A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.

Efficacy of five annual single doses of diethylcarbamazine for treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Fiji. (1/222)

Annual single-dose treatments with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) at a dose of 6 mg/kg have been reported effective in reducing microfilariae (mf) rate and density and applicable to large-scale filariasis control campaigns. However, the efficacy of such treatments has not been studied quantitatively in relation to different pretreatment levels of endemicity. This study of 32 villages in Fiji revealed that five treatments repeated annually steadily reduced village mf rate, and that the degree of reduction was not influenced by pretreatment levels of mf density or rate. This indicates that an annual dosage scheme is applicable to high-endemicity areas. The results also suggest that such treatment affected juvenile forms of Wuchereria bancrofti and may prevent them from reproducing.  (+info)

Anti-filarial IgG4 in men and women living in Brugia malayi-endemic areas. (2/222)

To assess whether antifilarial IgG4 can be used to study various epidemiological facets of filarial infections, we studied this isotype in 238 individuals resident in areas endemic for brugian filariasis, focusing on the differences between men and women. In the study area, the prevalence of microfilariae was 6.7% and the prevalence of antifilarial IgG4 was 49.2%. All microfilariae carriers were positive for antifilarial IgG4, whereas a proportion of the endemic normals (94/208) and clephantiasis patients (7/14) had IgG4 antibodies to filarial antigens. Data were analysed as a function of gender in distinct clinical groups and stratified for age. The prevalence of microfilariae was higher in males in all age groups, as reflected in significantly higher antifilarial IgG4 antibody levels compared to females. The prevalence of IgG4 increased to reach a plateau at the age of 30 years in both males and females. These results indicate that antifilarial IgG4 antibodies can reflect the differences in the extent of infection in males and females as measured by microfilarial counts, and that this parameter can be used for epidemiological assessments of filarial infection.  (+info)

Immunity in experimental murine filariasis: roles of T and B cells revisited. (3/222)

We have reevaluated the contributions of T and B cells in Brugia malayi infection by utilizing knockout mice on a uniform background (C57BL/6J). We find that B-cell-deficient mice are more permissive to infection than T-cell-deficient mice.  (+info)

Homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans masculinizing gene her-1 in C. briggsae and the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (4/222)

The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identities of the predicted gene products with Ce-HER-1A are only 57% for Cb-HER-1, which is considerably lower than has been found for most homologous briggsae genes, and 35% for Bm-HER-1. However, conserved residues are found throughout both proteins, and like Ce-HER-1A, both have putative N-terminal signal sequences. Ce-her-1 produces a larger masculinizing transcript (her-1a) and a smaller transcript of unknown function (her-1b); both are present essentially only in males. By contrast, Cb-her-1 appears to produce only one transcript, corresponding to her-1a; it is enriched in males but present also in hermaphrodites. Injection of dsRNA transcribed from Cb-her-1 into C. briggsae hermaphrodites (RNA interference) caused XO animals to develop into partially fertile hermaphrodites. Introducing a Cb-her-1 construct as a transgene under control of the C. elegans unc-54 myosin heavy chain promoter caused strong masculinization of both C. briggsae and C. elegans hermaphrodites. Introduction of a similar Bm-her-1 construct into C. elegans caused only very weak, if any, masculinization. We conclude that in spite of considerable divergence the Cb gene is likely to be a functional ortholog of Ce-her-1, while the function of the distantly related Bm gene remains uncertain.  (+info)

A novel serpin expressed by blood-borne microfilariae of the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi inhibits human neutrophil serine proteinases. (5/222)

Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) play a vital regulatory role in a wide range of biological processes, and serpins from viruses have been implicated in pathogen evasion of the host defence system. For the first time, we report a functional serpin gene from nematodes that may function in this manner. This gene, named Bm-spn-2, has been isolated from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot experiments indicate that Bm-spn-2 is expressed only by microfilariae (Mf), which are the long-lived blood-dwelling larval stage. A survey of the greater than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from B malayi deposited in dbEST shows that greater than 2% of the ESTs sequenced from Mf cDNA libraries correspond to Bm-spn-2. Despite its abundance in the microfilarial stage, Bm-spn-2 has not been found in any other point in the life cycle. The predicted protein encoded by Bm-spn-2 contains 428 amino acids with a putative signal peptide. Antibodies to recombinant Bm-SPN-2 protein react specifically with a 47.5-kD native protein in Mf extract. Bm-SPN-2 is one of the largest of the 93 known serpins, due to a 22 amino acid carboxy-terminal extension, and contains the conserved serpin signature sequence. Outside these regions, levels of homology are low, and only a distant relationship can been seen to a Caenorhabditis elegans serpin. The Bm-spn-2 gene contains 6 introns, 2 of which appear to be shared by both nematode species. The B malayi introns have an extended and conserved 3' splice site and are relatively large compared with C elegans. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases were screened and Bm-SPN-2 protein was found to specifically inhibit enzymatic activity of human neutrophil cathepsin G and human neutrophil elastase, but not a range of other serine proteinases. It is possible that Bm-SPN-2 could function as a stage-specific serpin in the blood environment of the microfilarial parasite in protection from human immunity and thus may be a good candidate for protective vaccine.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated filarial homologues of the 20-kilodalton retinol binding protein from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov20). (6/222)

Ov20 is a structurally novel 20-kDa retinol binding protein secreted by Onchocerca volvulus. Immunological and biological investigation of this protein has been hampered by the inability to maintain O. volvulus in a laboratory setting. In an effort to find a system more amenable to laboratory investigation, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed cDNA encoding homologues of Ov20 from two closely related filarial species, Brugia malayi (Bm20) and Acanthocheilonema viteae (Av20). Sequence comparisons have highlighted differences in glycosylation of the homologues. We present here an analysis of mouse immune responses to Ov20, Bm20, and Av20. The results suggest a strong genetic restriction in response to native Bm20 that is overcome when recombinant, nonnative material is used. Reactivity of human filarial sera to the three recombinant proteins confirmed previous specificity studies with Ov20 but highlighted important differences in the reactivity patterns of the O. volvulus and B. malayi homologues that may be due to differences in glycosylation patterns. Ov20 is a dominant antigen in infected individuals, while Bm20 is not. The availability of the B. malayi homologue enabled us to use defined murine reagents and inbred strains for genetic analysis of responsiveness in a way that is not possible for Ov20. However, the close sequence similarity between Ov20 and Av20 suggests that the A. viteae model may be more suited to the investigation of the biological functions of Ov20.  (+info)

Calgranulin C has filariacidal and filariastatic activity. (7/222)

The calgranulins are a family of calcium- and zinc-binding proteins produced by neutrophils, monocytes, and other cells. Calgranulins are released during inflammatory responses and have antimicrobial activity. Recently, one of the calgranulins, human calgranulin C (CaGC), has been implicated as an important component of the host responses that limit the parasite burden during filarial nematode infections. The goal of this work was to test the hypothesis that human CaGC has biologic activity against filarial parasites. Brugia malayi microfilariae and adults were exposed in vitro to 0.75 to 100 nM recombinant human CaGC. Recombinant CaGC affected adult and larval parasites in a dose-dependent fashion. Microfilariae were more sensitive to the action of CaGC than were adult parasites. At high levels, CaGC was both macrofilariacidal and microfilariacidal. At lower levels, the percentage of parasites killed was dependent on the level of CaGC in the culture system. The larvae not killed had limited motility. The filariastatic effect of low-level CaGC was reversed when the CaGC was removed from the culture system. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that human CaGC accumulated in the cells of the hypodermis-lateral chord of adult and larval parasites. The antifilarial activity of CaGC was not due to the sequestration of zinc. Thus, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in the production and release of CaGC in humans may play a key role in the regulation of filarial parasite numbers.  (+info)

B1 B lymphocytes play a critical role in host protection against lymphatic filarial parasites. (8/222)

