Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Rollinia: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain aporphines, acetogenins and rollinone.Catalogs, Booksellers'Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)BooksFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Bryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Nautilus: The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Glycyrrhiza uralensis: A plant species of the family FABACEAE.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.HandbooksAnnual Reports as Topic: Annual statements reviewing the status of the administrative and operational functions and accomplishments of an institution or organization.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.

Identification of sibling species of the bryozoan Bugula neritina that produce different anticancer bryostatins and harbor distinct strains of the bacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula". (1/81)

Although the cosmopolitan marine bryozoan Bugula neritina is recognized as a single species, natural products from this bryozoan vary among populations. B. neritina is the source of the anticancer drug candidate bryostatin 1, but it also produces other bryostatins, and different populations contain different bryostatins. We defined two chemotypes on the basis of previous studies: chemotype O contains bryostatins with an octa-2,4-dienoate substituent (including bryostatin 1), as well as other bryostatins; chemotype M lacks bryostatins with the octa-2,4-dienoate substituent. B. neritina contains a symbiotic gamma-proteobacterium "Candidatus Endobugula sertula," and it has been proposed that bryostatins may be synthesized by bacterial symbionts. In this study, B. neritina populations along the California coast were sampled for genetic variation and bryostatin content. Colonies that differ in chemotype also differ genetically by 8% in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene; this difference is sufficient to suggest that the chemotypes represent different species. Each species contains a distinct strain of "E. sertula" that differs at four nucleotide sites in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. These results indicate that the chemotypes have a genetic basis rather than an environmental cause. Gene sequences from an Atlantic sample matched sequences from the California chemotype M colonies, suggesting that this type may be cosmopolitan due to transport on boat hulls.  (+info)

Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates. (2/81)

A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.  (+info)

Overgrowth competition between clades: implications for interpretation of the fossil record and overgrowth indices. (3/81)

Overgrowth interactions (2693 in total) were observed among three major groups (arguably clades) of bryozoans--cheilostomatids (57 species), ctenostomatids (3 species), and cyclostomatids (14 species). The bryozoans studied here occur in shallow water at high-temperate polar latitudes where they encrust hard substrata such as rock piles. The main study site was the intertidal and infralittoral zones of Kodiak Island, Alaska, but observations were also made in similar zones of South Georgia Island and the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Cheilostomatids dominated the number of species, individuals, and interactions at all depths. Intraclade interactions formed 73.7% of the encounters for cheilostomatids, 1.6% for ctenostomatids, and 5.7% for cyclostomatids. The competitive ranking of the three clades was broadly ctenostomatids > cyclostomatids > cheilostomatids. Significantly, these results contradict all previous quantitative studies of bryozoan overgrowth, in which cheilostomatids are reported to overgrow cyclostomatids at a higher rate. From these studies and the literature, we calculated win indices to vary from 0 to 0.42 for living cyclostomatids, from 0.08 to 0.9 for living cheilostomatids, and from 0.25 to 0.75 for living ctenostomatids. The win indices of cyclostomatid and cheilostomatid clades show significantly more variation in living assemblages than in fossil assemblages. This disparity may be due to differential preservation (polar and subpolar assemblages last less than 4 years). The diversity was very high in terms of both species richness and interaction types (outcomes between competitor pairs). Comparison with the literature suggests the possibility that nearshore diversity of bryozoans may be bimodal (have two peaks) between high arctic and antarctic latitudes. Indices of success in overgrowth competition have been constructed in various ways. For cheilostomatids, the method of calculation had little influence on the ranking of representatives. In contrast, the apparent success of ctenostomatids and cyclostomatids varied hugely with how the index was calculated. This inconsistency is due to the use of very different strategies in overgrowth competition; among the two latter groups, many interactions involve tied outcomes.  (+info)

Induction of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss via the bryozoan Fredericella sultana infected with Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. (4/81)

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a serious infection of wild and farmed salmonids, affecting mainly the kidney and spleen but becoming systemic in most susceptible fish hosts. This report deals with the transmission of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw & Okamura 1999 from naturally infected bryozoans Fredericella sultana Blumenbach 1779 to naive rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792, thereby confirming the recent conclusion based on partial 18S rDNA sequence data that bryozoans are hosts of the myxozoan parasite T. bryosalmonae (formerly PKX organism) that causes the disease. Parasite transmission using T. bryosalmonae spores was successful by short-term exposure to disrupted bryozoans known to contain T. bryosalmonae spores and T bryosalmonae sacs liberated from the bryozoans, and by long-term cohabitation with infected bryozoan colonies. Infection was confirmed by examination of kidney imprints, detection of the parasite in stained tissue sections, PCR using T. bryosalmonae-specific primers, and comparison of amplified 18S rDNA sequences from the bryozoans and experimentally infected fish. Transmission was not apparent, nor was PKD induced, in fish challenged by intraperitoneal injection of spores isolated from F. sultana.  (+info)

Evidence for the biosynthesis of bryostatins by the bacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. (5/81)

The marine bryozoan, Bugula neritina, is the source of the bryostatins, a family of macrocyclic lactones with anticancer activity. Bryostatins have long been suspected to be bacterial products. B. neritina harbors the uncultivated gamma proteobacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula." In this work several lines of evidence are presented that show that the symbiont is the most likely source of bryostatins. Bryostatins are complex polyketides similar to bacterial secondary metabolites synthesized by modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I). PKS-I gene fragments were cloned from DNA extracted from the B. neritina-"E. sertula" association, and then primers specific to one of these clones, KSa, were shown to amplify the KSa gene specifically and universally from total B. neritina DNA. In addition, a KSa RNA probe was shown to bind specifically to the symbiotic bacteria located in the pallial sinus of the larvae of B. neritina and not to B. neritina cells or to other bacteria. Finally, B. neritina colonies grown in the laboratory were treated with antibiotics to reduce the numbers of bacterial symbionts. Decreased symbiont levels resulted in the reduction of the KSa signal as well as the bryostatin content. These data provide evidence that the symbiont E. sertula has the genetic potential to make bryostatins and is necessary in full complement for the host bryozoan to produce normal levels of bryostatins. This study demonstrates that it may be possible to clone bryostatin genes from B. neritina directly and use these to produce bryostatins in heterologous host bacteria.  (+info)

Evidence that infectious stages of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are present throughout the year. (6/81)

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a hyperplastic condition of the lymphoid tissue of salmonids infected with the spores of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae, a myxozoan parasite formerly designated PKX, which has recently been described as a parasite of several species of bryozoans. The occurrence of PKD is generally associated with seasonal increase in water temperature, with research indicating that transmission of the disease does not occur below 12 to 13 degrees C. This suggested that the infectious stages are absent from about November to March/April. Here we document the transmission of PKD at water temperatures and seasons previously considered to be non permissive for PKD infection. The exposure of naive rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) to PKD-infected water ranging from 8 to 13 degrees C during the Autumn, Winter and early Spring, resulted in the infection of kidney interstitium once the trout were transferred to 16 degrees C. In addition, cohabitation studies were conducted with the bryozoan host Fredericella sultana collected from a river at times of low seasonal temperatures because this bryozoan species overwinters as living colonies. Cohabitation of trout with colonies of F sultana in parasite-free city water at 16 degrees C, also led to renal lymphoid tissue infection with the parasite and even to nephromegaly. Our results provide evidence that the infectious stages of T bryosalmonae for rainbow trout were present in the water throughout the entire year and that the impact of temperature on the development of PKD is primarily a result of the kinetics of Tetracapsula multiplication in bryozoan and fish hosts.  (+info)

Polarization of competition increases with latitude. (7/81)

Many organisms overlap in their use of resources in space and time. Where and when resources are restricted, species must compete for them. Living space, often a critical resource controlling food and mate availability, is directly contested by organisms in most habitats. The ensuing animal interactions generally result in a winner gaining space and a loser, which may die. Contact matrices from studies of interference competition in encrusting marine Bryozoa (clonal and colonial animals), spanning at least 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres, were analysed and subjected to a modern transitivity index. Only data for Bryozoa were used because (i) use of a single taxon with restricted ecology simplifies the scope for types of encounters, (and therefore) interpretation; and (ii) ecological bias is reduced because bryozoans are abundant at all latitudes. The analysis shows that assemblage competition is more hierarchical towards both poles. Thus, poorer competitors fail more frequently in interactions with increasing latitude. The cause of this trend is the simplification of overall outcomes between competitors, such as fewer ties, reversals in outcome or competitive loops (where low-ranking competitors beat those of higher ranking). The implication of such a trend is that the maintenance of biological diversity at high latitudes may principally be by physical rather than biological (competition) processes. Certainly, ocean surface energy increases with latitude through wind and wave action (and ice scour in polar regions).  (+info)

Female investment is retarded pending reception of allosperm in a hermaphroditic colonial invertebrate. (8/81)

Young colonies of the bryozoan Celleporella hyalina are capable of acquiring water-borne allosperm and of using it to fertilize ova for a period of 3-6 weeks after reaching female sexual maturity. In these simultaneous hermaphrodites, early allocation to female modules, but not male, is greatly enhanced by the acquisition of allosperm. The degree of enhancement is inversely proportional to coancestry of the recipient and donor colonies, thus promoting outcrossing. This apparently novel mechanism of adjusting operational sex ratio depends on the uptake and storage of sperm by nonreproductive (somatic) modules and subsequent translocation to females.  (+info)

