Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Dipetalonema: A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Trans-Splicing: The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Haplosporida: A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.Thiabendazole: 2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)IndiaLoa: A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.Onchocerca volvulus: A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.Quinestrol: The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)Trichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Ostertagiasis: A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Rhabditida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Current Procedural Terminology: Descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures performed by PHYSICIANS. It is produced by the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and used in insurance claim reporting for MEDICARE; MEDICAID; and private health insurance programs (From CPT 2002).Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)BooksBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Wuchereria: A genus of filarial nematodes.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Trombiculidae: Family of MITES in the superfamily Trombiculoidea, suborder Prostigmata, which attack humans and other vertebrates, causing DERMATITIS and severe allergic reactions. Chiggers, red bugs, and harvest mites commonly refer to the larval stage of Trombiculid mites, the only parasitic stage of the mite's life cycle.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Esocidae: A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.Arguloida: An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.PakistanParasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Biostatistics: The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.

Efficacy of five annual single doses of diethylcarbamazine for treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Fiji. (1/222)

Annual single-dose treatments with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) at a dose of 6 mg/kg have been reported effective in reducing microfilariae (mf) rate and density and applicable to large-scale filariasis control campaigns. However, the efficacy of such treatments has not been studied quantitatively in relation to different pretreatment levels of endemicity. This study of 32 villages in Fiji revealed that five treatments repeated annually steadily reduced village mf rate, and that the degree of reduction was not influenced by pretreatment levels of mf density or rate. This indicates that an annual dosage scheme is applicable to high-endemicity areas. The results also suggest that such treatment affected juvenile forms of Wuchereria bancrofti and may prevent them from reproducing.  (+info)

Anti-filarial IgG4 in men and women living in Brugia malayi-endemic areas. (2/222)

To assess whether antifilarial IgG4 can be used to study various epidemiological facets of filarial infections, we studied this isotype in 238 individuals resident in areas endemic for brugian filariasis, focusing on the differences between men and women. In the study area, the prevalence of microfilariae was 6.7% and the prevalence of antifilarial IgG4 was 49.2%. All microfilariae carriers were positive for antifilarial IgG4, whereas a proportion of the endemic normals (94/208) and clephantiasis patients (7/14) had IgG4 antibodies to filarial antigens. Data were analysed as a function of gender in distinct clinical groups and stratified for age. The prevalence of microfilariae was higher in males in all age groups, as reflected in significantly higher antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels compared to females. The prevalence of IgG4 increased to reach a plateau at the age of 30 years in both males and females. These results indicate that antifilarial IgG4 antibodies can reflect the differences in the extent of infection in males and females as measured by microfilarial counts, and that this parameter can be used for epidemiological assessments of filarial infection.  (+info)

Immunity in experimental murine filariasis: roles of T and B cells revisited. (3/222)

We have reevaluated the contributions of T and B cells in Brugia malayi infection by utilizing knockout mice on a uniform background (C57BL/6J). We find that B-cell-deficient mice are more permissive to infection than T-cell-deficient mice.  (+info)

Homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans masculinizing gene her-1 in C. briggsae and the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (4/222)

The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identities of the predicted gene products with Ce-HER-1A are only 57% for Cb-HER-1, which is considerably lower than has been found for most homologous briggsae genes, and 35% for Bm-HER-1. However, conserved residues are found throughout both proteins, and like Ce-HER-1A, both have putative N-terminal signal sequences. Ce-her-1 produces a larger masculinizing transcript (her-1a) and a smaller transcript of unknown function (her-1b); both are present essentially only in males. By contrast, Cb-her-1 appears to produce only one transcript, corresponding to her-1a; it is enriched in males but present also in hermaphrodites. Injection of dsRNA transcribed from Cb-her-1 into C. briggsae hermaphrodites (RNA interference) caused XO animals to develop into partially fertile hermaphrodites. Introducing a Cb-her-1 construct as a transgene under control of the C. elegans unc-54 myosin heavy chain promoter caused strong masculinization of both C. briggsae and C. elegans hermaphrodites. Introduction of a similar Bm-her-1 construct into C. elegans caused only very weak, if any, masculinization. We conclude that in spite of considerable divergence the Cb gene is likely to be a functional ortholog of Ce-her-1, while the function of the distantly related Bm gene remains uncertain.  (+info)

A novel serpin expressed by blood-borne microfilariae of the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi inhibits human neutrophil serine proteinases. (5/222)

Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) play a vital regulatory role in a wide range of biological processes, and serpins from viruses have been implicated in pathogen evasion of the host defence system. For the first time, we report a functional serpin gene from nematodes that may function in this manner. This gene, named Bm-spn-2, has been isolated from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot experiments indicate that Bm-spn-2 is expressed only by microfilariae (Mf), which are the long-lived blood-dwelling larval stage. A survey of the greater than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from B malayi deposited in dbEST shows that greater than 2% of the ESTs sequenced from Mf cDNA libraries correspond to Bm-spn-2. Despite its abundance in the microfilarial stage, Bm-spn-2 has not been found in any other point in the life cycle. The predicted protein encoded by Bm-spn-2 contains 428 amino acids with a putative signal peptide. Antibodies to recombinant Bm-SPN-2 protein react specifically with a 47.5-kD native protein in Mf extract. Bm-SPN-2 is one of the largest of the 93 known serpins, due to a 22 amino acid carboxy-terminal extension, and contains the conserved serpin signature sequence. Outside these regions, levels of homology are low, and only a distant relationship can been seen to a Caenorhabditis elegans serpin. The Bm-spn-2 gene contains 6 introns, 2 of which appear to be shared by both nematode species. The B malayi introns have an extended and conserved 3' splice site and are relatively large compared with C elegans. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases were screened and Bm-SPN-2 protein was found to specifically inhibit enzymatic activity of human neutrophil cathepsin G and human neutrophil elastase, but not a range of other serine proteinases. It is possible that Bm-SPN-2 could function as a stage-specific serpin in the blood environment of the microfilarial parasite in protection from human immunity and thus may be a good candidate for protective vaccine.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated filarial homologues of the 20-kilodalton retinol binding protein from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov20). (6/222)

Ov20 is a structurally novel 20-kDa retinol binding protein secreted by Onchocerca volvulus. Immunological and biological investigation of this protein has been hampered by the inability to maintain O. volvulus in a laboratory setting. In an effort to find a system more amenable to laboratory investigation, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed cDNA encoding homologues of Ov20 from two closely related filarial species, Brugia malayi (Bm20) and Acanthocheilonema viteae (Av20). Sequence comparisons have highlighted differences in glycosylation of the homologues. We present here an analysis of mouse immune responses to Ov20, Bm20, and Av20. The results suggest a strong genetic restriction in response to native Bm20 that is overcome when recombinant, nonnative material is used. Reactivity of human filarial sera to the three recombinant proteins confirmed previous specificity studies with Ov20 but highlighted important differences in the reactivity patterns of the O. volvulus and B. malayi homologues that may be due to differences in glycosylation patterns. Ov20 is a dominant antigen in infected individuals, while Bm20 is not. The availability of the B. malayi homologue enabled us to use defined murine reagents and inbred strains for genetic analysis of responsiveness in a way that is not possible for Ov20. However, the close sequence similarity between Ov20 and Av20 suggests that the A. viteae model may be more suited to the investigation of the biological functions of Ov20.  (+info)

Calgranulin C has filariacidal and filariastatic activity. (7/222)

