A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.

Efficacy of five annual single doses of diethylcarbamazine for treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Fiji. (1/222)

Annual single-dose treatments with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) at a dose of 6 mg/kg have been reported effective in reducing microfilariae (mf) rate and density and applicable to large-scale filariasis control campaigns. However, the efficacy of such treatments has not been studied quantitatively in relation to different pretreatment levels of endemicity. This study of 32 villages in Fiji revealed that five treatments repeated annually steadily reduced village mf rate, and that the degree of reduction was not influenced by pretreatment levels of mf density or rate. This indicates that an annual dosage scheme is applicable to high-endemicity areas. The results also suggest that such treatment affected juvenile forms of Wuchereria bancrofti and may prevent them from reproducing.  (+info)

Anti-filarial IgG4 in men and women living in Brugia malayi-endemic areas. (2/222)

To assess whether antifilarial IgG4 can be used to study various epidemiological facets of filarial infections, we studied this isotype in 238 individuals resident in areas endemic for brugian filariasis, focusing on the differences between men and women. In the study area, the prevalence of microfilariae was 6.7% and the prevalence of antifilarial IgG4 was 49.2%. All microfilariae carriers were positive for antifilarial IgG4, whereas a proportion of the endemic normals (94/208) and clephantiasis patients (7/14) had IgG4 antibodies to filarial antigens. Data were analysed as a function of gender in distinct clinical groups and stratified for age. The prevalence of microfilariae was higher in males in all age groups, as reflected in significantly higher antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels compared to females. The prevalence of IgG4 increased to reach a plateau at the age of 30 years in both males and females. These results indicate that antifilarial IgG4 antibodies can reflect the differences in the extent of infection in males and females as measured by microfilarial counts, and that this parameter can be used for epidemiological assessments of filarial infection.  (+info)

Immunity in experimental murine filariasis: roles of T and B cells revisited. (3/222)

We have reevaluated the contributions of T and B cells in Brugia malayi infection by utilizing knockout mice on a uniform background (C57BL/6J). We find that B-cell-deficient mice are more permissive to infection than T-cell-deficient mice.  (+info)

Homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans masculinizing gene her-1 in C. briggsae and the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (4/222)

The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identities of the predicted gene products with Ce-HER-1A are only 57% for Cb-HER-1, which is considerably lower than has been found for most homologous briggsae genes, and 35% for Bm-HER-1. However, conserved residues are found throughout both proteins, and like Ce-HER-1A, both have putative N-terminal signal sequences. Ce-her-1 produces a larger masculinizing transcript (her-1a) and a smaller transcript of unknown function (her-1b); both are present essentially only in males. By contrast, Cb-her-1 appears to produce only one transcript, corresponding to her-1a; it is enriched in males but present also in hermaphrodites. Injection of dsRNA transcribed from Cb-her-1 into C. briggsae hermaphrodites (RNA interference) caused XO animals to develop into partially fertile hermaphrodites. Introducing a Cb-her-1 construct as a transgene under control of the C. elegans unc-54 myosin heavy chain promoter caused strong masculinization of both C. briggsae and C. elegans hermaphrodites. Introduction of a similar Bm-her-1 construct into C. elegans caused only very weak, if any, masculinization. We conclude that in spite of considerable divergence the Cb gene is likely to be a functional ortholog of Ce-her-1, while the function of the distantly related Bm gene remains uncertain.  (+info)

A novel serpin expressed by blood-borne microfilariae of the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi inhibits human neutrophil serine proteinases. (5/222)

Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) play a vital regulatory role in a wide range of biological processes, and serpins from viruses have been implicated in pathogen evasion of the host defence system. For the first time, we report a functional serpin gene from nematodes that may function in this manner. This gene, named Bm-spn-2, has been isolated from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot experiments indicate that Bm-spn-2 is expressed only by microfilariae (Mf), which are the long-lived blood-dwelling larval stage. A survey of the greater than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from B malayi deposited in dbEST shows that greater than 2% of the ESTs sequenced from Mf cDNA libraries correspond to Bm-spn-2. Despite its abundance in the microfilarial stage, Bm-spn-2 has not been found in any other point in the life cycle. The predicted protein encoded by Bm-spn-2 contains 428 amino acids with a putative signal peptide. Antibodies to recombinant Bm-SPN-2 protein react specifically with a 47.5-kD native protein in Mf extract. Bm-SPN-2 is one of the largest of the 93 known serpins, due to a 22 amino acid carboxy-terminal extension, and contains the conserved serpin signature sequence. Outside these regions, levels of homology are low, and only a distant relationship can been seen to a Caenorhabditis elegans serpin. The Bm-spn-2 gene contains 6 introns, 2 of which appear to be shared by both nematode species. The B malayi introns have an extended and conserved 3' splice site and are relatively large compared with C elegans. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases were screened and Bm-SPN-2 protein was found to specifically inhibit enzymatic activity of human neutrophil cathepsin G and human neutrophil elastase, but not a range of other serine proteinases. It is possible that Bm-SPN-2 could function as a stage-specific serpin in the blood environment of the microfilarial parasite in protection from human immunity and thus may be a good candidate for protective vaccine.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated filarial homologues of the 20-kilodalton retinol binding protein from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov20). (6/222)

Ov20 is a structurally novel 20-kDa retinol binding protein secreted by Onchocerca volvulus. Immunological and biological investigation of this protein has been hampered by the inability to maintain O. volvulus in a laboratory setting. In an effort to find a system more amenable to laboratory investigation, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed cDNA encoding homologues of Ov20 from two closely related filarial species, Brugia malayi (Bm20) and Acanthocheilonema viteae (Av20). Sequence comparisons have highlighted differences in glycosylation of the homologues. We present here an analysis of mouse immune responses to Ov20, Bm20, and Av20. The results suggest a strong genetic restriction in response to native Bm20 that is overcome when recombinant, nonnative material is used. Reactivity of human filarial sera to the three recombinant proteins confirmed previous specificity studies with Ov20 but highlighted important differences in the reactivity patterns of the O. volvulus and B. malayi homologues that may be due to differences in glycosylation patterns. Ov20 is a dominant antigen in infected individuals, while Bm20 is not. The availability of the B. malayi homologue enabled us to use defined murine reagents and inbred strains for genetic analysis of responsiveness in a way that is not possible for Ov20. However, the close sequence similarity between Ov20 and Av20 suggests that the A. viteae model may be more suited to the investigation of the biological functions of Ov20.  (+info)

Calgranulin C has filariacidal and filariastatic activity. (7/222)

The calgranulins are a family of calcium- and zinc-binding proteins produced by neutrophils, monocytes, and other cells. Calgranulins are released during inflammatory responses and have antimicrobial activity. Recently, one of the calgranulins, human calgranulin C (CaGC), has been implicated as an important component of the host responses that limit the parasite burden during filarial nematode infections. The goal of this work was to test the hypothesis that human CaGC has biologic activity against filarial parasites. Brugia malayi microfilariae and adults were exposed in vitro to 0.75 to 100 nM recombinant human CaGC. Recombinant CaGC affected adult and larval parasites in a dose-dependent fashion. Microfilariae were more sensitive to the action of CaGC than were adult parasites. At high levels, CaGC was both macrofilariacidal and microfilariacidal. At lower levels, the percentage of parasites killed was dependent on the level of CaGC in the culture system. The larvae not killed had limited motility. The filariastatic effect of low-level CaGC was reversed when the CaGC was removed from the culture system. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that human CaGC accumulated in the cells of the hypodermis-lateral chord of adult and larval parasites. The antifilarial activity of CaGC was not due to the sequestration of zinc. Thus, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in the production and release of CaGC in humans may play a key role in the regulation of filarial parasite numbers.  (+info)

B1 B lymphocytes play a critical role in host protection against lymphatic filarial parasites. (8/222)