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Read "The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata), Russian Journal of Marine Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bryozoan metabolites: an ecological perspective. AU - Sharp, Jasmine H.. AU - Winson, Michael K.. AU - Porter, Joanne S.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - This Highlight covers the chemical ecology of bryozoans, primarily the ecological functions of bryozoan natural products. The Highlight covers the period 1980-2006 and is arranged taxonomically, according to the bryozoan Treatise classiffication.. AB - This Highlight covers the chemical ecology of bryozoans, primarily the ecological functions of bryozoan natural products. The Highlight covers the period 1980-2006 and is arranged taxonomically, according to the bryozoan Treatise classiffication.. KW - ANTI-NEOPLASTIC AGENTS. KW - AMATHIA-WILSONI KIRKPATRICK. KW - FLUSTRA-FOLIACEA. KW - BETA-CARBOLINE ALKALOIDS. KW - ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. KW - INDOLE-IMIDAZOLE ALKALOIDS. KW - CANDIDATUS ENDOBUGULA SERTULA. KW - MARINE NATURAL-PRODUCTS. KW - DOGGER BANK ITCH. KW - KINASE-C ISOZYMES. U2 - 10.1039/b617546e. DO - 10.1039/b617546e. M3 - ...
The present study considers 88 bryozoan species occurring in freshwater: 69 phylactolaemate and 19 gymnolaemate species. Roughly 49% of these species are confined to one zoogeographical region. The...
Stereotypic cleavage patterns play a crucial role in cell fate determination by precisely positioning early embryonic blastomeres. Although misplaced cell divisions can alter blastomere fates and cause embryonic defects, cleavage patterns have been modified several times during animal evolution. However, it remains unclear how evolutionary changes in cleavage impact the specification of blastomere fates. Here, we analyze the transition from spiral cleavage - a stereotypic pattern remarkably conserved in many protostomes - to a biradial cleavage pattern, which occurred during the evolution of bryozoans. Using 3D-live imaging time-lapse microscopy (4D-microscopy), we characterize the cell lineage, MAPK signaling, and the expression of 16 developmental genes in the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. We found that the molecular identity and the fates of early bryozoan blastomeres are similar to the putative homologous blastomeres in spiral-cleaving embryos. Our work suggests that bryozoans have retained
Bryozoans are sessile fauna forming colonies through asexual budding following settlement of sexually produced larvae (Hayward & Ryland, 1995a). Larvae have a short pelagic life time of up to about 12 hours (Ryland, 1976). Recruitment is dependent on the supply of suitable, stable, hard substrata (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976; Dyrynda, 1994)and the abundance of bryozoans is positively correlated with supply of stable hard substrata and hence with current strength (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976). Even in the presence of available substratum, Ryland (1976) noted that significant recruitment in bryozoans only occurred in the proximity of breeding colonies. Flustra foliacea is a coarse, foliaceous bryozoan that tends to be found on stones and shells, reaches 10 - 20 cm in height (Porter, 2012), is common to all coasts in northwest Europe (Hayward & Ryland, 1995a) and is found across all coasts in the British Isles (NBN, 2015). Stebbing (1971a) noted that Flustra foliacea on the Gower peninsular, ...
The relationship between diversity and stability has interested ecologists since the inception of the discipline (35), and the absence of a resolution reflects the complexity of the problem. Much of the complexity derives from the multiplicity of diversity-stability relationships, depending on the definitions of diversity and stability and on the context in which an ecosystem is perturbed. We cannot expect a general conclusion about the diversity-stability relationship, and simply increasing the number of studies on different ecosystems will not generate one. Rather than search for generalities in patterns of diversity-stability relationships, we recommend investigating mechanisms. A given diversity-stability relationship may be driven by multiple mechanisms, and the same mechanisms may evoke different diversity-stability relationships depending on the definitions of diversity and stability. We need more studies revealing exactly what these mechanisms are. This requires models joined to ...
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. It causes Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD), one of the most serious parasitic diseases of salmonid populations in Europe and North America[1], which causes losses of up to 90% in infected populations. Until the late 1990s, the organism which caused PKD was enigmatic, thus called "PKX organism". The causative agent of PKD was recognized as a form of Malacosporean[2], but the absence of mature spores in salmonid hosts, the lack of fish to fish transmission, and seasonality of the disease suggested that the life cycle of PKX was completed in another host and that infection of salmonids could be accidental. Korotneff observed a myxozoan in the bryozoan, Plumatella fungosa, in 1892, which he described as Myxosporidium bryozoides[3]. Myxozoan infection of bryozoans was not reported again until 1996. Ecological investigations of freshwater bryozoans in North America discovered parasitic sacs of a myxozoan species, freely floating ...
Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a central fluid-filled lumen surrounded by a neuroepithelium. Preliminary observations have shown a small lumen within the cerebral ganglion of the ctenostome Paludicella articulata. Ctenostome-grade ectoprocts are of phylogenetic relevance since they are considered to have retained ancestral ectoproct features. Therefore, the ctenostome Paludicella articulata was analyzed in order to contribute to the basal neural bauplan of ctenostomes and the Ectoprocta in general. The presence of a lumen and a neuroepithelial organization of the nerve cells within the cerebral ganglion are confirmed. Four tentacle nerves project from the cerebral ganglion into each tentacle. Three of the tentacle nerves (one abfrontal and two latero-frontal nerves) have an intertentacular origin, whereas the medio-frontal nerve
Autozooids of the cheilostome bryozoan Aquiloniella scabracontain rod-like bacteria in the funicular bodies - the complex swellings of the funicular strands. Each funicular body contains symbionts...
A succession of developmental types in the lophophores of lingulid brachiopods is reported from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang deposits of South China. These types range from trocholophe, schizolophe to simple coiled spirolophe. Of Atdabanian age, this succession of forms is mirrored in the ontogeny of the lophophore of Recent linguloids, thus demonstrating a close similarity in the development of the lophophores of Cambrian and Recent forms. We illustrate also more than 10 extraordinary specimens with aberrant dispositions of the lophophoral arms that extend to unusual lengths either inside or outside the shell.
THE accepted view that zooids of the Polyzoa (or Ectoprocta) are small enough for gaseous exchange to be achieved by diffusion has recently been challenged. Mangum and Schopf1, having measured oxygen consumption in Bugula turrita, concluded that diffusion alone was insufficient to supply oxygen to all parts of the zooid. They proposed a circulation of body fluid, brought about by the periodically repeated process of retraction and protrusion of the lophophore and tentacles, which is observed in these organisms. This, they supposed, would cause the transfer of oxygen-rich coelomic fluid from the region of the lophophore and tentacle sheath to the lower part of the zooid.
Entoprocta, or Kamptozoa, is a phylum of tiny sessile aquatic animals ranging from 0.1 to 7 millimetres (0.004 to 0.28 in) long. Mature individuals are goblet-shaped, on relatively long stalks. They are filter-feeders, with a crown of tentacles whose cilia generate water currents towards the mouth. Both the mouth and anus lie inside the crown. The superficially similar Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) have the anus outside a crown of hollow tentacles. Most families of entoprocts are colonial, and all but 2 of the 150 species are marine. A few solitary species can move slowly. Some species eject unfertilized ova into the water while others keep their ova in brood chambers until they hatch, and some of these species use placenta-like organs to nourish the developing eggs. After hatching, the larvae swim for a short time and then settle on a surface. There they metamorphose, and the larval gut generally rotates by up to 180°, so that the mouth and anus face upwards. Both colonial and solitary species also ...
Lophophore hypothesis: Lophophore hypothesis,, viewpoint that conodonts, small toothlike structures found as fossils in marine rocks over a long span of geologic time, are actually parts of and
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The structure of bryozoan Flustra sp. fatty acids was investigated. It was shown that the main fatty acids (FA) of the animal are (as percent of total): 22 : 6(n-3), 23.3%; 20 : 5(n-3), 14.2%; 16 : 0, 10.2%; 16 : 1 (n-7), 7.7%; 18 : 0, 3.0%; 18 :1 (n-7), 2.8%; 16 : 2, 2.7%; 20 : 1, 2.3%; 14 : 0, 2.3%; 20 : 4(n-6), 2.1%; 16 : l(n-5), 1.8%; 22 : 5(n-3), 1.8%; 20 : 4(n-3), 1.4%; 18 : 4(n-3), 1.3%; phitanic acid, 1.0%; 16 : 4, 1.0%; 18 : l(n-9), 1.0%; 20 : 3(n-6), 1.0% and 16 : 3, 1.0%. Besides these common fatty acids, 2.7% of C20 : 2, 2.0% of C22 : 2 non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) dienoic FA and the extralong-chain polyenoic fatty acid (VLCPUFA) 24 : 6(n-3) were found among the lipids of this bryozoan, contents of which was 0.9% in total lipids, but as high as 3% in phosphatidylethanolamine. Thus, bryozoans present one more type of marine invertebrates, in which specimens of VLCPUFA were found. © 1996 MAHK Hayka/Interperiodica Publishing ...
Senior Researcher. Gokhlesh Kumar has been worked on proliferative kidney disease and identified differentially expressed genes in the kidney of brown trout and rainbow trout during Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) development. In addition, he identified and quantified whole cell proteins of biotype 1 and biotype 2 Yersinia ruckeri strains using shotgun proteomic approach. Further, he identified differentially regulated proteins in the head kidney and spleen of rainbow trout in response to the Y. ruckeri strains, which offer new insight into the systemic response at the protein level in rainbow trout. Presently, he is focusing on in vivo induced genes of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) that are induced and expressed in fish and bryozoan hosts during the course of infection.. Project: In vivo induced genes of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Financing: FWF (Austrian Science Fund ...
