Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Humeral FracturesHemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Mevalonic AcidPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acids, SulfurBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.

Phosphocarrier proteins in an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids. (1/120)

A GroEL homolog produced by Buchnera, an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids, is not only a molecular chaperone but also a novel phosphocarrier protein, suggesting that this protein plays a role in a signal transducing system specific to bacteria living in an intracellular environment. This prompted us to look into phosphocarrier proteins of Buchnera that may be shared in common with other bacteria. As a result, no evidence was obtained for the presence of sensor kinases of the two-component system in Buchnera, which are found in many bacteria. It is possible that the lack of sensor kinases is compensated for by the mulitifunctional GroEL homolog in this symbiotic bacteria. In contrast, we successfully identified three phosphotransferase system genes, ptsH, ptsI, and crr in Buchnera, and provide evidence for their active expression. While the deduced amino acid sequences of these gene products, histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Enzyme I, and Enzyme III were similar to their counterparts in Escherichia coli, the predicted isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins were strikingly higher. It was also suggested that Buchnera Enzyme I, when produced in E. coli, is able to accept the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate, but not from ATP.  (+info)

Sequence evolution in bacterial endosymbionts having extreme base compositions. (2/120)

A major limitation on ability to reconstruct bacterial evolution is the lack of dated ancestors that might be used to evaluate and calibrate molecular clocks. Vertically transmitted symbionts that have cospeciated with animal hosts offer a firm basis for calibrating sequence evolution in bacteria, since fossils of the hosts can be used to date divergence events. Sequences for a functionally diverse set of genes have been obtained for bacterial endosymbionts (Buchnera) from two pairs of aphid host species, each pair diverging 50-70 MYA. Using these dates and estimated numbers of Buchnera generations per year, we calculated rates of base substitution for neutral and selected sites of protein-coding genes and overall rates for rRNA genes. Buchnera shows homogeneity among loci with regard to synonymous rate. The Buchnera synonymous rate is about twice that for low-codon-bias genes of Escherichia coli-Salmonella typhimurium on an absolute timescale, and fourfold higher on a generational timescale. Nonsynonymous substitutions show a greater rate disparity in favor of Buchnera, a result consistent with a genomewide decrease in selection efficiency in Buchnera. Ratios of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions differ for the two pairs of Buchnera, indicating that selection efficiency varies among lineages. Like numerous other intracellular bacteria, such as Rickettsia and Wolbachia, Buchnera has accumulated amino acids with codons rich in A or T. Phylogenetic reconstruction of amino acid replacements indicates that replacements yielding increased A + T predominated early in the evolution of Buchnera, with the trend slowing or stopping during the last 50 Myr. This suggests that base composition in Buchnera has approached a limit enforced by selective constraint acting on protein function.  (+info)

Identifying the determinants in the equatorial domain of Buchnera GroEL implicated in binding Potato leafroll virus. (3/120)

Luteoviruses avoid degradation in the hemolymph of their aphid vector by interacting with a GroEL homolog from the aphid's primary endosymbiotic bacterium (Buchnera sp.). Mutational analysis of GroEL from the primary endosymbiont of Myzus persicae (MpB GroEL) revealed that the amino acids mediating binding of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Luteoviridae) are located within residues 9 to 19 and 427 to 457 of the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, respectively, of the discontinuous equatorial domain. Virus overlay assays with a series of overlapping synthetic decameric peptides and their derivatives demonstrated that R13, K15, L17, and R18 of the N-terminal region and R441 and R445 of the C-terminal region of the equatorial domain of GroEL are critical for PLRV binding. Replacement of R441 and R445 by alanine in full-length MpB GroEL and in MpB GroEL deletion mutants reduced but did not abolish PLRV binding. Alanine substitution of either R13 or K15 eliminated the PLRV-binding capacity of the other and those of L17 and R18. In the predicted tertiary structure of GroEL, the determinants mediating virus binding are juxtaposed in the equatorial plain.  (+info)

Prephenate dehydratase from the aphid endosymbiont (Buchnera) displays changes in the regulatory domain that suggest its desensitization to inhibition by phenylalanine. (4/120)

Buchnera aphidicola, the prokaryotic endosymbiont of aphids, complements dietary deficiencies with the synthesis and provision of several essential amino acids. We have cloned and sequenced a region of the genome of B. aphidicola isolated from Acyrthosiphon pisum which includes the two-domain aroQ/pheA gene. This gene encodes the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase protein, which plays a central role in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis. Two changes involved in the overproduction of this amino acid have been detected. First, the absence of an attenuator region suggests a constitutive expression of this gene. Second, the regulatory domain of the Buchnera prephenate dehydratase shows changes in the ESRP sequence, which is involved in the allosteric binding of phenylalanine and is strongly conserved in prephenate dehydratase proteins from practically all known organisms. These changes suggest the desensitization of the enzyme to inhibition by phenylalanine and would permit the bacterial endosymbiont to overproduce phenylalanine.  (+info)

Decoupling of genome size and sequence divergence in a symbiotic bacterium. (5/120)

In contrast to genome size variation in most bacterial taxa, the small genome size of Buchnera sp. was shown to be highly conserved across genetically diverse isolates (630 to 643 kb). This exceptional size conservation may reflect the inability of this obligate mutualist to acquire foreign DNA and reduced selection for genetic novelty within a static intracellular environment.  (+info)

Polyamine composition and expression of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis in an aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera. (6/120)

Polyamine composition in an aphid endosymbiotic bacterium, Buchnera sp., was determined by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. We found that Buchnera contained virtually only a single polyamine, spermidine. The spermidine content of Buchnera was considerably higher in young aphids and tended to decrease with the age of the host. Expression of speD and speE, whose gene products are key enzymes in the synthesis of spermidine, was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. It was shown that the levels of their mRNAs fluctuated in line with the spermidine content.  (+info)

Decay of mutualistic potential in aphid endosymbionts through silencing of biosynthetic loci: Buchnera of Diuraphis. (7/120)

