A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Relating to the size of solids.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.
Infections with nematodes of the genus DIPETALONEMA.
A common genus of tropical filarial worms parasitic in humans and monkeys.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (1/45)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (2/45)

Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of two nuclear receptors from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. (3/45)

Nuclear receptors (NRs) encompass a superfamily of cytoplasmic/nuclear localized receptors that on ligand binding (or by phosphorylation) directly regulate the transcription of target genes. NRs are involved in many developmental processes, including moulting in insects and dauer larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report the isolation of two genes related to NRs from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. Bp-nhr-1 is a member of the NGF1-B subfamily of NRs and is expressed at very low levels in post-infective larval stage 3 (L3) after their transmission to the mammalian host. The second gene, Bp-nhr-2, is related to XR78E/F of Drosophila, a gene involved in the ecdysone response, over the region of its DNA-binding domain. cDNA and genomic clones have been isolated that correspond to Bp-nhr-2. The most striking feature of the encoded protein is that, although there is a DNA-binding domain similar to that of other NRs, the ligand-binding domain is absent. To investigate the pattern of transcription of Bp-nhr-2 in the filarial life cycle, semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR was performed; this analysis demonstrated that the gene is expressed in early stages after infection and in the adult and microfilariae, and is up-regulated just before the moult between L3 and L4 but is not expressed during the moult between L4 and adult. Antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to the transactivation domain of Bp-nhr-2 demonstrate that the protein is expressed in microfilariae and adult samples and that another cross-reactive protein is expressed in these life-cycle stages.  (+info)

B1 B lymphocytes play a critical role in host protection against lymphatic filarial parasites. (4/45)

Host defense against multicellular, extracellular pathogens such as nematode parasites is believed to be mediated largely, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes. During our investigations into the course of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi infections in immunodeficient mouse models, we found that mice lacking B lymphocytes were permissive for Brugian infections, whereas immunocompetent mice were uniformly resistant. Mice bearing the Btk(xid) mutation were as permissive as those lacking all B cells, suggesting that the B1 subset may be responsible for host protection. Reconstitution of immunodeficient recombination activating gene (Rag)-1(-/)- mice with B1 B cells conferred resistance, even in the absence of conventional B2 lymphocytes and most T cells. These results suggest that B1 B cells are necessary to mediate host resistance to Brugian infection. Our data are consistent with a model wherein early resistance to B. malayi is mediated by humoral immune response, with a significant attrition of the incoming infectious larval load. Sterile clearance of the remaining parasite burden appears to require cell-mediated immunity. These data raise the possibility that the identification of molecule(s) recognized by humoral immune mechanisms might help generate prophylactic vaccines.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of UMF-078, a candidate antifilarial drug, in infected dogs. (5/45)

The pharmacokinetics of the filaricidal benzimidazole compounds UMF-078 and UMF-289 were evaluated in beagle dogs experimentally infected with Brugia pahangi. Twenty-four infected microfilaremic beagles were selected and randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups of 6 dogs each: oral (PO) UMF-078, PO UMF-289 (the HCl salt form of UMF-078), intramuscular (IM) UMF-078, and untreated controls. Equivalent doses of 50 mg/kg of the free base were given twice a day for 3 days to the 3 groups of treated dogs. Oral absorption is rapid compared with IM dosing; the absorption half-life (K01-HL) for the IM treatment is approximately 14 hr compared with 1 and 2 hr for the PO regimen of salt and free base forms, respectively. The elimination half-lives (K10-HL) for the PO regimens are 13 and 15 hr for the salt and free base forms, respectively. Because of sustained absorption following IM dosing, the K10-HL is prolonged. In contrast to oral administration, IM dosing of UMF-078 provides sustained, relatively low plasma drug levels, with good tolerance and efficacy.  (+info)

Heat shock and developmental expression of hsp83 in the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. (6/45)

hsp83 was cloned from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. The mRNA was constitutively expressed at 37 degrees C in life cycle stages that live in the mammalian host (microfilariae and adult worms). Heat shock resulted in only a minimal increase in levels of transcription. A genomic copy of hsp83 was isolated and was shown to contain 11 introns while sequencing of the 5' upstream region revealed several heat shock elements. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene construct the expression of hsp83 from B. pahangi (Bp-hsp83) was studied by transfection of COS-7 cells. Similar to the expression pattern in the parasite, CAT activity was detected at 37 degrees C and was not influenced by heat shock. When the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was transfected with the same construct, CAT activity was not observed at normal growth temperatures (21 degrees C) or under moderate heat shock conditions (28 degrees C). However exposure to more severe heat shock (35 degrees C) resulted in an increase in CAT activity. These results suggest that Bp-hsp83 has a temperature threshold > or = 35 degrees C for expression.  (+info)

NK T cells are a source of early interleukin-4 following infection with third-stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. (7/45)

Infection of C57BL/6 mice with the third-stage larvae of Brugia pahangi results in a rapid expansion of NK1.1(+) T cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes. NK T cells produced interleukin-4 in the spleen within 24 h of infection, and these cells were CD4(-).  (+info)

Cloning and expression analysis of two mucin-like genes encoding microfilarial sheath surface proteins of the parasitic nematodes Brugia and Litomosoides. (8/45)

In several filarial genera the first stage larvae (microfilariae) are enclosed by an eggshell-derived sheath that provides a major interface between the parasite and the host immune system. Analysis of the polypeptide constituents of the microfilarial sheath from the cotton rat filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis identified two abundant surface glycoproteins: Shp3a and Shp3. The corresponding genes and the orthologues of the human parasite Brugia malayi and the rodent filaria Brugia pahangi were cloned and sequenced. They encode secreted, mucin-like proteins with N-terminal Ser/Thr-rich repeats and a C-terminal anchor domain rich in aromatic amino acids. About 75% of the protein molecular masses result from post-translational modifications. The Ser/Thr-rich motifs are supposed to serve as targets for dimethylaminoethanol-phosphate substitutions. These modifications were detected only on the sheaths of the late developmental stage of stretched microfilariae, corresponding with the expression of the proteins in the epithelium of the distal part of the uterus and the specific transcription of shp3 and shp3a in the anterior female worm segment. Genomic analysis of all three species demonstrated a conserved linkage of the two genes. Their transcripts undergo cis- and trans-splicing. The transcription start sites of the primary transcripts were determined for the L. sigmodontis genes. The core promoter regions are remarkably conserved between the paralogue genes Ls-shp3a and Ls-shp3 and their orthologues in Brugia, implicating conserved regulatory elements.  (+info)

A role for altered endothelial cell function is emerging in the pathogenesis of disease. We have previously demonstrated that Dirofilaria immitis, the canine heartworm, depresses endothelium-dependent responses and alters the mechanism of relaxation in the in vivo femoral artery of infected dogs. Exposure of rat aorta to the parasite or parasite-conditioned medium selectively depresses endothelium-dependent relaxation. D. immitis is closely related to the major human filarial pathogens. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent responses are depressed in the aorta from rats infected with B. pahangi. Rings of thoracic and abdominal aorta were suspended in muscle baths for measurement of isometric tension. Dose-response relations to norepinephrine, endothelium-dependent dilators (acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187), ...