Host defense against multicellular, extracellular pathogens such as nematode parasites is believed to be mediated largely, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes. During our investigations into the course of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi infections in immunodeficient mouse models, we found that mice lacking B lymphocytes were permissive for Brugian infections, whereas immunocompetent mice were uniformly resistant. Mice bearing the Btk(xid) mutation were as permissive as those lacking all B cells, suggesting that the B1 subset may be responsible for host protection. Reconstitution of immunodeficient recombination activating gene (Rag)-1(-/)- mice with B1 B cells conferred resistance, even in the absence of conventional B2 lymphocytes and most T cells. These results suggest that B1 B cells are necessary to mediate host resistance to Brugian infection. Our data are consistent with a model wherein early resistance to B. malayi is mediated by humoral immune response, with a significant attrition of the incoming infectious larval load. Sterile clearance of the remaining parasite burden appears to require cell-mediated immunity. These data raise the possibility that the identification of molecule(s) recognized by humoral immune mechanisms might help generate prophylactic vaccines.  (+info)

Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Microarray technology permits high-throughput comparisons of gene expression in different parasite stages or sexes and has been used widely. We report the first use of this technology for analysis of gene expression in filarial male and female worms. The slide array (comprised of 65-mer oligos representing 3569 EST clusters) was spotted with sequences selected from the extensive Brugia malayi EST database (). Arrays were hybridized with Cy dye labeled male and female cDNA. The experimental design included both biological and technical (dye-flip) replicates. The data were normalized for background and probe intensity, and the relative abundance of hybridized cDNA for each spot was determined. Genes showing two-fold or greater differences with P,0.05 were considered gender-regulated candidates. One thousand one hundred and seventy of 2443 clusters (48%) with signals above threshold in at least one sex were considered as gender-regulated gene candidates. This included 520 and 650 clusters ...
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people harbour many millions of the microfilarial stage of the parasite in their blood stream and yet they show few visible symptoms of disease. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) line the blood vessels and are therefore in direct contact with microfilariae. Since vascular EC are potent immune cells functioning in the production of both immune mediators and regulating the migration of immune cells from the blood into the tissue, we have established an in vitro model in which to test the effect of live Mf upon vascular EC function. Strikingly, we observed that Mf exposure caused reduced transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes, but not lymphocytes. However, microfilariae stimulated EC production of few pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, while filarial infection is known to stimulate mediators that increase blood vessel formation in vivo, live microfilariae promoted
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Abstract Methods are presented for the cryopreservation of a sheathed microfilaria, Brugia malayi, and an unsheathed species, Dirofilaria corynodes. The former survived best when frozen at the rate of -0.8° or -0.5°C per minute using 9% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the cryopreservative. Approximately 52-79% of the thawed microfilariae developed to the third stage in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes versus 79% of the unfrozen specimens. For D. corynodes the optimum freezing rate was -2° or -5°C per minute, and 6% DMSO combined with 0.004 M polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) afforded the best cryoprotective effect. The development of thawed microfilariae in mosquitoes ranged from 22-32% versus 29% for unfrozen specimens. In general, the viability of both species of microfilaria was retained best when stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The entire life cycle of B. malayi was completed in the laboratory using cryopreserved microfilariae as the initial source. The cryopreservation of Wuchereria bancrofti also is
We developed real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with melting curve analysis for detection of Brugia malayi DNA in blood-fed mosquitoes. Real-time FRET PCR is based on a fluorescence melting curve analysis of hybrid formed between amplicons generated from a family of repeated DNA element, 153-bp HhaI repeated sequence, specific to genus Brugia and specific fluorophore-labeled probes. The B. malayi-infected mosquitoes were differentiated from Wuchereria bancrofti-infected and uninfected mosquitoes and from genomic DNA of Dirofilaria immitis- and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human red blood cells and human leukocytes by their melting temperature. Sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Melting curve analysis produces a rapid, accurate, and sensitive alternative for specific detection of B. malayi in mosquitoes, allows high throughput, and can be performed on small samples. This method has the potential for endemic area mapping or
This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 13 (1) : 100-104. [email protected] Repository ...
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-9275 (2012) Co-operation between innate CCR3-expressing granulocytes and macrophages in controlling early establishment of Brugia malayi infection. Immunology, Vol 137, Issue Supp 1, pp. 199-200. Full text not available from this repository ...