Host defense against multicellular, extracellular pathogens such as nematode parasites is believed to be mediated largely, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes. During our investigations into the course of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi infections in immunodeficient mouse models, we found that mice lacking B lymphocytes were permissive for Brugian infections, whereas immunocompetent mice were uniformly resistant. Mice bearing the Btk(xid) mutation were as permissive as those lacking all B cells, suggesting that the B1 subset may be responsible for host protection. Reconstitution of immunodeficient recombination activating gene (Rag)-1(-/)- mice with B1 B cells conferred resistance, even in the absence of conventional B2 lymphocytes and most T cells. These results suggest that B1 B cells are necessary to mediate host resistance to Brugian infection. Our data are consistent with a model wherein early resistance to B. malayi is mediated by humoral immune response, with a significant attrition of the incoming infectious larval load. Sterile clearance of the remaining parasite burden appears to require cell-mediated immunity. These data raise the possibility that the identification of molecule(s) recognized by humoral immune mechanisms might help generate prophylactic vaccines.  (+info)

Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Microarray technology permits high-throughput comparisons of gene expression in different parasite stages or sexes and has been used widely. We report the first use of this technology for analysis of gene expression in filarial male and female worms. The slide array (comprised of 65-mer oligos representing 3569 EST clusters) was spotted with sequences selected from the extensive Brugia malayi EST database (). Arrays were hybridized with Cy dye labeled male and female cDNA. The experimental design included both biological and technical (dye-flip) replicates. The data were normalized for background and probe intensity, and the relative abundance of hybridized cDNA for each spot was determined. Genes showing two-fold or greater differences with P,0.05 were considered gender-regulated candidates. One thousand one hundred and seventy of 2443 clusters (48%) with signals above threshold in at least one sex were considered as gender-regulated gene candidates. This included 520 and 650 clusters ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people harbour many millions of the microfilarial stage of the parasite in their blood stream and yet they show few visible symptoms of disease. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) line the blood vessels and are therefore in direct contact with microfilariae. Since vascular EC are potent immune cells functioning in the production of both immune mediators and regulating the migration of immune cells from the blood into the tissue, we have established an in vitro model in which to test the effect of live Mf upon vascular EC function. Strikingly, we observed that Mf exposure caused reduced transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes, but not lymphocytes. However, microfilariae stimulated EC production of few pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, while filarial infection is known to stimulate mediators that increase blood vessel formation in vivo, live microfilariae promoted
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Abstract Methods are presented for the cryopreservation of a sheathed microfilaria, Brugia malayi, and an unsheathed species, Dirofilaria corynodes. The former survived best when frozen at the rate of -0.8° or -0.5°C per minute using 9% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the cryopreservative. Approximately 52-79% of the thawed microfilariae developed to the third stage in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes versus 79% of the unfrozen specimens. For D. corynodes the optimum freezing rate was -2° or -5°C per minute, and 6% DMSO combined with 0.004 M polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) afforded the best cryoprotective effect. The development of thawed microfilariae in mosquitoes ranged from 22-32% versus 29% for unfrozen specimens. In general, the viability of both species of microfilaria was retained best when stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The entire life cycle of B. malayi was completed in the laboratory using cryopreserved microfilariae as the initial source. The cryopreservation of Wuchereria bancrofti also is
We developed real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with melting curve analysis for detection of Brugia malayi DNA in blood-fed mosquitoes. Real-time FRET PCR is based on a fluorescence melting curve analysis of hybrid formed between amplicons generated from a family of repeated DNA element, 153-bp HhaI repeated sequence, specific to genus Brugia and specific fluorophore-labeled probes. The B. malayi-infected mosquitoes were differentiated from Wuchereria bancrofti-infected and uninfected mosquitoes and from genomic DNA of Dirofilaria immitis- and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human red blood cells and human leukocytes by their melting temperature. Sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Melting curve analysis produces a rapid, accurate, and sensitive alternative for specific detection of B. malayi in mosquitoes, allows high throughput, and can be performed on small samples. This method has the potential for endemic area mapping or