Abstract A small particle size formulation of 4-isothiocyanato-4′-nitrodiphenylamine has been found to have high chemotherapeutic activity when administered as a single dose to jirds infected with the filarial worm, Brugia pahangi.
The pharmacokinetics of the filaricidal benzimidazole compounds UMF-078 and UMF-289 were evaluated in beagle dogs experimentally infected with Brugia pahangi. Twenty-four infected microfilaremic beagles were selected and randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups of 6 dogs each: oral (PO) UMF-078, PO UMF-289 (the HCl salt form of UMF-078), intramuscular (IM) UMF-078, and untreated controls. Equivalent doses of 50 mg/kg of the free base were given twice a day for 3 days to the 3 groups of treated dogs. Oral absorption is rapid compared with IM dosing; the absorption half-life (K01-HL) for the IM treatment is approximately 14 hr compared with 1 and 2 hr for the PO regimen of salt and free base forms, respectively. The elimination half-lives (K10-HL) for the PO regimens are 13 and 15 hr for the salt and free base forms, respectively. Because of sustained absorption following IM dosing, the K10-HL is prolonged. In contrast to oral administration, IM dosing of UMF-078 provides sustained, relatively low
The survival in culture of adult female Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, and Onchocerca volvulus and adult male Onchocerca gibsoni was assessed by measuring parasite motility. Survival of all species was maximal in a nutritionally complex me
Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis ...
a Plot showing content and sequencing depth. The GC content for B. pahangi is high at the average depth of in between 10 to 180 with GC content value in range o
Microarray technology permits high-throughput comparisons of gene expression in different parasite stages or sexes and has been used widely. We report the first use of this technology for analysis of gene expression in filarial male and female worms. The slide array (comprised of 65-mer oligos representing 3569 EST clusters) was spotted with sequences selected from the extensive Brugia malayi EST database (). Arrays were hybridized with Cy dye labeled male and female cDNA. The experimental design included both biological and technical (dye-flip) replicates. The data were normalized for background and probe intensity, and the relative abundance of hybridized cDNA for each spot was determined. Genes showing two-fold or greater differences with P,0.05 were considered gender-regulated candidates. One thousand one hundred and seventy of 2443 clusters (48%) with signals above threshold in at least one sex were considered as gender-regulated gene candidates. This included 520 and 650 clusters ...
For the upcoming WS249 release, a set of new papers have been added to the WormBase database. Some papers of interest to the parasite community are shown below.. Winter AD, Weir W, Hunt M, Berriman M, Gilleard JS, Devaney E, Britton C.Diversity in parasitic nematode genomes: the microRNAs of Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus are largely novel. BMC Genomics. 2012 Jan 4;13:4.. miRNA genes are referenced from the WBPaper00040579 entry.. Winter AD, Gillan V, Maitland K, Emes RD, Roberts B, McCormack G, Weir W, Protasio AV, Holroyd N, Berriman M, Britton C, Devaney E. A novel member of the let-7 microRNA family is associated with developmental transitions in filarial nematode parasites. BMC Genomics. 2015 Apr 22;16(1):331.. referenced genes: let-7, Bm6643, Bm5914, Bma-tag-97, Bma-mir-5364. Cinkornpumin JK, Wisidagama DR, Rapoport V, Go JL, Dieterich C, Wang X, Sommer RJ, Hong RL. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. Elife. 2014 Oct ...
Cecropin is a cationic antibacterial peptide composed of 35-39 residues. This peptide has been identified as possessing strong antibacterial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, and it has been claimed that some types of the cecropin family of peptides are capable of killing cancer cells. In this study, the host effect of cloning antibacterial peptide cecropinB2 was investigated. Three different host expression systems were chosen, i.e., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia pastoris. Two gene constructs, cecropinB2 (cecB2) and intein-cecropinB2 (INT-cecB2), were applied. Signal peptide and propeptide from Armigeres subalbatus were also attached to the gene construct. The results showed that the best host for cloning cecropinB2 was P. pastoris SMD1168 harboring the gene of pGAPzαC-prepro-cecB2 via Western blot confirmation. The cecropinB2 that was purified using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography resin showed strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative strains
Meriones albipes, Meriones auziensis, Meriones isis, Gerbillus richardii, Gerbillus savii, Gerbillus sellysii, Meriones trouessarti, Meriones shawi crassibulla, Meriones shawi laticeps, Meriones shawi longiceps ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Brugia is genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. Specifically, of the three species known, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. They are transmitted by the bite of mosquitos. The first species discovered was B. malayi. It was reported by a Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug in 1927 from Southeast Asia (Malaya, for which the name was given). It was originally believed to be similar or closely related to another filarial roundworm then named Microfilaria bancrofti (now Wuchereria bancrofti), described by an English naturalist Thomas Spencer Cobbold in 1877. It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. Brug was aware of the difference mainly on the basis of their occurrence. He found both the worms in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but in New Guinea only W. ...