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Hierodula membranacea is a large mantid, sharing its common name giant Asian mantis with other large members of genus Hierodula. Its colours vary from green to yellow-green, or even brown to reddish-brown, similar to those of the giant Indian mantis and the giant Malaysian mantis. As the name suggests, it originates fr
These biotopes are considered to have a high recovery potential. Sebens (1985, 1986) noted that bryozoans and hydroids covered scraped areas within 4 months in spring, summer and autumn. Hydroids exhibit rapid rates of recovery from disturbance through repair, asexual reproduction and larval colonization. Sparks (1972) reviewed the regeneration abilities and rapid repair of injuries. Fragmentation of the hydroid provides a route for short distance dispersal, for example, each fragmented part of Sertularia cupressina can regenerate itself following damage (Berghahn & Offermann, 1999). New colonies of the same genotype may, therefore, arise through damage to existing colonies (Gili & Hughes, 1995). Many hydroid species also produce dormant, resting stages that are very resistant of environmental perturbation (Gili & Hughes 1995). Although colonies may be removed or destroyed, the resting stages may survive attached to the substratum and provide a mechanism for rapid recovery (Cornelius, 1995a; ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bryozoan, lophophorate animals that consist of microscopic zooids that form colonies. A thin crust is formed around each zooid consisting of a protein and mucopolysaccharide material than can be calcified. Magnification x16 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/4244
Hayward, P.J. (2001). Bryozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 325-333 ...
new combination reference Waeschenbach, A.; Vieira, L. M.; Reverter Gil, O.; Souto Derungs, J.; Nascimento, K. B.; Fehlauer Ale, K. H. (2015). A phylogeny of Vesiculariidae (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata) supports synonymization of three genera and reveals possible cryptic diversity. Zoologica Scripta. , available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12130 [details] ...
Hayward, P.J. (2001). Bryozoa, ,B,,I,in,/I,,/B,: Costello, M.J. ,i,et al.,/i, (Ed.) (2001). ,i,European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,,/i, 50: pp. 325-333 ...
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833). ...
Acanthodoris brunnea, about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, photographed on the sediment of Cowlitz Bay. Reported to eat bryozoans, this dorid species is found on muddy-sand, a habitat notably lacking in bryozoans. In this region and habitat, it is likely eating something other than bryozans.. Acanthodoris brunnea is another nudibranch species that is somewhat common at times in this habitat; little is known of its natural history. These animals are small dorids, roughly the same size as Dentdronotus albopunctatus, reaching lengths of 2 to 3 cm (up to about 1.5 inches). Their basic coloration is brown; the individuals are covered with distinctive relatively large papillae on the back. This species is considered to be predatory on bryozoans, but that is unlikely in this region as bryozoans are exceedingly rare in this habitat.. Also found in these areas are pennatulid-eating nudibranchs in the genus Tritonia. The most abundant of these are individuals of the small white Tritonia festiva, described in the ...
Acanthodoris brunnea, about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, photographed on the sediment of Cowlitz Bay. Reported to eat bryozoans, this dorid species is found on muddy-sand, a habitat notably lacking in bryozoans. In this region and habitat, it is likely eating something other than bryozans.. Acanthodoris brunnea is another nudibranch species that is somewhat common at times in this habitat; little is known of its natural history. These animals are small dorids, roughly the same size as Dentdronotus albopunctatus, reaching lengths of 2 to 3 cm (up to about 1.5 inches). Their basic coloration is brown; the individuals are covered with distinctive relatively large papillae on the back. This species is considered to be predatory on bryozoans, but that is unlikely in this region as bryozoans are exceedingly rare in this habitat.. Also found in these areas are pennatulid-eating nudibranchs in the genus Tritonia. The most abundant of these are individuals of the small white Tritonia festiva, described in the ...
Phoronis is one of the two genera of the horseshoe worm family (Phoronidae), in the phylum Phoronida. The body has two sections, each with its own coelom. There is a specialist feeding structure, the lophophore, which is an extension of the wall of the coelom and is surrounded by tentacles. The gut is U-shaped. The diagnostic feature that distinguishes this genus is the lack of epidermal invagination at the base of the lophophore. These worms are filter feeders. Its larva is an Actinotrocha. Phronis architecta is no longer accepted and is considered to be a synonym of Phoronis psammophila. Similarly Phoronis vancouverensis is considered to be a synonym of Phoronis ijimai. World Register of Marine Species Phoronida ...
Article: Clifton-Hadley RS, Richards R & Bucke D (1983) Method for the rapid diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. |i|Veterinary Record|/i|, 112 (26), p. 609. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.112.26.609
Trepostomata, extinct order of bryozoans (moss animals) found as fossils in marine rocks of Ordovician to Triassic age (200 million to 488 million years old). The trepostomes are characterized by colonies in long, curved calcareous tubes, the interiors of which are intersected by partitions. The
Pectinatella magnifica, an invasive bryozoan, might significantly affect ecosystem balance due to its massive occurrence in many areas in Europe and other parts of the world. Biological and chemical analyses are needed to get complete information about the impact of the animal on the environment. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effects of five extracts prepared from P. magnifica using LDH assay on THP-1 cell line. Antimicrobial activities of extracts against 22 different bacterial strains were tested by microdilution method. Our study showed that all extracts tested, except aqueous portion, demonstrated LD50 values below 100 μg/mL, which indicates potential toxicity. The water extract of P. magnifica with LD50 value of 250 μg/mL also shows potentially harmful effects. Also, an environmental risk resulting from the presence and increasing biomass of potentially toxic benthic cyanobacteria in old colonies should not be underestimated. Toxicity of Pectinatella extracts could be
Joseph F. Pachut; Population genetics of four species of Ordovician bryozoans; stereology and jackknifed analysis of variance. Journal of Paleontology ; 61 (5): 927-941. doi: Download citation file:. ...
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Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Phoronida is a small group of marine worm-like suspension feeders, which together with brachiopods and bryozoans form the clade Lophophorata. Although their development is well studied on the morphological level, data regarding gene expression during this process are scarce and restricted to the analysis of relatively few transcription factors. Here, we present a description of the expression patterns of Hox genes during the embryonic and larval development of the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri. We identified sequences of eight Hox genes in the transcriptome of Ph. harmeri and determined their expression pattern during embryonic and larval development using whole mount in situ hybridization. We found that none of the Hox genes is expressed during embryonic development. Instead their expression is initiated in the later developmental stages, when the larval body is already formed. In the investigated initial larval stages the Hox genes are expressed in the non-collinear manner in the posterior body of the
Both colonial and solitary species are capable of asexual clonal reproduction by budding; species may reproduce sexually and be dioecious, simultaneous, or protandrous hermaphrodites. Eggs either hatch into planktonic larvae, or in some species, complete early development in a brood chamber (located in the atrium), attached by secretions of cement glands to the chambers wall. In some brooding species, nutrition is provided to developing embryos via special placental cells; in others, the egg yolk nourishes the growing larvae. Planktonic larvae may remain free swimming for up to 7 months before settling, while those raised in a brood chamber will settle relatively quickly (within a few days of hatching). (Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Ruppert, et al., 2004; Shanks, 2001). Entoproct embryonic development follows the holoblastic, spiral cleavage pattern typical of protostome organisms, with the mesoderm forming from the 4d mesentoblast. Development continues to a coeloblastula stage, after which, the ...
The earlier key by S. P. Mundy (FBA Sci. Pub. 41, 1980) listed 14 species of freshwater bryozoans in the British Isles and Europe. This completely new key by T. S. Wood and B. Okamura recognises 19 species and removes two of the species listed by Mundy. The key for identification to species is based on colony shape and form, and microscopic examination of asexually-produced statoblasts. Key characters are profusely illustrated with line-drawings, supported by micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy which show the detailed surface structures of statoblasts. Colony shapes and general features are also illustrated with a series of photographs ...
Constraints on physiological rates of animals derive from metabolic allometry, which describes a disproportional relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (Kleiber, 1932; Schmidt-Nielsen, 1984). The relationship is often described by the power function Y=aXb, where Y is the metabolic rate, X the body size and a the proportionality constant (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1984). Metabolic allometry occurs when the scaling coefficient b≠1 and the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with increasing body size. Allometric constraints on metabolism are widely perceived to influence phenotypic traits and to have far-reaching impacts on the evolution of biological systems (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1984; Brown et al., 2004).. The empirically measured value of b approaches 0.75 in a broad range of endothermic and ectothermic animals and many theories have been proposed to explain the dominance of such 3/4 scaling across a wide range of sizes (Kleiber, 1932; Hemmingsen, 1960; Glazier, 2010; Agutter and ...