Buchnera, the primary bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, is known to provision essential amino acids lacking in the hosts' diet of plant sap. The recent discovery of silenced copies of genes for tryptophan biosynthesis (trpEG) in certain Buchnera lineages suggests a decay in symbiotic functions in some aphid species. However, neither the distribution of pseudogenes among lineages nor the impact of this gene silencing on amino-acid availability in hosts has been assessed. In Buchnera of the aphid Diuraphis noxia, tandem repeats of these pseudogenes have persisted in diverse lineages, and thpEG pseudogenes have originated at least twice within this aphid genus. Measures of amino-acid concentrations in Diuraphis species have shown that the presence of the pseudogene is associated with a decreased availability of tryptophan, indicating that gene silencing decreases nutrient provisioning by symbionts. In Buchnera of Diuraphis, rates of nonsynonymous substitutions are elevated in functional trpE copies, supporting the hypothesis that pseudogene origin and persistence reflect a reduced selection for symbiont biosynthetic contributions. The parallel evolution of trpEG pseudogenes in Buchnera of Diuraphis and certain other aphid hosts suggests that either selection at the host level is not effective or that fitness in these aphids is not limited by tryptophan availability.  (+info)

Postsymbiotic plasmid acquisition and evolution of the repA1-replicon in Buchnera aphidicola. (8/120)

Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and chromosomally encoded loci. We infer from these incongruencies a case of horizontal plasmid transfer in Buchnera. This process may have been mediated by secondary endosymbionts, which occasionally undergo horizontal transmission in aphids.  (+info)

Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
Obligate nutritional symbioses require balance between the energetic needs of the host and the symbiont. The resident symbiont population size within a host may have major impacts on host fitness, as both host and symbiont consume and supply metabolites in a shared metabolite pool. Given the massive genome degradation that is a hallmark of bacterial endosymbionts of insects, it is unclear at what level these populations are regulated, and how regulation varies among hosts within natural populations. We measured the titer of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from different clones of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and found significant variation in titer, measured as Buchnera genomes per aphid genome, among aphid clones. Additionally, we found that titer can change with the age of the host, and that the number of bacteriocytes within an aphid is one factor likely controlling Buchnera titer. Buchnera titer measurements in clones from a sexual cross indicate that the symbiont genotype is not
Author Summary Bacterial lineages have repeatedly evolved intimate symbioses with eukaryotic hosts, the most famous cases being those of the cell organelles, mitochondria, and plastids. Symbiont genomes typically lose many ancestral genes, raising the question of how they function with so few genes. In organelles, part of the answer involves gene transfer to the host genome, allowing maintenance of essential functions. So far, the extent of gene transfer to hosts has not been assessed for other cases of intimate, obligate symbiosis. Aphids harbor an ancient coevolved intracellular symbiont, called Buchnera. We used the newly available sequence of the pea aphid genome to conduct an exhaustive computational search for genes of bacterial ancestry. We found that no functional genes have been transferred from Buchnera, ruling out such transfer as a driving force in genome reduction in this symbiont. However, the aphid genome does contain eight transcribed genes of apparent bacterial origin, some of which
Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphids ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Eukaryotes often form intimate endosymbioses with prokaryotic organisms. Cases in which these symbionts are transmitted cytoplasmically to host progeny create the potential for co-speciation or congruent evolution among the distinct genomes of these partners. If symbionts do not move horizontally between different eukaryotic hosts, strict phylogenetic congruence of their genomes is predicted and should extend to relationships within a single host species. Conversely, even rare host shifts among closely related lineages should yield conflicting tree topologies at the intraspecific level. Here, we investigate the historical associations among four symbiotic genomes residing within an aphid host: the mitochondrial DNA of Uroleucon ambrosiae aphids, the bacterial chromosome of their Buchnera bacterial endosymbionts, and two plasmids associated with Buchnera. DNA sequence polymorphisms provided a significant phylogenetic signal and no homoplasy for each data set, yielding completely and ...
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR further verified the conspicuous upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolisms (Figure 8 . 2A) . The bacteriocyte is
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article{931223, abstract = {Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and ...
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Background |p|In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid |i|Acyrthosiphon pisum|/i| exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs.|/p| Results |p|The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
Anyone who has grown anything has at one time or another come in contact with some type of Aphid. There are over 4,400 species of Aphids worldwide, and are affectionately termed plant lice. Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. They can take out a crop within a series of weeks due…
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
The bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments generated by PCR with general eubacterial primers. By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial taxa were also detected in all aphid lines except one of A. pisum. These latter bacteria, collectively known as secondary symbionts or accessory bacteria, comprised three taxa of -proteobacteria (R-type [PASS], T-type [PABS], and U-type [PAUS]) and a rickettsia (S-type [PAR]). Complementary analysis of aphids from natural populations of four aphid species (A. pisum [n 74], Amphorophora rubi [n 109], Aphis sarothamni [n 42], and Microlophium carnosum [n 101]) from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera ...
The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of nucleotidic composition and codon usage in the pea aphid genome (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A collection of 60,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the pea aphid has been used to automatically reconstruct 5809 coding sequences (CDSs), based on similarity with known proteins and on coding style recognition. Reconstructions were manually checked for ribosomal proteins, leading to tentatively reconstruct the nea-complete set of this category. Pea aphid coding sequences showed a shift toward AT (especially at the third codon position) compared to drosophila homologues. Genes with a putative high level of expression (ribosomal and other genes with high EST support) remained more GC3-rich and had a distinct codon usage from bulk sequences: they exhibited a preference for C-ending codons and CGT (for arginine), which thus appeared optimal for translation. However, the discrimination was not as strong as in drosophila, suggesting a reduced degree of translational
This study examines the effects of climatic conditions on interactions among pea and lentil yields, pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) infestations, and outbreaks of PEMV (Pea enation mosaic) and BLRV (Bean leaf roll) viruses in the Palouse region of easternWashington. The study analytically and empirically evaluates the effects of aphid outbreaks on per acre yields, implicitly including the effects of adopted pest management activities and explicitly taking into account possible effects of climatic conditions on the severity of pea aphid outbreaks. The results show that aphid outbreaks have historically decreased pea and lentil yields by approximately 5% and 7% on average respectively. Elbakidze, Levan; Lu, Liang; Eigenbrode, Sanford
Research Interests: ? Molecular, cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity ? Evolution of insect reproductive plasticity ? Developmental control of cell division Phenotypic plasticity, the expression of alternate physiological states, morphological forms and/or distinct behaviors in response to specific environments, is a universal phenomenon in animals. Although the evolution of plastic responses is well understood theoretically, little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of this response. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an emerging model system, exhibits an adaptive plasticity in which changes in environmental cues result in either clonal reproduction (via parthenogenesis) or sexual reproduction (via meiosis). How aphids have evolved plasticity in this fundamental process is unknown. The goal of my research program is to understand this reproductive plasticity at the molecular and cellular level. Aphid phenotypic plasticity offers a unique, ...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance. The pea aphid is a model organism for biological study whose genome has been sequenced and annotated. In the autumn, female pea aphids lay fertilized eggs overwinter that hatch the following spring. The nymphs that hatch from these eggs are all females, which undergo four moults before reaching sexual maturity. They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. Each adult female gives birth to four to 12 female nymphs per day, around a hundred in her lifetime. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. The life span of an adult is about 30 days. Population ...
The base question behind the process of genome miniaturization is whether is occur trough large steps or due to a constant erosion of the gene content. In order to assess the evolution of this process is necessary to compare an ancestral genome with the one where the shrinkage is supposed to be occurred. Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity for the 16S rDNA and 62% for orthologous genes was possible to shed light on the mechanism of genome miniaturization.[33] The genome of the endosymbiont B. aphidicola is characterized by a genome size that is seven times smaller than E. coli (643 kb compared to 4.6 Mb)[34][35] and can be view as a subset of the enteric bacteria gene inventory.[35] From the confrontation of the two genomes emerged that some genes persist as partially degraded.[35] indicating that the function was lost during the process and that consequent events of erosion shortened the length as ...