During an investigation of arboviruses in China, a novel dsRNA virus was isolated from adult female Armigeres subalbatus. Full genome sequence analysis showed the virus to be related to members of the family Totiviridae, and was therefore named Armigeres subalbatus totivirus (AsTV). Transmission electron microscopy identified icosahedral, non-enveloped virus particles with a mean diameter of 40 nm. The AsTV genome is 7510 bp in length, with two ORFs. ORF1 (4443 nt) encodes the coat-protein and a dsRNA-binding domain (which may be involved in the evasion of gene silencing), while ORF2 (2286 nt) encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The AsTV coat protein shows a higher level of amino acid identity with Drosophila totivirus (DTV, 52 %) than with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV, 29 %). Similarly, the RdRp shows higher identity levels with DTV (51 %) than with IMNV (44 %). Identity levels to other members of the family Totiviridae, in either the coat protein or the RdRp, ranged from 6
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-9275 (2012) Co-operation between innate CCR3-expressing granulocytes and macrophages in controlling early establishment of Brugia malayi infection. Immunology, Vol 137, Issue Supp 1, pp. 199-200. Full text not available from this repository ...
Espesye sa mangungutkut ang Meriones tristrami[2][3][4]. Una ning gihulagway ni Thomas ni adtong 1892. Ang Meriones tristrami sakop sa kahenera nga Meriones sa kabanay nga ilaga.[5][6] Giklaseklase sa IUCN ang espesye sa kinaminosang kalabotan.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[5]. ...
Spencer, L., L. Shultz, and T. V. Rajan. T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. Infection and Immunity 71.6 (2003): 3097-3106. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. ...
Definition of Aedes polynesiensis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites. AU - Jones, Edward O.. AU - White, Andrew. AU - Boots, Michael. PY - 2011/3/22. Y1 - 2011/3/22. N2 - Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection is most likely to evolve in response to horizontally transmitted parasites that cause a significant reduction in host fecundity. The preponderance of sterilizing horizontally transmitted parasites found in arthropods may therefore explain the evolution of protection seen by their symbionts. We also find that protection is ...
Atrakcje w pobliżu lokalizacji Hotel Acacia (Brugia) w serwisie TripAdvisor: czytaj recenzje najlepszych miejsc wartych odwiedzenia i atrakcji, które trzeba zobaczyć, w pobliżu lokalizacji Hotel Acacia (Brugia, Flandria Zachodnia).
Animal Four Interior Mammalian Mouse Pup Shut Vertebrate: 1 assigned downloads, like Mongolian Jirds or Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) young, 2 weeks from stock-photos
Abstract: The prostate is not an exclusive male organism, because it is also present in adults females of several rodents species and even in women. The female prostate has been considered homologous to the male ventral prostate, it is composed by sma1l clusters of glands and ducts intermixed to a musculofibrous matrix. It is known nowadays the fundamental importance of the better understanding of the physiological process that maintaÍfi this gland functiona1ly active in the female organism, once that it suffers the same diseases that compromises the male prostate during the climacteric. By this way, the goal of this study was to characterize histologica1ly, cytochemica1ly and ultrasttucturally the tissues components of normal and experimentally treated with testosterone female prostate of gerbil Meriones unguiculatus, during 21 days. In order to do this work, the collected prostates were fixed and embedded for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical tests were ...
Breeding Database for Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Horse Data Base is a pedigree database for horse owners. comes from the most prestigious and trusted gaming pedigree online - InterCasino.
Ms Brugia referred to Cedefops long tradition of cooperating with the EESC, stressing that it was, in fact, this Committee that proposed the setting up of a European Centre dealing with vocational education and training (VET).
Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people harbour many millions of the microfilarial stage of the parasite in their blood stream and yet they show few visible symptoms of disease. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) line the blood vessels and are therefore in direct contact with microfilariae. Since vascular EC are potent immune cells functioning in the production of both immune mediators and regulating the migration of immune cells from the blood into the tissue, we have established an in vitro model in which to test the effect of live Mf upon vascular EC function. Strikingly, we observed that Mf exposure caused reduced transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes, but not lymphocytes. However, microfilariae stimulated EC production of few pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, while filarial infection is known to stimulate mediators that increase blood vessel formation in vivo, live microfilariae promoted
This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 13 (1) : 100-104. [email protected] Repository ...