This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 13 (1) : 100-104. [email protected] Repository ...
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-9275 (2012) Co-operation between innate CCR3-expressing granulocytes and macrophages in controlling early establishment of Brugia malayi infection. Immunology, Vol 137, Issue Supp 1, pp. 199-200. Full text not available from this repository ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_ in Brugia malayi v1.0. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_.
Mabel is a LTR retrotransposon found in the genome of the nematode parasite Brugia malayi (Llorens et al. 2009). Its name is an acronym derived from Brugia malayi Bel/Pao element. Mabel belongs to the Tas clade (Copeland et al. 2005) within Branch 1 of the Bel/Pao family (Llorens et al. 2009). The genome of Mabel is 5.4 Kb in size (5436 bp long) and presents a single long polyprotein of 1811 amino acids containing both gag and pol associated domains (Llorens et al. 2009). No LTRs have been yet identified for this element. ...
The helminthic parasites of humans are multicellular (metazoan) animal species that survive only by spending part of their lives infecting organ tissues or digestive spaces within the human body. In countries with high prevalence rates of helminth infection, consideration is now being given to the comorbid effects of parasitic helminths with infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis in addressing the local and regional burden of disease. In this chapter, parasite life cycles and vector ecology are touched briefly. Collectively, the three filarial organisms that include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori are known to be the most common etiologic agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF). During chronic LF, there is a complex regulation of immune responses to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, with reduced responsiveness of T cells to antigens produced by microfilariae and decreased production of gamma interferon. Dracunculiasis is a significantly
Behavior of the B. malayi microfilariae in the peripheral blood of human carrier in the intergradation area of Mahakam Delta East Kalimantan.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a morbid disease caused by the tissue-invasive nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, affects millions of people worldwide. Global eradication efforts have significantly reduced worldwide prevalence, but complete elimination has been hampered by limitations of current anti-filarial drugs and the lack of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to evaluate B. malayi intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Bm-UGT) as a potential therapeutic target. To evaluate whether Bm-UGT is essential for adult filarial worms, we inhibited its expression using siRNA. This resulted in a 75% knockdown of Bm-ugt mRNA for 6 days and almost complete suppression of detectable Bm-UGT by immunoblot. Reduction in Bm-UGT expression resulted in decreased worm motility for 6 days, 70% reduction in microfilaria release from adult worms, and significant reduction in adult worm metabolism as detected by MTT assays. Because prior allergic-sensitization to a filarial antigen ...
Filarial nematodes are capable of causing significant disease with long-term ramifications in humans and animals. Intermediate hosts, or vectors, are involved in all instances. Interestingly, although they infect different locations in their respective hosts, the filarial worm species are remarkably similar in many ways.. In humans, the most prevalent filarial infections can result in blindness (Onchocerca volvulus) or lymphedema (Brugia malayi, B. timori and Wuchereria bancrofti).. The intermediate hosts of O. volvulus are blackflies, which transfer infective larvae to a susceptible person approximately 2 to 3 weeks after becoming infected by microfilariae in a blood meal from an infected host. The infective larvae migrate into the subcutaneous tissue in the competent host and form nodules under the surface of the skin while maturing into adult worms. Adult female O. volvulus produce 750 to 1600 microfilariae daily [8, 9]. When adult worms or microfilariae die, the resulting inflammatory ...
Author Summary Filarial parasites such as Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are the causative agents of the tropical diseases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which infect 150 million people, mainly in Africa and Southeast Asia. Filarial nematodes have a complex life cycle that involves transmission and development within both mammalian and insect hosts. The successful completion of the life cycle includes four molts, two of which are triggered upon transmission from one host to the other, human and mosquito, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the molting processes in filarial nematodes may yield a new set of targets for drug intervention. In insects and other arthropods molting transitions are regulated by the steroid hormone ecdysone that interacts with a specialized hormone receptor composed of two different proteins belonging to the family of nuclear receptors. We have cloned from B. malayi two members of the nuclear receptor family that show many sequence
