and Valeriana capensis. Two amphibians (Phrynobatrachus rungwensis ...
In some cases, the bacteria and fungi are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera; in others, like Wigglesworthia, they are ... Douglas, A E (1998). "Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". ... Buchnera aphidicola. Bacteriocytes of aphids have a subpopulation of the bacteriocytes that is chosen prior to the maternal ... "Bacteriocyte cell death in the pea aphid/Buchnera symbiotic system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (8): ...
Enterobacteriales, po slovensky aj enterobaktérie alebo gramnegatívne fakultatívne anaeróbne tyčinky, je rad baktérií s jedinou čeľaďou Enterobacteriaceae. Zahŕňa gramnegatívne, chemoorganotrofné, fakultatívne anaerobné a aerobné baktérie nachádzajúce sa vo vzduchu, vo vode a v pôde. Rozšírené sú v telách živočíchov od bezstavovcov až po človeka Ich rozšírenie je kozmopolitné. Tieto prokaryoty netvoria spóry, len puzdra. Puzdra majú polysacharidový základ, chránia bunku pred faktormi vonkajšieho prostredia, napríklad slnečným žiarením a dezinfekčnými prostriedkami. Kolónie niektorých neopuzdrených mikroorganizmov môžu získať opuzdrenie genetickým procesom transdukcie, takto obalom chránené bakteriálne organizmy sú virulentnejšie. Majú tvar paličiek širokých 0,1 až 1,5 µm. Bunkový pohyb sa uskutočňuje pomocou bičíkov (peritrichne usporiadaných), rad však zahŕňa aj nepohyblivé baktérie, bez bičíkov. Známe sú ich ...
This hypothesis is confirmed by the analysis of the pseudogenes of Buchnera where the number of deletions was more than ten ... Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity ... Wernegreen, J. J.; Moran, N. A. (1999-01-01). "Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein- ... Moran, Nancy A.; Mira, Alex (2001-11-14). "The process of genome shrinkage in the obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola". ...
Buchnera aphidicola gene transcription, although not well understood, is thought to be regulated by a small number of global ... ISBN 978-0-470-11517-6. Whitehead, L. F.; Douglas, A. E. (1993). "A metabolic study of Buchnera, the intracellular bacterial ... Aphids harbour a vertically transmitted (from parent to its offspring) obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, the primary ... Buchnera) and a Recent Radiation of Aphids (Uroleucon) and Pitfalls of Testing for Phylogenetic Congruence". Evolution. 54 (2 ...
In some cases, the bacteria are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera; in others like Wigglesworthia, they are transmitted via ... For example, the putative primary role of Buchnera is to synthesize essential amino acids that the aphid cannot acquire from ... Douglas AE (1998). "Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". ... and its endosymbiont Buchnera sp. APS, the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and its endosymbiont Wigglesworthia ...
"Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature. 407 (6800): 81-6. Bibcode:2000Natur ...
"Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature. 407 (6800): 81-86. Bibcode: ...
Buchnera randii S. Moore, Lopholoena randii S. Moore and Harveya randii Hiern. Retiring in 1935 he settled at Brightlingsea, ...
It is also dependent on the essential amino acids produced by Buchnera. It is autotrophic for eight out of the ten essential ... amino acids that Buchnera produces. Although dependent, the H. defensa genome preserves more genes and pathways for cell ...
Aphids and Their Symbiotic Bacteria Buchnera". Annual Review of Entomology. 43: 17-37. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17. PMID ...
Buchnera are housed in specialized, aphid-derived cells located in the hemocoel of the A. pisum body cavity. Each Buchnera cell ... Buchnera is related to Enterobacteriaceae including Escheriachia coli and it is likely that Buchnera evolved from a bacterium ... Phylogenetic analysis shows that Buchnera is a monophyletic group and that the phylogenies of Buchnera and A. pisum coincide. ... pisum and Buchnera receives necessary guanosine. The Buchnera genome has retained genes required for the biosynthesis of ...
... cedri has been shown to host three symbionts: Buchnera aphidicola, a secondary symbiont, and bacteria in the genus ... "Coexistence of Wolbachia with Buchnera aphidicola and a secondary symbiont in the aphid Cinara cedri". Journal of Bacteriology ...
... a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures". Applied and ...
In the aphid Cinara cedri, it coexists with Buchnera aphidicola, given the latter cannot produce tryptophan. It is also known ...