AKL 20303111209 28/04/2011 FOKUS Malaria Pv/Pf Cassette CORE DIAGNOSTICS LTD., UK PT. FOKUS DIAGNOSTIC INDONESIA AKL 20303111329 01/07/2011 RESZON BRUGIA
Pill with imprint 475 is Yellow, Elliptical / Oval and has been identified as Imatinib mesylate 400 mg. It is supplied by Sun Pharma Global FZE.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory action of the pineal gland on the nuclear volume of thyroid follicular cells in male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). AU - Lewinski, A.. AU - Vaughan, M. K.. AU - Champney, T. H.. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Smith, N. K.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Karyometric investigations of thyroid follicular cells were performed in four groups of adult male gerbils [I. sham-operated (Sham PX) + short photoperiod (SPP)-exposed; II. Sham PX + long photoperiod (LPP)-exposed; III. pinealectomized (PX) + SPP-exposed; IV. PX + LPP-exposed]. The mean nuclear volume (MNV) of thyroid cells was significantly higher in both PX groups (III and IV) when compared to Sham PX controls (I and II). In Sham PX gerbils the maintenance of animals in SPP (10 h light : 14 h darkness) for 13 weeks resulted in significant decrease of MNV of thyroid follicular cells in comparison to that in Sham PX animals kept in LPP (14 h light : 10 h darkness). Lighting conditions did not significantly affect the MNV of ...
A gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia. Once known as desert rats, the gerbil subfamily includes about 110 species of African, Indian, and Asian rodents, including sand rats and jirds, all of which are adapted to arid habitats. Most are primarily active during the day, making them diurnal (some species, including the common household pet, exhibit crepuscular behavior), and almost all are omnivorous. One Mongolian species, Meriones unguiculatus, also known as the clawed jird, is a gentle and hardy animal that has become a popular pet. It was first brought from China to Paris in the 19th century, and became a popular house pet. It was then brought to the United States in 1954 by Dr. Victor Schwentker for use in research. The gerbil got its name as a diminutive form of jerboa, an unrelated group of rodents occupying a similar ecological niche. Gerbils are typically between six and twelve inches (150 and 300 mm) long, including the tail, which makes up about one-half of their total ...
During larval development, filarial nematodes adjust their lifelong reproductive strategy to the presence of anti-parasitic immune cells that determine host resistance and experimental vaccine efficacy.
Host protection: Having the parasites that evolution provided can protect you from being infested by other species that transfer over from other hosts. Those unfamiliar parasites may be worse than your own, or they may carry disease causing organisms with them. Rob Dunn and colleagues also point out that the loss of host species tends to encourage more generalist parasites - parasites that can live on various different hosts - and this is likely to lead to more diseases jumping from one species to another, potentially us ...
There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. It may be present in protected areas. Further studies are needed into the abundance, natural history and threats to this species. In China, it has been regionally Red Listed as Least Concern (Wang and Xie 2004 ...
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, Timorean filariasis CHARACTERISTICS: Filarial parasite (nematode), sheathed microfilariae are 200-300 µm in length and 4-7 µm in width SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Characterized by recurring lymphadenitis and lymphangitis accompanied with fever; lymphatic abscesses and consequent scarring are common features; lymphedema appears and progresses to elephantiasis usually confined to the distal extremities in a small proportion of cases EPIDEMIOLOGY: B. malayi endemic in Southeast Asia, rural southwest India, Sri Lanka, China and South Korea: B. timori found in Timor, Flores, Alor, Roti, and South East Indonesia HOST RANGE: Humans, cats, civet, nonhuman primates and mosquitoes INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By the bite of an infected mosquito; B. malayi transmitted by ...
Wolbachia, a gram negative bacterial endosymbiont belonging to the Rickettiales, has been described in the body of various species of filarial nematodes (Sironi et al. 1995; Bandi et al., 1998, Casiraghi et al., 2001). These bacteria are present in the lateral chords of both males and females, in the reproductive apparatus of females and also in the larvae present in the vector (Bandi et al., 2001). Wolbachia has also been shown to be transovarially transmitted from female worms to the offspring. In addition, a 100% prevalence of infection in the filarial species positive for Wolbachia is suggestive of an obligatory symbiosis between bacteria and its host (Bandi et al., 2001). Furthermore, drugs like tetracycline, known to be effective against Rickettsia-like bacteria, have been shown to cause detrimental effects on filarial nematodes which harbour Wolbachia, and no effects on filarial nematodes which do not harbour these bacteria (Bandi et al., 1999, Hoerauf et al., 1999; Langworthy et al., ...
Testua Creative Commons Aitortu-PartekatuBerdin 3.0 lizentziari jarraituz erabil daiteke; baliteke beste klausularen batzuk ere aplikatu behar izatea. Xehetasunen berri izateko, ikus erabilera-baldintzak ...
By using the combination of reverse-transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, a cDNA encoding mast cell tryptase was successfully cloned from the small intestine of Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The cDNA was 1219 bp long including 810 bp of an open reading frame. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences of known mast cell tryptases of other species, the gerbil mast cell tryptase (gMCT) was highly similar to mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-7, and seems to be translated as a prepro-enzyme with 25 amino acids of signal and activation peptides and 245 amino acids of mature enzyme. The gMCT mRNA was preferentially transcribed in the intestinal mucosa and to a far lesser extent in the connective tissue such as skin and tongue. Moreover, kinetic study after infection revealed that the amount of gMCT mRNA in the small intestine correlated well with the degree of intestinal mastocytosis. Throughout the course of infection, ...
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a morbid disease caused by the tissue-invasive nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, affects millions of people worldwide. Global eradication efforts have significantly reduced worldwide prevalence, but complete elimination has been hampered by limitations of current anti-filarial drugs and the lack of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to evaluate B. malayi intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Bm-UGT) as a potential therapeutic target. To evaluate whether Bm-UGT is essential for adult filarial worms, we inhibited its expression using siRNA. This resulted in a 75% knockdown of Bm-ugt mRNA for 6 days and almost complete suppression of detectable Bm-UGT by immunoblot. Reduction in Bm-UGT expression resulted in decreased worm motility for 6 days, 70% reduction in microfilaria release from adult worms, and significant reduction in adult worm metabolism as detected by MTT assays. Because prior allergic-sensitization to a filarial antigen ...