Washington University in St. Louis (WU). My laboratory is devoted to research on filarial nematode parasites that cause important tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and river blindness. Our work is focused on the development and field application of improved diagnostic tests, on developing improved therapies, and on basic parasite biology. For example, we (with others) have developed new diagnostic tests for filariasis and onchocerciasis based on detection of parasite antigens, parasite DNA, and human antibodies to recombinant parasite antigens. Ongoing field studies are exploring the value of these newer tests for monitoring the impact of mass treatment programs on filariasis prevalence rates and transmission. We are also studying effects of antibiotic treatment directed against Wolbachia (endosymbiotic bacteria) on filarial worm survival and development. In more basic studies, we are using the complementary approaches of oligonucleotide microarrays and proteomics to study stage ...
Spencer, L., L. Shultz, and T. V. Rajan. T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. Infection and Immunity 71.6 (2003): 3097-3106. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. ...
I am modelling such a system: $T:(x,y)\rightarrow (d+C_2(x\cos\tau - y\sin\tau),C_2(x\sin\tau+y\cos\tau))$, $\tau = C_1-C_3/(1+x^2+y^2), C_1=0.4, C_2=0.9,C_3=0.6,d=0.6$. I am applying $T$ to point ...
Brugia is genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. Specifically, of the three species known, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. They are transmitted by the bite of mosquitos. The first species discovered was B. malayi. It was reported by a Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug in 1927 from Southeast Asia (Malaya, for which the name was given). It was originally believed to be similar or closely related to another filarial roundworm then named Microfilaria bancrofti (now Wuchereria bancrofti), described by an English naturalist Thomas Spencer Cobbold in 1877. It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. Brug was aware of the difference mainly on the basis of their occurrence. He found both the worms in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but in New Guinea only W. ...
A parasitic infection caused by filarial nematode worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, causing a variety of illnesses. See also elephantiasis and onchocerciasis.. ...
Elephantiasis, or lymphatic filariasis, is a parasitic disease infecting more than 120 million people in the tropics. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 40 million of them are disfigured and disabled by the infectious disease. Characterized by elephantine enlarged limbs and thickened skin, lymphatic filariasis is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquito bites.. During the last five years, John Siekierka, Montclair State chemistry and biochemistry professor and director of the Universitys Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute for Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, and Sokol Professor of Chemistry David Rotella have received more than $932,000 in grant funding from the Celgene Corporation Division of Global Health to find effective new treatments for the disease.. New treatments are needed because the existing drugs are not completely effective and have side effects that limit their use, says Siekierka. Determining the means by which parasites such as Brugia malayi - the ...
Plague is still endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas, and localised outbreaks are not uncommon especially in war situations, eg Vietnam, where there has been an increase in recent years. Relapsing fever in Africa and Bartonellosis (Carrions disease) are geographically limited in extent.. Among the protozoal infections, African trypanosomiasis is increasing both in West and East Africa but, in numerical terms, is still mainly of importance for its effect on domestic animals. South American trypano-somiasis (Chagas disease) extends through much of the sub-continent and appears to be responsible for considerable morbidity in parts of its distribution. Malaria and leishmaniasis are widespread and cause severe morbidity and mortality in many countries.. Of the tissue filariases, those due to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may produce serious deformity, while the skin dwelling parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, causes blindness in parts of tropical Africa and Central America.. While ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new member of the GM130 golgin subfamily is expressed in the optic lobe anlagen of the metamorphosing brain of Manduca sexta. AU - Wang, Chiou Miin. AU - Chen, Chun Liang. AU - Robertson, Hugh M.. AU - Fahrbach, Susan E.. PY - 2003/12/3. Y1 - 2003/12/3. N2 - During metamorphosis of the insect brain, the optic lobe anlagen generate the proliferation centers for the visual cortices. We show here that, in the moth Manduca sexta, an 80 kDa Golgi complex protein (Ms-golgin80) is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the optic lobe anlagen and proliferation centers. The predicted amino acid sequence for Ms-golgin80 is similar to that of several members of the GM130 subfamily of Golgi-associated proteins, including rat GM130 and human golgin-95. Homologs of Ms-golgin80 from Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Brugia malayi were identified through homology sequence search. Sequence similarities are present in three regions: ...