Given the phylogenetic similarity between the stinkbug symbionts and Buchnera, the researchers wondered whether their biology might be similar as well. They divided egg masses into two groups and deprived one group of capsules to generate sibling populations with and without gut symbionts. Adults lacking symbionts showed developmental delays, grew smaller, failed to copulate or reproduce, and died prematurely. Like aphids depend on their endosymbionts, plataspid stinkbugs depend on their gut symbionts to survive how they do this, however, will be interesting to discover. Like Buchnera, the gut endosymbionts also appear to have co-evolved with their host. The phylogenetic tree of the stinkbugs, the researchers found, perfectly agreed with the phylogenetic relationships of the gut symbionts. Maternal transmission of the symbiont capsule provides a means of stable transmission, but other factors such as physiological compatibility may come into play ...
The availability of genomic data in the last decade relating to different aphid species has allowed the analysis of the genomic variability occurring among such species, whereas intra-specific variability has hitherto very largely been neglected. In order to analyse the intra-genomic variability in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, comparative analyses were performed revealing several clone-specific gene duplications, together with numerous deletions/rearrangements. Our comparative approach also allowed us to evaluate the synteny existing between the two M. persicae clones tested and between the peach potato aphid and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Even if part of the observed rearrangements are related to a low quality of some assembled contigs and/or to the high number of contigs present in these aphid genomes, our evidence reveals that aphid clones are genetically more different than expected. These results suggest that the choice of performing genomes sequencing combining different
With the recent completion of the sequencing of the Aphid (aphis pisum) genome many new areas are now open for research and exploration. One thing that has been discovered is that there are multiple versions of
The most interesting and debated node in the whole tree of symbiotic bacteria is undoubtedly the putative origin of many symbiotic lineages within Enterobacteriaceae (Charles et al , 2001). In Figure 1 .1, this node is presented in its maximal version, encompassing several major P-symbionts and many minor lineages (node P). However, in the published studies, the whole issue has mostly been addressed by analyzing phylogenetic relationships of the two most popular groups, Buchnera and Wigglesworthia. Although retrieved by a majority of phylogenetic studies, the monophyly of the symbiotic cluster containing these two P-sym-biont lineages has been legitimately questioned This doubt arises because the genomes of P-symbionts meet typical conditions leading to phylogenetic artifacts Compared to their free-living relatives, P-symbiotic lineages display remarkably high frequency of AT in their sequences This bias is considered one of the most significant symptoms of genome degradation in symbiotic ...
Huerta-Cepas J, Marcet-Houben M, Pignatelli M, Moya A, Gabaldón T. 2010. The pea aphid phylome: a complete catalogue of evolutionary histories and arthropod orthology and paralogy relationships for Acyrthosiphon pisum genes.. Insect Mol. Biol.. 19 Suppl 2:13-21. Abstract ...
Spring is around the corner and so are the Conifer Aphids Aphids suck the sap from the green foliage causing unsightly brown dead patches which can destroy whole hedges.
The aim of this symposium is to bring together researchers in quite a number of diverse fields who are working on various aspects related to the origin and integration of cellular organelles (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts) and more general aspects of invertebrate and plant endosymbiotic systems (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, insects and endosymbiotic bacteria). In this volume we will discuss evidence for coevolution and integration of endosymbiotic partners. Contents of this volume include the following topics: Status of Cell Symbiosis Theories; Possible Codescendants of Cell Organelles; Coevolution of Associations: A View at the Organismic Level; Coevolution of Symbiont Genome and Plasmone; a View at the Cellular and Molecular Levels; and Model Developments and Behavioral Interactions. Keywords: Deoxyribonucleic acids.*CELLS(BIOLOGY)
Aphids. Aphids Aphids Aphids. Aphids everywhere. Plum Tree Aphids. Blue Shirt Aphids. You know what... Lets not even talk about aphids today. Here are some pretty pictures of things that are not covered in aphids ...
Parasitised aphids (superfamily Aphidoidea). These aphids have been infected by the wasp Praon sp. by being injected with its eggs. Here, the larva of the wasp have left the hollowed shell of the aphid after feeding on its innards, and have begun to pupate within the volcano-like cocoon beneath it. - Stock Image C003/5811
We spent a good hour picking aphids today. Our friends recommended an easy aphid control method: they wrap a piece of tape around their fingers and run it across the leaves and stems. All the aphids stick to the tape, … Continue reading →. ...
Aphids may be little in size, but are a big problem. Here are a couple ways to control aphids naturally. Continue reading →. ...
I keep seeing people experiencing Root Aphid issues. There is a ton of confusion about combating this pest out there, and for good reason. They are...
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
Sabri, A.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Hance, T.; Frere, I.; Destain, J.; Thonart, P. (2010). "Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (9): 2081-2088. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.024133-0. ISSN 1466-5026 ...
هدف:شته سبز گندم، Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) یکی از آفات مهم گندم است که با تغذیه از گیاه و انتقال ویروس‌های بیماری‌زا، تولید این محصول را محدود می‌کند. کفشدوزک شکارگر Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) از شکارگرهای مهم شته‌ها بوده و توانایی بالایی در کنترل آن‌ها در اکوسیستم‌های زراعی مختلف از قبیل محصولات باغی، زراعی و گلخانه‌ای دارد. حشرات در مواجه شدن با ترکیبات شیمیایی ممکن است از مقاومت بیوشیمیایی استفاده کنند که در آن آفت‌کش قبل از رسیدن به جایگاه تاثیر، توسط یک یا چندین آنزیم مختلف خنثی می‌شود. در بررسی حاضر، اثر غلظت‌های زیرکشنده دو آفت‌کش تیاکلوپرید و افوریا روی ...
Here and in and a previous article (8), we have identified a protein, Protein C002, that appears to play an essential role (or roles) in the foraging and feeding of the pea aphid on fava beans, a typical host plant for this aphid species.. Protein C002 can, on the basis of our results, be considered a specialized, salivary gland protein, which does not exclude the possibility that it is synthesized in other organs in small amounts. Indeed, we have a preliminary indication that transcript c002 occurs in gut, but at ≈100-fold lower amounts than in salivary gland (10). The organ distribution of transcript c002 (and Protein C002) is one of the many aspects of this transcript and protein that will be under continued investigation in our laboratories.. Both Protein C002 and its transcript occur in the principal salivary glands in the pea aphid but apparently in only some of those cells (≈5 of the 21 cells within each lobe). This restriction of expression of the c002 gene to a subset of secretory ...
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have already been discovered in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but simply no such example continues to be discovered from extracellular types. obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These results suggest that not really the endocellular circumstances themselves however the inhabitants genetic qualities of the vertically transmitted symbionts are most likely in charge of the peculiar hereditary traits of the insect symbionts. We suggested the designation Ishikawaella capsulata for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont organizations could be manipulated quickly, give a novel system that allows experimental methods to untouched areas of the insect-microbe mutualism previously. Furthermore, comparative analyses from the sister groupings, the endocellular as well as the extracellular would result in insights into the way the different symbiotic life-style have got affected their genomic ...