Host cells respond to viral infections by activating immune response genes that are not only involved in inflammation, but may also predispose cells to cancerous transformation. One such gene is BST-2, a type II transmembrane protein with a unique topology that endows it tethering and signaling potential. Through this ability to tether and signal, BST-2 regulates host response to viral infection either by inhibiting release of nascent viral particles or in some models inhibiting viral dissemination. However, despite its antiviral functions, BST-2 is involved in disease manifestation, a function linked to the ability of BST-2 to promote cell-to-cell interaction. Therefore, modulating BST-2 expression and/or activity has the potential to influence course of disease.
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed by an accelerated phase (AP) and finally a more aggressive blast phase (BP), with loss of terminal differentiation capacity. On the cellular level, CML is associated with a specific chromosome abnormality, the t(9; 22) reciprocal translocation that forms the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The Ph chromosome is the result of a molecular rearrangement between the c-ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9 and the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22. The BCR/ABL fusion gene encodes p210 BCR/ABL, an oncoprotein, which, unlike the normal p145 c-Abl, has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. While fusion of c-ABL and BCR is believed to be the primary cause of the ...
It is a natural vector for filarial worms such as zoonotic Brugia pahangi, and Wuchereria bancrofti, which cause filariasis to ... "Armigeres subalbatus incriminated as a vector of zoonotic Brugia pahangi filariasis in suburban Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular ...
Trichuris muris and Brugia pahangi". Biochem. J. 335 (3): 495-8. PMC 1219807. PMID 9794786. Biology portal v t e. ...
Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, and, as in other nematodes, code for components of the cuticle". Molecular and Biochemical ...
... brugia malayi MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.550 - brugia pahangi MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.208 - ... brugia MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.500 - ...
Brugia Brugia malayi (one cause of filariasis in humans) Brugia pahangi (parasite of domestic cats and wild animals) Brugia ...
... malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats ... Vincent, Albert L.; Frommes, Stephen P.; Ash, Lawrence R. (1976). "Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Brugia patei: Pulmonary ... When a new species (now called Brugia pahangi) was discovered in 1956 from dog and cat, J. J. C. Buckley and J. F. B. Edeson ... Buckley, J. J. C. (1960). "On Brugia Gen. Nov. For Wuchereria Spp. of the Malayi Group i.e., W. Malayi (Brug, 1927), W. Pahangi ...
... is a parasitic roundworm belonging to the genus Brugia. It is a filarial nematode known to infect the lymph ... Leoaquarius, Sreejith (January 11, 2014). "Brugia pahangi & brugia beaveri". Slideshare. Retrieved 2016-12-26. Kambris, Z; Cook ... Brugia pahangi have been found in cats in Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. A large population of cats, more specifically ... Schacher, John F. (1962). "Morphology of the Microfilaria of Brugia Pahangi and of the Larval Stages in the Mosquito". The ...
After the discovery of new species such as W. pahangi (now B. pahangi) in 1956, and W. patei (now B. patei) in 1958, the ... Brugia Malayi". Edeson, J. F. B. & Wilson, T. (1964), "The epidemiology of filariasis due to Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia ... "Brugia malayi". Web Atlas of Medical Parasitology. "Bench aids for the diagnosis of filarial infections. Plate 2 - Brugia ... "Life cycle of Brugia Malayi". The Centers for Disease Control. 2018-09-19. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved ...
Brugia pahangi is a parasitic roundworm belonging to the genus Brugia. It is a filarial nematode known to infect the lymph ... Leoaquarius, Sreejith (January 11, 2014). "Brugia pahangi & brugia beaveri". Slideshare. Retrieved 2016-12-26. Kambris, Z; Cook ... Brugia pahangi have been found in cats in Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. A large population of cats, more specifically ... Schacher, John F. (1962). "Morphology of the Microfilaria of Brugia Pahangi and of the Larval Stages in the Mosquito". The ...
Beagle puppies, four anesthetized and two unanesthetized, were exposed to B. pahangi by instilling third-stage larvae (L-3s) ... Abstract Oral transmission of Brugia pahangi, already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. ... Oral transmission of Brugia pahangi, already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. Beagle puppies, four ... anesthetized and two unanesthetized, were exposed to B. pahangi by instilling third-stage larvae (L-3s) into the mouth. ...
Chemotherapeutic Effects of a Nitrodiphenylaminoisothiocyanate (C9333-Go/CGP4540) on Jirds Infected with Brugia pahangi * * ...
Depression of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta from rats with Brugia pahangi lymphatic filariasis.. L Kaiser, P K ... This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium- ... Depression of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta from rats with Brugia pahangi lymphatic filariasis. ... Depression of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta from rats with Brugia pahangi lymphatic filariasis. ...
Devaney, E. , Bancroft, A. and Egan, A. (1993) The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi. Parasite ... The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi was investigated. Labelling with ... The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi ...
Jecock, R. M. and Devaney, E. (1992) Expression of small heat shock proteins by the third-stage larva of Brugia pahangi. ... Changes in proteins synthesised by the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi were examined ... Expression of small heat shock proteins by the third-stage larva of Brugia pahangi ...
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a chemotactic response by B. pahangi larvae to host serum. We conclude that B. ... pahangi larvae show a chemotaxic response to host serum, and that cAMP and cAMP dependent protein kinase are involved in the ... The Brugia pahangi infective larval response to jird serum was studied using an agar plate assay. Larvae placed onto the agar ... In vitro chemotactic responses of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to sodium ions.. *Y Mitsui, M Miura, D A Bome, Y Aoki ...
