A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
Animals that have no spinal column.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain aporphines, acetogenins and rollinone.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Annual statements reviewing the status of the administrative and operational functions and accomplishments of an institution or organization.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.

Identification of sibling species of the bryozoan Bugula neritina that produce different anticancer bryostatins and harbor distinct strains of the bacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula". (1/81)

Although the cosmopolitan marine bryozoan Bugula neritina is recognized as a single species, natural products from this bryozoan vary among populations. B. neritina is the source of the anticancer drug candidate bryostatin 1, but it also produces other bryostatins, and different populations contain different bryostatins. We defined two chemotypes on the basis of previous studies: chemotype O contains bryostatins with an octa-2,4-dienoate substituent (including bryostatin 1), as well as other bryostatins; chemotype M lacks bryostatins with the octa-2,4-dienoate substituent. B. neritina contains a symbiotic gamma-proteobacterium "Candidatus Endobugula sertula," and it has been proposed that bryostatins may be synthesized by bacterial symbionts. In this study, B. neritina populations along the California coast were sampled for genetic variation and bryostatin content. Colonies that differ in chemotype also differ genetically by 8% in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene; this difference is sufficient to suggest that the chemotypes represent different species. Each species contains a distinct strain of "E. sertula" that differs at four nucleotide sites in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. These results indicate that the chemotypes have a genetic basis rather than an environmental cause. Gene sequences from an Atlantic sample matched sequences from the California chemotype M colonies, suggesting that this type may be cosmopolitan due to transport on boat hulls.  (+info)

Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates. (2/81)

A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.  (+info)

Overgrowth competition between clades: implications for interpretation of the fossil record and overgrowth indices. (3/81)

Overgrowth interactions (2693 in total) were observed among three major groups (arguably clades) of bryozoans--cheilostomatids (57 species), ctenostomatids (3 species), and cyclostomatids (14 species). The bryozoans studied here occur in shallow water at high-temperate polar latitudes where they encrust hard substrata such as rock piles. The main study site was the intertidal and infralittoral zones of Kodiak Island, Alaska, but observations were also made in similar zones of South Georgia Island and the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Cheilostomatids dominated the number of species, individuals, and interactions at all depths. Intraclade interactions formed 73.7% of the encounters for cheilostomatids, 1.6% for ctenostomatids, and 5.7% for cyclostomatids. The competitive ranking of the three clades was broadly ctenostomatids > cyclostomatids > cheilostomatids. Significantly, these results contradict all previous quantitative studies of bryozoan overgrowth, in which cheilostomatids are reported to overgrow cyclostomatids at a higher rate. From these studies and the literature, we calculated win indices to vary from 0 to 0.42 for living cyclostomatids, from 0.08 to 0.9 for living cheilostomatids, and from 0.25 to 0.75 for living ctenostomatids. The win indices of cyclostomatid and cheilostomatid clades show significantly more variation in living assemblages than in fossil assemblages. This disparity may be due to differential preservation (polar and subpolar assemblages last less than 4 years). The diversity was very high in terms of both species richness and interaction types (outcomes between competitor pairs). Comparison with the literature suggests the possibility that nearshore diversity of bryozoans may be bimodal (have two peaks) between high arctic and antarctic latitudes. Indices of success in overgrowth competition have been constructed in various ways. For cheilostomatids, the method of calculation had little influence on the ranking of representatives. In contrast, the apparent success of ctenostomatids and cyclostomatids varied hugely with how the index was calculated. This inconsistency is due to the use of very different strategies in overgrowth competition; among the two latter groups, many interactions involve tied outcomes.  (+info)

Induction of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss via the bryozoan Fredericella sultana infected with Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. (4/81)

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a serious infection of wild and farmed salmonids, affecting mainly the kidney and spleen but becoming systemic in most susceptible fish hosts. This report deals with the transmission of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw & Okamura 1999 from naturally infected bryozoans Fredericella sultana Blumenbach 1779 to naive rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792, thereby confirming the recent conclusion based on partial 18S rDNA sequence data that bryozoans are hosts of the myxozoan parasite T. bryosalmonae (formerly PKX organism) that causes the disease. Parasite transmission using T. bryosalmonae spores was successful by short-term exposure to disrupted bryozoans known to contain T. bryosalmonae spores and T bryosalmonae sacs liberated from the bryozoans, and by long-term cohabitation with infected bryozoan colonies. Infection was confirmed by examination of kidney imprints, detection of the parasite in stained tissue sections, PCR using T. bryosalmonae-specific primers, and comparison of amplified 18S rDNA sequences from the bryozoans and experimentally infected fish. Transmission was not apparent, nor was PKD induced, in fish challenged by intraperitoneal injection of spores isolated from F. sultana.  (+info)

Evidence for the biosynthesis of bryostatins by the bacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. (5/81)

The marine bryozoan, Bugula neritina, is the source of the bryostatins, a family of macrocyclic lactones with anticancer activity. Bryostatins have long been suspected to be bacterial products. B. neritina harbors the uncultivated gamma proteobacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula." In this work several lines of evidence are presented that show that the symbiont is the most likely source of bryostatins. Bryostatins are complex polyketides similar to bacterial secondary metabolites synthesized by modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I). PKS-I gene fragments were cloned from DNA extracted from the B. neritina-"E. sertula" association, and then primers specific to one of these clones, KSa, were shown to amplify the KSa gene specifically and universally from total B. neritina DNA. In addition, a KSa RNA probe was shown to bind specifically to the symbiotic bacteria located in the pallial sinus of the larvae of B. neritina and not to B. neritina cells or to other bacteria. Finally, B. neritina colonies grown in the laboratory were treated with antibiotics to reduce the numbers of bacterial symbionts. Decreased symbiont levels resulted in the reduction of the KSa signal as well as the bryostatin content. These data provide evidence that the symbiont E. sertula has the genetic potential to make bryostatins and is necessary in full complement for the host bryozoan to produce normal levels of bryostatins. This study demonstrates that it may be possible to clone bryostatin genes from B. neritina directly and use these to produce bryostatins in heterologous host bacteria.  (+info)

Evidence that infectious stages of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are present throughout the year. (6/81)

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a hyperplastic condition of the lymphoid tissue of salmonids infected with the spores of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae, a myxozoan parasite formerly designated PKX, which has recently been described as a parasite of several species of bryozoans. The occurrence of PKD is generally associated with seasonal increase in water temperature, with research indicating that transmission of the disease does not occur below 12 to 13 degrees C. This suggested that the infectious stages are absent from about November to March/April. Here we document the transmission of PKD at water temperatures and seasons previously considered to be non permissive for PKD infection. The exposure of naive rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) to PKD-infected water ranging from 8 to 13 degrees C during the Autumn, Winter and early Spring, resulted in the infection of kidney interstitium once the trout were transferred to 16 degrees C. In addition, cohabitation studies were conducted with the bryozoan host Fredericella sultana collected from a river at times of low seasonal temperatures because this bryozoan species overwinters as living colonies. Cohabitation of trout with colonies of F sultana in parasite-free city water at 16 degrees C, also led to renal lymphoid tissue infection with the parasite and even to nephromegaly. Our results provide evidence that the infectious stages of T bryosalmonae for rainbow trout were present in the water throughout the entire year and that the impact of temperature on the development of PKD is primarily a result of the kinetics of Tetracapsula multiplication in bryozoan and fish hosts.  (+info)

Polarization of competition increases with latitude. (7/81)

Many organisms overlap in their use of resources in space and time. Where and when resources are restricted, species must compete for them. Living space, often a critical resource controlling food and mate availability, is directly contested by organisms in most habitats. The ensuing animal interactions generally result in a winner gaining space and a loser, which may die. Contact matrices from studies of interference competition in encrusting marine Bryozoa (clonal and colonial animals), spanning at least 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres, were analysed and subjected to a modern transitivity index. Only data for Bryozoa were used because (i) use of a single taxon with restricted ecology simplifies the scope for types of encounters, (and therefore) interpretation; and (ii) ecological bias is reduced because bryozoans are abundant at all latitudes. The analysis shows that assemblage competition is more hierarchical towards both poles. Thus, poorer competitors fail more frequently in interactions with increasing latitude. The cause of this trend is the simplification of overall outcomes between competitors, such as fewer ties, reversals in outcome or competitive loops (where low-ranking competitors beat those of higher ranking). The implication of such a trend is that the maintenance of biological diversity at high latitudes may principally be by physical rather than biological (competition) processes. Certainly, ocean surface energy increases with latitude through wind and wave action (and ice scour in polar regions).  (+info)

Female investment is retarded pending reception of allosperm in a hermaphroditic colonial invertebrate. (8/81)