When comparing Buchnera aphidicola and Escherichia coli, it was found that positive epistasis furthers gene loss while negative ... The relationship between epistasis and the domino theory of gene loss was observed in Buchnera aphidicola. The domino theory ...
By comparing Buchnera, an obligately host-associated bacteria, with closely related free-living bacteria, she demonstrated that ... Initially, Moran and Baumman used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to demonstrate that Buchnera aphidicola bacteria and their aphid ... Her seminal research has focused on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum and its bacterial symbionts including Buchnera ( ... Buchnera tends to accumulate nonsynonymous, silent mutations, more rapidly, increasing the AT-content of the genome with an ...
Genera in this family include the type genus Erwinia, along with Buchnera, Mixta, Pantoea, Phaseolibacter, Tatumella, and ...
Among animals, symbiotic cospeciation is seen between Uroleucon (aphids) and Buchnera (plants in the Orobanchaceae), between ... Buchnera) and a recent radiation of aphids (Uroleucon) and pitfalls of testing for phylogenetic congruence". Evolution. 54 (2 ...
The genus Cycnium is monophyletic and the sister group of a clade consisting of the genera Buchnera and Striga. Most related to ...
Buchnera may refer to: Buchnera (bacterium), a genus of proteobacteria Buchnera (plant), a plant genus from the family ...
Buchnera Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Buchnera Genomes (at DOEs IMG system). ... A mature aphid may carry an estimated 5.6 × 106 Buchnera cells. Buchnera has lost regulatory factors, allowing continuous ... using Buchnera. The initial studies on Buchnera later led to studies on symbionts of many groups of insects, pursued by ... Buchnera is 3 µm in diameter and has some of the key characteristics of their Enterobacterales relatives, such as a Gram- ...
Buchnera aphidicola, the symbiont of Schizaphis graminum, carries on a plasmid the two genes trpEG which are important in ... The association between Buchnera and aphids is a mutualism, which was probably established 150 to 250 million years ago. At ... Physical and genetic map of the genome of Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. J. Mol. Evol ... The Nutritional Symbiosis of Buchnera and Aphids, University of Connecticut-Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. ...
Molecular markers show that bacteriocytes, the aphid cells that house the bacterial endosymbionts, are specified in a conserved two-step process that does not depend on the presence of the bacteria.
Schematic layout of the metabolic pathways of Buchnera aphidicola APS illustrating the carbon flow from the main precursors to ... EAA production by Buchnera aphidicola APS. (A) export under different substrate inputs. Equal export under the two models is ... A fragile metabolic network adapted for cooperation in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.. Thomas GH1, Zucker J, ... We have reconstructed and analysed the metabolic network of the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola (symbiont of the pea ...
Buchnera. › Buchnera aphidicola. › Buchnera aphidicola (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Strains i. › APS, APS / Tokyo1998, Tokyo 1998, ... Buchnera aphidicola str. APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum). › Buchnera aphidicola strain APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum). › Buchnera sp. APS ... Taxonomy - Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) (Acyrthosiphon pisum symbiotic bacterium) Basket 0 ...
Biotin metabolism - Buchnera aphidicola APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download ...
View Name Sources Download CSV Download BibTeX Bibliography for Buchnera candida by Page ...
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Buchnera aphidicola JF98 (Acyrthosiphon pisum) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry ...
Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola. Autor: Ham, Roeland C.H.J. van; Kamerbeek, Judith; Palacios, Carmen ; ... Comparison of the 618-kb (kbp) genome with the two other Buchnera genomes revealed a nearly perfect gene-order conservation, ... This strain diverged 80-150 million years ago from the common ancestor of two previously sequenced Buchnera strains. Here, a ... Extensive genome reduction also predates the synchronous diversification of Buchnera and its host; but, at a slower rate, gene ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,Q8KA60,ASSY_BUCAP Argininosuccinate synthase OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX=198804 GN=argG ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ ...
... and that the number of bacteriocytes within an aphid is one factor likely controlling Buchnera titer. Buchnera titer ... We measured the titer of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from different clones of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and ... found significant variation in titer, measured as Buchnera genomes per aphid genome, among aphid clones. Additionally, we found ...
We found that no functional genes have been transferred from Buchnera, ruling out such transfer as a driving force in genome ... Aphids harbor an ancient coevolved intracellular symbiont, called Buchnera. We used the newly available sequence of the pea ... Based on their expression patterns, most of these appear to function specifically in the aphid-Buchnera symbiosis, presenting ...