Albeit with high similarity to B. malayi genome, the B. pahangi-unique genes found in this study may serve as new focus to ... Subsequently, adult B. pahangi were obtained from the infected gerbil for genomic DNA extraction. Sequencing and subsequently, ... Nevertheless, 166 genes were considered to be unique to B. pahangi, which may be responsible for the distinct properties of B. ... After blood meal on a B. pahangi-harbouring cat, the Aedes togoi mosquitoes were maintained to harvest infective third stage ...
Brugia pahangi Size: 98 kB. Description: Gross disection of rear canine limb showing dilated lymphatics which have been ...
Brugia pahangi in small laboratory animals: the screening of infection rate. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine ...
1995) Brugia pahangi: The effects of cecropins on microfilariae in vitro and in Aedes aegypti. Exp Parasitol 80:401-406. ...
Brugia pahangi (Filarial nematode worm). Loading... O23791 Fruit bromelain. Ananas comosus (Pineapple). Loading... ...
Brugia malayi filariae. MT027200-1. Brugia pahangi filariae. MT027202-4. Leishmania infantum protozoa. MN699319-20. ...
Stage specific gene expression in the post-infective L3 of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi. Samuel Allen Moore Martin, S ... Stage specific gene expression in the post-infective L3 of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi. / Martin, Samuel Allen Moore ... keywords = "filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi, gene expression, differential screening, cytidine deaminase, spliced leader, ... title = "Stage specific gene expression in the post-infective L3 of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi", ...
Brugia *Brugia malayi (one cause of filariasis in humans). *Brugia pahangi (parasite of domestic cats and wild animals) ...
Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats ... Vincent, Albert L.; Frommes, Stephen P.; Ash, Lawrence R. (1976). "Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Brugia patei: Pulmonary ... When a new species (now called Brugia pahangi) was discovered in 1956 from dog and cat, J. J. C. Buckley and J. F. B. Edeson ... Buckley, J. J. C. (1960). "On Brugia Gen. Nov. For Wuchereria Spp. of the Malayi Group i.e., W. Malayi (Brug, 1927), W. Pahangi ...
Zoonotic Brugia pahangi filariasis in a suburbia of Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia. Parasitology international, 60 (1), pp.111-113 ... Brugia malayi adults in tissue. Brugia spp. have typical features of filarial nematodes in cross-section. Females reach a ... Microfilariae of Brugia malayi. Microfilariae of Brugia malayi are sheathed and in stained blood smears measure 175-230 µm. In ... Microfilaria of Brugia timori are sheathed and measure on average 310 µm in stained blood smears and 340 µm in 2% formalin. ...
Examples of neutral or pro-pathogenic effect of Wolbachia include: Brugia pahangi (Dutton and Sinkins, 2005); Japanese ...
Examples of neutral or pro-pathogenic effect of Wolbachia include: Brugia pahangi (Dutton and Sinkins, 2005); Japanese ...
Brugia pahangi: A0A0N4TLS2 ; Brugia malayi: A0A4E9FFK1 ; A0A0K0JD75 ; Acanthocheilonema viteae: A0A498SFA0 ; Toxocara canis: ... Brugia timori: A0A0R3Q8V2 ; Camelus ferus: T0MJ22 ; Tropilaelaps mercedesae: A0A1V9X459 ; Seriola dumerili: A0A3B4U786 ; ...
The electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB) comprises the Acts of the Oireachtas (Parliament), Statutory Instruments, Legislation Directory, Constitution and a limited number of pre-1922 Acts.
The survival in culture of adult female Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, and Onchocerca volvulus and adult male ... Brugia pahangi / drug effects*, physiology. Culture Media. Dipetalonema / drug effects*, physiology. Female. Glucose / ... The survival in culture of adult female Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, and Onchocerca volvulus and adult male ... Motility of B. pahangi incubated in 10 mM succinate was equivalent to that seen with 10 mM glutamine, but no other ...
Brugia pahangi. >Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria inhabit the germline tissue of the parasitic nematode, Brugia pahangi. ...
Brugia malayi:, Brugia pahangi: and Brugia patei:: pulmonary pathology in jirds. Exp Parasitol 1976; 40: 330-354.PubMedCrossRef ... Experimental transmission of Brugia malayi: and Brugia pahangi: to man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1960; 54: 229-234.PubMed ... On Brugia buckleyi: sp. n. from the heart and blood vessels of the Ceylon hare. J Helminthol 1961; 35: 209-220.PubMedCrossRef ... Pulmonary nodule caused by a living Brugia malayi-like: filaria in an artery. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971; 23: 869-876.Google ...
cut-1-like genes are present in the filarial nematodes, Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, and, as in other nematodes, code for ... Temperature is a cue for gene expression in the post-infective L3 of the parasitic nematode Brugia pahangi. ... The isolation of differentially expressed cDNA clones from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. ...
Christensen, B. M. & Sutherland, D. R. Brugia pahangi: Exsheathment and Midgut Penetration in Aedes aegypti. Trans. Am. Microsc ...
Improvement of in vitro culture conditions of Brugia pahangi four day old developing larvae for use in an antifilarial drug ... Dipetalonema viteae and Brugia pahangi transplant infections in gerbils for use in antifilarial screening. ... A comparison of the response of Dipetalonema viteae and Brugia pahangi adult worms to antifilarial agents in vitro. ...
Draft genome of Brugia pahangi: High similarity between B. pahangi and B. malayi. Parasit. Vectors 8, 451 (2015).. ... Vector and reservoir host of a case of human Brugia pahangi infection in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Trop. Biomed. 30, 727- ... Orthogonal ex vivo Brugia validation assay. Adult B. pahangi and B. malayi females cultivated in and extracted from peritoneal ... Prophylactic activity of tetracycline against Brugia pahangi infection in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). J. Parasitol. 79, 775- ...
Brugia pahangi. Parasitol Res 84:139-142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
fraterculus (EU116316.1) and Wolbachia from Brugia pahangi (AY527208.1), respectively. The results with the 16S rDNA and wsp ...