The helminthic parasites of humans are multicellular (metazoan) animal species that survive only by spending part of their lives infecting organ tissues or digestive spaces within the human body. In countries with high prevalence rates of helminth infection, consideration is now being given to the comorbid effects of parasitic helminths with infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis in addressing the local and regional burden of disease. In this chapter, parasite life cycles and vector ecology are touched briefly. Collectively, the three filarial organisms that include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori are known to be the most common etiologic agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF). During chronic LF, there is a complex regulation of immune responses to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, with reduced responsiveness of T cells to antigens produced by microfilariae and decreased production of gamma interferon. Dracunculiasis is a significantly
Behavior of the B. malayi microfilariae in the peripheral blood of human carrier in the intergradation area of Mahakam Delta East Kalimantan.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a morbid disease caused by the tissue-invasive nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, affects millions of people worldwide. Global eradication efforts have significantly reduced worldwide prevalence, but complete elimination has been hampered by limitations of current anti-filarial drugs and the lack of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to evaluate B. malayi intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Bm-UGT) as a potential therapeutic target. To evaluate whether Bm-UGT is essential for adult filarial worms, we inhibited its expression using siRNA. This resulted in a 75% knockdown of Bm-ugt mRNA for 6 days and almost complete suppression of detectable Bm-UGT by immunoblot. Reduction in Bm-UGT expression resulted in decreased worm motility for 6 days, 70% reduction in microfilaria release from adult worms, and significant reduction in adult worm metabolism as detected by MTT assays. Because prior allergic-sensitization to a filarial antigen ...
Filarial nematodes are capable of causing significant disease with long-term ramifications in humans and animals. Intermediate hosts, or vectors, are involved in all instances. Interestingly, although they infect different locations in their respective hosts, the filarial worm species are remarkably similar in many ways.. In humans, the most prevalent filarial infections can result in blindness (Onchocerca volvulus) or lymphedema (Brugia malayi, B. timori and Wuchereria bancrofti).. The intermediate hosts of O. volvulus are blackflies, which transfer infective larvae to a susceptible person approximately 2 to 3 weeks after becoming infected by microfilariae in a blood meal from an infected host. The infective larvae migrate into the subcutaneous tissue in the competent host and form nodules under the surface of the skin while maturing into adult worms. Adult female O. volvulus produce 750 to 1600 microfilariae daily [8, 9]. When adult worms or microfilariae die, the resulting inflammatory ...
Author Summary Filarial parasites such as Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are the causative agents of the tropical diseases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which infect 150 million people, mainly in Africa and Southeast Asia. Filarial nematodes have a complex life cycle that involves transmission and development within both mammalian and insect hosts. The successful completion of the life cycle includes four molts, two of which are triggered upon transmission from one host to the other, human and mosquito, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the molting processes in filarial nematodes may yield a new set of targets for drug intervention. In insects and other arthropods molting transitions are regulated by the steroid hormone ecdysone that interacts with a specialized hormone receptor composed of two different proteins belonging to the family of nuclear receptors. We have cloned from B. malayi two members of the nuclear receptor family that show many sequence
Washington University in St. Louis (WU). My laboratory is devoted to research on filarial nematode parasites that cause important tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and river blindness. Our work is focused on the development and field application of improved diagnostic tests, on developing improved therapies, and on basic parasite biology. For example, we (with others) have developed new diagnostic tests for filariasis and onchocerciasis based on detection of parasite antigens, parasite DNA, and human antibodies to recombinant parasite antigens. Ongoing field studies are exploring the value of these newer tests for monitoring the impact of mass treatment programs on filariasis prevalence rates and transmission. We are also studying effects of antibiotic treatment directed against Wolbachia (endosymbiotic bacteria) on filarial worm survival and development. In more basic studies, we are using the complementary approaches of oligonucleotide microarrays and proteomics to study stage ...
Spencer, L., L. Shultz, and T. V. Rajan. T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. Infection and Immunity 71.6 (2003): 3097-3106. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. ...