Young colonies of the bryozoan Celleporella hyalina are capable of acquiring water-borne allosperm and of using it to fertilize ova for a period of 3-6 weeks after reaching female sexual maturity. In these simultaneous hermaphrodites, early allocation to female modules, but not male, is greatly enhanced by the acquisition of allosperm. The degree of enhancement is inversely proportional to coancestry of the recipient and donor colonies, thus promoting outcrossing. This apparently novel mechanism of adjusting operational sex ratio depends on the uptake and storage of sperm by nonreproductive (somatic) modules and subsequent translocation to females.  (+info)

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Read The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata), Russian Journal of Marine Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bryozoan metabolites: an ecological perspective. AU - Sharp, Jasmine H.. AU - Winson, Michael K.. AU - Porter, Joanne S.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - This Highlight covers the chemical ecology of bryozoans, primarily the ecological functions of bryozoan natural products. The Highlight covers the period 1980-2006 and is arranged taxonomically, according to the bryozoan Treatise classiffication.. AB - This Highlight covers the chemical ecology of bryozoans, primarily the ecological functions of bryozoan natural products. The Highlight covers the period 1980-2006 and is arranged taxonomically, according to the bryozoan Treatise classiffication.. KW - ANTI-NEOPLASTIC AGENTS. KW - AMATHIA-WILSONI KIRKPATRICK. KW - FLUSTRA-FOLIACEA. KW - BETA-CARBOLINE ALKALOIDS. KW - ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. KW - INDOLE-IMIDAZOLE ALKALOIDS. KW - CANDIDATUS ENDOBUGULA SERTULA. KW - MARINE NATURAL-PRODUCTS. KW - DOGGER BANK ITCH. KW - KINASE-C ISOZYMES. U2 - 10.1039/b617546e. DO - 10.1039/b617546e. M3 - ...
The present study considers 88 bryozoan species occurring in freshwater: 69 phylactolaemate and 19 gymnolaemate species. Roughly 49% of these species are confined to one zoogeographical region. The...
Stereotypic cleavage patterns play a crucial role in cell fate determination by precisely positioning early embryonic blastomeres. Although misplaced cell divisions can alter blastomere fates and cause embryonic defects, cleavage patterns have been modified several times during animal evolution. However, it remains unclear how evolutionary changes in cleavage impact the specification of blastomere fates. Here, we analyze the transition from spiral cleavage - a stereotypic pattern remarkably conserved in many protostomes - to a biradial cleavage pattern, which occurred during the evolution of bryozoans. Using 3D-live imaging time-lapse microscopy (4D-microscopy), we characterize the cell lineage, MAPK signaling, and the expression of 16 developmental genes in the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. We found that the molecular identity and the fates of early bryozoan blastomeres are similar to the putative homologous blastomeres in spiral-cleaving embryos. Our work suggests that bryozoans have retained
Bryozoans are sessile fauna forming colonies through asexual budding following settlement of sexually produced larvae (Hayward & Ryland, 1995a). Larvae have a short pelagic life time of up to about 12 hours (Ryland, 1976). Recruitment is dependent on the supply of suitable, stable, hard substrata (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976; Dyrynda, 1994)and the abundance of bryozoans is positively correlated with supply of stable hard substrata and hence with current strength (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976). Even in the presence of available substratum, Ryland (1976) noted that significant recruitment in bryozoans only occurred in the proximity of breeding colonies. Flustra foliacea is a coarse, foliaceous bryozoan that tends to be found on stones and shells, reaches 10 - 20 cm in height (Porter, 2012), is common to all coasts in northwest Europe (Hayward & Ryland, 1995a) and is found across all coasts in the British Isles (NBN, 2015). Stebbing (1971a) noted that Flustra foliacea on the Gower peninsular, ...
The relationship between diversity and stability has interested ecologists since the inception of the discipline (35), and the absence of a resolution reflects the complexity of the problem. Much of the complexity derives from the multiplicity of diversity-stability relationships, depending on the definitions of diversity and stability and on the context in which an ecosystem is perturbed. We cannot expect a general conclusion about the diversity-stability relationship, and simply increasing the number of studies on different ecosystems will not generate one. Rather than search for generalities in patterns of diversity-stability relationships, we recommend investigating mechanisms. A given diversity-stability relationship may be driven by multiple mechanisms, and the same mechanisms may evoke different diversity-stability relationships depending on the definitions of diversity and stability. We need more studies revealing exactly what these mechanisms are. This requires models joined to ...
Boeck A. 1872. De Skandinaviske og Arktiske Amphipoder. Christiana: A.W. Brogger. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9921 Busk G. 1884. Report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Part I - The Cheilostomata. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, Zoology 10(30): xxiv, 1-216, 36 pls. Chimonides P.J. & Cook P.L. 1981. Observations on living colonies of Selenaria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 22: 207-219. Coleman C.O. 2003. Digital inking: How to make perfect line drawings on computers. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution, Electronic Supplement 14: 1-14. http://senckenberg.de/odes/03-14.htm, accessed May 2009. Coleman C.O. 2009. Drawing setae the digital way. Zoosystematics and Evolution 852: 305-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoos.200900008 Cook P.L. 1985. Bryozoa from Ghana: a preliminary survey. Annales du Musée Royal de lAfrique Central 238: 1-315. Cook P.L. & Chimonides P.J. 1981. Morphology and ...
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. It causes Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD), one of the most serious parasitic diseases of salmonid populations in Europe and North America[1], which causes losses of up to 90% in infected populations. Until the late 1990s, the organism which caused PKD was enigmatic, thus called PKX organism. The causative agent of PKD was recognized as a form of Malacosporean[2], but the absence of mature spores in salmonid hosts, the lack of fish to fish transmission, and seasonality of the disease suggested that the life cycle of PKX was completed in another host and that infection of salmonids could be accidental. Korotneff observed a myxozoan in the bryozoan, Plumatella fungosa, in 1892, which he described as Myxosporidium bryozoides[3]. Myxozoan infection of bryozoans was not reported again until 1996. Ecological investigations of freshwater bryozoans in North America discovered parasitic sacs of a myxozoan species, freely floating ...
Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a central fluid-filled lumen surrounded by a neuroepithelium. Preliminary observations have shown a small lumen within the cerebral ganglion of the ctenostome Paludicella articulata. Ctenostome-grade ectoprocts are of phylogenetic relevance since they are considered to have retained ancestral ectoproct features. Therefore, the ctenostome Paludicella articulata was analyzed in order to contribute to the basal neural bauplan of ctenostomes and the Ectoprocta in general. The presence of a lumen and a neuroepithelial organization of the nerve cells within the cerebral ganglion are confirmed. Four tentacle nerves project from the cerebral ganglion into each tentacle. Three of the tentacle nerves (one abfrontal and two latero-frontal nerves) have an intertentacular origin, whereas the medio-frontal nerve
Autozooids of the cheilostome bryozoan Aquiloniella scabracontain rod-like bacteria in the funicular bodies - the complex swellings of the funicular strands. Each funicular body contains symbionts...
A succession of developmental types in the lophophores of lingulid brachiopods is reported from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang deposits of South China. These types range from trocholophe, schizolophe to simple coiled spirolophe. Of Atdabanian age, this succession of forms is mirrored in the ontogeny of the lophophore of Recent linguloids, thus demonstrating a close similarity in the development of the lophophores of Cambrian and Recent forms. We illustrate also more than 10 extraordinary specimens with aberrant dispositions of the lophophoral arms that extend to unusual lengths either inside or outside the shell.
THE accepted view that zooids of the Polyzoa (or Ectoprocta) are small enough for gaseous exchange to be achieved by diffusion has recently been challenged. Mangum and Schopf1, having measured oxygen consumption in Bugula turrita, concluded that diffusion alone was insufficient to supply oxygen to all parts of the zooid. They proposed a circulation of body fluid, brought about by the periodically repeated process of retraction and protrusion of the lophophore and tentacles, which is observed in these organisms. This, they supposed, would cause the transfer of oxygen-rich coelomic fluid from the region of the lophophore and tentacle sheath to the lower part of the zooid.