  • The genome of B. pahangi shared high similarity to that B. malayi genome, particularly genes annotated to fundamental processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Albeit with high similarity to B. malayi genome, the B. pahangi -unique genes found in this study may serve as new focus to study differences in virulence, vector selection and host adaptability among different Brugia spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He created a new genus Brugia in honour of the original discoverer, thus renaming B. malayi, B. pahangi, and B. patei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans (for B. malayi and B. timori), and animals (for B. pahangi and B. patei) acts as the definitive hosts in which the adult worms cause filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults produce microfilariae, measuring 177 to 230 μm in length and 5 to 7 μm in width, which are sheathed and have nocturnal periodicity (in some regions B. malayi may be sub-periodic, and note that microfilariae are usually not produced in B. pahangi infections). (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds ( Meriones unguiculatus ). (springer.com)
  • 1973 ), and IP-derived B. pahangi and B. malayi have been widely used for decades, however the developmental timing for neither species has been reported for the IP model. (springer.com)
  • This is surprising because the majority of B. malayi and its sister species B. pahangi that are used for molecular, immunologic, and -omics studies are generated using the IP jird model. (springer.com)
  • T cells are known to be required for host protection in mouse models of Brugia malayi infection. (asm.org)
  • Several independent studies in murine models have also highlighted the rapid induction of Th2-like responses after infection with B. malayi or B. pahangi . (asm.org)
  • T cells have been shown to be essential for host protection in murine infections with Brugia malayi and the closely related feline parasite B. pahangi ( 3 , 41 , 51 - 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Our laboratory has shown that, in the absence of IL-4 production or when signaling through the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) or subsequent Stat6 activation is blocked, mice become significantly more susceptible to infection with either B. malayi or B. pahangi ( 2 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of activated macrophages and nitric oxide donors on Brugia malayi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Strongyloides and related genera, representing soil-transmitted intestinal parasites, and Brugia malayi , representing the mosquito-transmitted lymphatic filariae. (wormbook.org)
  • 1985. Differential pathogenicity of Brugia malayi, B. patei and B. pahangi in immunodeficient nude mice. (ufl.edu)
  • Infections with the helminth parasite Brugia malayi share many key features with Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including recruitment of eosinophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • In a murine model of filarial infection, the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi is surgically implanted into the peritoneal cavity of mice ( 15 , 16 , 19 , 20 ) where the recruitment of both AAMφ and eosinophils occurs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This may explain why homologous sequences to ES62 have been found in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries. (strath.ac.uk)
  • To obtain evidence for this, we investigated production by Brugia pahangi, a close relation of B. malayi. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Brugia malayi , one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human and animals. (mdpi.com)
  • We focus our efforts on understanding the biology of human lymphatic filariasis, using Brugia malayi as a model and various deficient mice as hosts. (uchc.edu)
  • To test the susceptibility of Aedes (Gymnometopa) mediovittatus to infection with Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, females originating from the suburbs of San Juan, Puerto Rico, were fed on infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). (usda.gov)
  • mediovittatus females became infected with L3 larvae of B. pahangi and 47.4% with B. malayi. (usda.gov)
  • the present study revealed the same escape phenomenon among b. pahangi-infected armigeres subalbatus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and aedes togoi, and among brugia malayi-infected ae. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi was investigated. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Changes in proteins synthesised by the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi were examined with respect to the temperature shift encountered by the parasite as it migrates from insect to mammal, and the presence of serum in the culture medium. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Efforts to completely eradicate lymphatic filariasis from human population may be challenged by the emergence of Brugia pahangi as another zoonotic lymphatic filarial nematode. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia bacteria inhabit the germline tissue of the parasitic nematode, Brugia pahangi . (hhmi.org)
  • Beagle puppies, four anesthetized and two unanesthetized, were exposed to B. pahangi by instilling third-stage larvae (L-3s) into the mouth. (ajtmh.org)
  • Devaney, E. , Bancroft, A. and Egan, A. (1993) The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Chemoattractant activity of tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane for Brugia pahangi infective third-stage larvae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After blood meal on a B. pahangi -harbouring cat, the Aedes togoi mosquitoes were maintained to harvest infective third stage larvae, which were then injected into male Mongolian gerbils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gillan V, Devaney E. Regulatory T cells modulate Th2 responses induced by Brugia pahangi third-stage larvae. (southernbiotech.com)
  • published work showed that third-stage larvae (l-3s) escape into water from dead or dying, brugia pahangi-infected, aedes aegypti. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • When a new species (now called Brugia pahangi) was discovered in 1956 from dog and cat, J. J. C. Buckley and J. F. B. Edeson named it Wuchereria pahangi after the village Pahang in Malay, where it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the microfilaricidal effect of ivermectine on Wuchereria, Brugia, and Loa loa is similar to diethycarbamazine: ultrasonography shows that it has no effect on adult Bancroftian worms, and microfilariae often reappear after a few months ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the origin and evolution of the species in the Wuchereria-Brugia clade remain unclear. (bireme.br)
  • experimental brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti infections in certain species of mosquitoes. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • laboratory reared aedes aegypti (black eye and jakarta strains), aedes togoi, (taiwan), aedes albopictus, (jakarta), wild caught anopheles barbirostris, (java) and mansonia uniformis, (jakarta) were fed on a carrier with mixed infection of brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti and brugia pahangi were killed by the chewing action of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures and other papillae and spines in the fore-gut of mosquitoes. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • and mammalian, yeast, Brugia pahangi and Wuchereria bancrofti S13. (syshospital.org)
  • In vitro chemotactic responses of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to sodium ions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro chemotaxis of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to the sera and hemolymph of mammals and lower animals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • infective larvae of brugia: escape from mosquitoes into water and subsequent oral infectivity in jirds. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Depression of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta from rats with Brugia pahangi lymphatic filariasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • For brugian filariasis, one of the available diagnostics is the rapid immunochromatography detection of IgG4 antibody (Brugia Rapid). (mdpi.com)