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By Iqbal Pittalwala, University of California - Riverside Aphids are devastating insect pests and cause great losses to agriculture worldwide. These sap-feeding plant pests harbor in their body cavity bacteria, which are essential for the aphids fecundity and survival. Buchnera, the bacterium, benefits also because it cannot grow outside the aphid. This mutually beneficial relationship is sabotaged, however, by the bacterium which proceeds to betray the aphid, a research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside has found.. "Although this betrayal is unintentional, it nevertheless alerts the plant about the aphids presence and the aphids are unable to reproduce in large numbers," said Isgouhi Kaloshian, a professor of nematology, who led the research project. "A protein from the bacterium, found in the aphid saliva and likely delivered inside the plant host by the aphid, triggers plant immune responses against the aphid. It seems that the plant immune system targets the ...
This chapter talks about the symbiosis of microbes and mitochondria. Mutations, including deletions of DNA, happen constantly, so the unused genes have long since disappeared from the genomes of mitochondria that inhabit our cells. In fact, mutations are still raining down on the genomes of our mitochondria, and these continue throughout our lives, contributing to various diseases and disorders. These malfunctions are the main reason we even think about our mitochondria. Another reason the mitochondria can live with so few genes is that many of the ancient genes of the mitochondrial ancestor have changed addresses, moving from the chromosome of the mitochondrion to our own chromosomes but sending their working products back to the mitochondrial homeland to carry out needed work. Some symbiotic bacteria have fewer than 200 genes, and the symbionts we call organelles can have even fewer, as in our own mitochondria with their miserly 15. Buchnera uses its ancestral genes for making the amino acids ...
Acyrthosiphon loti (green trefoil aphid). Identification, biology, distribution, host plants, natural enemies, damage caused. Creative commons images.
Moroldo, M, Paillard, S, Marconi, R, Legeai, F, Canaguier, A, Cruaud, C, De Berardinis, V, Guichard, C, Brunaud, V, Le Clainche, I, Scalabrin, S, Testolin, R, Di Gaspero, G, Morgante, M, Adam-Blondon, AF (2008). A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance. BMC Plant Biol., 8:66. Legeai, F, Paux, E, Guilhot, N, Adam-Blondon, AF, Alaux, M, Salse, J, Sourdille, P, Leroy, P, Feuillet, C (2008). Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis. Funct. Integr. Genomics, 8, 1:29-32. Rispe, C, Kutsukake, M, Doublet, V, Hudaverdian, S, Legeai, F, Simon, JC, Tagu, D, Fukatsu, T (2008). Large gene family expansion and variable selective pressures for cathepsin B in aphids. Mol. Biol. Evol., 25, 1:5-17. Rispe, C, Legeai, F, Gauthier, JP, Tagu, D (2007). Strong heterogeneity in nucleotidic composition and codon bias in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) shown by ...
Two of the groups in our programme (Gabaldón and Guigó) have participated in the analysis of the genomic sequence of the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum, published this week in PLoS Biology. This first published genome of a basal hemimetabolous insect, provides an out-group for comparison with other sequenced insects, and pavesthe way to elucidate molecular mechanisms in. ...
Although pea aphid populations can vary quite a bit from field to field it is important to monitor their populations to ensure that loss due to their feeding doesnt occur.
Aphids are serious agricultural pests, not only because they consume plant saps, but also because they transmit plant diseases that destroy all kind of crop plants.
Its possible that humidity could be an issue, but to be honest Ive never had much of a problem with it. Usually the problems are temperature - too high = poor quality wilting plants and very few aphids, or cultures only produce one yielld, or too many peas added to a culture/too wet culture = rotten peas and a bad smell ...
Many aphid species feed above ground on stems and leaves; but root aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hide below the soil line as they feast on plant roots. Typically wingless, these tiny, yellowish-green pests ...
They are! Look, my trap plant is a complete surprise. It wasnt intentional, it just happened that way. Let me tell you about the rose trap plant! I think it is just a matter of having plants that can be sacrificed to the aphids. These broccoli, with heads already cut seem to be perfect for trapping aphids, or is it increasing aphids. Aphids are like tornados -neighboring house is perfectly fine and yours is destroyed. Aphids all over one rose, not at all on the other. Soap sprays work, plus shooting with strong water or straight out squishing with fingers.. ReplyDelete ...
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Useful tips on aphids removal. Aphids removal is important for a healthy garden. Having pests in your garden can be a real problem, and aphids can be one of those major problems. These little insects feed off of your plants; they have a sharp mouth that helps them to pierce plant tissue so that that they can eat the plant sap of your beautifully cultivated garden. All types of vegetation can be vulnerable to aphids, but especially new growth and those that have been recently planted.
Aphids- Synonyms Of Aphids | Aphids - (সমার্থক, প্রতিশব্দ)|All Type of Online Bangla Dictionary en2bn, bn2en, Definition, synonym, Thesaurus and Language Center.
It seems I am not alone in the aphid battle, as many of you have asked about this gardeners quandary. So heres the latest. I recently went away for a couple of days and thought the aphids would get out of hand, to my delight when I returned everything looked super happy and healthy...though when…
Buy Ants And Aphids Close-Up 2 by illych on VideoHive. Ants and aphids close-up. Shooting by two objectives. Depth of sharpness 1-3??.
Observation - Funky siphunculi: aphid off Buddleia - UK and Ireland. Description: This long-legged aphid with long siphunculi struck me as unfamiliar and possibly distinctive. One seen, off Buddleia.
... It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Transfer of
aphids_that_eat_brussels_sprouts_are_smaller_than_normal_and_live_in_undersized_populations_which_has_a_negative_knockon_effect_up_the_food_chain_according_to_new_research_published_today_8_february_in_science
Now I have aphids. Arghh! I sprayed some organic bug killer but what about lady bugs? They sell them at the gardening store, would the bug spray kill the lad
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Do you like the idea of entertaining bugs in your garden or are you a little averse to it? Youll be amazed to know that many ...
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Last week we began to explore the role of beneficials in our gardens. After all, not every little critter we find in our outdoor space is bad, even if attractive! e us begin with one of the . . .
Transmission. The virus is believed to have spread worldwide through the exchange of infected seed. Seed transmission rates of up to 100% in field peas and up to 44% in lentils have been reported. In Victoria, the DEPI has detected PSbMV at low levels in commercial chickpea seedlots (0.4% of seed) and at higher levels in field pea and lentil seedlots (greater than 2% of seed).. In the USA, PSbMV infection has been reported in pea seedlots (3%) and in lentil seedlots (32-40%). Research at the International Centre for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) found PSbMV was transmitted through lentil seeds at rates of up to 44%. PSbMV is also transmitted in a non-persistent manner by more than 20 aphid species, and by mechanical means.. The most efficient vector of PSbMV worldwide is the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). DEPI surveys of Victorian pulse crops have found cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani), and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) to be important vectors ...
The mustard trypsin inhibitor, MTI-2, is a potent inhibitor of trypsin with no activity towards chymotrypsin. MTI-2 is toxic for lepidopteran insects, but has low activity against aphids. In an attempt to improve the activity of the inhibitor towards aphids, a library of inhibitor variants was constructed and cloned into the pRlac3 phagemid vector. The library of 9.3 x 107 independent colonies was created by randomisation of a stretch of five consecutive codons in the reactive site. Repeated selection rounds against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin allowed the identification of novel, MTI-2 derived, antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin inhibitors. Chy8, the selected variant with highest affinity for bovine chymotrypsin (Ki = 32 nm versus |1000 nm for the wild-type) represents the strongest known recombinant chymotrypsin inhibitor of the MTI-2 family. It is highly toxic to nymphs of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and moderately toxic to nymphs of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae. The LC50 of 73 microg ml-1