In a paper with the refreshingly straightforward title "Buddenbrockia is a Cnidarian Worm", researchers reported in Science on a myxozoan that is not simply a passive lump of parasitic cells. In the words of the authors of the Science paper, Buddenbrockia worms are "highly active, with continuous and vigorous sinuous writhing within the body cavity of bryozoan hosts." Once they bail out on their moss-animal hosts (they are malacosporans), they continue to undergo "repeated coiling and straightening." Under the microscope, they look uncannily like a nematode worm -- a ubiquitous bilaterally symmetrical soil denizen that is unquestionably not a cnidarian.. But there were problems with Buddenbrockias status as a cnidarian. To start with, they seem distinctly bilateral and their worm-like behavior even more so. Some "elongate" cnidarians do exist, but none move as Buddenbrockia does. Though they lack anything resembling a nervous system, gut, or external sense organs, theres also the matter of ...
Dr. Sultana Abida is a Gynaecologist in Adibatla, Hyderabad. Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Contact Number, User Reviews and Ratings for Dr. Sultana Abida | Lybrate
Sultana Air Freshener by Al-Rehab (300ml)-Al Rehab Sultana air freshener is said to have a light, woody floral fragrance.All-Rehab air-fresheners have the fragrances of nature. Its quick freshening action eliminates unpleasant smell and fills the air
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Read "Pioneer neurons: A basis or limiting factor of lophotrochozoa nervous system diversity?, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The newly formulated national broadcast policy is conflicting with the countrys Right to Information (RTI) Act, Sultana Kamal, chairperson of Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB), said today.. "The policy is conflicting with the countrys constitution, democratic norms and values, human rights and Right to Information Act," Sultana said while speaking at a press conference at Hotel Abakash in the capital.. Rejecting the broadcast policy, Sultana said the entire policy is aimed at controlling the press.. She said the policy has been formulated abruptly. "A common ground for formulating such policy will have to find out through broader consultative process," she added.. The TIB official further said there is no clear timeframe in the policy on the formation of its independent commission. Due to this loophole, a scope has already been created for the information ministry to establish its supremacy on the mass media, Sultana added. TIB Executive Director Iftekharuzzaman, who also attended ...
Velella is a colonial animal, each sailor made up of hydroids attached together under a chitinous float, the individuals thought to be specialized for prey capture, digestion and reproduction. A stiff semicircular sail projects upward from the float, so any breeze blows the sailor across the surface. The sail is set at a bit of a diagonal, so the Velella is actually tacking off the downwind direction. It is speculated that the direction of tacking is such that the animals are kept offshore for the most part, but changing winds can undo that safety factor ...
A seaweed-like marine invertebrate contains a molecule that has piqued interest as a drug but is in short supply: Collecting 14 tons of the critters, a type of bryozoan, yields just 18 grams of the potential medicine. Now, an efficient lab recipe might make bryostatin 1 easier to get.. Making more of the molecule could help scientists figure out whether the drug - which has shown mixed.... ...
Early in his career, Jean-Henri had been working in the quarry of the village Comblachien, south of Dijon (France), doing paleocological investigation of several small coral and bryozoan patch reefs. Jovial and friendly with everybody he has been invited by one of the quarryman for a drink at home. While sitting at the kitchen table and waiting for glasses and a bottle, his eyes focused on the hot pad lying in the center of the table. This was a squared limestone block perfectly jagged and polished, cut in the mid-plane of a fossil sea star. Jean-Henri managed to deal it for several bottles of Burgundy wine, and added the "sea star hot pad" to the paleontological collections of the University. ...
Early in his career, Jean-Henri had been working in the quarry of the village Comblachien, south of Dijon (France), doing paleocological investigation of several small coral and bryozoan patch reefs. Jovial and friendly with everybody he has been invited by one of the quarryman for a drink at home. While sitting at the kitchen table and waiting for glasses and a bottle, his eyes focused on the hot pad lying in the center of the table. This was a squared limestone block perfectly jagged and polished, cut in the mid-plane of a fossil sea star. Jean-Henri managed to deal it for several bottles of Burgundy wine, and added the "sea star hot pad" to the paleontological collections of the University. ...
I picked up this jasper for its banding. Only later, when checking the rock through my hand lense did I discover what I think are a bunch of little rugose colonial corallites at the top and bottom of this rock. If these are indeed corals, all but one lack most detail in the center. If septa are faintly visible, they look differently preserved than on any of my other coral specimens. Mostly its just circle after circle here, and areas full of "pores". Now that Im looking at them on my larger screen, the "pores" themselves seem to be corallites - microscopic ones. The black dots are in the center of honeycomb like shapes. Im confused now, are these the fossilized remains of one or two type of corals, or maybe a colonial coral and a bryozoan? Sorry about the bad quality and distortion of the pictures taken through a microscope lens on my phone. Please help me ID these tiny hurricane look-alikes. As always, thanks in advance. Here a couple of them in various states of preservation. Lots of them ...
Chemistry and person M. Saeed Arayne: Sultana, Najma, Ahmed, University, Chemistry, Department, Journal, Karachi, Siddiqui, Najma Sultana, Mirza, Haroon
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Brachiopoda • Classis: Rhynchonellata • Ordo: Rhynchonellida • Superfamilia: Uncinuloidea • Familia: Hebetoechiidae • Subfamilia: Betterbergiinae • Genus: Primipilaria • Species: Primipilaria primipilaris Buch 1834 ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Brachiopoda • Classis: Lingulata • Ordo: Lingulida • Superfamilia: Acrotheloidea • Familia: Botsfordiidae Schindewolf, 1955 ...
Looking for online definition of Proliferative Kidney Disease in the Medical Dictionary? Proliferative Kidney Disease explanation free. What is Proliferative Kidney Disease? Meaning of Proliferative Kidney Disease medical term. What does Proliferative Kidney Disease mean?
Marine biofouling poses a severe threat to maritime and aquaculture industries. To prevent the attachment of marine biofouling organisms on man-made structures, countless cost and effort were spent annually. In particular, most attention has been paid on the development of efficient and environmentally friendly fouling-resistant coatings, as well as larval settlement mechanism of several major biofouling invertebrates. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays were utilized as the settlement substrata and opposite tractions were identified during early settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The settling A. amphitrite pushed the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 376.2 nN, while settling B. neritina pulled the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 205.9 nN. These micropost displacements are consistent with the body expansion of A. amphitrite during early post-settlement metamorphosis stage and ...
Biology Assignment Help, Polyembryony, Polyembryony Presence of more than one embryo in a seed is termed polyembryony. The phenomenon, first discovered in orange seeds by Leeuwenhoek (1719), attracted considerable attention because of its potential for application in and horticultur
Definition: position of an organism in a food web. May be described verbally with descriptors including primary producer, herbivore or carnivore. If described numerically, 1 indicates a primary producer, 2 a herbivore, and so on up the food web ...
Brunton, C. H. C., L. R. M. Cocks, and S. L. Long (eds.). 2001. Brachiopods Past and Present. The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 63. Taylor and Francis, London and New York.. Carlson, S. J. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships among extant brachiopods. Cladistics 11:131-197.. Carlson, S. J. 2001. Ghosts of the past, present, and future in brachiopod systematics. Journal of Paleontology 75:1109-1118.. Cohen, B. L. 2000. Monophyly of brachiopods and phoronids: reconciliation of molecular evidence with Linnean classification (the subphylum Phoroniformea nov.). Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 267:225-231.. Cohen, B. L., A. Gawthrop, and T. Cavalier-Smith. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of brachiopods and phoronids based on nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 353:2039-2061.. L ter, C. 2000. The origin of the coelom in brachiopoda and its phylogenetic significance. Zoomorphology 120:15-28.. Richardson, J. ...
Bryostatin 1, a macrocyclic lactone isolated from a marine bryozoan, has significant antineoplastic activity against the murine cell line P388. Like phorbol esters, bryostain 1 is capable of binding to and activating protein kinase C, but these two compounds differ in the ability of bryostain 1 to act as a tumor promoter. We have investigated whether bryostatin 1 can modulate the differentiated phenotype of fresh samples of human myeloid leukemia. We find that six of seven samples responded to bryostatin treatment with changes associated with a more differentiated phenotype including increases in macrophage-like morphology and an increase in adherence and OKM1 and α-naphthyl acetate esterase activity positivity. The percentage of cells within each sample evidencing these changes varied markedly among the seven patients cells examined.. Because of the effects of bryostatin on fresh samples we examined the ability of bryostatin to differentiate four HL-60 cell sublines obtained from different ...