Entoprocta, or Kamptozoa, is a phylum of tiny sessile aquatic animals ranging from 0.1 to 7 millimetres (0.004 to 0.28 in) long. Mature individuals are goblet-shaped, on relatively long stalks. They are filter-feeders, with a crown of tentacles whose cilia generate water currents towards the mouth. Both the mouth and anus lie inside the crown. The superficially similar Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) have the anus outside a crown of hollow tentacles. Most families of entoprocts are colonial, and all but 2 of the 150 species are marine. A few solitary species can move slowly. Some species eject unfertilized ova into the water while others keep their ova in brood chambers until they hatch, and some of these species use placenta-like organs to nourish the developing eggs. After hatching, the larvae swim for a short time and then settle on a surface. There they metamorphose, and the larval gut generally rotates by up to 180°, so that the mouth and anus face upwards. Both colonial and solitary species also ...
Lophophore hypothesis: Lophophore hypothesis,, viewpoint that conodonts, small toothlike structures found as fossils in marine rocks over a long span of geologic time, are actually parts of and
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The structure of bryozoan Flustra sp. fatty acids was investigated. It was shown that the main fatty acids (FA) of the animal are (as percent of total): 22 : 6(n-3), 23.3%; 20 : 5(n-3), 14.2%; 16 : 0, 10.2%; 16 : 1 (n-7), 7.7%; 18 : 0, 3.0%; 18 :1 (n-7), 2.8%; 16 : 2, 2.7%; 20 : 1, 2.3%; 14 : 0, 2.3%; 20 : 4(n-6), 2.1%; 16 : l(n-5), 1.8%; 22 : 5(n-3), 1.8%; 20 : 4(n-3), 1.4%; 18 : 4(n-3), 1.3%; phitanic acid, 1.0%; 16 : 4, 1.0%; 18 : l(n-9), 1.0%; 20 : 3(n-6), 1.0% and 16 : 3, 1.0%. Besides these common fatty acids, 2.7% of C20 : 2, 2.0% of C22 : 2 non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) dienoic FA and the extralong-chain polyenoic fatty acid (VLCPUFA) 24 : 6(n-3) were found among the lipids of this bryozoan, contents of which was 0.9% in total lipids, but as high as 3% in phosphatidylethanolamine. Thus, bryozoans present one more type of marine invertebrates, in which specimens of VLCPUFA were found. © 1996 MAHK Hayka/Interperiodica Publishing ...
Senior Researcher. Gokhlesh Kumar has been worked on proliferative kidney disease and identified differentially expressed genes in the kidney of brown trout and rainbow trout during Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) development. In addition, he identified and quantified whole cell proteins of biotype 1 and biotype 2 Yersinia ruckeri strains using shotgun proteomic approach. Further, he identified differentially regulated proteins in the head kidney and spleen of rainbow trout in response to the Y. ruckeri strains, which offer new insight into the systemic response at the protein level in rainbow trout. Presently, he is focusing on in vivo induced genes of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) that are induced and expressed in fish and bryozoan hosts during the course of infection.. Project: In vivo induced genes of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Financing: FWF (Austrian Science Fund ...
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Free Online Library: Evolutionary and structural diversification of the larval nervous system among marine bryozoans.(Report) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Bryozoa Physiological aspects Research Bryozoans Larval development Nervous system
Cook, P.L. Bock, P.E. Hayward, P.J. Gordon, D.P., 2018. Class Gymnolaemata, Order Cheilostomata. In: Cook, P.L. Bock, P.E. Gordon, D.P. Weaver, H.J., Editors, Australian Bryozoa Volume 2: Taxonomy of Australian Families.: 61-279. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, VIC 314pp ...
Cook, P.L. Bock, P.E. Hayward, P.J. Gordon, D.P., 2018. Class Gymnolaemata, Order Cheilostomata. In: Cook, P.L. Bock, P.E. Gordon, D.P. Weaver, H.J., Editors, Australian Bryozoa Volume 2: Taxonomy of Australian Families.: 61-279. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, VIC 314pp ...
Hierodula membranacea is a large mantid, sharing its common name giant Asian mantis with other large members of genus Hierodula. Its colours vary from green to yellow-green, or even brown to reddish-brown, similar to those of the giant Indian mantis and the giant Malaysian mantis. As the name suggests, it originates fr
These biotopes are considered to have a high recovery potential. Sebens (1985, 1986) noted that bryozoans and hydroids covered scraped areas within 4 months in spring, summer and autumn. Hydroids exhibit rapid rates of recovery from disturbance through repair, asexual reproduction and larval colonization. Sparks (1972) reviewed the regeneration abilities and rapid repair of injuries. Fragmentation of the hydroid provides a route for short distance dispersal, for example, each fragmented part of Sertularia cupressina can regenerate itself following damage (Berghahn & Offermann, 1999). New colonies of the same genotype may, therefore, arise through damage to existing colonies (Gili & Hughes, 1995). Many hydroid species also produce dormant, resting stages that are very resistant of environmental perturbation (Gili & Hughes 1995). Although colonies may be removed or destroyed, the resting stages may survive attached to the substratum and provide a mechanism for rapid recovery (Cornelius, 1995a; ...
Agraulis vanillae, Anisonema, Archaea, Arthropoda, Astasia, Atraktomonas laevis, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Cassionympha cassius, Caudata, Cetacea, Chaetognatha, Chasmostoma nieuportense, Colacium, Craniata, Cryptobranchidae, Cycliophora, Deuterostomia, Dicamptodontidae, Dinoflagellates, Dinosauria, Dione, Dryadula phaetusa, Dryas iulia, Echiura, Elephantidae, Entosiphon, Euglena, Euglenopsis, Euglenozoa, Eutreptia, Eutreptiella, Fouquieriaceae, Gnathostomata, Gyropaigne, Heteronema, Hynobiidae, Jenningsia, Kinorhyncha, Lentomonas applanatum, Limnognathia maerski, Living Amphibians, Loricifera, Mollusca, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Pauropoda, Peranema, Petalomonas, Phacus, Phoronida, Platyhelminthes, Plethodontidae, Priapulida, Proteidae, Pycnogonida, Rhyacotritonidae, Saccharomycetales, Salientia, Sirenidae, Sphenomonas, Ustilaginomycotina, Viruses, Wallemiales ...
Agraulis vanillae, Anisonema, Archaea, Arthropoda, Astasia, Atraktomonas laevis, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Cassionympha cassius, Caudata, Cetacea, Chaetognatha, Chasmostoma nieuportense, Colacium, Craniata, Cryptobranchidae, Cycliophora, Deuterostomia, Dicamptodontidae, Dinoflagellates, Dinosauria, Dione, Dryadula phaetusa, Dryas iulia, Echiura, Elephantidae, Entosiphon, Euglena, Euglenopsis, Euglenozoa, Eutreptia, Eutreptiella, Fouquieriaceae, Gnathostomata, Gyropaigne, Heteronema, Hynobiidae, Jenningsia, Kinorhyncha, Lentomonas applanatum, Limnognathia maerski, Living Amphibians, Loricifera, Mollusca, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Pauropoda, Peranema, Petalomonas, Phacus, Phoronida, Platyhelminthes, Plethodontidae, Priapulida, Proteidae, Pycnogonida, Rhyacotritonidae, Saccharomycetales, Salientia, Sirenidae, Sphenomonas, Ustilaginomycotina, Viruses, Wallemiales ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antibacterial ent-eusynstyelamide B and eusynstyelamides D, E, and F from the arctic bryozoan tegella cf. spitzbergensis. AU - Tadesse, Margey. AU - Tabudravu, Jioji N.. AU - Jaspars, Marcel. AU - Strøm, Morten B.. AU - Hansen, Espen. AU - Andersen, Jeanette H.. AU - Kristiansen, Per E.. AU - Haug, Tor. PY - 2011/4/25. Y1 - 2011/4/25. N2 - The brominated tryptophan-derived ent-eusynstyelamide B (1) and three new derivatives, eusynstyelamides D, E, and F (2-4), were isolated from the Arctic bryozoan Tegella cf. spitzbergensis. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and analysis of mass spectrometric data. The enantiomer of 1, eusynstyelamide B, has previously been isolated from the Australian ascidian Eusynstyela latericius. Antimicrobial activities are here reported for 1-4, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as low as 6.25 μg/mL for 1 and 4 against Staphylococcus aureus. Eusynstyelamides 2 and 3 showed weak cytotoxic ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bryozoan, lophophorate animals that consist of microscopic zooids that form colonies. A thin crust is formed around each zooid consisting of a protein and mucopolysaccharide material than can be calcified. Magnification x16 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/4244
Hayward, P.J. (2001). Bryozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 325-333 ...
new combination reference Waeschenbach, A.; Vieira, L. M.; Reverter Gil, O.; Souto Derungs, J.; Nascimento, K. B.; Fehlauer Ale, K. H. (2015). A phylogeny of Vesiculariidae (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata) supports synonymization of three genera and reveals possible cryptic diversity. Zoologica Scripta. , available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12130 [details] ...
Hayward, P.J. (2001). Bryozoa, ,B,,I,in,/I,,/B,: Costello, M.J. ,i,et al.,/i, (Ed.) (2001). ,i,European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,,/i, 50: pp. 325-333 ...
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ref. 833). ...