The neurogenesis and neuronal functions in insect wing have been understudied mainly due to technical hindrances that have prevented electrophysiology studies for decades. The reason is that the nano-architecture of the wing chemosensory bristles hampers the receptors accessibility of odorants/tastants to receptors in fixed setup, whereas in nature, the wing flapping mixes these molecules in bristle lymph. In this report, we analyzed the transcriptome of the wing tissue of two species phylogenetically strongly divergent: Drosophila melanogaster a generic model for diptera order (complete metamorphosis) and the aphid acyrthosiphon pisum, representative of hemiptera order (incomplete metamorphosis) for which a conditional winged/wingless polyphenism is under control of population density and resources ...
Find and characterize flagellar genes in organisms that lack motility. If you dig into the literature, youll find that there are many examples of supposedly immotile organisms (like the intracellular parasite Buchnera, which lives inside aphids) that not only harbor flagellum genes but express some of them-yet have no external flagellum. Obviously, organisms that retain flagellum genes but actually dont make a flagellum (that little whip-like tail that makes single-celled organisms swim around) must be retaining those genes for a reason. The gene products must be doing something. But what? Also: Paramecium and diatoms and other eukaryotes make flagella and/or cilia. Most animals also make cilia. (Ever get a tickle deep in your throat or bronchia? It was probably something tangling with the cilia lining your bronchial system.) Whats the relationship between cilia gene products in Paramecium, say, and cilia in animals? Do any plants conceal cilia genes? If so, how are they related ...
Small, soft-bodied pear-shaped insects less than 3mm long are usually aphids. Depending on species and plant, aphids can be many different colours such as beige, green, yellow, red or almost black. They tend to congregate in groups on new growth or in leaf crevices. See also black bean aphids; rose aphids; mealy apple aphids and cabbage aphids. When aphids colonies become crowded or their host plants begin to die, winged aphids are produced that can then disperse to find new host plants. During the spring and summer months, most aphid species comprise only of females that produce live young. As winter approaches, winged males and females are usually produced which mate and then disperse to lay eggs on their overwintering hosts. Overwintering host plants are often different species to the summer host plants.
Free Online Library: Building ecological complexity in the classroom using pea aphids & components of their community.(science experiment, Report) by The American Biology Teacher; Biological sciences Education Aphididae Study and teaching Aphids Ecology Science experiments Equipment and supplies Methods Science experiments (Education)
A special issue of Insect Molecular Biology reports the detailed analyses of specific aspects of the genome of the important plant pest, the Pea Aphid.
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Reference: 40050. CINARA CUPRESSI . Foliage of Leyland cypress Castlewellan 7 years old killed by the Cypress aphid . The worse damage occurred on branches of trees constricted by ties holding the trees to stakes . Location: Surbiton , Surrey , England ...
Aphids are universally known as pests, but only a small percentage of the thousands of aphid species actually do much damage to plants.
Aphids are universally known as pests, but only a small percentage of the thousands of aphid species actually do much damage to plants.
How Do Ants and Aphids Help Each Other? Ants and aphids share a well-documented relationship of mutualism. Ants feed on the sugary honeydew left behind by aphids. In exchange, the ants protect the aphids from predators and parasites. In fact, honey ants will go to unusual lengths to ensure the health of the aphids in their care.Starter Vegetable Gardens: 24 No-Fail Plans for Small Organic … [Read more...] ...
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Aphids are soft-bodied insects, about a tenth of an inch long. Theyre typically green or black, though you may also run into gray or black ones in your garden. Aphids suck the sap out of tender plant shoots and leaves. As aphids feed, they secrete a sticky substance, called honeydew, which can quickly become infested with sooty mold. This mold can spread viruses, many of which are incurable. For this reason, its important to take steps for controlling aphids in the garden. The good news is if caught early, they are pretty easy to combat ...
Embedding Aphid in a .NET project is simply a matter of adding a reference to a single DLL and writing a few lines of code to invoke the interpreter. Once an Aphid script has been interpreted, Aphid objects can be manipulated via .NET as dictionaries, or better yet, converted to instances of .NET classes. Further, Aphid can easily invoke .NET methods, and vice-versa ...
These tiny insects are one of the most destructive insects to plant life. Thousands of aphids can live and feed on one plant. Readers will eat this book up, learning what aphids look like, how they use different parts of their bodies, and how ants and aphids help each other live. Blastoff! Series
Its a mutual symbiotic relationship Why? Because both organisms benefit from each other. The ant gets food while the aphids receive protection.
No one knows what compelled genes to jump from fungi to aphids. But "the transferred fungi genes may have originated from a closely associated fungus, such as one of the fungi that causes diseases in aphids," says Nancy Moran of the University of Arizona, the lead author of the Science paper. "Because the carotenoid-producing genes were the only fungus-related genes that we found in the aphid genes, we think that the fungi-to-aphid transfer was an extremely rare event ...
I think I may be deriving too much pleasure from finding aphid corpses all over my milkweed plants. But it is so satisfying to squirt them with soapy water, then come back the next day to find desiccated aphid bodies where plump, orange life-suckers once were. Killing aphids may be the highlight of my mornings…
If the leaves or stems of the plants in your garden are covered with a sticky substance, its a clear sign that aphids may have been sipping sap from them. No matter how meticulous you are, aphids alw
Coming up on major flower season, and one of the challenges is always aphids - heres a pretty comprehensive article on aphids and 12 organic ways to get rid of them. https://plantcaretoday.com/get-rid-of-aphids.html
AsktheExterminator.com: Aphids can easily be hosed off tomato plants, but the process must be repeated every few days the entire growing season.
I have a question regarding the beneficial insects that you offer. First off, I live in Alaska and this will be my first foray into gardening here. I have
Buchnera pedunculata. Calycanthus glaucus, Bot. Reg. t. 404. - laevigatus, Bot. Reg. t. 481. Carex Fraseriana, Bot. Mag. t. ...
Buchnera bowalensis A.Chev. Buchnera capitata Benth. Buchnera hispida Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Buchnera leptostachya Benth. ...
Buchnera asperata R.Br. Buchnera gracilis R.Br. Buchnera linearis R.Br. Buchnera ramosissima R.Br. Buchnera tenella R.Br. ... Buchnera tetragona R.Br. Buchnera urticifolia R.Br. Bulbine bulbosa (R.Br.) Haw. Bulbine semibarbata (R.Br.) Haw. Burchardia ...
Examples include species of Buchnera, Chlamydia, Treponema, Mycoplasma, and many others. One of the most reduced genomes in ... "Extreme genome reduction in Buchnera spp.: Toward the minimal genome needed for symbiotic life". Proceedings of the National ...
"Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (2): 581-6. Bibcode: ...
One can consider the variant Buchnera genomes as alleles for the larger hologenome. The association between Buchnera and aphids ... Gil R, Sabater-Muñoz B, Latorre A, Silva FJ, Moya A (April 2002). "Extreme genome reduction in Buchnera spp.: Toward the ... They rely on their Buchnera endosymbiotic population for essential amino acids, supplying in exchange nutrients as well as a ... The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum maintains an obligate symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola, which is ...
2003). "Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (2): 581-6. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100 ... 2000). "Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature. 407 (6800): 81-6. Bibcode: ...