Free Online Library: Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution/Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) ja Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) Baltikumi Ulem-Ordoviitsiumis: taksonoomia ning levik.(Report) by Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences; Earth sciences Science and technology, general Animal populations Distribution Natural history Animal taxonomy Research Brachiopods Ordovician period Population biology Trilobites Zoology Identification and classification
The calcareous shells of brachiopods offer a wealth of informative characters for taxonomic and phylogenetic investigations. In particular scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used for decades to visualise internal structures of the shell. However, to produce informative SEM data, brachiopod shells need to be opened after chemical removal of the soft tissue. This preparation occasionally damages the shell. Additionally, skeletal elements of taxonomic/systematic interest such as calcareous spicules which are loosely embedded in the lophophore and mantle connective tissue become disintegrated during the preparation process. Using a nondestructive micro-computed tomography (μCT) approach, the entire fragile endoskeleton of brachiopods is documented for the first time. New insights on the structure and position of tissue-bound skeletal elements (spicules) are given as add ons to existing descriptions of brachiopod shell anatomy, thereby enhancing the quality and quantity of informative characters
Anderson, C. L. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of the Myxozoa. Pages 341-350 in: Evolutionary Relationships among Protozoa. G. H. Coombs, K. Vickerman, M. A. Sleigh and A. Warren, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.. Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1998. A triploblast origin for Myxozoa? Nature392:346.. Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1999. Molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the Myxozoa. Parasitology 119(6):555-561.. Bartholomew, J.L., S.D. Atkinson, S.L. Hallett, L.J. Lowenstine, M.M. Garner, C.H. Gardiner, B.A. Rideout, M.K. Keel and J.D. Brown. 2008. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl. International Journal for Parasitology 38: 1199-1207. Boreham, R.E., S. Hendrick, P.J. ODonoghue, and D.J. Stenzel. 1998. Incidental finding of Myxobolus spores (Protozoa: Myxozoa) in stool samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 3728-3730. Canning, E. ...
Specimens of PeronoporaNicholson, 1881, are abundant in Upper Ordovician rocks of the North American Midcontinent. Based on the positions of units in the Composite Conodont Standard Section, we have sampled 211 specimens over a stratigraphic interval of 9.1 million years. The average duration of sample spacing is 61,664 years but is commonly as small as 32,800 yr.. Thirty-four morphometric characters were measured in each specimen and were converted into multistate characters; character-state breaks were established based upon each characters ability to discriminate between phenetic groupings. Each character was subsequently weighted based on the number of derived states, degree of independence from other attributes, and estimated heritability.. Cladistic analysis of these data indicate that there are eight species in Peronopora each consisting of an optimally defined crown group and a basal stem group (or paraclade). Character states shared by stem and crown groups define species but, within ...
Spectral ambient light can cause variations in pigment distribution enabling an abundance of cyanobacteria and microalgae. Researchers selected green light for testing as it has previously shown to slow growth and affect pigment composition. It also represents the maximum absorbance of human vision. In the study researchers exposed artificial biofilms formed by Gloeothece membranacea and Chlorella sorokiniana to green and white light and evaluated their potential for preventing biofilm growth. Observations made suggest that green light could prevent the growth of biofilms with the exception of those capable of modifying accessory pigments ...
alveoli. Tiny, hollow air-exchange sacs that exist in clusters at the end of each of the air-conducting passageways in the lungs, the bronchioles.. aorta. The enormous artery extending from the heart that receives all the blood pumped by the hearts left ventricle. Branches stemming from the aorta supply oxygenated blood to all the tissues in the body.. artery. A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.. bronchiole. Tiny air-conducting passageway in the lungs that has at its end several alveoli, the hollow air-exchange sacs of the lungs.. capillary. The smallest type of blood vessel, connecting the arteries and veins in the bodys tissues. Gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and the bodys tissues through the thin walls of capillaries.. cardiovascular system. A fluid transport system of the body, consisting of the heart, all the blood vessels in the body, the blood that flows through these vessels, and the bone marrow tissue in which red blood cells are ...
Dr. Jinath Sultana is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Biology and Chemistry at the School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University. She received her PhD in Microbiology from the City University, Hong Kong. She has been actively involved in molecular biology research for many years involving molecular investigations of pathogen epidemiology and virulence. Her research interest and specialism include food and water borne pathogens, transmission and pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in developing country, screening of enzyme producing microorganisms as a tool of bioremediation, development and application of novel DNA-based technologies as risk assessment tool, and screening of bcateriophages to use as phage therapy. ...
Discover Morocco at this UNESCO World Heritage Site with SLH. La Sultana Marrakech is a luxury hotel offering beautiful scenery and delicious local cuisine.
Southeast of Waterford and southwest of Wexford is the Hook Head peninsula, which is remarkable for the abundant, beautifully preserved Carboniferous fossils, at its furthest reach by the Hook Lighthouse. The outcrops around Hook Head consist of abundant exposures of Lower Carboniferous rocks in foreshore platforms, containing beautifully preserved crinoids, bryozoans, bivalves, corals and brachiopods. The cliffs and platforms are protected, but many loose fragments can be found containing significant numbers of jumbled fossils of all types, with superbly preserved detail.Carboniferous, Foreshore, Rating: ♦♦♦♦. ...
Pt. 1. Petrified conifer wood -- Pt. 2. Bryozoan -- Pt. 3. Dinosaur -- Pt. 4. Snail -- Pt. 5. Brachiopod -- Pt. 6. Worm tubes -- Pt. 7. Sea urchin -- Pt. 8. Crinoid -- Pt. 9. Horn coral -- Pt. 10. Fusuline (a foraminifer ...
This months featured taxon is Myxozoa: a bizarre, poorly understood group of microscopic, obligate parasites. Members of this taxon are typically found parasitizing teleost fish and annelid worms, though they have been observed in a wide spectrum of hosts including amphibians, birds, bryozoans, cephalopods, reptiles, shrews, and waterfowl. These parasites are globally distributed in marine and freshwater aquatic environments (though some are exclusively terrestrial), and have been found in nearly all tissue and organ types. Myxozoa is an extremely diverse group not only in distribution but in species richness, comprising over 2,200 described species distributed among over 60 genera (Lom and Dyková, 2006) - which likely represents a small fraction of the total diversity, with some estimates of 16,000 species in the Neotropics alone (Naldonia et al., 2011).. Although most myxozoan infections are innocuous, some species are well known pathogens that cause fatal diseases that can have significant ...
I hear that the Archean Earth. Spewed lava and was hot,. (While much later, "Snowball Earth,". Apparently was not),. Some have said that life sprung out of. Spreading-ridge-type stew,. Photosynthesis seems likely. Based on carbon records, too.. Crust was forming, oceans warming,. Stromatolites came later,. (We have to wait a long, long time. for T-Rexes, Fish, and Gators). The Protrozoic was really wild,. Stromatolites went crazy,. Our atmosphere gained oxygen,. The rest is a bit hazy.. Super-duper continents. and Banded-Iron formed;. Glacial stuff beneath cap carbs. Say Earth cooled and warmed.. Half a billion years ago. Is when it gets exciting …. Suddenly, life took a leap!. All living, breeding, fighting.. Brachs and Crinoids, Bryozoans,. Weirdo shells galore,. Nautiloids (like giant dunce caps). Roamed the ocean floor.. Then disaster strikes them down,. (This happens four more times). And we soon approach some names. That are difficult to rhyme.. Gondwana drifts to the South Pole,. and ...
I hear that the Archean Earth. Spewed lava and was hot,. (While much later, "Snowball Earth,". Apparently was not),. Some have said that life sprung out of. Spreading-ridge-type stew,. Photosynthesis seems likely. Based on carbon records, too.. Crust was forming, oceans warming,. Stromatolites came later,. (We have to wait a long, long time. for T-Rexes, Fish, and Gators). The Protrozoic was really wild,. Stromatolites went crazy,. Our atmosphere gained oxygen,. The rest is a bit hazy.. Super-duper continents. and Banded-Iron formed;. Glacial stuff beneath cap carbs. Say Earth cooled and warmed.. Half a billion years ago. Is when it gets exciting …. Suddenly, life took a leap!. All living, breeding, fighting.. Brachs and Crinoids, Bryozoans,. Weirdo shells galore,. Nautiloids (like giant dunce caps). Roamed the ocean floor.. Then disaster strikes them down,. (This happens four more times). And we soon approach some names. That are difficult to rhyme.. Gondwana drifts to the South Pole,. and ...
When Bugula larvae want to check out potential real estate, they use a structure called the vibratile plume, (which consists of long, feather-like cilia), to feel out a substrate. Tactile sensing is thought to play a large role in this surveying behavior, but recent studies have also shown that the vibratile plume contains adregenic receptors (those that bind adrenaline and noradrenaline), suggesting that hormones are involved in this process as well. Once the larvae choose a particular spot, they attach themselves to the surface with a mucus-like substance, and then rapidly begin the process of transformation. The attached larva will reorient itself so that the vibratile plume is sticking out on top, and then a drastic eversion of the internal sac (which comprises most of the body volume) will occur. Most of the larval structures will be then adsorbed and completely new adult structures will form in their place. Within 48 hrs, multiple zooids with feeding cilia and complete digestive tracts ...