Acanthodoris brunnea, about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, photographed on the sediment of Cowlitz Bay. Reported to eat bryozoans, this dorid species is found on muddy-sand, a habitat notably lacking in bryozoans. In this region and habitat, it is likely eating something other than bryozans.. Acanthodoris brunnea is another nudibranch species that is somewhat common at times in this habitat; little is known of its natural history. These animals are small dorids, roughly the same size as Dentdronotus albopunctatus, reaching lengths of 2 to 3 cm (up to about 1.5 inches). Their basic coloration is brown; the individuals are covered with distinctive relatively large papillae on the back. This species is considered to be predatory on bryozoans, but that is unlikely in this region as bryozoans are exceedingly rare in this habitat.. Also found in these areas are pennatulid-eating nudibranchs in the genus Tritonia. The most abundant of these are individuals of the small white Tritonia festiva, described in the ...
Acanthodoris brunnea, about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, photographed on the sediment of Cowlitz Bay. Reported to eat bryozoans, this dorid species is found on muddy-sand, a habitat notably lacking in bryozoans. In this region and habitat, it is likely eating something other than bryozans.. Acanthodoris brunnea is another nudibranch species that is somewhat common at times in this habitat; little is known of its natural history. These animals are small dorids, roughly the same size as Dentdronotus albopunctatus, reaching lengths of 2 to 3 cm (up to about 1.5 inches). Their basic coloration is brown; the individuals are covered with distinctive relatively large papillae on the back. This species is considered to be predatory on bryozoans, but that is unlikely in this region as bryozoans are exceedingly rare in this habitat.. Also found in these areas are pennatulid-eating nudibranchs in the genus Tritonia. The most abundant of these are individuals of the small white Tritonia festiva, described in the ...
Phoronis is one of the two genera of the horseshoe worm family (Phoronidae), in the phylum Phoronida. The body has two sections, each with its own coelom. There is a specialist feeding structure, the lophophore, which is an extension of the wall of the coelom and is surrounded by tentacles. The gut is U-shaped. The diagnostic feature that distinguishes this genus is the lack of epidermal invagination at the base of the lophophore. These worms are filter feeders. Its larva is an Actinotrocha. Phronis architecta is no longer accepted and is considered to be a synonym of Phoronis psammophila. Similarly Phoronis vancouverensis is considered to be a synonym of Phoronis ijimai. World Register of Marine Species Phoronida ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase I study of intravenous bryostatin 1 in patients with advanced cancer. AU - Prendiville, J.. AU - Crowther, D.. AU - Thatcher, N.. AU - Woll, P. J.. AU - Fox, B. W.. AU - McGown, A.. AU - Testa, N.. AU - Stern, P.. AU - McDermott, R.. AU - Potter, M.. AU - Pettit, George. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Bryostatin 1 is a novel antitumour agent derived from Bugula neritina of the marine phylum Ectoprocta. Nineteen patients with advanced solid tumours were entered into a phase I study to evaluate the toxicity and biological effects of bryostatin 1. Bryostatin 1 was given as a one hour intravenous infusion at the beginning of each 2 week treatment cycle. A maximum of three treatment cycles were given. Doses were escalated in steps from 5 to 65 micrograms m-2 in successive patient groups. The maximum tolerated dose was 50 micrograms m-2. Myalgia was the dose limiting toxicity and was of WHO grade 3 in all three patients treated at 65 micrograms m-2. Flu-like symptoms were ...
Article: Clifton-Hadley RS, Richards R & Bucke D (1983) Method for the rapid diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. |i|Veterinary Record|/i|, 112 (26), p. 609. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.112.26.609
Trepostomata, extinct order of bryozoans (moss animals) found as fossils in marine rocks of Ordovician to Triassic age (200 million to 488 million years old). The trepostomes are characterized by colonies in long, curved calcareous tubes, the interiors of which are intersected by partitions. The
Pectinatella magnifica, an invasive bryozoan, might significantly affect ecosystem balance due to its massive occurrence in many areas in Europe and other parts of the world. Biological and chemical analyses are needed to get complete information about the impact of the animal on the environment. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effects of five extracts prepared from P. magnifica using LDH assay on THP-1 cell line. Antimicrobial activities of extracts against 22 different bacterial strains were tested by microdilution method. Our study showed that all extracts tested, except aqueous portion, demonstrated LD50 values below 100 μg/mL, which indicates potential toxicity. The water extract of P. magnifica with LD50 value of 250 μg/mL also shows potentially harmful effects. Also, an environmental risk resulting from the presence and increasing biomass of potentially toxic benthic cyanobacteria in old colonies should not be underestimated. Toxicity of Pectinatella extracts could be
Looking for online definition of Proliferative Kidney Disease in the Medical Dictionary? Proliferative Kidney Disease explanation free. What is Proliferative Kidney Disease? Meaning of Proliferative Kidney Disease medical term. What does Proliferative Kidney Disease mean?
Marine biofouling poses a severe threat to maritime and aquaculture industries. To prevent the attachment of marine biofouling organisms on man-made structures, countless cost and effort were spent annually. In particular, most attention has been paid on the development of efficient and environmentally friendly fouling-resistant coatings, as well as larval settlement mechanism of several major biofouling invertebrates. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays were utilized as the settlement substrata and opposite tractions were identified during early settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The settling A. amphitrite pushed the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 376.2 nN, while settling B. neritina pulled the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 205.9 nN. These micropost displacements are consistent with the body expansion of A. amphitrite during early post-settlement metamorphosis stage and ...
Biology Assignment Help, Polyembryony, Polyembryony Presence of more than one embryo in a seed is termed polyembryony. The phenomenon, first discovered in orange seeds by Leeuwenhoek (1719), attracted considerable attention because of its potential for application in and horticultur
Definition: position of an organism in a food web. May be described verbally with descriptors including primary producer, herbivore or carnivore. If described numerically, 1 indicates a primary producer, 2 a herbivore, and so on up the food web ...
Paper - On the Development of the Human Heart,1912 Human Heart]] , [[Paper - The Earliest Blood-Vessels in Man,1914 Earliest Blood-Vessels]] , [[Book_-_Congenital_Cardiac_Disease_(1915),1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease]] , [[Paper - The development of the venous sinuses of the dura mater in the human embryo,1915 Dura Venous Sinuses]] , [[Paper - The origin of blood cells,1916 Blood cell origin]] , [[Paper - The Formation of the Pars Membranacea Septi,1916 Pars Membranacea Septi]] , [[Paper - The development of the arteries of the human lower extremity,1919 Lower Limb Arteries]] , [[Book_-_Contributions_to_Embryology_Carnegie_Institution_No.24,1921 Human Brain Vascular]] , [[Paper - The development of the mammalian spleen, with special reference to its hematopoietic activity,1921 Spleen]] , [[Book_-_Contributions_to_Embryology_Carnegie_Institution_No.68,1922 Aortic-Arch System]] , [[Book_-_Contributions_to_Embryology_Carnegie_Institution_No.70,1922 Pig Forelimb Arteries]] , ...
Bryostatin 1, a macrocyclic lactone isolated from a marine bryozoan, has significant antineoplastic activity against the murine cell line P388. Like phorbol esters, bryostain 1 is capable of binding to and activating protein kinase C, but these two compounds differ in the ability of bryostain 1 to act as a tumor promoter. We have investigated whether bryostatin 1 can modulate the differentiated phenotype of fresh samples of human myeloid leukemia. We find that six of seven samples responded to bryostatin treatment with changes associated with a more differentiated phenotype including increases in macrophage-like morphology and an increase in adherence and OKM1 and α-naphthyl acetate esterase activity positivity. The percentage of cells within each sample evidencing these changes varied markedly among the seven patients cells examined.. Because of the effects of bryostatin on fresh samples we examined the ability of bryostatin to differentiate four HL-60 cell sublines obtained from different ...
Free Online Library: Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution/Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) ja Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) Baltikumi Ulem-Ordoviitsiumis: taksonoomia ning levik.(Report) by Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences; Earth sciences Science and technology, general Animal populations Distribution Natural history Animal taxonomy Research Brachiopods Ordovician period Population biology Trilobites Zoology Identification and classification