The calgranulins are a family of calcium- and zinc-binding proteins produced by neutrophils, monocytes, and other cells. Calgranulins are released during inflammatory responses and have antimicrobial activity. Recently, one of the calgranulins, human calgranulin C (CaGC), has been implicated as an important component of the host responses that limit the parasite burden during filarial nematode infections. The goal of this work was to test the hypothesis that human CaGC has biologic activity against filarial parasites. Brugia malayi microfilariae and adults were exposed in vitro to 0.75 to 100 nM recombinant human CaGC. Recombinant CaGC affected adult and larval parasites in a dose-dependent fashion. Microfilariae were more sensitive to the action of CaGC than were adult parasites. At high levels, CaGC was both macrofilariacidal and microfilariacidal. At lower levels, the percentage of parasites killed was dependent on the level of CaGC in the culture system. The larvae not killed had limited motility. The filariastatic effect of low-level CaGC was reversed when the CaGC was removed from the culture system. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that human CaGC accumulated in the cells of the hypodermis-lateral chord of adult and larval parasites. The antifilarial activity of CaGC was not due to the sequestration of zinc. Thus, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in the production and release of CaGC in humans may play a key role in the regulation of filarial parasite numbers.  (+info)

B1 B lymphocytes play a critical role in host protection against lymphatic filarial parasites. (8/222)

Host defense against multicellular, extracellular pathogens such as nematode parasites is believed to be mediated largely, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes. During our investigations into the course of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi infections in immunodeficient mouse models, we found that mice lacking B lymphocytes were permissive for Brugian infections, whereas immunocompetent mice were uniformly resistant. Mice bearing the Btk(xid) mutation were as permissive as those lacking all B cells, suggesting that the B1 subset may be responsible for host protection. Reconstitution of immunodeficient recombination activating gene (Rag)-1(-/)- mice with B1 B cells conferred resistance, even in the absence of conventional B2 lymphocytes and most T cells. These results suggest that B1 B cells are necessary to mediate host resistance to Brugian infection. Our data are consistent with a model wherein early resistance to B. malayi is mediated by humoral immune response, with a significant attrition of the incoming infectious larval load. Sterile clearance of the remaining parasite burden appears to require cell-mediated immunity. These data raise the possibility that the identification of molecule(s) recognized by humoral immune mechanisms might help generate prophylactic vaccines.  (+info)

*Brugia malayi

Plate 2 - Brugia malayi, Brugia timori". World Health Organization. 1997. Cross, John H. (1996), "Filarial Nematodes: Lymphatic ... the Brugia malayi MIF gene is expressed in all life-cycle stages of the parasite, and results suggest that B. malayi MIF may ... Brugia Malayi". Fischer, P.; Erickson, S. M.; Fischer, K.; Fuchs, J. F.; Rao, R. U.; Christensen, B. M. & Weil, G. J. (2007), " ... Brugia malayi is a nematode (roundworm), one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans. Lymphatic ...

*Brugia

... malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats ... Vincent, Albert L.; Frommes, Stephen P.; Ash, Lawrence R. (1976). "Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Brugia patei: Pulmonary ... Buckley, J. J. C. (1960). "On Brugia Gen. Nov. For Wuchereria Spp. of the Malayi Group i.e., W. Malayi (Brug, 1927), W. Pahangi ... He created a new genus Brugia in honour of the original discoverer, thus renaming B. malayi, B. pahangi, and B. patei. In 1977 ...

*Lymphatic filariasis

Three types of worms are known to cause the disease: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, with Wuchereria ... Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori (also known as B. timori), all of which are transmitted by bites from infected mosquitoes. It ... On September 20, 2007, geneticists published the first draft of the complete genome (genetic content) of Brugia malayi, one of ... "Draft Genome of the Filarial Nematode Parasite Brugia malayi". Science. 317 (5845): 1756-60. doi:10.1126/science.1145406. PMC ...

*List of sequenced animal genomes

September 21, 2007). "Draft Genome of the Filarial Nematode Parasite Brugia malayi". Science. 317 (5845): 1756-1760. Bibcode: ... Brugia malayi (Strain:TRS), human-infecting filarial parasite (2007) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, infects pine trees (2011) ...

*Mansonia indiana

It is a vector of nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi. Females are known to be strongly anthropophilic (human biters). Larvae ... to nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi (Spirurida: Filariodea)". J Med Entomol. 39: 215-7. PMID 11931259. "Bionomics". ENVIS ...

*Cooperia oncophora

"Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets". PLoS One. 2 (11): e1189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone ...

*List of sequenced bacterial genomes

2005). "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nematode". PLoS Biol. 3 (4): ...

*Wolbachia

The second Wolbachia genome to be determined was one that infects Brugia malayi nematodes. Genome sequencing projects for ... In the parasitic filarial nematode species responsible for elephantiasis, such as Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ...

*Diethylcarbamazine

These diseases include: lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori; ...

*Coquillettidia crassipes

"Field and laboratory observations on Coquillettidia crassipes in relation to transmission of Brugia malayi in Peninsular ...

*Ong Kok Hai

His current research focuses on enteric fever and on a rapid antigen detection test for brugia malayi. Honorary Member of ...

*Tropical eosinophilia

The syndrome is caused by a distinct hypersensitive immunological reaction to microfilariae of W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi. ...

*Coquillettidia

... other species are secondary or suspected vectors of Brugia malayi the cause of lymphatic filariasis, and Rift Valley fever. ...

*Culex sitiens

There is evidence it is a vector for Japanese encephalitis, as well as the roundworm Brugia malayi in Thailand. Norbert Becker ...

*Mansonia annulifera

It shows high affinity for human biting and is a potent vector of Brugia malayi to cause Malayan filariasis. In 1980, Japanese ... Natural Mortality of Mansonia annulifera with Special Reference to Mortality due to Brugia malayi Infection and Distribution of ...

*Southern multimammate mouse

"Immunization of Mastomys coucha with Brugia malayi Recombinant Trehalose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase Results in Significant ... Similarly, unlike the common murine research model, M. coucha can support the complete lifecycle of B. malayi, a parasite that ...

*Brugia timori

The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti ... The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal ... B. timori microfilariae are slightly larger than B. malayi microfilariae. Aside from vectoring Brugia species, mosquitoes also ... 1977 = Timor microfilaria, David and Edeson, 1964): Morphologic description with comparison to Brugia malayi of Indonesia. ...

*Wuchereria bancrofti

It is one of the three parasitic worms, together with Brugia malayi and B. timori, that infect the lymphatic system to cause ...

*Immune tolerance

Brugia malayi, and other worms and parasites. Another important disadvantage of the existence of tolerance may be ...

*Alae (nematode anatomy)

Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, and, as in other nematodes, code for components of the cuticle". Molecular and Biochemical ...

*Anopheles

... the filariasis-causing species Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and viruses such as one that causes O'nyong'nyong fever ...

*Aedes koreicus

... and Brugia malayi, which causes lymphatic filariasis. F. W. Edwards. Notes on Culicidae, with Descriptions of New Species. ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... brugia MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.500 --- brugia malayi MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.550 --- brugia ...

*ICD-10 Chapter I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases

Filariasis due to Brugia malayi (B74.2) Filariasis due to Brugia timori (B74.3) Loiasis (B74.4) Mansonelliasis (B74.8) Other ...

*Hydrocele

... chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, ...