In some cases, the bacteria are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera; in others like Wigglesworthia, they are transmitted via ... For example, the putative primary role of Buchnera is to synthesize essential amino acids that the aphid cannot acquire from ... Douglas, A E (1998). "Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". ... and its endosymbiont Buchnera sp. APS, the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and its endosymbiont Wigglesworthia ...
One exception is the Buchnera, an obligate maternally transmitted symbiont of aphids. It retains 54 genes for biosynthesis of ... Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ...
Gammaproteobacteria: Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Buchnera, Haemophilus, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, etc. ...
Buchnera are housed in specialized, aphid-derived cells located in the hemocoel of the A. pisum body cavity. Each Buchnera cell ... Buchnera is related to Enterobacteriaceae including Escheriachia coli and it is likely that Buchnera evolved from a bacterium ... Phylogenetic analysis shows that Buchnera is a monophyletic group and that the phylogenies of Buchnera and A. pisum coincide. ... pisum and Buchnera receives necessary guanosine. The Buchnera genome has retained genes required for the biosynthesis of ...
Buchnera aphidicola gene transcription, although not well understood, is thought to be regulated by a small number of global ... ISBN 0-470-11517-3. L. F. Whitehead; A. E. Douglas (1993). "A metabolic study of Buchnera, the intracellular bacterial ... Aphids harbour a vertically transmitted (from parent to its offspring) obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola (Buchner) ( ... aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". Annual Review of Entomology. 43: 17-37. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17. PMID ...
In some cases, the bacteria are transmitted in the egg, as in Buchnera; in others, like Wigglesworthia, they are transmitted ... These cells contain endosymbiotic bacteria such as Buchnera species, which provide essential amino acids and other chemicals to ... Douglas, A E (1998). "Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". ... Buchnera aphidicola. Bacteriocytes of aphids have a subpopulation of the bacteriocytes that is chosen prior to the maternal ...
Aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". Annual Review of Entomology. 43: 17-38. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17. ISSN ... such as cows and their intestinal bacteria and protists Termites and their intestinal bacteria and protists Aphids and Buchnera ...
Aphids and Their Symbiotic Bacteria Buchnera". Annual Review of Entomology. 43: 17-37. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17. PMID ...
Common examples of species with reduced genomes include: Buchnera aphidicola, Rickettsia prowazekii and Mycobacterium leprae. ...
... cedri has been shown to host three symbionts: Buchnera aphidicola, a secondary symbiont, and bacteria in the genus ... "Coexistence of Wolbachia with Buchnera aphidicola and a secondary symbiont in the aphid Cinara cedri". Journal of Bacteriology ...
Arsenophonus Brenneria Buchnera Budvicia Buttiauxella Cedecea Citrobacter Cosenzaea Cronobacter Dickeya Edwardsiella ... Buchnera, Wigglesworthia, Baumannia cicadellinicola, and Blochmannia, but not former Rickettsias. Members of the ...
... a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures". Applied and ...
In the aphid Cinara cedri, it coexists with Buchnera aphidicola, given the latter cannot produce tryptophan. It is also known ...
Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity ... Common examples of species with reduced genomes include Buchnera aphidicola, Rickettsia prowazekii, and Mycobacterium leprae. ... This hypothesis is confirmed by the analysis of the pseudogenes of Buchnera where the number of deletions was more than ten ... "Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature. 407 (6800): 81-86. doi:10.1038/ ...
Among animals, symbiotic cospeciation is seen between Uroleucon (aphids) and Buchnera (plants in the Orobanchaceae), between ... Buchnera) and a recent radiation of aphids (Uroleucon) and pitfalls of testing for phylogenetic congruence". Evolution. 54 (2 ...
The genus Cycnium is monophyletic and the sister group of a clade consisting of the genera Buchnera and Striga. Most related to ...
For example, Buchnera, a symbiont of aphids has multiple copies of its chromosome, ranging from 10-400 copies per cell. However ...
Together with Buchnera aphidicola, Wigglesworthia has been the subject of genetic research into the minimal genome necessary ...
... thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in ... thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in ... including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for ... including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for ...
By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea ... from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera and up to three taxa of accessory bacteria, but no other bacterial taxa, ...
Buchnera may refer to: Buchnera (bacterium), a genus of proteobacteria Buchnera (plant), a plant genus from the family ...
Buchnera aphidicola, the symbiont of Schizaphis graminum, carries on a plasmid the two genes trpEG which are important in ... The association between Buchnera and aphids is a mutualism, which was probably established 150 to 250 million years ago. At ... Physical and genetic map of the genome of Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. J. Mol. Evol ... The Nutritional Symbiosis of Buchnera and Aphids, University of Connecticut-Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. ...
The flower of Buchnera americana is a light purple dicot. Its fruits are dark purple and form in capsules 7 mm (0.28 in) in ... In Canada, Buchnera americana is only found in "a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch of the shoreline of Lake Huron in South-western ... Buchnera americana is a perennial flowering plant with underground rhizomes and an above-ground stem. The stem of the plant is ... Buchnera americana has no known medicinal uses. In the garden, this plant is highly attractive to bees, butterflies, and birds ...
Buchnera Genome Projects (from Genomes OnLine Database) Comparative Analysis of Buchnera Genomes (at DOEs IMG system). ... Aphids have developed bacteriocyte cells to house Buchnera. A mature aphid may carry an estimated 5.6 × 106 Buchnera cells. ... using Buchnera. The initial studies on Buchnera later led to studies on symbionts of many groups of insects, pursued by ... Buchnera is 3 µm in diameter and has some of the key characteristics of their Enterobacteriaceae relatives, such as a Gram- ...
Molecular markers show that bacteriocytes, the aphid cells that house the bacterial endosymbionts, are specified in a conserved two-step process that does not depend on the presence of the bacteria.
Schematic layout of the metabolic pathways of Buchnera aphidicola APS illustrating the carbon flow from the main precursors to ... EAA production by Buchnera aphidicola APS. (A) export under different substrate inputs. Equal export under the two models is ... A fragile metabolic network adapted for cooperation in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.. Thomas GH1, Zucker J, ... We have reconstructed and analysed the metabolic network of the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola (symbiont of the pea ...
Buchnera. › Buchnera aphidicola. › Buchnera aphidicola (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Strains i. › APS, APS / Tokyo1998, Tokyo 1998, ... Buchnera aphidicola str. APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum). › Buchnera aphidicola strain APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum). › Buchnera sp. APS ... Taxonomy - Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) (Acyrthosiphon pisum symbiotic bacterium) Basket 0 ...
Biotin metabolism - Buchnera aphidicola APS (Acyrthosiphon pisum) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download ...
View Name Sources Download CSV Download BibTeX Bibliography for Buchnera candida by Page ...
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Buchnera aphidicola JF98 (Acyrthosiphon pisum) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry ...
Reductive genome evolution in Buchnera aphidicola. Autor: Ham, Roeland C.H.J. van; Kamerbeek, Judith; Palacios, Carmen ; ... Comparison of the 618-kb (kbp) genome with the two other Buchnera genomes revealed a nearly perfect gene-order conservation, ... This strain diverged 80-150 million years ago from the common ancestor of two previously sequenced Buchnera strains. Here, a ... Extensive genome reduction also predates the synchronous diversification of Buchnera and its host; but, at a slower rate, gene ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,Q8KA60,ASSY_BUCAP Argininosuccinate synthase OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX=198804 GN=argG ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) (Acyrthosiphon pisum symbiotic bacterium). ,p>This subsection of ... sp,P57386,PHR_BUCAI Deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) OX=107806 ...