The calcareous shells of brachiopods offer a wealth of informative characters for taxonomic and phylogenetic investigations. In particular scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used for decades to visualise internal structures of the shell. However, to produce informative SEM data, brachiopod shells need to be opened after chemical removal of the soft tissue. This preparation occasionally damages the shell. Additionally, skeletal elements of taxonomic/systematic interest such as calcareous spicules which are loosely embedded in the lophophore and mantle connective tissue become disintegrated during the preparation process. Using a nondestructive micro-computed tomography (μCT) approach, the entire fragile endoskeleton of brachiopods is documented for the first time. New insights on the structure and position of tissue-bound skeletal elements (spicules) are given as add ons to existing descriptions of brachiopod shell anatomy, thereby enhancing the quality and quantity of informative characters
Specimens of PeronoporaNicholson, 1881, are abundant in Upper Ordovician rocks of the North American Midcontinent. Based on the positions of units in the Composite Conodont Standard Section, we have sampled 211 specimens over a stratigraphic interval of 9.1 million years. The average duration of sample spacing is 61,664 years but is commonly as small as 32,800 yr.. Thirty-four morphometric characters were measured in each specimen and were converted into multistate characters; character-state breaks were established based upon each characters ability to discriminate between phenetic groupings. Each character was subsequently weighted based on the number of derived states, degree of independence from other attributes, and estimated heritability.. Cladistic analysis of these data indicate that there are eight species in Peronopora each consisting of an optimally defined crown group and a basal stem group (or paraclade). Character states shared by stem and crown groups define species but, within ...
Spectral ambient light can cause variations in pigment distribution enabling an abundance of cyanobacteria and microalgae. Researchers selected green light for testing as it has previously shown to slow growth and affect pigment composition. It also represents the maximum absorbance of human vision. In the study researchers exposed artificial biofilms formed by Gloeothece membranacea and Chlorella sorokiniana to green and white light and evaluated their potential for preventing biofilm growth. Observations made suggest that green light could prevent the growth of biofilms with the exception of those capable of modifying accessory pigments ...
alveoli. Tiny, hollow air-exchange sacs that exist in clusters at the end of each of the air-conducting passageways in the lungs, the bronchioles.. aorta. The enormous artery extending from the heart that receives all the blood pumped by the hearts left ventricle. Branches stemming from the aorta supply oxygenated blood to all the tissues in the body.. artery. A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.. bronchiole. Tiny air-conducting passageway in the lungs that has at its end several alveoli, the hollow air-exchange sacs of the lungs.. capillary. The smallest type of blood vessel, connecting the arteries and veins in the bodys tissues. Gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and the bodys tissues through the thin walls of capillaries.. cardiovascular system. A fluid transport system of the body, consisting of the heart, all the blood vessels in the body, the blood that flows through these vessels, and the bone marrow tissue in which red blood cells are ...
Dr. Jinath Sultana is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Biology and Chemistry at the School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University. She received her PhD in Microbiology from the City University, Hong Kong. She has been actively involved in molecular biology research for many years involving molecular investigations of pathogen epidemiology and virulence. Her research interest and specialism include food and water borne pathogens, transmission and pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in developing country, screening of enzyme producing microorganisms as a tool of bioremediation, development and application of novel DNA-based technologies as risk assessment tool, and screening of bcateriophages to use as phage therapy. ...
Discover Morocco at this UNESCO World Heritage Site with SLH. La Sultana Marrakech is a luxury hotel offering beautiful scenery and delicious local cuisine.
Southeast of Waterford and southwest of Wexford is the Hook Head peninsula, which is remarkable for the abundant, beautifully preserved Carboniferous fossils, at its furthest reach by the Hook Lighthouse. The outcrops around Hook Head consist of abundant exposures of Lower Carboniferous rocks in foreshore platforms, containing beautifully preserved crinoids, bryozoans, bivalves, corals and brachiopods. The cliffs and platforms are protected, but many loose fragments can be found containing significant numbers of jumbled fossils of all types, with superbly preserved detail.Carboniferous, Foreshore, Rating: ♦♦♦♦. ...
Pt. 1. Petrified conifer wood -- Pt. 2. Bryozoan -- Pt. 3. Dinosaur -- Pt. 4. Snail -- Pt. 5. Brachiopod -- Pt. 6. Worm tubes -- Pt. 7. Sea urchin -- Pt. 8. Crinoid -- Pt. 9. Horn coral -- Pt. 10. Fusuline (a foraminifer ...
This months featured taxon is Myxozoa: a bizarre, poorly understood group of microscopic, obligate parasites. Members of this taxon are typically found parasitizing teleost fish and annelid worms, though they have been observed in a wide spectrum of hosts including amphibians, birds, bryozoans, cephalopods, reptiles, shrews, and waterfowl. These parasites are globally distributed in marine and freshwater aquatic environments (though some are exclusively terrestrial), and have been found in nearly all tissue and organ types. Myxozoa is an extremely diverse group not only in distribution but in species richness, comprising over 2,200 described species distributed among over 60 genera (Lom and Dyková, 2006) - which likely represents a small fraction of the total diversity, with some estimates of 16,000 species in the Neotropics alone (Naldonia et al., 2011).. Although most myxozoan infections are innocuous, some species are well known pathogens that cause fatal diseases that can have significant ...
In the present studies, a novel compound with potent anti-tumor activity from was purified by acetone fractionation, ultrafiltration, gel chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. are not only home to a tremendous diversity of varieties but that their inhabitants produce also a wealth of natural products [1]. Since the 1950s, many structurally varied natural products with astounding bioactivities have 832720-36-2 IC50 been found out from marine organisms [2]. These compounds are primarily isolated from sessile animals, such as sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, and bryozoans [3, 4]. Among sessile animals, tunicates have received the most attention. More commonly known as Ascidiacea, members of the class Ascidiacea (Ascidians) are the most highly investigated tunicates, since they present a benthonic stage in their existence, making their collection less difficult. The chemistry of ascidians has become probably one of the most active fields of marine natural products; it has ...
I hear that the Archean Earth. Spewed lava and was hot,. (While much later, Snowball Earth,. Apparently was not),. Some have said that life sprung out of. Spreading-ridge-type stew,. Photosynthesis seems likely. Based on carbon records, too.. Crust was forming, oceans warming,. Stromatolites came later,. (We have to wait a long, long time. for T-Rexes, Fish, and Gators). The Protrozoic was really wild,. Stromatolites went crazy,. Our atmosphere gained oxygen,. The rest is a bit hazy.. Super-duper continents. and Banded-Iron formed;. Glacial stuff beneath cap carbs. Say Earth cooled and warmed.. Half a billion years ago. Is when it gets exciting …. Suddenly, life took a leap!. All living, breeding, fighting.. Brachs and Crinoids, Bryozoans,. Weirdo shells galore,. Nautiloids (like giant dunce caps). Roamed the ocean floor.. Then disaster strikes them down,. (This happens four more times). And we soon approach some names. That are difficult to rhyme.. Gondwana drifts to the South Pole,. and ...
I hear that the Archean Earth. Spewed lava and was hot,. (While much later, Snowball Earth,. Apparently was not),. Some have said that life sprung out of. Spreading-ridge-type stew,. Photosynthesis seems likely. Based on carbon records, too.. Crust was forming, oceans warming,. Stromatolites came later,. (We have to wait a long, long time. for T-Rexes, Fish, and Gators). The Protrozoic was really wild,. Stromatolites went crazy,. Our atmosphere gained oxygen,. The rest is a bit hazy.. Super-duper continents. and Banded-Iron formed;. Glacial stuff beneath cap carbs. Say Earth cooled and warmed.. Half a billion years ago. Is when it gets exciting …. Suddenly, life took a leap!. All living, breeding, fighting.. Brachs and Crinoids, Bryozoans,. Weirdo shells galore,. Nautiloids (like giant dunce caps). Roamed the ocean floor.. Then disaster strikes them down,. (This happens four more times). And we soon approach some names. That are difficult to rhyme.. Gondwana drifts to the South Pole,. and ...
When Bugula larvae want to check out potential real estate, they use a structure called the vibratile plume, (which consists of long, feather-like cilia), to feel out a substrate. Tactile sensing is thought to play a large role in this surveying behavior, but recent studies have also shown that the vibratile plume contains adregenic receptors (those that bind adrenaline and noradrenaline), suggesting that hormones are involved in this process as well. Once the larvae choose a particular spot, they attach themselves to the surface with a mucus-like substance, and then rapidly begin the process of transformation. The attached larva will reorient itself so that the vibratile plume is sticking out on top, and then a drastic eversion of the internal sac (which comprises most of the body volume) will occur. Most of the larval structures will be then adsorbed and completely new adult structures will form in their place. Within 48 hrs, multiple zooids with feeding cilia and complete digestive tracts ...