*Filarioidea

Brugia malayi Brugia timori Wuchereria bancrofti Three other medically important parasitic species are: Loa loa causes Loa loa ...
Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., " Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression." (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Abstract Methods are presented for the cryopreservation of a sheathed microfilaria, Brugia malayi, and an unsheathed species, Dirofilaria corynodes. The former survived best when frozen at the rate of -0.8° or -0.5°C per minute using 9% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the cryopreservative. Approximately 52-79% of the thawed microfilariae developed to the third stage in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes versus 79% of the unfrozen specimens. For D. corynodes the optimum freezing rate was -2° or -5°C per minute, and 6% DMSO combined with 0.004 M polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) afforded the best cryoprotective effect. The development of thawed microfilariae in mosquitoes ranged from 22-32% versus 29% for unfrozen specimens. In general, the viability of both species of microfilaria was retained best when stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The entire life cycle of B. malayi was completed in the laboratory using cryopreserved microfilariae as the initial source. The cryopreservation of Wuchereria bancrofti also is
We developed real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with melting curve analysis for detection of Brugia malayi DNA in blood-fed mosquitoes. Real-time FRET PCR is based on a fluorescence melting curve analysis of hybrid formed between amplicons generated from a family of repeated DNA element, 153-bp HhaI repeated sequence, specific to genus Brugia and specific fluorophore-labeled probes. The B. malayi-infected mosquitoes were differentiated from Wuchereria bancrofti-infected and uninfected mosquitoes and from genomic DNA of Dirofilaria immitis- and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human red blood cells and human leukocytes by their melting temperature. Sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Melting curve analysis produces a rapid, accurate, and sensitive alternative for specific detection of B. malayi in mosquitoes, allows high throughput, and can be performed on small samples. This method has the potential for endemic area mapping or
This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 13 (1) : 100-104. [email protected] Repository ...
The helminthic parasites of humans are multicellular (metazoan) animal species that survive only by spending part of their lives infecting organ tissues or digestive spaces within the human body. In countries with high prevalence rates of helminth infection, consideration is now being given to the comorbid effects of parasitic helminths with infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis in addressing the local and regional burden of disease. In this chapter, parasite life cycles and vector ecology are touched briefly. Collectively, the three filarial organisms that include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori are known to be the most common etiologic agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF). During chronic LF, there is a complex regulation of immune responses to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, with reduced responsiveness of T cells to antigens produced by microfilariae and decreased production of gamma interferon. Dracunculiasis is a significantly
Behavior of the B. malayi microfilariae in the peripheral blood of human carrier in the intergradation area of Mahakam Delta East Kalimantan.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a morbid disease caused by the tissue-invasive nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, affects millions of people worldwide. Global eradication efforts have significantly reduced worldwide prevalence, but complete elimination has been hampered by limitations of current anti-filarial drugs and the lack of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to evaluate B. malayi intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Bm-UGT) as a potential therapeutic target. To evaluate whether Bm-UGT is essential for adult filarial worms, we inhibited its expression using siRNA. This resulted in a 75% knockdown of Bm-ugt mRNA for 6 days and almost complete suppression of detectable Bm-UGT by immunoblot. Reduction in Bm-UGT expression resulted in decreased worm motility for 6 days, 70% reduction in microfilaria release from adult worms, and significant reduction in adult worm metabolism as detected by MTT assays. Because prior allergic-sensitization to a filarial antigen ...
Filarial nematodes are capable of causing significant disease with long-term ramifications in humans and animals. Intermediate hosts, or vectors, are involved in all instances. Interestingly, although they infect different locations in their respective hosts, the filarial worm species are remarkably similar in many ways.. In humans, the most prevalent filarial infections can result in blindness (Onchocerca volvulus) or lymphedema (Brugia malayi, B. timori and Wuchereria bancrofti).. The intermediate hosts of O. volvulus are blackflies, which transfer infective larvae to a susceptible person approximately 2 to 3 weeks after becoming infected by microfilariae in a blood meal from an infected host. The infective larvae migrate into the subcutaneous tissue in the competent host and form nodules under the surface of the skin while maturing into adult worms. Adult female O. volvulus produce 750 to 1600 microfilariae daily [8, 9]. When adult worms or microfilariae die, the resulting inflammatory ...
Author Summary Filarial parasites such as Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are the causative agents of the tropical diseases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which infect 150 million people, mainly in Africa and Southeast Asia. Filarial nematodes have a complex life cycle that involves transmission and development within both mammalian and insect hosts. The successful completion of the life cycle includes four molts, two of which are triggered upon transmission from one host to the other, human and mosquito, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the molting processes in filarial nematodes may yield a new set of targets for drug intervention. In insects and other arthropods molting transitions are regulated by the steroid hormone ecdysone that interacts with a specialized hormone receptor composed of two different proteins belonging to the family of nuclear receptors. We have cloned from B. malayi two members of the nuclear receptor family that show many sequence
Spencer, L., L. Shultz, and T. V. Rajan. "T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4." Infection and Immunity 71.6 (2003): 3097-3106. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. ...
Brugia is genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. Specifically, of the three species known, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. They are transmitted by the bite of mosquitos. The first species discovered was B. malayi. It was reported by a Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug in 1927 from Southeast Asia (Malaya, for which the name was given). It was originally believed to be similar or closely related to another filarial roundworm then named Microfilaria bancrofti (now Wuchereria bancrofti), described by an English naturalist Thomas Spencer Cobbold in 1877. It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. Brug was aware of the difference mainly on the basis of their occurrence. He found both the worms in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but in New Guinea only W. ...
A parasitic infection caused by filarial nematode worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, causing a variety of illnesses. See also elephantiasis and onchocerciasis.. ...
Elephantiasis, or lymphatic filariasis, is a parasitic disease infecting more than 120 million people in the tropics. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 40 million of them are disfigured and disabled by the infectious disease. Characterized by elephantine enlarged limbs and thickened skin, lymphatic filariasis is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquito bites.. During the last five years, John Siekierka, Montclair State chemistry and biochemistry professor and director of the Universitys Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute for Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, and Sokol Professor of Chemistry David Rotella have received more than $932,000 in grant funding from the Celgene Corporation Division of Global Health to find effective new treatments for the disease.. "New treatments are needed because the existing drugs are not completely effective and have side effects that limit their use," says Siekierka. Determining the means by which parasites such as Brugia malayi - the ...
Plague is still endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas, and localised outbreaks are not uncommon especially in war situations, eg Vietnam, where there has been an increase in recent years. Relapsing fever in Africa and Bartonellosis (Carrions disease) are geographically limited in extent.. Among the protozoal infections, African trypanosomiasis is increasing both in West and East Africa but, in numerical terms, is still mainly of importance for its effect on domestic animals. South American trypano-somiasis (Chagas disease) extends through much of the sub-continent and appears to be responsible for considerable morbidity in parts of its distribution. Malaria and leishmaniasis are widespread and cause severe morbidity and mortality in many countries.. Of the tissue filariases, those due to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may produce serious deformity, while the skin dwelling parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, causes blindness in parts of tropical Africa and Central America.. While ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
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During larval development, filarial nematodes adjust their lifelong reproductive strategy to the presence of anti-parasitic immune cells that determine host resistance and experimental vaccine efficacy.
Ms Brugia referred to Cedefops long tradition of cooperating with the EESC, stressing that it was, in fact, this Committee that proposed the setting up of a European Centre dealing with vocational education and training (VET).