... and that the number of bacteriocytes within an aphid is one factor likely controlling Buchnera titer. Buchnera titer ... We measured the titer of the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from different clones of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and ... found significant variation in titer, measured as Buchnera genomes per aphid genome, among aphid clones. Additionally, we found ...
Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain 5A). Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain Tuc7). ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain 5A). Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain Tuc7). ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola str. Ak (Acyrthosiphon kondoi). 89. UniRef90_B8D9F9. Cluster: 30S ribosomal protein S15. 5. ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp). Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi PTSU. Candidatus Riesia ... sp,Q89A35,G6PI_BUCBP Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp) GN=pgi PE=3 SV ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp). Chloroflexi bacterium RBG_16_68_14. Clostridium sp. CAG:433. ... sp,Q8K9G0,RS9_BUCAP 30S ribosomal protein S9 OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX=198804 GN=rpsI PE ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,Q057L5,RL32_BUCCC 50S ribosomal protein L32 OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Cinara cedri (strain Cc) OX=372461 GN=rpmF PE=3 SV ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Cinara cedri (strain Cc). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand ...
Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum). Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum): entries and gene names ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,O85293,ILVI_BUCAP Acetolactate synthase large subunit OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX= ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ ...
Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum). Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum): entries and gene names ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg). ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the ... sp,Q8K935,RF3_BUCAP Peptide chain release factor 3 OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) GN=prfC PE=3 ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) (Acyrthosiphon pisum symbiotic bacterium). ,p>This subsection of ... sp,P57437,PTGCB_BUCAI PTS system glucose-specific EIICB component OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,Q89AG6,PTGCB_BUCBP PTS system glucose-specific EIICB component OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp ... Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Baizongia pistaciae (strain Bp). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ ...
Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum (strain APS) (Acyrthosiphon pisum symbiotic bacterium). Buchnera aphidicola. ... Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum). Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum): entries and gene names ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Erwiniaceae › BuchneraBuchnera ... sp,Q8K984,MDLB_BUCAP Multidrug resistance-like ATP-binding protein MdlB OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum ( ...
  • However, unlike most other Gram-negative bacteria, Buchnera lacks the genes to produce lipopolysaccharides for its outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A computational study of protein folding predicts that proteins in Buchnera, as well as proteins of other intracellular bacteria, are generally characterized by smaller folding efficiency compared with proteins of free living bacteria. (csic.es)
  • Although metabolic analyses revealed high interdependencies between the host and the bacteria, we demonstrate here that transport in Buchnera is assured by low transporter diversity, when compared to free-living bacteria, being mostly based on a few general transporters, some of which probably have lost their substrate specificity. (uv.es)
  • Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. (readabstracts.com)
  • These cells contain endosymbiotic bacteria such as Buchnera species, which provide essential amino acids and other chemicals to their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Cycnium is monophyletic and the sister group of a clade consisting of the genera Buchnera and Striga. (wikipedia.org)
  • This strain diverged 80-150 million years ago from the common ancestor of two previously sequenced Buchnera strains. (csic.es)
  • The genome of Buchnera has been sequenced in several aphid strains but little genomic data is currently available for the soybean aphid ( Aphis glycines ), one of the most important pests of soybean in North America. (jgenomics.com)
  • In this study, DNA sequencing was used to assemble and annotate the genome sequence of the Buchnera A. glycines strain and to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among different strains. (jgenomics.com)
  • In C. brasiliensis , the YLS resides both intra- and ex-tra-cel-lu-lar-ly but not in specialized cells - as do the Buchnera in the bacteriocytes (Fig. 2) - and is transmitted maternally. (asmblog.org)
  • Extinct in the wild (EW): 35 species Critically endangered (CR): 2,493 species Endangered (EN): 3,654 species Vulnerable (VU): 5,430 species Near threatened (NT, LR/cd): 1,851 species Least concern (LC): 6,645 species Data deficient (DD): 1,674 species As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1674 data deficient plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, Buchnera from C. cedri revealed an extremely poor repertoire of transporters, with almost no ATP-driven active transport left, despite the clear persistence of the ancestral three-membraned system. (uv.es)
  • In the aphid Cinara cedri, it coexists with Buchnera aphidicola, given the latter cannot produce tryptophan. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae , especially Enterobacter and Erwinia , and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The second is based on a different and unique organization of the ribosomal RNA operons of Buchnera and the close proximity of aroE upstream of rrl (gene coding for 23S rRNA). (scienceopen.com)
  • In addition, we identified several fixed Buchnera SNPs between Aphis glycines biotypes that were avirulent or virulent to a soybean aphid resistance gene ( Rag1 ). (jgenomics.com)
  • Remarkably, the gene content of B. aphidicola is a subset of the E. coli K-12 genome [ 3 , 5 ], allowing nearly all Buchnera gene products to be assigned confident functional assignments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Buchnera from B. pistaciae seem to possess a unique double membrane system and has, accordingly, lost all of its outer-membrane integral proteins. (uv.es)
  • They discovered these proteins were of both aphid and Buchnera origins. (redorbit.com)
  • One of these Buchnera proteins, GroEL, was found to induce immune responses in plants. (redorbit.com)
  • We propose that these two proteins, which we have renamed LptF and LptG, respectively, are the missing transmembrane components of the ABC transporter that, together with LptB, functions to extract LPS from the IM en route to the OM. (pnas.org)
  • In Buchnera , the apparently non-random reduction of the modular structure of the networks and the retention of essential characteristics of the interaction network indicate that the roles of proteins within the interaction network are important in the reductive process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taking advantage of the two recently published high-throughput protein interaction maps of E. coli [ 9 , 15 ], we have performed a study in which we focused on the reductive evolution of the Buchnera genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resolution of the question of whether some EAAs are synthesized by shared metabolic pathways or entirely by Buchnera is central to our understanding of the coevolutionary interactions in this relationship because the Buchnera -derived EAAs are required by the aphid to utilize plant phloem sap, a diet grossly deficient in these nutrients ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Buchnera has lost regulatory factors, allowing continuous overproduction of tryptophan and other amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of HF to isolated Buchnera preparations significantly increased the production of leucine and phenylalanine, and recombinant enzymes mediating the final reactions in branched-chain amino acid and phenylalanine synthesis rescued the production of these EAAs by Buchnera preparations without HF. (asm.org)
  • In Buchnera, the transport function has been shaped by the distinct selective constraints occurring in the Aphididae lineages. (uv.es)