Buchnera symbiosis is a favorite model to study or-ga-nel-lo-ge-ne-sis, how a once free-living gammaproteobacterium became an ... The obligate Buchnera aphidicola endosymbiont, found so far in most members of the Aphididae family, has been lost in many ... In C. brasiliensis, the YLS resides both intra- and ex-tra-cel-lu-lar-ly but not in specialized cells - as do the Buchnera in ... For evolutionary biologists, the aphid·Buchnera symbiosis is a favorite model to study or-ga-nel-lo-ge-ne-sis, how a once ...
BASIONYM: Buchnera americana Linnaeus 1753. Buchnera angustifolia Buchnera angustifolia Rafinesque, New Fl. 2: 32. 1837 (1836 ... Buchnera breviflora Buchnera breviflora Pennell, in Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 1223, 1508. 1933.. TYPE: FLORIDA: Santa Rosa Co.(?): ... Buchnera floridana Buchnera floridana Gandoger, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 217. 1919.. TYPE: FLORIDA: Polk Co.: Without data, ... Buchnera elongata var. obtusa Buchnera elongata Swartz, var. obtusa Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 71: 288. 1920. ...
To compare the changes in metE transcript levels of Buchnera from A. pisum [Buchnera(Ap)] to those of Buchnera(Sg), we ... Buchnera(Ap), which diverged from Buchnera(Sg) about 60 million years ago (18), lacks metR and retains metE. Thus, if MetR is ... The difference between Buchnera(Sg) and Buchnera(Ap) in the presence and action of metR indicates that loss of regulatory genes ... the genes underlying reduction to sulfide are intact in Buchnera(Ap) but are inactivated as pseudogenes in Buchnera(Sg), ...
Buchnera aphidicola is the primary obligate intracellular symbiont of most aphid species. B. aphidicola and aphids have been ... Abstract : Buchnera aphidicola is the primary obligate intracellular symbiont of most aphid species. B. aphidicola and aphids ... Systemic analysis of the symbiotic function of Buchnera aphidicola, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon ... Systemic analysis of the symbiotic function of Buchnera aphidicola, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon ...
Buchnera americana, American Bluehearts, Prairie Bluehearts, Plains Bluehearts. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3713 ... Buchnera americana FAMILY Scrophulariaceae SYNONYMOUS WITH VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS (1968) 166-21-001:. Buchnera ... Buchnera americana FAMILY Orobanchaceae LESS THAN PLANTS NATIONAL DATABASE:. ...
... can grow and reproduce thanks to their intimate symbiosis with the γ-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola that furnishes them ... Multimodal dynamic response of the Buchnera aphidicola pLeu plasmid to variations in leucine demand of its host, the pea aphid ... Multimodal dynamic response of the Buchnera aphidicola pLeu plasmid to variations in leucine demand of its host, the pea aphid ... can grow and reproduce thanks to their intimate symbiosis with the γ-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola that furnishes them ...
The effect of Buchnera genome evolution on gene expression levels has also been analysed in order to assess the constraints ... Our analysis showed that mRNA abundances, gene organization (operon) and gene essentiality are correlated in Buchnera (i.e., ... Finally, our results show the existence of spatial periodic transcriptional patterns in the genome of Buchnera. Despite an ... this work reveals a significant correlation between mRNA abundances and chromosomal organization of the aphid-symbiont Buchnera ...
Purchase Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum Protein TusB(tusB). It is produced in Yeast. High purity. ... Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum Protein TusB(tusB). Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. ...
Purchase Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum 50S ribosomal protein L5(rplE). It is produced in Yeast. ... Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum 50S ribosomal protein L5(rplE). Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola ... Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum 50S ribosomal protein L5(rplE),E.coli. ... Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum 50S ribosomal protein L5(rplE),Mammalian cell. ...
... and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. ... Buchnera, T5). Buchnera spp. are well known endosymbionts of aphids (Moran et al., 2008). The high relative abundance of ... Buchnera (T5), and Enterobacter (T2). Differences in relative abundances were only significant for Buchnera and Enterobacter, ... The higher relative abundance of Buchnera and Wolbachia on leaves of G. album were an indicator of increased numbers of ...