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, Timorean filariasis CHARACTERISTICS: Filarial parasite (nematode), sheathed microfilariae are 200-300 µm in length and 4-7 µm in width SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Characterized by recurring lymphadenitis and lymphangitis accompanied with fever; lymphatic abscesses and consequent scarring are common features; lymphedema appears and progresses to elephantiasis usually confined to the distal extremities in a small proportion of cases EPIDEMIOLOGY: B. malayi endemic in Southeast Asia, rural southwest India, Sri Lanka, China and South Korea: B. timori found in Timor, Flores, Alor, Roti, and South East Indonesia HOST RANGE: Humans, cats, civet, nonhuman primates and mosquitoes INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By the bite of an infected mosquito; B. malayi transmitted by ...
To investigate whether Australian soldiers were exposed to filarial parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis during a 6-month deployment to Timor-Leste, antifilarial antibody levels were measured in 907 soldiers using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial testing using Dirofilaria immitis antigen demonstrated that 49 of 907 (5.4%) soldiers developed antifilarial antibodies of the IgG1 subclass after deployment, whereas 1 of 944 (0.1%) seroconverted to the IgG4 subclass. When a sub sample of 88 D. immitis-reactive sera was subject to testing with an antifilarial antibody test using Brugia malayi antigen, 46 had elevated IgG antibodies, whereas 5 had elevated antibodies of the IgG4 subclass. A total of 24 soldiers seroconverted to B. malayi, as measured by parasite-specific IgG, whereas 1 seroconverted to IgG4. The relatively low number of seroconversions indicates a low but measurable risk of exposure to human filarial parasites among Australian soldiers deployed to Timor-Leste. ...
Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D.immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D.immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and ...
Lymphatic filariasis is also known as elephantiasis. It is a disease of the tropics characterized by grotesque swelling of the limbs and male genitalia. The disease is caused by thread-like, parasitic filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. These worms lodge in the lymphatic system. They live for 4-6 years, producing millions of tiny larvae (microfilariae) that circulate in the blood.
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Natural Skin Care Through Use of Dead Sea Products The major role of the skin is to provide protection to the inner body tissues. However, the skin itself is
Key Words and Related Terms: lymphedema, leg lymphedema, lymphatic filariasis, Elephantiasis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi , B. timori, parasites. We most commonly think of lymphatic filariasis as caused by a mosquito bite where one of three microscopic parasitic worms are literally injected into your body. These parasitic worms are: Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and B. timor There is however, another parasite that is not much discussed and therefore very often missed in attempting to diagnose lymphedema in a person from a sub tropical or tropical climate. Tungiasis is an infestation by the burrowing flea Tunga penetrans or related species. The flea has many common names as listed above. Tungiasis was first reported in crewmen who sailed with Christopher Columbus. The flea is indigenous to the West Indies/Caribbean/Central America region, but it has spread to Africa, India, Pakistan, and South America. Travelers to endemic areas may import cases to other countries, including the ...
FIL : The filariae are parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that cause significant human morbidity in tropical regions worldwide. The macroscopic adults live in the human host and release microscopic offspring (microfilariae) into the blood or skin. The microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B timori, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, and M ozzardi are found in the blood, while the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M streptocerca are found in the skin. If microfilariae are taken up by a biting insect vector (mosquitos, blackflies, midges, and deer flies), they undergo further development in the insect and can then be transmitted to other humans.   W bancrofti and the Brugia species cause a serious condition called lymphatic filariasis. The adults live in the lymphatics and cause inflammation and scarring of the lymph vessels. Over time, the lymphatic channels are obstructed and fluid cannot drain back to the heart, resulting in massive lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the affected limb
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, and afflicts humans. The disease is prevalent in tropical countries, where 128 million are infected and 1.1 billion are at risk of being infected. Over 30% (38.4 million) of the people affected by lymphatic filariasis worldwide live in Africa. In Kenya, the disease is common in the coastal province where 2.5 million people live. The nocturnal W bancrofti is the causative agent for lymphatic filariasis in Africa. These parasites are transmitted by mosquito vector, for which 77 species have been identified. The species belong to the genera, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, and Mansonia. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of W bancrofti infections has been one of the main challenges in filariasis research. To date, this objective has been hampered by absence of microfilariae in the later stages of the disease, inconveniences of nocturnal behaviour of the parasites, lack of a sensitive diagnostic method, and safer and easier ...
Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a filarial nematode parasite that usually infects dogs or other canines, but can also infect cats, foxes, ferrets, and sea lions. The adult worms live in the right ventricle of the heart, hence their common name. After the adults mate, they produce microscopic larvae known as microfilariae, which are ingested by mosquitos when they bite the mammalian host. The larvae complete their development in the mosquito and then are transmitted to a new host when she feeds again. Although most dogs do not show signs of infection, in some cases worms can cause issues and need to be treated. However the treatments are sometimes risky because the dead worms can get carried to the lungs and cause respiratory distress or failure. Preventative therapies, such as giving dogs the drug ivermectin, are effective and safe. Heartworm are also hosts to the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia (see January 12th ...
Animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a dog lungworm (Angiostrongylus vasorum) Also known as the French heartworm, this is a common filarial nematode parasite of dogs and rarely humans. The adult worms are large, measuring up to 25 centimetres long, and they typically live in the dogs right heart and pulmonary artery. It causes the disease canine angiostrongylosis in dogs. Female worms produce microfilariae that are found in the dogs blood and can be ingested by mosquitoes. The microfilariae mature into infective juveniles in the mosquito and the infection is transmitted to a new host when the mosquito feeds such as dogs and humans. The natural intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum are land slugs, land snails and freshwater snails. - Stock Video Clip K006/9270
A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by fluid secreted from a remnant piece of peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, hydrocoeles below the age of 1 year usually resolve spontaneously. Primary hydrocoeles may develop in adulthood, particularly in the elderly and in hot countries, by slow accumulation of serous fluid, presumably caused by impaired reabsorption, which appears to be the explanation for most primary hydroceles, although the reason remains obscure.[citation needed] A hydrocele can also be the result of a plugged inguinal lymphatic system caused by repeated, chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively. As such, the condition would be a part of more diffuse sequelae commonly referred to as elephantiasis, which also ...
New research conducted by Dr. Richard Martin details new methods for studying a parasitic nematode that sickens millions worldwide, a development that could lead to improved therapies. Martin has developed a means of determining the function of individual genes in Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that threatens populations in tropical regions in Africa, South American and Asia. A new study on the development of an animal welfare curriculum in colleges and schools of veterinary medicine was co-authored by Dr. Suzanne Millman who writes, "To ensure veterinarians are better prepared to provide leadership during public discussions, there is a need to include current and consistent information about factors that affect animals welfare and techniques for welfare assessment in the veterinary curriculum." ...
ID WOLPP_1_PE1224 STANDARD; PRT; 93 AA. AC WOLPP_1_PE1224; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (WOLPP_1.PE1224). OS WOLBACHIA ENDOSYMBIONT OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS PEL. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Anaplasmataceae; Wolbachieae; Wolbachia. OX NCBI_TaxID=570417; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS WOLPP_1.PE1224. CC Wolbachia endosymbiont of Culex quinquefasciatus Pel, complete genome. CC chromosome, complete genome. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000219995 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOMDNA; WOLPP_1.PE1224; -. KW Putative phage related protein. SQ SEQUENCE 93 AA; UNKNOWN MW; UNKNOWN CRC64; MPSGIKPYNI DYSESVIKKD IPALPAKVKL MIKKAIMERL TVDPIGLGKP LKHNLSGQRS LRVSTYRILY YIDVPEHTVV ITAIEHRKDS YQN ...
Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis ...
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856 million people in 52 countries worldwide are at risk of this disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes, usually in childhood. A painful and profoundly disfiguring NTD, it can leave patients physically disabled and contribute to mental, social and financial losses, stigma and poverty.. ...
筛选: Committee Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University 删除限定条件 Committee: Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University Department Environmental Health 删除限定条件 Department: Environmental Health ...
A role for altered endothelial cell function is emerging in the pathogenesis of disease. We have previously demonstrated that Dirofilaria immitis, the canine heartworm, depresses endothelium-dependent responses and alters the mechanism of relaxation in the in vivo femoral artery of infected dogs. Exposure of rat aorta to the parasite or parasite-conditioned medium selectively depresses endothelium-dependent relaxation. D. immitis is closely related to the major human filarial pathogens. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent responses are depressed in the aorta from rats infected with B. pahangi. Rings of thoracic and abdominal aorta were suspended in muscle baths for measurement of isometric tension. Dose-response relations to norepinephrine, endothelium-dependent dilators (acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187), ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