Gift a Box to a loved one. With the current inability to visit family & friends Mothers Day will be a little different for a lot of us this year. Why not gift a loved one.... ...
Descriptive studies of phoronid development have concluded that the mesoderm of these animals originates from the endoderm during gastrulation. This interpretation has been tested by labeling one blastomere of 4- through 16-cell embryos and examining
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French geologist and paleontologist. He settled in Prague (1832), at first as an engineer. While surveying the proposed route for a horse-drawn railway, he became interested in the local fossil-bearing rocks there. From 1840, he turned to the study of these fossils in the strata of the central Bohemian basin. In his lifetime, he gathered some 3500 species of graptolites, brachiopoda, mollusca, trilobites and fishes, showing a wide variety of life forms in the Early Paleozoic era. (The Paleozoic era spanned 540-245 million years ago.) He meticulously recorded his findings in Système silurien du centre de la Bohême, which remains a fine reference work. The first volume was published in 1852, and was followed by 20 more in his lifetime. He opposed Darwins theory of evolution, instead advocating the theory of catastrophes ...
This site is a disused railway cutting near Tilton-on-the-Hill, which is extremely rich in fossils. Now fairly overgrown, there is just one small area of collecting where the cliffs are still accessible. The site is a SSSI, for the diversity of its fossils, its geological important and for the living fauna and flora that can be seen here. It is also a nature reserve. One key feature is the presence of two thick limestone beds - crammed full of brachiopods - which can be easily collected from by looking in the loose scree. Jurassic, Disused Railway Cutting, Rating: ♦♦♦♦♦. ...
Gordon, D.P. 2009. 9. Phylum Cycliophora: cycliophorans, pandoras. Pp. 159-160 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877257-72-8 [not known from New Zealand ...
Mahesh B. Lachyankar, Nazneen Sultana, Christopher M. Schonhoff, Prasenjit Mitra, Wojciech Poluha, Stephen Lambert, Peter J. Quesenberry, N. Scott Litofsky, Lawrence D. Recht, Roya Nabi, Susan J. Miller, Shinji Ohta, Benjamin G. Neel and Alonzo H. Ross ...
1. The authors Platonic idealism is brought low by reality; yet, A day of gold from an age of iron/ Is all that life allows the luckiest sinner. The title characters love with Natures bride, Haidee, leads to her death in childbirth; Sultana Gulbeyaz buys him as a slave but cannot seduce him; and Don Alphonso nearly throttles him over his adulterous affair with Donna Julia. FTP, name this unfinished epic satire written by Lord Byron ...
A bowl of Uncle Tobys Plus Protein with 125mls of skim milk is high in protein^ which is essential for active individuals and provides fibre from whole grains to support healthy digestion#. A delicious combination of fruity peach pieces, sultanas, oat clusters and whole grains, providing a bowl full of goodness that is nutritious and delicious! ^125mLs skim milk provides an everage of 4.6g protein and Uncle Tobys Plus Protein delivers an average of 5.6g protein per 40g serve (Source: AFCD-1 FSANZ) #As part of a healthy varied diet
Music band Chirkutt has prepared a new song for Eid-ul-Fitr. The song penned and tuned by vocalist of the band Sharmin Sultana Shumi, will be released on a digital platform.
Autori: Trifirò G, Gini R, Barone-Adesi F, Beghi E, Cantarutti A, Capuano A, Carnovale C, Clavenna A, Dellagiovanna M, Ferrajolo C, Franchi M, Ingrasciotta Y, Kirchmayer U, Lapi F, Leone R, Leoni O, Lucenteforte E, Moretti U, Mugelli A, Naldi L, Poluzzi E, Rafaniello C, Rea F, Sultana J, Tettamanti M, Traversa G, Vannacci A, Mantovani L, Corrao G ...
Mst Momtaz, Sultana/ Amit Kumar, Dutta/ Tanaka, Yuji/ Mostafa, Aboulela/ NISHIMURA, Kohji/ Sugiura, Sayaka/ Niwa, Tomoko/ Maeo, Kenichiro/ Goto-Yamada, Shino/ Kimura, Tetsuya/ Ishiguro, Sumie/ Mano, Shoji/ Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi/ ...
Locally owned and operated, The Top Hatter specializes in chimney and fireplace safety and maintenance services in the greater Gladstone area.
SmokeDetector , MS ] Link at end of answer, potentially bad ns for domain in answer: How to remove the top layer from the CNN model in Keras? by یاسر بینام on ...
Bryozoa[edit]. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost ... "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: 'Moss' Animals)". els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001613.pub2. Archived ...
ISBN 978-0-12-385024-9. Fish, J. D. (1989). "Bryozoa". A Student's Guide to the Seashore. pp. 356-366. ISBN 978-94-011-5888-6. ... Bryozoa or Pterobranchia). The colonial organism as a whole is called a zoon /ˈzoʊ.ɒn/, plural zoa (from Ancient Greek zôion ...
ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Ruppert, E.E; Fox, R.S.; Barnes, R.D (2004). "Bryozoa". ... but Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) are not closely related to this group, despite using a similar lophophore for feeding and respiration ...
Bryozoa." Bulletin of marine science 51.1 (1992): 1-8. http://wildcumberland.org/ (Website about Cumberland Island preservation ...
"Bryozoa". Ruppert etc: Invert Zoo & (2004), pp. 817-821, ch. "Lophophorata" sect. "Phoronida". Ruppert etc: Invert Zoo & (2004 ...
Bryozoa; Echinodermata including starfish; and Urochordata including sea squirts or tunicates. Invertebrates have no backbone. ...
2007). "Spiralian Phylogenomics Supports the Resurrection of Bryozoa Comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta". Molecular Biology ... Bryozoa may be the most basal phylum (the one that first became distinctive) within the Lophotrochozoa, and the relationships ...
Bryozoa Bryozoans 79%. Fenestrates, trepostomes, and cryptostomes died out Chordata Acanthodians 100%. In decline since the ...
Bryozoa. *Entoprocta or Kamptozoa. *Ectoprocta (moss animals). Brachiozoa. *Brachiopoda (lamp shells). *Phoronida (horseshoe ...
Bryozoa indet. Cephalopoda indet. Gastropoda indet. Ischnacanthida indet. Ophiuroidea indet. Palaeotaxodonta indet. ...
Bryozoa.net. Retrieved 18 December 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hayward, Peter; Bock, Phil (2020). "Callopora ... Ryland, J.S. (1974). "A revised key for the identification of intertidal Bryozoa" (PDF). Field Studies Council. Retrieved 18 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bryozoa: Life History and Ecology". UCMP. Retrieved 18 December 2020. CS1 maint: ... discouraged parameter (link) "Bryozoa: More on Morphology". UCMP. Retrieved 18 December 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ...
"The Bryozoa". International Bryozoology Association. Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2007-02-17. CS1 maint ... Bugula is a genus of common colonial arborescent bryozoa, often mistaken for seaweed. It commonly grows upright in bushy ... Bryozoa, Buguloidea). Zoologica Scripta Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Introduced Marine Species of Hawai'i Exotics ... In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2015) World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
Sometimes dried bryozoa are sold as "air ferns." Most commercially sold air ferns are collected as a by-product by trawlers in ... "The Bryozoa". International Bryozoology Association. Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2007-02-17. CS1 maint ...
Phil Bock (May 23, 2005). "Favositella Etheridge & Foord, 1884". bryozoa.net. Retrieved March 24, 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Such epibionts include other bryozoa such as Crista eburnea, hydroids, sessile polychaete worms and the porcelain crab Pisidia ... John Fish & Susan Fish (2011). "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)". A Student's Guide to the Seashore (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Sally Rouse (June 9, 2011). "Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758)". Bryozoa of the British ...
List of prehistoric bryozoan genera The Permian Bryozoa of Timor. RS Bassler, 1929 X. L. Liu. 1980. Bryozoa. Paleontological ... at the Encyclopedia of Life Clausotrypa at fossilworks.org Clausotrypa at bryozoa.net v t e. ...
"Bryozoa: Systematics". Introduction to the Bryozoa. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 8 February 2016. CS1 maint: ...
Living and Fossil Bryozoa. Recent Advances in Research. Academic Press, London and New York. Pouyet, S., 1975. Bryozoa 1974. ... Bryozoa: Ordovician to Recent. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg. Ross, J.R.P. 1987. Bryozoa: Present and Past. Western Washington ... Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bryozoa. Atti della Societa di Scienze Naturalia del Museo Civico di ... Recent and Fossil Bryozoa. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg. Nielsen, C., & Larwood, G.P., 1985. ...
BryozoaEdit. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost cylindrical ... Claus N (May 2013). Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: 'Moss' Animals). els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902. ...
Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) 4000 200 5 Endoprocta 60 10 16.66 Brachiopoda 300 3 1 ...