Amino acid metabolisms complementary to Buchnera. Tue, 20 Jun 2017 , Symbiotic Bacteria ... The bacteriocyte is the cell for harboring Buchnera, whose primary role is the synthesis of essential amino acids (Sasaki and ... it is expected that essential amino acids are supplied by Buchnera, whereas nonessential amino acids must be synthesized in ... These results revealed an important aspect of the molecular basis of interdependency between the host and Buchnera . ...
Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key- ... Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with ... All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon ... Postsymbiotic plasmid acquisition and evolution of the repA1-replicon in Buchnera aphidicola. Ham, Roeland C.H.J. van; Silva- ...
Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae 30S ribosomal protein S3 (rpsC) datasheet and description hight quality product ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae 30S ribosomal protein S3 (rpsC). Contact us. ... Baizongia pistaciae 30S ribosomal protein S3 (rpsC), Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Short name: Baizongia pistaciae 30S ribosomal ... Baizongia pistaciae 30S ribosomal protein S3 (rpsC), Recombinant Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Alternative names: 30S ribosomal ...
Buchnera; bacteriocyte; endosymbiont; genome reduction; symbiosis. PMID:. 24995872. DOI:. 10.1146/annurev-micro-091213-112901. ...
The second is based on a different and unique organization of the ribosomal RNA operons of Buchnera and the close proximity of ... Members of the genus Buchnera constitute a distinct prokaryotic lineage containing the primary endosymbionts of aphids ( ... Detection of Buchnera, the primary prokaryotic endosymbiont of aphids, using the polymerase chain reaction.. Author(s): D ... The endosymbiont (Buchnera) of the aphid Diuraphis noxia contains all the genes of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway.. ...
Wixon J (2001) Featured organism: reductive evolution in bacteria: Buchnera sp., Rickettsia prowazekii and Mycobacterium leprae ...
b)Exemptions. (1) A limited permit for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in Escherichia coli genotype K-12 (strain K-12 and its derivatives), sterile strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis, provided that all the following conditions are met: (i) The microorganisms are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b)(3); (ii) The cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does not contain other conjugation proficient plasmids or generalized transducing phages; (iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest; (iv) The cloned genes are not carried on an expression vector if the cloned genes code for: (A) A toxin to plants or plant products, or a toxin to organisms beneficial to plants; or (B) Other factors directly involved in eliciting plant disease (i.e., cell wall degrading enzymes); or ...
  • Todays Buchnera endosymbionts have reached the stage of mitochondria or chloroplasts - well, almost - and this shines a bright spotlight on Lynn Margulis' famous ' endosymbiont theory ' from 1967. (asmblog.org)
  • The obligate Buchnera aphidicola endosymbiont, found so far in most members of the Aphididae family, has been lost in many species of the monophyletic Ce-ra-ta-phi-di-nae subfamily. (asmblog.org)
  • Systemic analysis of the symbiotic function of Buchnera aphidicola, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We have explored the possible conservation of relationships between mRNA abundances and chromosomal organization in the highly reduced genome of Buchnera aphidicola , the primary endosymbiont of the aphids, and a close relative to Escherichia coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detection of Buchnera, the primary prokaryotic endosymbiont of aphids, using the polymerase chain reaction. (scienceopen.com)
  • The endosymbiont (Buchnera) of the aphid Diuraphis noxia contains all the genes of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. (scienceopen.com)
  • Comparative analysis of two genomic regions among four strains of Buchnera aphidicola, primary endosymbiont of aphids. (scienceopen.com)
  • Aphids harbor an obligate mutualism with the vertically transferred endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola , which produces key nutrients lacking in the aphid's phloem-based diet that are necessary for normal development and reproduction. (jgenomics.com)
  • One of the best studied cases of such symbiosis is between aphids and their obligate bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) ( 6 - 8 ). (jgenomics.com)
  • The mutualism between aphid and Buchnera dates back over 200 million years and neither the insect nor its endosymbiont can survive independently ( 9 ). (jgenomics.com)
  • The pea aphid genome and other of its features are the focus of studies covering the following areas: Symbiosis with bacteria - As all aphididae, A. pisum hosts the primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids and is necessary for aphid reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, nearly all aphids are infected with Buchnera aphidicola ( 5 ), an obligate endosymbiont localized within specific cells derived from the host, the bacteriocytes ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • This observation is particularly striking in Buchnera , as it is an endosymbiont and so likely has a small effective population size ( N e ). (genetics.org)