Dracunculiasis is an infection caused by the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, also known as the guinea worm. D medinensis is in the order Spirurida, an order of parasites that includes the filariae Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa.
We have cloned and characterized the gene for an immunodominant antigen of O. volvulus that is recognized by the sera of 96% of patients with onchocerciasis. Its 1.2-kb mRNA constitutes 0.3% of adult worm poly(A)+ RNA and its cDNA sequence reveals that it is not a highly conserved structural protein such as actin or tubulin. Similar but not identical genes occur in the genomes of related filarie, Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis. The recombinant antigen has both immunodiagnostic and immunoprophylactic significance. ...
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Wolbachiabacteria in natural population of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in Turkey, and to exhibit the molecular...
Wolbachia, a gram negative bacterial endosymbiont belonging to the Rickettiales, has been described in the body of various species of filarial nematodes (Sironi et al. 1995; Bandi et al., 1998, Casiraghi et al., 2001). These bacteria are present in the lateral chords of both males and females, in the reproductive apparatus of females and also in the larvae present in the vector (Bandi et al., 2001). Wolbachia has also been shown to be transovarially transmitted from female worms to the offspring. In addition, a 100% prevalence of infection in the filarial species positive for Wolbachia is suggestive of an obligatory symbiosis between bacteria and its host (Bandi et al., 2001). Furthermore, drugs like tetracycline, known to be effective against Rickettsia-like bacteria, have been shown to cause detrimental effects on filarial nematodes which harbour Wolbachia, and no effects on filarial nematodes which do not harbour these bacteria (Bandi et al., 1999, Hoerauf et al., 1999; Langworthy et al., ...
Researchers from LSTMs Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics have found a way of significantly reducing the treatment required for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis from several weeks to seven days. By targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont that the filarial parasites need to live, the team has discovered a drug synergy that enables effective treatment over a shorter time.. ...
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... : filagrees, filament, filamentary, filamentous, filaments, filander, filar, filaree, filaria, filariae, filarial, filarian, filarias, filariasis, filariid, filasse, filatories, filatory, filature, filazer...
A similar order of antifilarial activity was also obtained by the benzimida- zolylurea, (34; RCOC6H5; RIH; Cy mbalta a dose of 50 mgkg 40. 682L 7.
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Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with both the tissue nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. At the sites of infection with N. brasiliensis, we also observed induction of other chitinase and Fizz family members (ChaFFs): acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and Fizz2. The high expression of both Ym1 and AMCase in the lungs of infected mice suggests that abundant chitinase production is an important feature of Th2 immune responses in the lung. In addition to expression of ChaFFs in the tissues, Ym1 and Fizz1 expression was observed in the lymph nodes. Expression both in vitro and in vivo was restricted to antigen-presenting ...
Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
This study will evaluate and treat patients with filarial infections to explore in depth the immunology of the disease, including susceptibility to infection, disease development, and response to treatment. Filarial infections are caused by parasitic worms. The immature worm (larva) is transmitted to a person through a mosquito bite and grows in the human body to 2 to 4 inches in length. Although many of these infections do not produce symptoms, especially in the early stages of infection, others can have serious consequences, including swelling of the limbs or genitalia, allergic-lung problems, skin rash, eye inflammation that can lead to blindness, and heart disease. This protocol does not involve any experimental diagnostic procedures or treatments, and will use only procedures employed in the standard practice of medicine.. Persons between 3 and 100 years of age diagnosed with or suspected of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Bugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, or other parasitic ...
Spatiotemporal distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Nepal (2001-2012).In 2001, lymphatic filariasis mapping using immunochromatographic card tests in 37 di
In countries where parasitic infections are endemic, autoimmune disease is relatively rare, leading to the hypothesis that parasite-derived immunomodulators may protect against its development. Consistent with this, we have previously demonstrated that ES-62, a 62 kDa phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein that is secreted by filarial nematodes, can exert anti-inflammatory action in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and human rheumatoid arthritis-derived synovial tissue cultures. As a first step to developing ES-62-based drugs, the aim of this study was to determine whether the PC-moiety of ES-62 was responsible for its anti-inflammatory actions. We compared the anti-inflammatory activity of a PC-free form of recombinant ES-62 (rES-62) and a synthetic PC-ovalbumin conjugate (OVA-PC) with that of native ES-62 in the CIA model and synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results: The anti-inflammatory actions of ES-62 in CIA appear to be dependent on the PC ...
Many patients infected with filarial worms have no symptoms, but those who develop disfiguring lymphatic filariasis -- more commonly known as elephantiasis -- often struggle with discrimination and rejection. Now, researchers have quantified that burden, reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that lymphatic filariasis patients in Nigeria have about four times the rate of depression as other adults there.
From 2000 to 2009, more than 2.8 billion treatments were delivered to a targeted population of 695 million individuals in 53 countries, considerably reducing transmission in many places. Recent research data show that the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in at-risk populations has dropped by 43% since the beginning of the GPELF. The overall economic benefit of the programme during 2000-2007 is conservatively estimated at US$ 24 billion. ...
Tele: +1-404-420-5126. ATLANTA… The Carter Center congratulates Nasarawa and Plateau states for becoming the first Nigerian states to stop transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF), a parasitic disease most commonly known for causing elephantiasis. The parasites that cause LF (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori) are transmitted by mosquitoes and live in the lymphatic system of sufferers. Repeated infection can lead to severe swelling of a persons limbs and genitals, a condition called elephantiasis.. "Nasarawas and Plateaus achievement, stopping transmission of lymphatic filariasis in two states of Nigeria, Africas most endemic country, demonstrates that eradication is possible and more than 1 billion people can be protected from this debilitating disease forever," said former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, founder of The Carter Center, which has supported the two Nigerian state governments since 1999 in their effort to prove that LF can be wiped out using currently available ...
LONDON, Sept. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017. Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017.
Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis) (Infectious Disease) pipe
Friday 24 March 2006 - Clear evidence that Lymphatic Filariasis (LF, commonly known as elephantiasis) can be eliminated is reported in the March 25 issue of The Lancet. LF is one of the world s most d...
This study is designed to determine the presence of and the immune response to filarial and stronglyloides infections in an area endemic for both infections in South India. This study will aim to examine the presence of filarial and Strongyloides stercoralis infection at a community level as well as in hospital settings. After routine clinical evaluation and screening, individuals enrolled in this protocol will be studied in depth immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to address the broader questions of immunodiagnosis, immunoregulation and immunopathology. Careful observations of the individual s clinical and immunologic responses to therapy will be made, as well as long-term follow-up of these changes. In addition to infected individuals, this protocol will also be used to study individuals with filarial pathology and endemic normal individuals. This will enable us to characterize the immunological profiles of infected, uninfected and diseased individuals in an ...
... The time taken by the parasite to complete its development in the hosts is called the incubation period.
Education and information about lymphatic filariasis including fact sheets and information on prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae
Abnormal swelling & inflammation on parts of your body, there is a chances that you suffer form Filaria. Know the types, symptoms & treatments for Filaria.
Luanshya District Commissioner, Harold Mbaulu says over 15,000 people in Luanshya, representing nine per cent of the districts population, was infected with Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) commonly know
Luanshya District Commissioner, Harold Mbaulu says over 15,000 people in Luanshya, representing nine per cent of the districts population, was infected with Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) commonly know
On September 30, The Washington Post highlighted efforts in Haiti to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis.
UCSF Gender Center (CAGC) offers transgender, nonbinary, and gender expansive children and adolescents. comprehensive medical and psychological care, as well as advocacy and legal support.