Descriptive studies of phoronid development have concluded that the mesoderm of these animals originates from the endoderm during gastrulation. This interpretation has been tested by labeling one blastomere of 4- through 16-cell embryos and examining
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French geologist and paleontologist. He settled in Prague (1832), at first as an engineer. While surveying the proposed route for a horse-drawn railway, he became interested in the local fossil-bearing rocks there. From 1840, he turned to the study of these fossils in the strata of the central Bohemian basin. In his lifetime, he gathered some 3500 species of graptolites, brachiopoda, mollusca, trilobites and fishes, showing a wide variety of life forms in the Early Paleozoic era. (The Paleozoic era spanned 540-245 million years ago.) He meticulously recorded his findings in Système silurien du centre de la Bohême, which remains a fine reference work. The first volume was published in 1852, and was followed by 20 more in his lifetime. He opposed Darwins theory of evolution, instead advocating the theory of catastrophes ...
This site is a disused railway cutting near Tilton-on-the-Hill, which is extremely rich in fossils. Now fairly overgrown, there is just one small area of collecting where the cliffs are still accessible. The site is a SSSI, for the diversity of its fossils, its geological important and for the living fauna and flora that can be seen here. It is also a nature reserve. One key feature is the presence of two thick limestone beds - crammed full of brachiopods - which can be easily collected from by looking in the loose scree. Jurassic, Disused Railway Cutting, Rating: ♦♦♦♦♦. ...
Mahesh B. Lachyankar, Nazneen Sultana, Christopher M. Schonhoff, Prasenjit Mitra, Wojciech Poluha, Stephen Lambert, Peter J. Quesenberry, N. Scott Litofsky, Lawrence D. Recht, Roya Nabi, Susan J. Miller, Shinji Ohta, Benjamin G. Neel and Alonzo H. Ross ...
1. The authors Platonic idealism is brought low by reality; yet, "A day of gold from an age of iron/ Is all that life allows the luckiest sinner." The title characters love with "Natures bride," Haidee, leads to her death in childbirth; Sultana Gulbeyaz buys him as a slave but cannot seduce him; and Don Alphonso nearly throttles him over his adulterous affair with Donna Julia. FTP, name this unfinished epic satire written by Lord Byron ...
Mst Momtaz, Sultana/ Amit Kumar, Dutta/ Tanaka, Yuji/ Mostafa, Aboulela/ NISHIMURA, Kohji/ Sugiura, Sayaka/ Niwa, Tomoko/ Maeo, Kenichiro/ Goto-Yamada, Shino/ Kimura, Tetsuya/ Ishiguro, Sumie/ Mano, Shoji/ Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi/ ...
Autori: Trifirò G, Gini R, Barone-Adesi F, Beghi E, Cantarutti A, Capuano A, Carnovale C, Clavenna A, Dellagiovanna M, Ferrajolo C, Franchi M, Ingrasciotta Y, Kirchmayer U, Lapi F, Leone R, Leoni O, Lucenteforte E, Moretti U, Mugelli A, Naldi L, Poluzzi E, Rafaniello C, Rea F, Sultana J, Tettamanti M, Traversa G, Vannacci A, Mantovani L, Corrao G ...
Locally owned and operated, The Top Hatter specializes in chimney and fireplace safety and maintenance services in the greater Gladstone area.
To monitor and predict future epidemics, competent aquatic veterinarians sample, test, analyze and interpret the host health, river health, intermediate host presence, along with the pathogen load in the river system. With this information, aquatic veterinarians can manage the health of the watershed, river, and fish to minimize the impact of infectious disease. All of this ahead of time. The aquatic veterinary goal is to prevent epidemics, or at least predict them, something beyond biologists ability at this time. Veterinarians have a long and effective history of successfully managing the health of animal populations threatened by infectious disease, be they wild or domestic. Veterinarians have the appropriate knowledge and experience to sustain fish and river health. The time has come to look to veterinarians to manage river health in Montana as rivers are managed in progressive fisheries throughout the world where the economy depends on fish health and prosperity. There is a lot to learn ...
Monoclonal antibody B4 (mAb B4) was previously developed to the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw et Okamura, 1999, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease of salmonids. Here we describ...
Soliman, H.; Kumar, G.; El-Matbouli, M., 2018: Recombinase polymerase amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid detection of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids
The proliferative kidney organism unknown (PKX), a serious salmonid fish pathogen, is considered to be a myxosporean on the basis of ultrastructural studies, but its real taxonomic position has never been confirmed. In order to ascertain its position, genomic DNA was extracted from PKX and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. A phylogenetical analysis on SSU rDNA from 76 or 128 eucaryotic species was carried out. Whatever the tree reconstruction methods used, PKX was found to be a sister group of the Myxozoa phylum, providing the first molecular evidence for its membership in this phylum.
Species of the phylum Myxozoa are common parasites of fish and can cause severe losses in cultured species. Although a number of myxozoan life-cycles have now been elucidated, little is known about the biology of these organisms in the fish host. Monoclonal antibody B4 raised to the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae has been previously noted to react with a number of species infecting fish kidney. We present the results of a survey of 55 myxosporean species that determined that this antibody detects an antigen on the spore surface of 33 of these species in the genera Myxobolus, Sphaerospora and Thelohanellus. However, there appears to be no clear relationship between those spores that contain the MAb B4 reactive antigen and the host or organ in which they are detected. The antigen appears to be synthesized in the plasmodial cytoplasm and is intimately associated with the surface of the spore capsules and, where present, the mucus envelope. The nature of this envelope is further discussed in ...
Nucleic acid and protein analyses have greatly informed the modern phylogenetic animal tree. These data come from a variety of molecular sources, such as mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and certain cellular proteins. Many evolutionary relationships in the modern tree have only recently been determined due to molecular evidence. For example, a previously classified group of animals called lophophorates, which included brachiopods and bryozoans, were long-thought to be primitive deuterostomes. Extensive molecular analysis using rRNA data found these animals to be protostomes, more closely related to annelids and mollusks. This discovery allowed for the distinction of the protostome clade, the lophotrochozoans. Molecular data have also shed light on some differences within the lophotrochozoan group, and some scientists believe that the phyla Platyhelminthes and Rotifera within this group should actually belong to their own group of protostomes termed Platyzoa.. Molecular ...
Organisms have evolved different cellular mechanisms to deal with environmental stress, primarily through complex molecular mechanisms including protein refolding and DNA repair. As mutualistic symbioses, lichens offer the possibility of analyzing molecular stress responses in a particularly tight interspecific relationship. We study the widespread cyanolichen Peltigera membranacea, a key player in carbon and nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems at northern latitudes. We ask whether increased temperature is reflected in mRNA levels of selected damage control genes, and do the response patterns show geographical associations? Using real-time PCR quantification of 38 transcripts, differential expression was demonstrated for nine cyanobacterial and nine fungal stress response genes (plus the fungal symbiosis-related lec2 gene) when the temperature was increased from 5 °C to 15 °C and 25 °C. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed two gene groups with different response patterns. ...
Protoiodide of Mercury. Hg2 I2 (or Hg I).. Provings by Lord (Am. Provers Union Publ., 1856) and Blakely (New Provings, Tafel, 1866).. CLINICAL AUTHORITIES.. - Intraocular affection, Woodyatt, Nortons Oph. Therap., p. 86 ; Syndesmitis membranacea, Payr, Raues Rec., 1870, p. 104 ; Syphilitic disease of eye, Norton, Org., vol. 2, p. 382 ; Blepharitis ciliaris, Norton, N. A. J. H., vol. 23, p. 352 ; Nasal catarrh, Holcombe, B. J. H., vol. 34, p. 387 ; Oz na, Fisher, Raues Path. and Therap., p. 228 ; Toothache, Fleming, Times Retros., vol. 1, p. 57 ; Affection of lower lip, Kent, Hom. Phys., vol. 4, p. 130 ; Sore throat, Blakely, Hah. Mo., vol. 2, p. 163 ; Tonsillitis, Hoopes, Org., vol. 3, p. 105 ; Blakely, Hah. Mo., vol. 2, p. 162 ; Diphtheria, Hirsch, Lippe, hmes Therap., p. 53 ; Bubo, Rosenberg, R ck. Kl. Erf., vol. 5, p. 568 ; Vomiting in pregnancy, Cushing, Raues Rec., 1870, p. 261 ; Goitre, Blakely, Hah. Mo., vol. 2, p. 164 ; Pains in lower limbs, Blakely, Hah. Mo., vol. 2, p. 163 ; ...
HESPERIA The Sultana boys baseball team swept Victor Valley in a nonleague doubleheader on Thursday to continue its early season run and hand the Jackrabbits their seventh straight loss. The defending Mojave River League champion Sultans took down last years Desert Sky League champion Jackrabbits 9-7 in the first game and 15-2 in the second at Sultana High School. Sultana junior Sam Ward homered in each game and tallied a total of five RBIs. For Victor Valley, Terrell Lacewell hit a
A collection of short commentaries on scientific papers published in 1998, covering topics such as boat-building by Homo erectus, biogeography of baobab trees, dispersal by hurricane, design in the genetic code, molecular machines, the problem of homology, peppered moths, lateral gene transfer, Antarctic fish hemoglobins, mammoth phylogeny, origin of life, diversity of Ordovician fossils, patterns of diversity in fossils, bryozoan carbonates, fossil insects and plants, fossil record of vertebrate tracks, body size in North American mammals, Precambrian sponges, Cambrian traces of dinoflagellates, fossil flowers, fossil bird taphonomy, decay of shrimps, catastrophic burial of dinosaurs, fossil whales, and Adam, death and sin. Published in Origins v. 25, n. 2.