  • Aphids accomplish this in part through close interactions with endosymbiont bacteria, Buchnera aphidicola , that are contained in specialized cells called bacteriocytes ( Buchner, 1965 ). (biologists.org)
  • The pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) accommodates Buchnera aphidicola as obligatory endosymbiont. (mpg.de)
  • Symbionts ( Buchnera aphidicola ) with-in a bacteriocyte of a pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ). (asmblog.org)
  • Multimodal dynamic response of the Buchnera aphidicola pLeu plasmid to variations in leucine demand of its host, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In this study, we reappraised the transport function of different Buchnera strains, from the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum, Schizaphis graminum, Baizongia pistaciae and Cinara cedri, using the re-annotation of their transmembrane proteins coupled with an exploration of their metabolic networks. (uv.es)
  • Buchnera from A. pisum and S. graminum have a three-membraned system and similar sets of transporters corresponding to most compound classes. (uv.es)
  • We report a mutation in Buchnera of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum that recurs in laboratory lines and occurs in field populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have quantified total rates of genomic evolution for Buchnera aphidicola , an obligate mutualistic symbiont of aphids, by sequencing the genome of the B. aphidicola symbiont of Schizaphis graminum (Sg) ( 1 ) and analyzing its divergence from the published sequence of the B. aphidicola symbiont of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Ap) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Comparison of the 618-kb (kbp) genome with the two other Buchnera genomes revealed a nearly perfect gene-order conservation, indicating that the onset of genomic stasis coincided closely with establishment of the symbiosis with aphids, ≈200 million years ago. (csic.es)
  • Small Things Considered: Symbiont Exchange in the Aphid·Buchnera Symbiosis, Part 1. (asmblog.org)
  • Symbiont Exchange in the Aphid· Buchnera Symbiosis, Part 1. (asmblog.org)
  • For the curious evolutionary biologist, this raises the question whether 'symbiont swapping' is also possible for the highly in-ti-ma-te aphid· Buchnera symbiosis. (asmblog.org)
  • Aphids, important agricultural pests, can grow and reproduce thanks to their intimate symbiosis with the γ-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola that furnishes them with essential amino acids lacking in their phloem sap diet. (inria.fr)
  • The effect of Buchnera genome evolution on gene expression levels has also been analysed in order to assess the constraints imposed by the obligate symbiosis with aphids, underlining the importance of some gene sets for the survival of the two partners. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A model of obligate symbiosis is that between aphids and the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola, which supplies essential nutrients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A model for a heritable, mutually obligate symbiosis is that between aphids and the bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, which provisions hosts with essential amino acids that are rare or absent from their phloem sap diet [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Buchnera may refer to: Buchnera (bacterium), a genus of proteobacteria Buchnera (plant), a plant genus from the family Orobanchaceae This disambiguation page lists articles about distinct genera with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fragile metabolic network adapted for cooperation in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola. (nih.gov)
  • Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate symbiotic bacterium that sustains the physiology of aphids by complementing their exclusive phloem sap diet. (uv.es)
  • Buchnera, the bacterium, benefits also because it cannot grow outside the aphid. (redorbit.com)
  • But another example of such transfer to an endosymbionts has recently been uncoveredby Nakabachi and collaborators in the relatively well-studied pea aphid and its symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola . (asmblog.org)
  • The Buchnera lacks these seven sequences, thus their products may well be essential for the bacterium. (asmblog.org)
  • Some of these amino acids cannot be synthesized by the insect but are supplied by the intracellular symbionts Buchnera aphidicola. (uconn.edu)
  • We have reconstructed and analysed the metabolic network of the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola (symbiont of the pea aphid) as a model for using systems-level approaches to discover key traits of symbionts with small genomes. (nih.gov)
  • These and other degenerative genomic features are discussed in light of compensatory processes and theoretical predictions on the long-term evolutionary fate of symbionts like Buchnera. (csic.es)
  • Following a short heat exposure as juveniles, aphids bearing short-allele symbionts produced few or no progeny and contained almost no Buchnera, in contrast to aphids bearing symbionts without the deletion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aphids are sap-feeding insects that depend on obligate bacterial symbionts of the genus Buchnera for biosynthesis of needed nutrients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition to Buchnera , aphids may harbor facultative symbionts that are not essential for host survival. (asm.org)
  • The former comparisons might include intracellular pathogens Mycobacteria, Chlamydia, Rikettsia) and/or symbionts (Buchnera) of eukaryotes, to identify shared genome traits. (powershow.com)