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This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Onchocerca volvulus has a complex life cycle involving a definitive and intermediate host. The only natural definitive host is humans. The intermediate host is a blackfly in the genus Simulium. Common blackfly hosts include Similium damnosum and S. neavei in Africa and S. ochraceum, S. metallicum, S. callidum, and S. exiguum in the Americas. Adult worms typically live from 8-15 years in human hosts, and microfilariae can live up to 2 years. Adults can be found grouped together in various regions of the human body, with groups containing about half as many males as females. The males move from group to group, inseminating the females. Fertilized eggs develop into live microfilariae in 3-12 weeks, and the females release the microfilariae into the host body. A single female worm may release 1300-1900 microfilariae per day for 9-11 years. The microfilariae migrate away from the adult worms, through blood vessels, lymphatics, skin and connective tissue, and generally settle in the skin.. Since the ...
During an investigation of arboviruses in China, a novel dsRNA virus was isolated from adult female Armigeres subalbatus. Full genome sequence analysis showed the virus to be related to members of the family Totiviridae, and was therefore named Armigeres subalbatus totivirus (AsTV). Transmission electron microscopy identified icosahedral, non-enveloped virus particles with a mean diameter of 40 nm. The AsTV genome is 7510 bp in length, with two ORFs. ORF1 (4443 nt) encodes the coat-protein and a dsRNA-binding domain (which may be involved in the evasion of gene silencing), while ORF2 (2286 nt) encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The AsTV coat protein shows a higher level of amino acid identity with Drosophila totivirus (DTV, 52 %) than with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV, 29 %). Similarly, the RdRp shows higher identity levels with DTV (51 %) than with IMNV (44 %). Identity levels to other members of the family Totiviridae, in either the coat protein or the RdRp, ranged from 6
Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ~40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, tropical pulmonary e …
WHO fact sheet on lymphatic filariasis providing key facts, definition, information on cause, transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention and WHO response.
Find and save ideas about Lymphatic filariasis on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Human oddities, Noma disease and Medical curiosity.
Therefore antibiotic treatment can be used too. If the disease has progressed, the extra skin is removed from the body with surgical operations.. Elephantiasis, the disease affecting so many people in the world, is seen as one of the hardest diseases a person can experience. ...
The name of the disease is Elephantiasis. The enlargement of the limbs and other areas of the bodies are caused by obstruction of lymph flow and possibly
Elephantiasis - Pictures, Images, What is?, Definition, Treatment, Causes, Symptoms, Cure. It presents with excessive swelling of body, particularly in legs
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Ravi Kiran E, Vijaya K, Sajjan BS, Satish Kumar V, Aneeta R, AnandVimalDev D, Jegan P. Morbidity pattern and Time trends of Filaria cases at a PHC in Dakshina Kannada District. Ind. J. Pub. Health. 2005;49(2):100-101 ...
Ask an Expert | Question |my 70 yrs old mother is suffering from acute filaria on one of her legs. the disease is more than 30...
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also
The only instance in which there exists an obligate relationship between Wolbachia and a host, is in the case of filarial nematode.In this case the removal of the Wolbachia strain present, with antibiotics, in pathogenic nematodes is disastrous for the nematode. Without the intracellular bacteria, the filarial nematode loses most of its reproductive and pathogenic function amongst other things. Filarial nematodes are parasites that are responsible for many diseases. Wolbachia has been discovered in filarial namatodes of Onchocercidae family. This family of filarial nematodes includes human pathogens such as elephantiasis and lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus and heart worms in dogs. These nematodes depend upon Wolbachia for development and fertility. They have established such long and stable relationship with Wolbachia through vertical transmission. Treatment of filarial caused diseases with antibacterial drugs removes Wolbachia ...
br,The only instance in which there exists an obligate relationship between ,i,Wolbachia,/i, and a host, is in the case of filarial nematode.In this case the removal of the ,i, Wolbachia,/i, strain present, with antibiotics, in pathogenic nematodes is disastrous for the nematode. Without the intracellular bacteria, the filarial nematode loses most of its reproductive and pathogenic function amongst other things. Filarial nematodes are parasites that are responsible for many diseases. ,i,Wolbachia,/i, has been discovered in filarial namatodes of Onchocercidae family. This family of filarial nematodes includes human pathogens such as elephantiasis and lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus and heart worms in dogs. These nematodes depend upon ,i,Wolbachia,/i, for development and fertility. They have established such long and stable relationship with ,i,Wolbachia,/i, through vertical transmission. Treatment of filarial caused diseases with ...
Another important goal is to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis as a public health problem by preventative measures using mass drug administration covering the entire at-risk population of a country. The goal of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) is to stop the spread of filarial infection and to eradicate this disease through distribution of free medication. In order to interrupt the transmission of infection, mass drug administrations should be implemented in endemic regions for a duration of 4-6 years.. Foreigners visiting endemic countries are rarely infected; however, as a preventative measure mosquito bites should be avoided by sleeping under a mosquito net, using insect repellants, wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants and refrain from being outside between dusk and dawn, when mosquitos are most active.. Lymphedema caused by Lymphatic Filariasis can be treated effectively with Complete Decongestive Therapy, if available. Other measures to improve lymphedema and ...
Filariasis. What is Filariasis? Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms. The roundworm normally lives in the lymphatic in infected people. The female worms produce microfilariae which evade the blood stream and cause symptoms. The disease includes Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis (river blindness).. Lymphatic Filariasis occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in much of South-East Asia, in the Pacific islands and in smaller foci in South America. The incubation period averages 10-12 months. Symptoms include fever, lymphadenitis, and swelling of limbs and scrotum.. River Blindness occurs mainly in western and central Africa, and also in Central and South America. The incubation period averages 1 year. Symptoms include dermatitis and nodules under the skin. The microfilariae often reach the eye and cause blindness, and because the vector blackfly breeds in rivers and valleys, thus the name of the illness.. How does it spread?. Lymphatic Filariasis is transmitted by the bite ...
Molecular biology research in my laboratory focuses on the nematode parasites that cause filarial disease in humans and animals. These parasites cause elephantiasis and African River Blindness in humans, and heartworm disease in dogs. Three major lines of research are currently being pursued in my laboratory: 1) As the director of the World Health Organizations Filarial Genome Project, my laboratory is the center of this multinational project involving laboratories from Egypt, India, Uganda, Indonesia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The main goals of this project are the identification, sequencing, and mapping of all the parasites genes in order to foster the development of new vaccine candidates and drug targets. 2) I also direct the Clark Foundations River Blindness Genome Project which has the same goals as the Filarial Genome Project. 3) Stage-specific, developmentally regulated gene expression.. Filarial parasites have an intriguing life cycle with five clear developmental ...
by Randee J. Kastner, Elisa Sicuri, Christopher M. Stone, Gabriel Matwale, Ambrose Onapa, Fabrizio Tediosi Introduction Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable.
Dirofilariasis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, parasitic nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes. The heartworms harbour the bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia, which are essential for worm development, fecundity and survival. Corallopyronin A (CorA) has efficacy against the intracellular Wolbachia of filarial nematodes. Experiments in mice and jirds show that all worms were depleted of their Wolbachia by more than 98%, resulting in blocked larval development and phenotypically altered worms. The results indicate the potential of CorA to effectively kill filarial nematodes in the larval stages as well as adult worms. Thus, this antibiotic is a good option for prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatment. No toxicity against eukaryotic cells or the treated rodents was detected. Pharmacokinetic data show that the antibiotic is amenable to oral administration. Based on the present results CorA will be administered once a day for two to a maximum of four weeks. CorA is a non-competitive ...
This project in Andhra Pradesh, India aims to educate communities across the state to help reduce stigma, and detect cases of leprosy and lymphatic filariasis.
Tweet Endemic regions for filariasis. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is the primary cause for lymphedema worldwide and is a painful and extremely disfiguring disease, which has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a leading cause for permanent and long-term disability in the world. It is a tropical disease, endemic to more than 80 regions . . . → Read More: What is Lymphatic Filariasis?. ...
Unit 3. Assignment 1. Disorders and Diseases Affecting the Lymphatic System ELEPHANTIASIS Elephantiasis is usually caused by obstructions in the lymphatic
People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Communities frequently shun and reject women and men disfigured by the disease. Affected people frequently are unable to work because of their disability, and this harms their families and their communities ...
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Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) | NEBBrugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) | NEB

Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... The microfiliaria of Brugia malayi have been shown to have chitin in their sheaths (3). Antisera to the chitinase temporarily ... insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi ( ...
more infohttps://www.neb.com/products/p5205-brugia-malayi-chitinase-bmcht1

CDC - Lymphatic Filariasis - Biology - Life Cycle of Brugia malayiCDC - Lymphatic Filariasis - Biology - Life Cycle of Brugia malayi

The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes. During a blood meal, ... specifically the life cycle of Brugia malayi. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/biology_b_malayi.html

Brugia malayi - WikipediaBrugia malayi - Wikipedia

Plate 2 - Brugia malayi, Brugia timori". World Health Organization. 1997. Cross, John H. (1996), "Filarial Nematodes: Lymphatic ... the Brugia malayi MIF gene is expressed in all life-cycle stages of the parasite, and results suggest that B. malayi MIF may ... Brugia Malayi". Fischer, P.; Erickson, S. M.; Fischer, K.; Fuchs, J. F.; Rao, R. U.; Christensen, B. M. & Weil, G. J. (2007), " ... Brugia malayi is a nematode (roundworm), one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans. Lymphatic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brugia_malayi

Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by  Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi  Wolbachia Surface ProteinProinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein

J. Foster, M. Ganatra, I. Kamal et al., "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human ... M. J. Taylor, H. F. Cross, and K. Bilo, "Inflammatory responses induced by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi are mediated by ... Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein. Chantima ... "Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2007/084318/ref/

B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.  - PubMed - NCBIB lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. - PubMed - NCBI

B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.. Rajan TV1, Shultz LD, ... including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. We have recently established that mice homozygous for the severe combined ... malayi. In order to determine more precisely the component of the immune system that mediates murine resistance to B. malayi, ... We demonstrate that such "B-less" mice are completely resistant to B. malayi. These data, taken in combination with the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7776141?dopt=Abstract

Wbm0373 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase - Wolbachia sp. subsp. Brugia malayi (strain TRS) - Wbm0373 gene & proteinWbm0373 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase - Wolbachia sp. subsp. Brugia malayi (strain TRS) - Wbm0373 gene & protein

Brugia malayi (strain TRS)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Brugia malayi (strain TRS) OX=292805 GN=Wbm0373 PE=3 SV=1 MMFNFPNTRLRRRRSSKWVRNLTSESALSVNDLIFPLFVHDREETTELVSSLPGMKCYSI ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q5GSR3

Bm1 37240 - Ephrin EFN-4, putative - Brugia malayi (Filarial nematode worm) - Bm1 37240 gene & proteinBm1 37240 - Ephrin EFN-4, putative - Brugia malayi (Filarial nematode worm) - Bm1 37240 gene & protein

Brugia malayi (Filarial nematode worm)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A8PXH7,A8PXH7_BRUMA Ephrin EFN-4, putative OS=Brugia malayi OX=6279 GN=Bm1_37240 PE=3 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A8PXH7

Peripheral Lymphedema in Ferrets Infected with Brugia malayi | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and HygienePeripheral Lymphedema in Ferrets Infected with Brugia malayi | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

This study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia ... malayi. In 14 of 18 ferrets inoculated 2 or more times with infective larvae, lymphedema developed in the inoculated paw or paw ... Peripheral Lymphedema in Ferrets Infected with Brugia malayi * Richard B. Crandall, Catherine A. Crandall, Stephen A. Hines, ... study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia malayi. ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1987.37.138

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Cultivation of Sexually Mature Brugia malayi In VitroThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Cultivation of Sexually Mature Brugia malayi In Vitro

Abstract Sexually mature male and female Brugia malayi were developed from third stage larvae after 60 days in the in vitro ... Cultivation of Sexually Mature Brugia malayi In Vitro * Authors: W. A. Riberu, Soeroto Atmosoedjono, Purnomo, S. Tirtokusumo, M ... Sexually mature male and female Brugia malayi were developed from third stage larvae after 60 days in the in vitro culture ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.3

IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from  Brugia malayi: In Silico ApproachesIJMS | Free Full-Text | The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches

Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi; BmR1 protein; protein structure prediction; epitope prediction; molecular dynamics simulation Brugia malayi; Bm ... Khor, B.Y.; Tye, G.J.; Lim, T.S.; Noordin, R.; Choong, Y.S. The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In S ... "The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 11082-11099 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/6/11082

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from  Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches | HTML

Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi (Bm-FAR-1), Brugia pahangi (Bp-FAR-1), Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb-FAR-1) and Loa loa (Ll-FAR-1) were chosen for MSA ... Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi, one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/6/11082/htm

Lymphedema People ™ • View topic - Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayiLymphedema People ™ • View topic - Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi

In the present study, we identified a ~2.0 Kb cDNA clone by immunoscreening of cDNA library of adult female Brugia malayi. The ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. by patoco » Mon Dec 17, 2007 7:28 am ... Molecular cloning, purification and characterisation of myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Parasitol ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Wuchereria bancrofti vespid, Immune response, Serum immune complexes ...
more infohttp://www.lymphedemapeople.com/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?t=1239

Get PDF - Experimental infection of the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata, with subperiodic Brugia malayiGet PDF - Experimental infection of the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata, with subperiodic Brugia malayi

Antifilarial activity of intravenous suramin and oral diethylcarbamazine citrate on subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf- ... Studies on the chemoprophylaxis of subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos) with ... Experimental infection of the leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos with subperiodic Brugia malayi. Acta ... Antifilarial activity of CGP 20376 against subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf-monkey Presbytis cristata. Tropical Medicine ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/001/831/001831822.php

A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil...A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil...

Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1127 ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/167/9/5348?ijkey=c15c05ed09e396cfa20794a53ab5e6b1db624b84&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil...A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil...

Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1127 ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/167/9/5348?ijkey=4b1ae1fc36611949b7d43cd5220ab471f95b0d88&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Browsing  by Subject Brugia malayiBrowsing by Subject "Brugia malayi"

Consultation to Accelerate Elimination of Brugia malayi Transmission in Indonesia and Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Brugia+malayi&type=mesh

Browsing  by Subject Brugia malayiBrowsing by Subject "Brugia malayi"

Consultation to Accelerate Elimination of Brugia malayi Transmission in Indonesia and Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Brugia+malayi&type=mesh&locale-attribute=zh

Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi. - Semantic ScholarAntifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi. - Semantic Scholar

We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Brugia malayi. *Priyanka Bhoj, Namdev Togre, Sandeep P Bahekar, Kalyan Goswami, Hemant S Chandak, Mandakini Bhiku Patil ... We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi.. @article{Lakshmi2010AntifilarialAI ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Antifilarial-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-of-some-Lakshmi-Joseph/e9e33b720e248537db8d29d3a7d9d56ce56884cd

T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4 | Infection and...T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4 | Infection and...

T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. L. Spencer, L ... Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:1127- ... Antibody-mediated cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo of rat cells on infective larvae of Brugia malayi. Int. J. Parasitol. ... The histology and ultrastructure of the Meyers-Kouwenaar body in ferrets infected with Brugia malayi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33 ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/71/6/3097

Brugia malayi - meddicBrugia malayi - meddic

Brugia malayiとは - goo Wikipedia (ウィキペディア). Brugia malayi S.L. Brug, 1927 Brugia malayi Classification and external resources ... ADW: Brugia malayi: INFORMATION - Animal Diversity Web. Read about Brugia malayi on the Animal Diversity Web. ... Disclaimer: ... Wuchereria and Brugia and renamed Filaria malayi as Brugia malayi. Wuchereria contains W. bancrofti, which so far has only been ... scientists sequenced the genome of Brugia malayi in the paper "Draft Genome for the Filarial Nematode Parasite Brugia malayi" ...
more infohttps://meddic.jp/index.php/Brugia_malayi

Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations | ScholarBank@NUSEffect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations | [email protected]

Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/31064

RNA interference mediated knockdown of Brugia malayi UDP-Galactopyranose mutase severely affects parasite viability,...RNA interference mediated knockdown of Brugia malayi UDP-Galactopyranose mutase severely affects parasite viability,...

Brugia malayi and Brugia timori, leading to severe socio-economic consequences. Around 1.23 billion inhabitants in 58 countries ... Brugia malayi L3 were kept in 48 well plate ~200 L3/ml/well in culture medium fortified with 8 U RNase OUT, 1 mM spermidine at ... Latha AA, Narayanan R. UDP-galactopyranose mutase as a possible drug target for the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi: an ... Development of an in vivo RNAi protocol to investigate gene function in the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. PLoS Pathog. 2010 ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-017-1967-1

Brugia malayi | Colorado PROFILESBrugia malayi | Colorado PROFILES

"Brugia malayi" by people in this website by year, and whether "Brugia malayi" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Brugia malayi" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W. Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Brugia malayi" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.ucdenver.edu/display/212212

Immune responses of Aedes togoi , Anopheles paraliae and Anopheles lesteri against nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi...Immune responses of Aedes togoi , Anopheles paraliae and Anopheles lesteri against nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi...

togoi is highly susceptible to B. malayi, melanisation responses against B. malayi mf were first noted in the haemocoel of Ae. ... Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito- ... The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly susceptible mosquitoes Ae. togoi and An. ... malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-018-3120-1/metrics

Effect of CGP 20376 on Brugia malayi and parasite antigenemia in jirds. - Semantic ScholarEffect of CGP 20376 on Brugia malayi and parasite antigenemia in jirds. - Semantic Scholar

... against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug ... Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were ... Effect of CGP 20376 on Brugia malayi and parasite antigenemia in jirds.. *. Ramakrishnappa Chandrashekar, D. Subrahmanyam, Gary ... This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effect-of-CGP-20376-on-Brugia-malayi-and-parasite-Chandrashekar-Subrahmanyam/7d7e29599437ff83ea39f934cdb22344dba67977
  • Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. (eurekamag.com)
  • Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W. Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis determines its distribution in adult host tissues. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Further, in vitro culture of dendritic cells with an excretory or secretory protein isolated from B. malayi causes the dendritic cells to prime naive T cells to differentiate along the Th2 pathway ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • The in vitro gene silencing of adult B. malayi parasites was undertaken to observe the effects on parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considerable reduction in the number of Mf released by female B. malayi in vitro post tpp gene silencing was noticed within 24 h reaching ~75% within 48 h demonstrating potent adverse effect of gene silencing on Mf release. (cdri.res.in)
  • Several independent studies in murine models have also highlighted the rapid induction of Th2-like responses after infection with B. malayi or B. pahangi . (asm.org)
  • Our laboratory has shown that, in the absence of IL-4 production or when signaling through the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) or subsequent Stat6 activation is blocked, mice become significantly more susceptible to infection with either B. malayi or B. pahangi ( 2 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He created a new genus Brugia in honour of the original discoverer, thus renaming B. malayi, B. pahangi, and B. patei. (wikipedia.org)
  • A process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mfES-22) glycoprotein' This invention relates to a process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mf ES-22) glycoprotein for use in diagnosis and monitoring of active filarial infection comprising. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets, However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. (elsevier.com)
  • Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolated from the supernatant of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi (kindly provided by J. Fuhrman) (1). (neb.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the identified clone showed 94.3% homology with C-terminal part of myosin heavy chain gene of Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is thought to be important in the exsheathment process of the microfilaria (1). (neb.com)
  • In 1957, two subspecies of human infecting B. malayi were discovered by Turner and Edeson in Malaysia based on the observation of different patterns of microfilaria periodicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The work embodied in the present thesis primarily involves molecular and immunological characterisation of recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of human filariid B. malayi as a possible vaccine candidate. (cdri.res.in)
  • B. malayi was discovered in 1927 by the Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug (1879-1946) (who is commonly known in the scientific literature as S.L. Brug) while working in Indonesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lichentenstein and Brug first recognized B. malayi as a distinct pathogen in 1927. (meddic.jp)
  • Immunocompetent mice are resistant to the growth and development of human lymphatic filarial parasites, including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. (nih.gov)
  • In the murine model of infection, T-cell responses to Brugia are predominantly type 2 in nature. (asm.org)
  • In order to determine more precisely the component of the immune system that mediates murine resistance to B. malayi, we have used mouse strains in which individual genes involved in the maturation of specific components of the immune system have been disrupted by homologous recombination. (nih.gov)
  • Development and replication of B. malayi occurs in two discrete phases: in the mosquito vector and in the human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because B. malayi is known to secrete homologs ( Bm macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-1 and -2) of the human cytokine MIF, we chose to investigate the role this cytokine mimic may play in the development of the novel macrophage phenotype observed during infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4-/-) are as resistant to B. malayi as intact mice. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that such "B-less" mice are completely resistant to B. malayi. (nih.gov)
  • These data, taken in combination with the observation that T-cell-deficient athymic mice homozygous for the nu (nude) mutation are fully permissive for infection, suggest that B lymphocytes and their products are neither required nor sufficient to mediate resistance to B. malayi. (nih.gov)
  • We have investigated the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment under type 2 cytokine conditions in mice infected with B. malayi . (jimmunol.org)
  • Brugia malayi" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • T cells are known to be required for host protection in mouse models of Brugia malayi infection. (asm.org)
  • suggested that the critical function for CD4 + T cells in host protection against a challenge infection with Brugia is the production of Th2 cytokines (i.e., interleukin-4 [IL- IL-5, and IL-9) ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • This observation suggests that components of the adaptive (antigen-specific) immune system are obligate requirements for murine resistance to B. malayi. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Brugia malayi" by people in this website by year, and whether "Brugia malayi" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Brugia malayi" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)