Transplantation of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells is an attractive approach for the cure of sickle-cell disease and β-thalassemia. Here, we infected human cord blood cells with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding an anti-sickling βA-T87Q-globin transgene and analyzed the transduced progeny produced over a 6-month period after transplantation of the infected cells directly into sublethally irradiated NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. Approximately half of the human erythroid and myeloid progenitors regenerated in the mice containing the transgene, and erythroid cells derived in vitro from these in vivo-regenerated cells produced high levels of βA-T87Q-globin protein. Linker-mediated PCR analysis identified multiple transgene-positive clones in all mice analyzed with 2.1 ± 0.1 integrated proviral copies per cell. Genomic sequencing of vector-containing fragments showed that 86% of the proviral inserts had occurred within genes, including several genes implicated in ...
Estimation of phosphate in Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) will explore the link between Phospholipid hydrolysis and Wolbachia. It is hypothesized that, the proteins with phosphate groups can actively participate in phosphate hydrolysis. In the current study, an improvised novel our approach has been adopted to quantify the presence of phosphate in WSP.. ...
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Ms Brugia referred to Cedefops long tradition of cooperating with the EESC, stressing that it was, in fact, this Committee that proposed the setting up of a European Centre dealing with vocational education and training (VET).
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, Timorean filariasis CHARACTERISTICS: Filarial parasite (nematode), sheathed microfilariae are 200-300 µm in length and 4-7 µm in width SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Characterized by recurring lymphadenitis and lymphangitis accompanied with fever; lymphatic abscesses and consequent scarring are common features; lymphedema appears and progresses to elephantiasis usually confined to the distal extremities in a small proportion of cases EPIDEMIOLOGY: B. malayi endemic in Southeast Asia, rural southwest India, Sri Lanka, China and South Korea: B. timori found in Timor, Flores, Alor, Roti, and South East Indonesia HOST RANGE: Humans, cats, civet, nonhuman primates and mosquitoes INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By the bite of an infected mosquito; B. malayi transmitted by ...
To investigate whether Australian soldiers were exposed to filarial parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis during a 6-month deployment to Timor-Leste, antifilarial antibody levels were measured in 907 soldiers using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial testing using Dirofilaria immitis antigen demonstrated that 49 of 907 (5.4%) soldiers developed antifilarial antibodies of the IgG1 subclass after deployment, whereas 1 of 944 (0.1%) seroconverted to the IgG4 subclass. When a sub sample of 88 D. immitis-reactive sera was subject to testing with an antifilarial antibody test using Brugia malayi antigen, 46 had elevated IgG antibodies, whereas 5 had elevated antibodies of the IgG4 subclass. A total of 24 soldiers seroconverted to B. malayi, as measured by parasite-specific IgG, whereas 1 seroconverted to IgG4. The relatively low number of seroconversions indicates a low but measurable risk of exposure to human filarial parasites among Australian soldiers deployed to Timor-Leste. ...
Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D.immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D.immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and ...
Lymphatic filariasis is also known as elephantiasis. It is a disease of the tropics characterized by grotesque swelling of the limbs and male genitalia. The disease is caused by thread-like, parasitic filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. These worms lodge in the lymphatic system. They live for 4-6 years, producing millions of tiny larvae (microfilariae) that circulate in the blood.
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Cedefop Acting Director Mara Brugia opened the event, telling participants that the agencys three-year study on VETs changing nature and role, which finishes at the end of the year, aims to explore with stakeholders potential risks and opportunities VET may face in the coming decade and inform EU-level reflection and country-context action.
AKL 20303111209 28/04/2011 FOKUS Malaria Pv/Pf Cassette CORE DIAGNOSTICS LTD., UK PT. FOKUS DIAGNOSTIC INDONESIA AKL 20303111329 01/07/2011 RESZON BRUGIA
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Natural Skin Care Through Use of Dead Sea Products The major role of the skin is to provide protection to the inner body tissues. However, the skin itself is