  • Members of the genus Buchnera constitute a distinct prokaryotic lineage containing the primary endosymbionts of aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea). (scienceopen.com)
  • Buchnera often coexists with facultative endosymbionts in aphids. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of two fully sequenced genomes of Buchnera aphidicola , the obligate endosymbionts of aphids, reveals the most extreme genome stability to date: no chromosome rearrangements or gene acquisitions have occurred in the past 50 to 70 million years, despite substantial sequence evolution and the inactivation and loss of individual genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo , most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. (biologists.org)
  • These constraints are potentially severe because Buchnera genomes are highly reduced and show no incidence of recombination or gene acquisition [ 3 ], reflecting strict clonality and maternal transmission for over 100 million years [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nevertheless, although their genomes represent a subset of the genome of their ancestors, these gamma-proteobacteria remain closely related to Escherichia coli (98% of the genes in Buchnera have clear orthologues in E. coli ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • found strong evidence for sequence conservation within IGRs of eight Buchnera genomes. (genetics.org)
  • A computational study of protein folding predicts that proteins in Buchnera, as well as proteins of other intracellular bacteria, are generally characterized by smaller folding efficiency compared with proteins of free living bacteria. (csic.es)
  • Although metabolic analyses revealed high interdependencies between the host and the bacteria, we demonstrate here that transport in Buchnera is assured by low transporter diversity, when compared to free-living bacteria, being mostly based on a few general transporters, some of which probably have lost their substrate specificity. (uv.es)
  • Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. (readabstracts.com)
  • Quantitative DNA hybridization was used to measure the population of symbiotic Buchnera bacteria in pea aphids grown at various temperatures. (readabstracts.com)
  • According to the researchers, since Buchnera-related bacteria are present in a number of insects (other than aphids), their findings are likely to be broadly applicable to other arthropods. (redorbit.com)
  • In one case, a consortium of bacteria provided tryptophan to the aphid host with some necessary genes in the Buchnera genome and others in the Serratia genome ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Buchnera aphidicola, the symbiont of Schizaphis graminum, carries on a plasmid the two genes trpEG which are important in tryptophan synthesis. (uconn.edu)
  • Our analysis showed that mRNA abundances, gene organization (operon) and gene essentiality are correlated in Buchnera (i.e., the most expressed genes are essential genes organized in operons) whereas no link between mRNA abundances and gene strand bias was found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). (mediu.edu.my)
  • The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, none of these transcribed genes are from Buchnera , but rather are from other bacterial groups, possibly Alphaproteobacteria ( Buchnera is a Gammaproteobacterium). (asmblog.org)
  • Buchnera aphidicola , the obligate symbiont of aphids, has an extremely reduced genome, of which about 10% is devoted to the biosynthesis of essential amino acids needed by its hosts. (asm.org)
  • In aphids, the supply of essential amino acids depends on an ancient nutritional symbiotic association with the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola. (nih.gov)
  • This strain diverged 80-150 million years ago from the common ancestor of two previously sequenced Buchnera strains. (csic.es)
  • The genome of Buchnera has been sequenced in several aphid strains but little genomic data is currently available for the soybean aphid ( Aphis glycines ), one of the most important pests of soybean in North America. (jgenomics.com)
  • In this study, DNA sequencing was used to assemble and annotate the genome sequence of the Buchnera A. glycines strain and to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among different strains. (jgenomics.com)
  • Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. (mediu.edu.my)
  • Buchnera americana, commonly known as American bluehearts or bupleurum, is a locally endangered herbaceous perennial plant of the broomrape family Orobanchaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Update COSEWIC status report on the bluehearts Buchnera americana in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the bluehearts Buchnera americana in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known that the obligate symbiont Buchnera provides aphids with essential amino acids which cannot be ingested from plant sap. (asm.org)
  • We have sequenced the genome of the intracellular symbiont Buchnera aphidicola from the aphid Baizongia pistacea. (csic.es)
  • Buchnera aphidicola is the primary obligate intracellular symbiont of most aphid species. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. (mediu.edu.my)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. (mediu.edu.my)
  • In Buchnera, the transport function has been shaped by the distinct selective constraints occurring in the Aphididae lineages. (uv.es)