Moore, Raymond C. (1953). Volume G: Bryozoa. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: ... Geometric Constraints on Lophophore Shape and Arrangement in Extinct Bryozoa". Paleobiology. 26 (1): 116-136. doi:10.1666/0094- ...
"Part G, Bryozoa". Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 5 December ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) The Paleobiology Database Bryozoa v t e. ...
"Bryozoa - moss animals, sea mats, polyzoa, corallines, and ectoprocts". www.bumblebee.org. Retrieved 2019-06-02. "Adeona ... cellulosa". www.bryozoa.net. Retrieved 2019-06-02. v t e. ...
"Part G, Bryozoa". Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Paleontological Institute. "Part G, Bryozoa (Revised), vol. 1". ... Examples of this stage of the project are Part G. Bryozoa, by Ray S. Bassler (the first volume, published in 1953), and Part P ... Bryozoa --- additional volumes in preparation). Part H. Brachiopoda, vol. 1 & 2, xxxii + 927 p., 746 fig., 1965. ISBN 0-8137- ... Bryozoa, Volume 1: Introduction, Order Cystoporata & Order Cryptostomata, xxvi + 625 p., 295 fig., 1983. ISBN 0-8137-3107-0. ( ...
"Ceramopora". www.bryozoa.net. Retrieved 27 June 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e v t e. ...
World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 30 August 2016. "Paludicella". Integrated Taxonomic ...
"Bryozoa of New Caledonia." Compendium of marine species of New Caledonia. Documents scientifiques et techniques (2006): 157-168 ... "Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from the Queensland coast, with the description of three new species." Zootaxa 3528 ( ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ...
"Bryozoa of New Caledonia." Compendium of marine species of New Caledonia. Documents scientifiques et techniques (2006): 157-168 ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ... "Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological ...
World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. v t e. ...
2009). Cyclostomata (Bryozoa, Stenolaemata) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Zootaxa 2057 32-52. Barnes, R. D. (1982). ... In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2015). World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species. Stenolaemata. ... ISBN 0-03-056747-5. Borg (1926). Bock P (ed.). "Stenolaemata". World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. ...
Bryozoa at the Tree of Life Web Project. *Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A ... Bryozoa *A taxonomic phylum within the superphylum Lophotrochozoa - the bryozoans or moss animals, small aquatic invertebrate ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Bryozoa&oldid=49308678" ...
Bryozoa, Ectoprocta (sv); Bryozoa, Briozoaris (oc); Bryozoa (gsw); 외항동물 (ko); Bryozoa (frr); Bryozoa (eo); Mechovec, Bryozoa, ... Bryozoa (li); Briozoo, Bryozoa, Ectoprocta, Ectoprocto (gl); Briozoário, Bryozoa (pt); Bryozoa (sk); Bryozoa (lv); Bryozoa, ... Bryozoa (ceb); Bryozoa, Ectoprocta (pl); Bryozoer, Ectoprocta, Bryozoa (nb); Bryozoa (sh); ไฟลั่มไบรโอซัว (th); Bryozoa (lt); ... Bryozoa (en); حيوانات حزازية (ar); mohaállatok (hu); Bryozoa (eu); Bryozoa (ast); بریوزویلار (azb); Moostierchen (de); Bryozoa ...
Make research projects and school reports about Bryozoa easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Bryozoa (Ectoprocta; moss-animals) A phylum of small, aquatic, colonial animals, related to the Brachiopoda, many of which ... Bryozoa (brī´əzō´ə), name of a phylum, in older systems of classification, that included the invertebrate animals now ... Bryozoa (moss-animals) Phylum of small, aquatic, colonial animals, related to the Brachiopoda; many colonies possess a well- ...
Index to Bryozoa Bryozoa Home Page, was at RMIT; now bryozoa.net Other Bryozoan WWW Resources International Bryozoology ... Ramel, G. "The Phylum Bryozoa (Bryozoa)". Earthlife. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Margulis, L.; Schwartz K.V. (1998). "Bryozoa ... Bryozoa) Phylum Bryozoa at Wikispecies Bryozoans in the Connecticut River Bryozoa Fact Sheet. ... Works since 2000 have used various names to resolve the ambiguity, including: "Bryozoa", "Ectoprocta", "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)", ...
... define ascophoran bryozoa. "GLOSSARY FOR THE BRYOZOA". www.bryozoa.net. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Dick, Matthew; Lidgard, ...
Index to Bryozoa Bryozoa Home Page, was at RMIT; now bryozoa.net ... All bryozoa have a lophophore. This is a ring of ten tentacles ... Another way to describe the bryozoa which develop heterozooids is to say they are polymorphic. This term is used in biology to ... Gordon Ramel The Phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) (recommended). *Bryozoans Archived 2014-10-15 at the Wayback Machine in the ... The polymorphism is usually controlled by genetic switching mechanisms, but in bryozoa there is little knowledge of their ...
Specific structures of sessoblasts (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). In Pouyet, S. (ed.), Bryozoa 1974. Documents des Laboratoires de ... Bryozoa Ectoprocta Phylactolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylogeny Zoogeography Guest editors: E. V. Balian, C. Lévêque, H. Segers & K. ... Bryozoa. In Brohmer, P. et al. (eds), Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, 1(8): 1-56, pl. 1-19.Google Scholar ... Studies on freshwater Bryozoa. X. The occurrence of Plumatella casmiana in North America. Transactions of the American ...
Light micrograph of a transverse section through a sea moss (phylum Bryozoa). This colonial marine invertebrate forms ... Caption: Bryozoa sea moss. Light micrograph of a transverse section through a sea moss (phylum Bryozoa). This colonial marine ... Keywords: animal, biological, biology, bryozoa, cell, cells, cellular, close-up, colonial, compartment, compartmented, ...
Bryozoa Cheilostomata) aus dem Campanium von Schweden und dem Maastrichtium der Niederlande. 40 S., 1 Tab., 20 Taf.; 208 S., ... angebliche jurassische Bryozoa Ctenostomata) = Nubeculinella CUSHMAN, 1930 (Foraminifera). 8 S., 1 Taf.; Mit: WEYER, D.: Über ...
IMPORTANT *** FYI.. Effective now.. ALL payments made will show as being paid to "Prehistoric Fossils". We are changing the name of the business to "Prehistoric Fossils" but NOTHING ELSE will change! Still family owned and operated the same as usual.. Our web address will NOT change either.. so if you type in www.indiana9fossils.com you will still get here. At some point in the future we may merge this and our www.prehistoricfossils.com sites into one SUPER SITE! Thanks for understanding... Merv, Chris & Lisa.... ...
Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata), Russian Journal of Marine Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly ... The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa ... The Composition of fatty acids and aldehydes of the marine bryozoans Berenicea meandrina and Dendrobeania flustroides (Bryozoa ... Heptadecanoic Fatty Aldehyde-One of the Main Aldehydes of the Far Eastern Bryozoa ...
Distribution and Dynamics of a Defensive Symbiosis in the Bugula neritina ( Bryozoa ) Sibling Species Complex. Jonathan P. ... Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Áki Jarl Láruson, Sean F. Craig, Kirk J. Messer, Joshua A. Mackie ... Taxonomic revision of some leprailiomorph cheilostome bryozoans (Bryozoa: Lepraliomorpha) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil ... Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species. @inproceedings{Mackie2012EcologyOC, ...
"Bryozoa",[9][12] "Ectoprocta",[15][19] "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)",[21] and "Ectoprocta (Bryozoa)".[43] Some have used more than one ... Index to Bryozoa Bryozoa Home Page, was at RMIT; now bryozoa.net ... Bryozoa Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or ... The text begins "Phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) ...". * Trumble, W; Brown, L (2002). "Bryozoa". Shorter Oxford English Dictionary ... Ramel, G. "The Phylum Bryozoa (Bryozoa)". Earthlife.. Missing or empty ,url=. (help) ...
Bryozoa[edit]. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost ... "Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: Moss Animals)". els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001613.pub2. Archived ...
Bryozoa are among the least studied invertebrates. According to phylogeny analysis they are not relatives of cnidaria or, in ... This freshwater species of bryozoa consists of cells too, at least at first glance. What makes it stand out is the fact that ... The majority of people who encounter a bryozoa colony most likely wouldnt recognize what it is. A hairy warm? A weird hydrozoa ... But leaving phylogenetic and taxonomic speculations aside, bryozoa are colonial filter-feeding animals that are really abundant ...
The body wall of cheilostome bryozoa IV. The frontal wall of schizoporella unicornis (Johnston) *William C. Banta ... Cystid Structure and Protrusion of the Polypide inCrisia(Bryozoa, Cyclostomata) *Claus Nielsen ...
Early astogeny in Hornera (Bryozoa; Cyclostomata; Cancellata). Wednesday, 20 November 2019. Advanced Cytometry Analysis ...
Waters, On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia (1882) HTML code:. Arthur Wm. Waters, ,em,,a href ... The publication On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia is placed in the Top 100 in 1882. ... cite web , title=On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia , year=1882 , url=https://citeweb.info/ ... https://citeweb.info/18820000023,On Fossil Chilostomatous Bryozoa from Mount Gambier, South Australia,/a,,/em, (1882) ...
Phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). Bryozoa Etymology: From the Greek Bryon for moss, and Zoon for animal. ... The original Phylum Bryozoa was split into two when scientists convinced themselves that a small group of about 150 animals, ... Moss animal, Cristatella mucedo of phylum Bryozoa. The eggs of those species which do not brood their eggs, are much smaller ( ... Home > Invertebrates > Invertebrate Phyla > Bryozoa. Bryozoans: The Fascinating Colonies Of Phylum Ectoprocta. ...
Investigação dos padrões filogeográficos de Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomat.... Filogenia molecular e filogeografia de ...
BryozoaEdit. Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. The tentacles are almost cylindrical ... Claus N (May 2013). Bryozoa (Ectoprocta: Moss Animals). els.net. eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi:10.1002/9780470015902. ...
were never even grouped as "lophophorates" Platyhelminthes Rotifera Platyzoa Polyzoa Bryozoa Cycliophora Entoprocta - based on ... The "Lophophorates" Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Phoronida Phylum Brachiopoda. Published byRosamond Marshall Modified over 3 years ago ... 1 The "Lophophorates" Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Phoronida Phylum Brachiopoda. Once upon a time, there were 3 phyla that had an ... 13 Phylum Bryozoa - Prosome reduced/absent; mesosome fills lophophore +. 5,000 spp. - Prosome reduced/absent; mesosome fills ...
2007). "Spiralian Phylogenomics Supports the Resurrection of Bryozoa Comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta". Molecular Biology ... Bryozoa may be the most basal phylum (the one that first became distinctive) within the Lophotrochozoa, and the relationships ...
First evidence of virus-like particles in the bacterial symbionts of Bryozoa. BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology ... and supposed virus-related structures inside symbiotic bacteria in two marine species from the phylum Bryozoa, the cheilostomes ...
Bryozoa as environmental bioindicators in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Proceedings Gontar, Hop & Voronkov 2002 - Proceedings of the ... The concept of territoriality in bryozoa. Proceedings Gontar, Hop & Voronkov 2004 - Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, ...
Bryozoa.- 17 * The Bryozoa of the Galapagos.- IX. Taphonomy and Paleoecology.- 18 * The Past as a Key to the Present: Taphonomy ...
Aging in modular organisms: ecology of zooid senescence inSteginoporella sp. (Bryozoa; Cheilostomata).Biological Bulletin 164: ...
Bryozoa; Polyzoa; Sea mats. 13. 594.. 8. Brachiopoda; Lamp shells. 3. 594.. 9. Tunicata; Ascidia; Sea grapes ...
Bryozoa (Ectoprocta); Phylum echinodermata ...
mszywioły (Bryozoa) • ramienionogi (Brachiopoda) • kryzelnice (Phoronida). mięczaki (Mollusca) • pierścienice (Annelida) • ...
  • Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of simple, aquatic invertebrate animals, nearly all living in sedentary colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light micrograph of a transverse section through a sea moss (phylum Bryozoa). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The phylum was originally called "Polyzoa", but this term was superseded by "Bryozoa" in 1831. (orange.com)
  • The original Phylum Bryozoa was split into two when scientists convinced themselves that a small group of about 150 animals, that were then considered as part of the phylum Bryozoa, deserved to be in a separate phylum of their own. (earthlife.net)
  • Our ultrastructural study showed for the first time a variety of virus-like particles (VLPs) and supposed virus-related structures inside symbiotic bacteria in two marine species from the phylum Bryozoa, the cheilostomes Bugula neritina and Paralicornia sinuosa. (meta.org)
  • Phylum Bryozoa. (cmar.csiro.au)
  • Phylum Bryozoa: moss animals, sea mats, lace corals. (marinespecies.org)
  • Bryozoa are a phylum of marine invertebrate organisms that still live today. (uky.edu)
  • Bryozoa are a colonial animal phylum with a long evolutionary history, having existed from the early Ordovician (480 My) onward and still flourishing today. (opal-libraries.org)
  • Mit: HILLMER, G.: Oberkretazische Hippothoidae (Bryozoa Cheilostomata) aus dem Campanium von Schweden und dem Maastrichtium der Niederlande. (fossilbuch.de)
  • Kubaninella: A new genus of Adeonidae (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) from the Western Kamchatka shelf of the Sea of Okhotsk 19. (routledge.com)
  • Acanthoclema from Devonian of Europe / Andrej Ernst -- Growth Rates, Age Determination and Calcification Levels in Flustra foliacea (L.) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata): Preliminary Assessment. (opal-libraries.org)
  • Distributions of serotonin and catecholamines in larvae of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida) were investigated using immunohistochemistry with anti-serotonin antiserum and glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence histochemistry. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Secondary homonymy in Bryozoa: the case of Reteporella jullieni (Cheilostomatida). (nih.gov)
  • Publications] Suwa,T.: 'Revision of seven specis of Microporella (Bryozoa, cheilostomatida) from Hokkaido, Japan, using new taxommic daracters'Journal of Natural History. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Mawatari,S.F.: 'Two new specis of Japanese Microparella (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) in the Podalein Collection, Musee Zoologiqre, Strasbourg'Cahiers de Biologie Marine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Mawatari S.F.: 'Two new species of Japanese Microporella (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) in the Doderlein Collection, Musee Zoologique, Strasbourg. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The terms "Polyzoa" and "Bryozoa" were introduced a year apart, in 1830 and 1831 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • But leaving phylogenetic and taxonomic speculations aside, bryozoa are colonial filter-feeding animals that are really abundant in freshwater and marine habitats. (blogspot.com)
  • Publications] Suwa T.: 'Revision of seven species of Microporella (Bryozoa, Cheilosotomatida) from Hokkaido, Japan, using new taxonomic characters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bryozoa are among the least studied invertebrates. (blogspot.com)
  • We use Bryozoa, a group of marine invertebrates with a rich fossil record, as a case study. (uio.no)
  • Different types of prehistoric bryozoa built colonial mounds, branching bushes, crusts, and fan-like structures. (uky.edu)
  • Levinsen, G. M. R., Studies on the Cheilostomatous Bryozoa (Copenhagen 1909). (nature.com)
  • Cheilostomatous Bryozoa: part 2 Hippothooidea - Celleporoidea: notes for the identification of British species. (marinespecies.org)
  • Bryozoa (moss animals) are tiny creatures with tentacles around their mouths. (wikipedia.org)
  • After all, even the mention of words "bryozoa"and "moss animals" alone provokes only one question - "what the heck is that? (blogspot.com)
  • This freshwater species of bryozoa consists of cells too, at least at first glance. (blogspot.com)
  • This is the appendixes to Lopez Gappa (2000) - Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina. (bryozoa.net)
  • Probably a species of Alcyonidium (Bryozoa). (algaebase.org)
  • A monograph of the freshwater Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata. (springer.com)
  • Studies on freshwater Bryozoa. (springer.com)
  • Fauna Europaea A database of freshwater and terrestrial animals (Top Bryozoa page). (bryozoa.net)
  • Bryozoa are widespread across all latitudes from Equator to Polar Regions and occur in marine and freshwater environments. (opal-libraries.org)
  • The majority of people who encounter a bryozoa colony most likely wouldn't recognize what it is. (blogspot.com)
  • Influence of colony morphology on associated biota diversity in four Bryozoa 13. (routledge.com)
  • A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoa. (fapesp.br)
  • The body wall of cheilostome bryozoa IV. (nature.com)
  • 464. , available online at http://www.vliz.be/en/imis?module=ref&refid=138282 [details] additional source Hayward, P.J. (marinespecies.org)
  • Specific structures of sessoblasts (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). (springer.com)
  • corals and crabs of the Alpine Triassic: Bryozoa, corals, sponges, crabs, and snails of the Polish, Moravian, and Alpine Jurassic: and fishes and many invertebrate groups of the Cretaceous, not only of Bohemia but also from deposits in Poland, the Austrian Alps, and northern Germany. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bryozoa from Oceanic south eastern Pacific Islands: diversity and zoogeography 33. (routledge.com)
  • In these well cores the faunas consist of bryozoa and brachiopods but hardly any other zoologic types. (ku.edu)
  • The ascus, along with a calcified frontal shield, define ascophoran bryozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the bryozoa fronds of Fenestrellina and Polypora are at some horizons very abundant. (ku.edu)
  • There are two bryozoa, however, that are more or less abundant in the well cores, that can be identified generically with reasonable assurance, and that have value as evidence in age determination. (ku.edu)
  • Soon after it was named, another group of animals was discovered whose filtering mechanism looked similar, so it was included in Bryozoa until 1869, when the two groups were noted to be very different internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, "Bryozoa" has remained the more widely used term for the latter group. (orange.com)