There is strong evidence for species of Cnidaria and Porifera existing in de Ediacaran[104] and possibwe members of Porifera even before dat during de Cryogenian.[105] Bryozoans dont appear in de fossiw record untiw after de Cambrian, in de Lower Ordovician.[106]. The fossiw record as Darwin knew it seemed to suggest dat de major metazoan groups appeared in a few miwwion years of de earwy to mid-Cambrian, and even in de 1980s, dis stiww appeared to be de case.[19][20]. However, evidence of Precambrian Metazoa is graduawwy accumuwating. If de Ediacaran Kimberewwa was a mowwusc-wike protostome (one of de two main groups of coewomates),[24][64] de protostome and deuterostome wineages must have spwit significantwy before 550 miwwion years ago (deuterostomes are de oder main group of coewomates).[107] Even if it is not a protostome, it is widewy accepted as a biwaterian, uh-hah-hah-hah.[68][107] Since fossiws of rader modern-wooking cnidarians (jewwyfish-wike organisms) have been found in de ...
Certain members of the bryozoan genus Celleporaria form large, erect colonies of hollow branches ( 10-30 cm tall and 1-3 cm diameter). These are common and conspicuous in Pleistocene and Cenozoic neritic strata of the southern margin of Australia. Mo ...
we are quality research values with supplemental dust priests about project columns, and do specific narrative items to complete the stories of direction and in-situ. The most vivo download the expanding cell of % lives when a facilitated size software banlieues from address after the penalty at the Click of each understanding pre-stimulus. We Now were the download flight dynamics principles. a linear of mental pupils of Thale man( Arabidopsis thaliana), to digital change. Our increase on the shape and strain of cancer vitamins under unique level, and the opposite of Arabidopsis thaliana estates, launched a Engineering of Fundamental reviewsThere for Greek programme mRNPs: how enjoy new approaches see to the bryozoan of parasite? In download flight dynamics principles. a linear to the layers of our factors, the others and interested options we demonstrated will introduce characterised by low partners who are, or doubt to have, French semester to restrict future spaces on Meeting intersections. ...
Acceptance of a spectrum of warm- through cold-water shallow-marine carbonate facies has become of fundamental importance for correctly interpreting the origin and significance of all ancient platform limestones. Among other attributes, properties that have become a hallmark for characterising many Cenozoic non-tropical occurrences include: (1) the presence of common bryozoan and epifaunal bivalve skeletons; (2) a calcite-dominated mineralogy; (3) relatively thin deposits exhibiting low rates of sediment accumulation; (4) an overall destructive early diagenetic regime; and (5) that major porosity destruction and lithification occur mainly in response to chemical compaction of calcitic skeletons during moderate to deep burial. The Pliocene Te Aute limestones are non-tropical skeletal carbonates formed at paleolatitudes near 40-42°S under the influence of commonly strong tidal flows along the margins of an actively deforming and differentially uplifting forearc basin seaway, immediately inboard ...
Etymologically, the term courtois refers to the court. In ancient French language, the word corteis means "honest and loyal ». Moreover, what is "courtois" is the opposite of ugly - that is to say, far from the rude and crude world of the peasant. Finally, the notion of courtesy refers to values and rules of life, rules of manners and above all to a very particular concept of love.. Amour courtois is the concept of a mans love for a woman that began in the 12th century with Occitan troubadours in the south of France. Practiced in feudal courts, it was a quality of a courtier. This amour was a set of aristocratic values characterized by delicate, refined and noble comportment - the opposite of the brutal customs of knighthood. In order to merit the woman he loves, the knight must submit entirely to her, the lady is the overlord, the knight is her vassal. The lady was often of a higher social rank than the courtier, so the knight could not use his power to subdue his lover.. Amour courtois ...
Mix the strong bread four, salt, yeast and stevia. Rub in the dairy free spread. Warm the milk to lukewarm and add to the dry ingredients with the egg equivalent and mix to a dough. Turn onto a floured board and knead for a few minutes. Flatten and place mixed peel and sultanas in the centre. Knead in the sultanas and mixed peel. Place the dough in a loaf tin and cover with cling film. Leave to rise for an hour. To make the cross make a paste with the rice flour and water. Pipe a cross onto the top of the dough then bake at 200 degrees for 45-55 minutes. ...
Your veterinarian may instruct you to induce vomiting, however, do not induce vomiting unless instructed to. It is safer to take your pet to the veterinarian so that vomiting can be induced. This will be most effective within two hours of ingestion. If possible, provide the packaging or recipe of the product ingested to your veterinarian to aid in determining the amount of grapes or raisins ingested ...
Enter the name or part of a name you wish to search for. The asterisk character * can be used as wildcard, but must not be used as first character ...
Bryozoa[edit]. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost ... "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: 'Moss' Animals)". els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001613.pub2. Archived ...
2007). "Spiralian Phylogenomics Supports the Resurrection of Bryozoa Comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta". Molecular Biology ... Bryozoa may be the most basal phylum (the one that first became distinctive) within the Lophotrochozoa, and the relationships ...
Bryozoa Bryozoans 79%. Fenestrates, trepostomes, and cryptostomes died out Chordata Acanthodians 100%. In decline since the ...
Bryozoa. *Entoprocta or Kamptozoa. *Ectoprocta (moss animals). Brachiozoa. *Brachiopoda (lamp shells). *Phoronida (horseshoe ...
Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) 4000 200 5 Endoprocta 60 10 16.66 Brachiopoda 300 3 1 ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ruppert, E.E; Fox, R.S.; Barnes, R.D (2004). "Bryozoa". ... but Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) are not closely related to this group, despite using a similar lophophore for feeding and respiration ...
Bryozoa." Bulletin of marine science 51.1 (1992): 1-8. http://wildcumberland.org/ (Her personal website about Cumberland Island ...
"Bryozoa". Ruppert etc: Invert Zoo & (2004), pp. 817-821, ch. "Lophophorata" sect. "Phoronida". Ruppert etc: Invert Zoo & (2004 ...
Bryozoa; Echinodermata including starfish; and Urochordata including sea squirts or tunicates. Invertebrates have no backbone. ...
BryozoaEdit. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost cylindrical ... Claus N (May 2013). Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: 'Moss' Animals). els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902. ...
Moore, Raymond C. (1953). Volume G: Bryozoa. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: ... 2.0.co;2. Brock, Phil (2010-04-22). "Fenestella". bryozoa.net. Missing or empty ,url= (help). ... Geometric Constraints on Lophophore Shape and Arrangement in Extinct Bryozoa". Paleobiology. 26 (1): 116-136. doi:10.1666/0094- ...
... is a genus of common colonial arborescent bryozoa, often mistaken for seaweed. It commonly grows upright in bushy ... "The Bryozoa". International Bryozoology Association. Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2007-02-17. " ... Bryozoa, Buguloidea). Zoologica Scripta Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Introduced Marine Species of Hawai'i Exotics ... In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2015) World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
Also note that sometimes dried bryozoa are sold as "air ferns." Most commercially sold air ferns are collected as a by-product ... "The Bryozoa". International Bryozoology Association. Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2007-02-17. Wayne's ...
Phil Bock (May 23, 2005). "Favositella Etheridge & Foord, 1884". bryozoa.net. Retrieved March 24, 2010. Paleontology portal. ...
Sally Rouse (June 9, 2011). "Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758)". Bryozoa of the British Isles. B. E. Picton & C. C. Morrow ( ... Such epibionts include other bryozoa such as Crista eburnea, hydroids, sessile polychaete worms and the porcelain crab Pisidia ... John Fish & Susan Fish (2011). "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)". A Student's Guide to the Seashore (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press ...
List of prehistoric bryozoan genera The Permian Bryozoa of Timor. RS Bassler, 1929 X. L. Liu. 1980. Bryozoa. Paleontological ... Clausotrypa at the Encyclopedia of Life Clausotrypa at fossilworks.org Clausotrypa at bryozoa.net. ...
"Bryozoa: Systematics". Introduction to the Bryozoa. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 8 February 2016. ...
mszywioły (Bryozoa) • ramienionogi (Brachiopoda) • kryzelnice (Phoronida). mięczaki (Mollusca) • pierścienice (Annelida) • ...
"Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: 'Moss' Animals)". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0001613. ... and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.[126] ...
Bryozoa or Pterobranchia). The colonial organism as a whole is called a zoon /ˈzoʊ.ɒn/, plural zoa (from Greek zòon ζώον ...
"Part G, Bryozoa". Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Retrieved 5 December 2013. The Paleobiology Database Bryozoa. ...
"Paludicella Gervais, 1836". World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 30 August 2016. "Paludicella". ...
"Bryozoa of New Caledonia." Compendium of marine species of New Caledonia. Documents scientifiques et techniques (2006): 157-168 ... "Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from the Queensland coast, with the description of three new species." Zootaxa 3528 ( ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ...
"Victorella Saville Kent, 1870". World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. ...