Key Words and Related Terms: lymphedema, leg lymphedema, lymphatic filariasis, Elephantiasis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi , B. timori, parasites. We most commonly think of lymphatic filariasis as caused by a mosquito bite where one of three microscopic parasitic worms are literally injected into your body. These parasitic worms are: Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and B. timor There is however, another parasite that is not much discussed and therefore very often missed in attempting to diagnose lymphedema in a person from a sub tropical or tropical climate. Tungiasis is an infestation by the burrowing flea Tunga penetrans or related species. The flea has many common names as listed above. Tungiasis was first reported in crewmen who sailed with Christopher Columbus. The flea is indigenous to the West Indies/Caribbean/Central America region, but it has spread to Africa, India, Pakistan, and South America. Travelers to endemic areas may import cases to other countries, including the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of antigen detection ELISA for the diagnosis of brugian and bancroftian filariasis using antibodies to recombinant filarial antigens Bm-SXP-1 and Wb-SXP-1. AU - Lalitha, Pattabhiraman. AU - Eswaran, Devarajan. AU - Gnanasekar, Muniratnam. AU - Rao, Kakuturu Venkata Nagaraja. AU - Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri. AU - Scott, Alan. AU - Nutman, Thomas. AU - Kaliraj, Perumal. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Antibodies specific to recombinant filarial antigens Wb-SXP-1 and Bm-SXP-1 have been used to develop a sandwich ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in sera from patients with lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti of Brugia malayi. In patients with W. bancrofti infections, a high proportion of microfilaria (mf) positive (MF) and low proportions of patients with chronic pathology (CP) and endemic normals (EN) showed the presence of CFA. Similarly in patients with brugian infections a high proportion of mf positive individuals ...
FIL : The filariae are parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that cause significant human morbidity in tropical regions worldwide. The macroscopic adults live in the human host and release microscopic offspring (microfilariae) into the blood or skin. The microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B timori, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, and M ozzardi are found in the blood, while the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M streptocerca are found in the skin. If microfilariae are taken up by a biting insect vector (mosquitos, blackflies, midges, and deer flies), they undergo further development in the insect and can then be transmitted to other humans.   W bancrofti and the Brugia species cause a serious condition called lymphatic filariasis. The adults live in the lymphatics and cause inflammation and scarring of the lymph vessels. Over time, the lymphatic channels are obstructed and fluid cannot drain back to the heart, resulting in massive lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the affected limb
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, and afflicts humans. The disease is prevalent in tropical countries, where 128 million are infected and 1.1 billion are at risk of being infected. Over 30% (38.4 million) of the people affected by lymphatic filariasis worldwide live in Africa. In Kenya, the disease is common in the coastal province where 2.5 million people live. The nocturnal W bancrofti is the causative agent for lymphatic filariasis in Africa. These parasites are transmitted by mosquito vector, for which 77 species have been identified. The species belong to the genera, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, and Mansonia. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of W bancrofti infections has been one of the main challenges in filariasis research. To date, this objective has been hampered by absence of microfilariae in the later stages of the disease, inconveniences of nocturnal behaviour of the parasites, lack of a sensitive diagnostic method, and safer and easier ...
Filariasis is caused by several round, coiled and thread-like parasitic worms that belongs to the family filaridea. These parasites penetrate the skin either their own or through the opening created by mosquito bites to reach the lymphatic system.. The disease is caused by the nematode worm, either Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi and is transmitted by mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia annulifera/M.uniformis respectively.. The disease generally presents with the symptoms like swelling of legs, and hydrocele and can cause a raft of societal stigma.. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is commonly known as elephantiasis. It is a disfiguring and disabling disease, which is generally aquired in childhood. In the early stages,though there are either no symptoms or non-specific symptoms, the lymphatic system is damaged. This stage can last for several years. Infected persons sustain the transmission of the disease. The long term physical consequences are painful swollen limbs ...
Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a filarial nematode parasite that usually infects dogs or other canines, but can also infect cats, foxes, ferrets, and sea lions. The adult worms live in the right ventricle of the heart, hence their common name. After the adults mate, they produce microscopic larvae known as microfilariae, which are ingested by mosquitos when they bite the mammalian host. The larvae complete their development in the mosquito and then are transmitted to a new host when she feeds again. Although most dogs do not show signs of infection, in some cases worms can cause issues and need to be treated. However the treatments are sometimes risky because the dead worms can get carried to the lungs and cause respiratory distress or failure. Preventative therapies, such as giving dogs the drug ivermectin, are effective and safe. Heartworm are also hosts to the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia (see January 12th ...
Animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a dog lungworm (Angiostrongylus vasorum) Also known as the French heartworm, this is a common filarial nematode parasite of dogs and rarely humans. The adult worms are large, measuring up to 25 centimetres long, and they typically live in the dogs right heart and pulmonary artery. It causes the disease canine angiostrongylosis in dogs. Female worms produce microfilariae that are found in the dogs blood and can be ingested by mosquitoes. The microfilariae mature into infective juveniles in the mosquito and the infection is transmitted to a new host when the mosquito feeds such as dogs and humans. The natural intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum are land slugs, land snails and freshwater snails. - Stock Video Clip K006/9270
A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by fluid secreted from a remnant piece of peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, hydrocoeles below the age of 1 year usually resolve spontaneously. Primary hydrocoeles may develop in adulthood, particularly in the elderly and in hot countries, by slow accumulation of serous fluid, presumably caused by impaired reabsorption, which appears to be the explanation for most primary hydroceles, although the reason remains obscure.[citation needed] A hydrocele can also be the result of a plugged inguinal lymphatic system caused by repeated, chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively. As such, the condition would be a part of more diffuse sequelae commonly referred to as elephantiasis, which also ...
New research conducted by Dr. Richard Martin details new methods for studying a parasitic nematode that sickens millions worldwide, a development that could lead to improved therapies. Martin has developed a means of determining the function of individual genes in Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that threatens populations in tropical regions in Africa, South American and Asia. A new study on the development of an animal welfare curriculum in colleges and schools of veterinary medicine was co-authored by Dr. Suzanne Millman who writes, To ensure veterinarians are better prepared to provide leadership during public discussions, there is a need to include current and consistent information about factors that affect animals welfare and techniques for welfare assessment in the veterinary curriculum. ...
ID WOLPP_1_PE1224 STANDARD; PRT; 93 AA. AC WOLPP_1_PE1224; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (WOLPP_1.PE1224). OS WOLBACHIA ENDOSYMBIONT OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS PEL. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Anaplasmataceae; Wolbachieae; Wolbachia. OX NCBI_TaxID=570417; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS WOLPP_1.PE1224. CC Wolbachia endosymbiont of Culex quinquefasciatus Pel, complete genome. CC chromosome, complete genome. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000219995 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOMDNA; WOLPP_1.PE1224; -. KW Putative phage related protein. SQ SEQUENCE 93 AA; UNKNOWN MW; UNKNOWN CRC64; MPSGIKPYNI DYSESVIKKD IPALPAKVKL MIKKAIMERL TVDPIGLGKP LKHNLSGQRS LRVSTYRILY YIDVPEHTVV ITAIEHRKDS YQN ...
Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis ...
A fundamental aspect of Wolbachia-host interactions is the type of tissue preferentially infected by the bacteria. We have previously shown that Wolbachia tropism to the stem cell niches in the female Drosophila ovaries is important for vertical transmission, and that this tropism is ubiquitous across the Drosophila genus. Furthermore, closely related Wolbachia strains tend to display the same patterns of tropism in the ovary, indicating the importance of maintaining this phenotype for vertical transmission [14].. If the major role of niche tropism is related to Wolbachia transmission, evolutionary theory predicts that there should be reduced selective pressure to maintain niche tropism in males, since Wolbachia is not transmitted through the sperm. Patterns of Wolbachia niche tropism in the filarial nematode (B. malayi, D. immitis, L. sigmondontis, M. unguiculatus, and O. dewittei japonica) support this concept, where Wolbachia colonization of the distal tip cell (the nematode equivalent of the ...
hi..questers.. it is possible to change our inner body temperature by using reiki ? few days back i just chated with one of ma best friend n he said tht he do so. he has learnt first degree reiki and he always do so. i am just curious to know.. waiting for ur answers..dears.. love,light n...
856 million people in 52 countries worldwide are at risk of this disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes, usually in childhood. A painful and profoundly disfiguring NTD, it can leave patients physically disabled and contribute to mental, social and financial losses, stigma and poverty.. ...
筛选: Committee Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University 删除限定条件 Committee: Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University Department Environmental Health 删除限定条件 Department: Environmental Health ...
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