  • As a result of an ancestral infection and vertical transmission along the host lineages, Buchnera shows a pattern of cospeciation with the aphid hosts. (asm.org)
  • Buchnera americana is a perennial flowering plant with underground rhizomes and an above-ground stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buchnera americana is mostly found along the edges of wet depressions, in limestone glades, prairies, moist sandy soils, and open woods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buchnera americana has no known medicinal uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buchnera americana L. (usf.edu)
  • In C. brasiliensis , the YLS resides both intra- and ex-tra-cel-lu-lar-ly but not in specialized cells - as do the Buchnera in the bacteriocytes (Fig. 2) - and is transmitted maternally. (asmblog.org)
  • We infer from these incongruencies a case of horizontal plasmid transfer in Buchnera. (mediu.edu.my)
  • Buchnera from B. pistaciae seem to possess a unique double membrane system and has, accordingly, lost all of its outer-membrane integral proteins. (uv.es)
  • They discovered these proteins were of both aphid and Buchnera origins. (redorbit.com)
  • One of these Buchnera proteins, GroEL, was found to induce immune responses in plants. (redorbit.com)
  • In Buchnera , the apparently non-random reduction of the modular structure of the networks and the retention of essential characteristics of the interaction network indicate that the roles of proteins within the interaction network are important in the reductive process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of this study describe the genetic and evolutionary relationships of the Buchnera A. glycines strain, and begin to define the roles of an aphid symbiont in host-plant resistance. (jgenomics.com)
  • In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae , especially Enterobacter and Erwinia , and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the best-studied cases of genome reduction is that of the intracellular bacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola , which shows a long evolutionary history of strict maternal transmission in its aphid hosts (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphidoidea) ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • BASIONYM: Buchnera orobanchoides R. Brown ex Endlicher 1832. (usf.edu)
  • In turn, the aphid provides Buchnera with nutrients, including nonessential amino acids and carbohydrates that are abundant in their phloem-based diet or produced by the host. (jgenomics.com)
  • Genomic evidence suggests that several amino acid biosynthetic pathways are shared between aphid and Buchnera , providing the aphid the ability to regulate the endosymbiont's metabolism ( 16 ). (jgenomics.com)
  • Studying Buchnera gene expression in pea aphids, we identified a recurring mutation (a single-base deletion) in the transcriptional promoter of the small heat-shock protein, ibpA . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since most aphids harbor Buchnera, and likely have GroEL in their saliva, this bacterial protein may generally alert plants of the presence of aphids. (redorbit.com)
  • Taking advantage of the two recently published high-throughput protein interaction maps of E. coli [ 9 , 15 ], we have performed a study in which we focused on the reductive evolution of the Buchnera genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The comparison between the E. coli and Buchnera interaction networks was based on the assumed low rate of protein interaction turnover [ 16 ] and the weak probability that new interactions would be generated in the restricted conditions in which Buchnera lives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aphid-encoded bacterial gene RlpA is specifically expressed in the maternal bacteriocyte, and the protein product is localized in Buchnera . (asmblog.org)
  • Despite an important reduction in its genome size and an apparent decay of its capacity for regulating transcription, this work reveals a significant correlation between mRNA abundances and chromosomal organization of the aphid-symbiont Buchnera . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have studied the reduction in genome size of Buchnera compared to its close relative Escherichia coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. (nih.gov)
  • Buchnera cells are densely packed in specialized aphid bacteriocyte cells. (nih.gov)
  • En tornar del postdoctorat als EUA, el 1986 vaig crear el Grup de Recerca en Genètica Evolutiva al Departament de Genètica de la UV, on sóc catedràtic de Genètica des del 1993 i he sigut el seu Director des del 1995 fins al 1998. (uv.es)
  • The second is based on a different and unique organization of the ribosomal RNA operons of Buchnera and the close proximity of aroE upstream of rrl (gene coding for 23S rRNA). (scienceopen.com)
  • For instance, both essential amino acid synthesis in the aphid symbiont Buchnera and the reproductive parasitic phenotype of male-killing Spiroplasma in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded on plasmids ( 6 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Interaction of Buchnera GroEL from Pentalonia nigronervosa with Banana bunchy top virus ( Nanoviridae ). (apsnet.org)
  • The association between Buchnera and aphids is a mutualism, which was probably established 150 to 250 million years ago. (uconn.edu)
  • Although this intimate mutualism has been critical in enabling aphids to exploit the phloem sap-feeding niche and to diversify onto many plant groups, aphids are constrained by Buchnera 's ecological tolerances. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)