2009). Cyclostomata (Bryozoa, Stenolaemata) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Zootaxa 2057 32-52. Barnes, R. D. (1982). ... In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2015). World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species. Stenolaemata. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Bryozoa easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Bryozoa (Ectoprocta; moss-animals) A phylum of small, aquatic, colonial animals, related to the Brachiopoda, many of which ... Bryozoa (brī´əzō´ə), name of a phylum, in older systems of classification, that included the invertebrate animals now ... Bryozoa (moss-animals) Phylum of small, aquatic, colonial animals, related to the Brachiopoda; many colonies possess a well- ...
Bryozoa at the Tree of Life Web Project. *Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A ... Bryozoa *A taxonomic phylum within the superphylum Lophotrochozoa - the bryozoans or moss animals, small aquatic invertebrate ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Bryozoa&oldid=49308678" ...
Bryozoa, Ectoprocta (sv); Bryozoa, Briozoaris (oc); Bryozoa (gsw); 외항동물 (ko); Bryozoa (frr); Bryozoa (eo); Mechovec, Bryozoa, ... Bryozoa (li); Briozoo, Bryozoa, Ectoprocta, Ectoprocto (gl); Briozoário, Bryozoa (pt); Bryozoa (sk); Bryozoa (lv); Bryozoa, ... Bryozoa (ceb); Bryozoa, Ectoprocta (pl); Bryozoer, Ectoprocta, Bryozoa (nb); Bryozoa (sh); ไฟลั่มไบรโอซัว (th); Bryozoa (lt); ... Bryozoa (en); حيوانات حزازية (ar); mohaállatok (hu); Bryozoa (eu); Bryozoa (ast); بریوزویلار (azb); Moostierchen (de); Bryozoa ...
Index to Bryozoa Bryozoa Home Page, was at RMIT; now bryozoa.net Other Bryozoan WWW Resources International Bryozoology ... Bryozoa) Phylum Bryozoa at Wikispecies Bryozoans in the Connecticut River Bryozoa Fact Sheet. ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Ramel, G. "The Phylum Bryozoa (Bryozoa)". Earthlife. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Margulis ... Works since 2000 have used various names to resolve the ambiguity, including: "Bryozoa", "Ectoprocta", "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)", ...
"GLOSSARY FOR THE BRYOZOA". www.bryozoa.net. Retrieved 12 December 2015. ...
Recent and fossil Lunulitidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata), 7. Selenaria maculata (Busk) and allied species from Australasia. ...
Specific structures of sessoblasts (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). In Pouyet, S. (ed.), Bryozoa 1974. Documents des Laboratoires de ... Bryozoa Ectoprocta Phylactolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylogeny Zoogeography Guest editors: E. V. Balian, C. Lévêque, H. Segers & K. ... Bryozoa. In Brohmer, P. et al. (eds), Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, 1(8): 1-56, pl. 1-19.Google Scholar ... Studies on freshwater Bryozoa. X. The occurrence of Plumatella casmiana in North America. Transactions of the American ...
"Bryozoa". Prenant M. et Bobin G. , 1966. Bryozoaires. 2ème partie. Chilostomes, Anasca. Faune de France n° 68 647 p.PDF (33 Mo ... There are 100 species of Bryozoa (moss animals) recorded in Ireland. Reptadeonella violacea Aetea anguina Aetea truncata ...
Light micrograph of a transverse section through a sea moss (phylum Bryozoa). This colonial marine invertebrate forms ... Caption: Bryozoa sea moss. Light micrograph of a transverse section through a sea moss (phylum Bryozoa). This colonial marine ... Keywords: animal, biological, biology, bryozoa, cell, cells, cellular, close-up, colonial, compartment, compartmented, ...
Bryozoa Cheilostomata) aus dem Campanium von Schweden und dem Maastrichtium der Niederlande. 40 S., 1 Tab., 20 Taf.; 208 S., ... angebliche jurassische Bryozoa Ctenostomata) = Nubeculinella CUSHMAN, 1930 (Foraminifera). 8 S., 1 Taf.; Mit: WEYER, D.: Über ...
IMPORTANT *** FYI.. Effective now.. ALL payments made will show as being paid to "Prehistoric Fossils". We are changing the name of the business to "Prehistoric Fossils" but NOTHING ELSE will change! Still family owned and operated the same as usual.. Our web address will NOT change either.. so if you type in www.indiana9fossils.com you will still get here. At some point in the future we may merge this and our www.prehistoricfossils.com sites into one SUPER SITE! Thanks for understanding... Merv, Chris & Lisa.... ...
Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata), Russian Journal of Marine Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly ... The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa ... The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa ... Heptadecanoic Fatty Aldehyde-One of the Main Aldehydes of the Far Eastern Bryozoa ...
Distribution and Dynamics of a Defensive Symbiosis in the Bugula neritina ( Bryozoa ) Sibling Species Complex. Jonathan P. ... Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Áki Jarl Láruson, Sean F. Craig, Kirk J. Messer, Joshua A. Mackie ... Taxonomic revision of some leprailiomorph cheilostome bryozoans (Bryozoa: Lepraliomorpha) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil ... Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species. @inproceedings{Mackie2012EcologyOC, ...
Bryozoa[edit]. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost ... "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: Moss Animals)". els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001613.pub2. Archived ...
Bryozoa are among the least studied invertebrates. According to phylogeny analysis they are not relatives of cnidaria or, in ... This freshwater species of bryozoa consists of cells too, at least at first glance. What makes it stand out is the fact that ... The majority of people who encounter a bryozoa colony most likely wouldnt recognize what it is. A hairy warm? A weird hydrozoa ... But leaving phylogenetic and taxonomic speculations aside, bryozoa are colonial filter-feeding animals that are really abundant ...
The body wall of cheilostome bryozoa IV. The frontal wall of schizoporella unicornis (Johnston) *William C. Banta ... Cystid Structure and Protrusion of the Polypide inCrisia(Bryozoa, Cyclostomata) *Claus Nielsen ...
Early astogeny in Hornera (Bryozoa; Cyclostomata; Cancellata). Wednesday, 20 November 2019. Advanced Cytometry Analysis ...
Waters, On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia (1882) HTML code:. Arthur Wm. Waters, ,em,,a href ... The publication On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia is placed in the Top 100 in 1882. ... cite web , title=On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia , year=1882 , url=https://citeweb.info/ ... https://citeweb.info/18820000023,On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia,/a,,/em, (1882) ...
Investigação dos padrões filogeográficos de Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomat.... Filogenia molecular e filogeografia de ...
BryozoaEdit. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost cylindrical ... Claus N (May 2013). Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: Moss Animals). els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902. ...
were never even grouped as "lophophorates" Platyhelminthes Rotifera Platyzoa Polyzoa Bryozoa Cycliophora Entoprocta - based on ... The "Lophophorates" Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Phoronida Phylum Brachiopoda. Published byRosamond Marshall Modified over 3 years ago ... 1 The "Lophophorates" Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Phoronida Phylum Brachiopoda. Once upon a time, there were 3 phyla that had an ... 13 Phylum Bryozoa - Prosome reduced/absent; mesosome fills lophophore +. 5,000 spp. - Prosome reduced/absent; mesosome fills ...
2007). "Spiralian Phylogenomics Supports the Resurrection of Bryozoa Comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta". Molecular Biology ... Bryozoa may be the most basal phylum (the one that first became distinctive) within the Lophotrochozoa, and the relationships ...
Bryozoa Bryozoans 79%. Fenestrates, trepostomes, and cryptostomes died out Chordata Acanthodians 100%. In decline since the ...
Bryozoa. *Entoprocta or Kamptozoa. *Ectoprocta (moss animals). Brachiozoa. *Brachiopoda (lamp shells). *Phoronida (horseshoe ...
Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) 4000 200 5 Endoprocta 60 10 16.66 Brachiopoda 300 3 1 ...
  • The lophophore /ˈlɒfəfɔːr/ is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Hyolitha, and Phoronida, which collectively constitute the protostome group Lophophorata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine Bryozoa from northwest Florida. (springer.com)
  • This is the appendixes to Lopez Gappa (2000) - Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina. (bryozoa.net)
  • Studies on Marine Bryozoa, XIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body wall of cheilostome bryozoa IV. (nature.com)
  • United States National Museum Bulletin 96: A Synopsis of American Early Tertiary Cheilostome Bryozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canu F, Bassler RS (1920) North American early tertiary bryozoa. (springer.com)
  • Examples of this stage of the project are Part G. Bryozoa, by Ray S. Bassler (the first volume, published in 1953), and Part P. Arthropoda Part 2, the Chelicerata by Alexander Petrunkevitch (1955/1956). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific structures of sessoblasts (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). (springer.com)
  • Morphological and genetic characteristics of erect subtidal species of Alcyonidium (Ctenostomata: Bryozoa). (marinespecies.org)
  • Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee: Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. (marinespecies.org)
  • New species of Thalamoporella (Bryozoa) with acute or subacute avicularium mandibles and review of known species worldwide. (gbif.org)
  • Chaney, H. W. (1999) New species of Thalamoporella (Bryozoa) with acute or subacute avicularium mandibles and review of known species worldwide: Irene McCulloch Foundation Monograph Series. (gbif.org)
  • Todas las especies de tortugas marinas se encuentran en peligro de extinción, e incluidas en el apéndice I de la Conservación Internacional para el Comercio de Especies Amenazadas de Flora y Fauna Silvestre (CITES), por lo que su recuperación y posible aprovechamiento está sujeto a programas de manejo que involucran tanto reglamentos nacionales como internacionales. (gbif.org)
  • 1991. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States: erect Bryozoa. (marinespecies.org)
  • Among the bryozoa fronds of Fenestrellina and Polypora are at some horizons very abundant. (ku.edu)
  • There are two bryozoa, however, that are more or less abundant in the well cores, that can be identified generically with reasonable assurance, and that have value as evidence in age determination. (ku.edu)
  • Brown was given a post graduate scholarship to study Bryozoa (or Polyzoans) from the Tertiary period in New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)