  • Brugia timori is restricted to the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. (cdc.gov)
  • The Brugia pahangi infective larval response to jird serum was studied using an agar plate assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • flight muscle ultrastructure of susceptible and refractory mosquitoes parasitized by larval brugia pahangi. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • on parasitization with larval brugia pahangi the infected flight muscle fibres of 'resistant' anopheles labranchiae atroparvus undergo the following ultrastructural changes. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Brugia pahangi - Identification and characterization of an aminopeptidase associated with larval molting. (ac.ir)
  • The survival in culture of adult female Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, and Onchocerca volvulus and adult male Onchocerca gibsoni was assessed by measuring parasite motility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This suggests that B. pahangi infection may be more prevalent in humans than previously thought. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Brugia pahangi in small laboratory animals: the screening of infection rate. (who.int)
  • In the murine model of infection, T-cell responses to Brugia are predominantly type 2 in nature. (asm.org)
  • suggested that the critical function for CD4 + T cells in host protection against a challenge infection with Brugia is the production of Th2 cytokines (i.e., interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-9) ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In line with observations of induction of a type 2 response following brugian infection, Devaney and coworkers have described an increase in IL-4 message in the draining lymph nodes within 24 h postinfection with B. pahangi , which they later demonstrated was derived from NK-T cells ( 4 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The number and distribution of Brugia pahangi in cats at different times after a primary infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Publications] Pam Y,Yamada S,Tsukidate S,Fujita K.: 'Increased susceptibility of BALB/C mice to infection with Brugia pahaugi when triated at an early stage with a single dose of carrageenan or promethazine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Pan Y,Yamada S,Tsukidate S,Fujita K: 'Increased susceptibility of BALB/C mice to infection with Brugia pahangi when treated at an early stage with a single dose of carrageenan and promethajine' Parasitology International. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Motility of B. pahangi incubated in 10 mM succinate was equivalent to that seen with 10 mM glutamine, but no other tricarboxylic acid intermediate supported this parasite in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activation of jird (Meriones unguiculatus) macrophages by the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (asm.org)
  • Species of Brugia are similar to W. bancrofti and Loa loa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the three gene sequences, the new species forms a monophyletic clade with W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. (bireme.br)
  • Molecular analyses based on the cox1 and 12S rRNA genes and the ITS1 region indicated that this species differs from both W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. (bireme.br)
  • Nitric oxide limits the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in mice infected with the microfilariae of Brugia pahangi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. (nih.gov)
  • Brugia pahangi is known to infect humans and dogs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The timing of the third molt coincided largely with reports for subcutaneous Brugia pahangi infections of cats and jirds, but the final molt occurred considerably later and lasted longer than those reported for subcutaneous B. pahangi models. (springer.com)
  • The use of jirds for intraperitoneal (IP) infections with B. pahangi has been described (McCall et al. (springer.com)
  • Herein, we reported the observations of B. pahangi infections in dogs with scrotal mass, liver mass, haemolytic jaundice, and central vestibular disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected and proliferative responsiveness and secretion of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and gamma interferon (IFN gamma) were measured upon stimulation with a Brugia pahangi antigen. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although smeared samples of her blood taken at noon revealed no microfilaria, there was a slight elevation of IgG against filarial antigen (Brugia pahangi female crude antigens), compared to that of healthy individuals (Fig. 1). (nih.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent responses are depressed in the aorta from rats infected with B. pahangi. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, endothelium-dependent responses in abdominal aorta of Brugia-infected rats were significantly depressed when compared with control aorta from noninfected rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Publications] M.M.Hossain, S.Tsukidate, N.Akao & K.Fujita: 'Antigens responsible for eosinophil hyporesponsi veness in Brugia pahangi inci crofilariae infected mice' Parasitology International. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nevertheless, 166 genes were considered to be unique to B. pahangi , which may be responsible for the distinct properties of B. pahangi as compared to other filarial nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Female Aedes togoi mosquitoes were fed on a cat naturally infected with B. pahangi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we have characterized the genome of B. pahangi and compared it with those of other nematodes in order to deduce biological similarities and differences among these nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brugia pahangi is a parasitic roundworm belonging to the genus Brugia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genus of Brugia is most commonly recognized by the spicules in males, which are needle like mating structures that open the vulva of the female worm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Brugia genus, there are two spicules, they are the shortest in length, the left one being 200-215 μm and the right one 75-90 μm long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia is a genus for a group of small roundworms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, adult B. pahangi were obtained from the infected gerbil for genomic DNA extraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oral transmission of Brugia pahangi , already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. (ajtmh.org)
  • The reporting of B. pahangi draft genome contributes to genomic archive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism of relaxation in the Brugia-infected abdominal aorta appears to be altered when compared with control, suggesting that parasites are capable of modulating vascular reactivity by inducing changes in endothelial cell behavior. (ahajournals.org)
  • K.Yamamoto & K.Fujita: 'Suppression of mitogen-induced IL-2Rα expresion in PBL by serum from microfilaremic rats chronically infected with Brugia pahangi' Parasitology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gillan V, Lawrence RA, Devaney E. B cells play a regulatory role in mice infected with the L3 of Brugia pahangi. (southernbiotech.com)
  • This shortened the life span of a mosquito, which then reduced the incubation period of B. pahangi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia roundworms complete their life cycle in two different hosts. (wikipedia.org)