Brugia is genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. Specifically, of the three species known, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. They are transmitted by the bite of mosquitos. The first species discovered was B. malayi. It was reported by a Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug in 1927 from Southeast Asia (Malaya, for which the name was given). It was originally believed to be similar or closely related to another filarial roundworm then named Microfilaria bancrofti (now Wuchereria bancrofti), described by an English naturalist Thomas Spencer Cobbold in 1877. It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. Brug was aware of the difference mainly on the basis of their occurrence. He found both the worms in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but in New Guinea only W. ...
A parasitic infection caused by filarial nematode worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, causing a variety of illnesses. See also elephantiasis and onchocerciasis.. ...
Elephantiasis, or lymphatic filariasis, is a parasitic disease infecting more than 120 million people in the tropics. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 40 million of them are disfigured and disabled by the infectious disease. Characterized by elephantine enlarged limbs and thickened skin, lymphatic filariasis is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquito bites.. During the last five years, John Siekierka, Montclair State chemistry and biochemistry professor and director of the Universitys Margaret and Herman Sokol Institute for Pharmaceutical Life Sciences, and Sokol Professor of Chemistry David Rotella have received more than $932,000 in grant funding from the Celgene Corporation Division of Global Health to find effective new treatments for the disease.. New treatments are needed because the existing drugs are not completely effective and have side effects that limit their use, says Siekierka. Determining the means by which parasites such as Brugia malayi - the ...
Plague is still endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas, and localised outbreaks are not uncommon especially in war situations, eg Vietnam, where there has been an increase in recent years. Relapsing fever in Africa and Bartonellosis (Carrions disease) are geographically limited in extent.. Among the protozoal infections, African trypanosomiasis is increasing both in West and East Africa but, in numerical terms, is still mainly of importance for its effect on domestic animals. South American trypano-somiasis (Chagas disease) extends through much of the sub-continent and appears to be responsible for considerable morbidity in parts of its distribution. Malaria and leishmaniasis are widespread and cause severe morbidity and mortality in many countries.. Of the tissue filariases, those due to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may produce serious deformity, while the skin dwelling parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, causes blindness in parts of tropical Africa and Central America.. While ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
Transplantation of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells is an attractive approach for the cure of sickle-cell disease and β-thalassemia. Here, we infected human cord blood cells with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding an anti-sickling βA-T87Q-globin transgene and analyzed the transduced progeny produced over a 6-month period after transplantation of the infected cells directly into sublethally irradiated NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. Approximately half of the human erythroid and myeloid progenitors regenerated in the mice containing the transgene, and erythroid cells derived in vitro from these in vivo-regenerated cells produced high levels of βA-T87Q-globin protein. Linker-mediated PCR analysis identified multiple transgene-positive clones in all mice analyzed with 2.1 ± 0.1 integrated proviral copies per cell. Genomic sequencing of vector-containing fragments showed that 86% of the proviral inserts had occurred within genes, including several genes implicated in ...
Estimation of phosphate in Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) will explore the link between Phospholipid hydrolysis and Wolbachia. It is hypothesized that, the proteins with phosphate groups can actively participate in phosphate hydrolysis. In the current study, an improvised novel our approach has been adopted to quantify the presence of phosphate in WSP.. ...
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Ms Brugia referred to Cedefops long tradition of cooperating with the EESC, stressing that it was, in fact, this Committee that proposed the setting up of a European Centre dealing with vocational education and training (VET).
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, Timorean filariasis CHARACTERISTICS: Filarial parasite (nematode), sheathed microfilariae are 200-300 µm in length and 4-7 µm in width SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Characterized by recurring lymphadenitis and lymphangitis accompanied with fever; lymphatic abscesses and consequent scarring are common features; lymphedema appears and progresses to elephantiasis usually confined to the distal extremities in a small proportion of cases EPIDEMIOLOGY: B. malayi endemic in Southeast Asia, rural southwest India, Sri Lanka, China and South Korea: B. timori found in Timor, Flores, Alor, Roti, and South East Indonesia HOST RANGE: Humans, cats, civet, nonhuman primates and mosquitoes INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By the bite of an infected mosquito; B. malayi transmitted by ...
To investigate whether Australian soldiers were exposed to filarial parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis during a 6-month deployment to Timor-Leste, antifilarial antibody levels were measured in 907 soldiers using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial testing using Dirofilaria immitis antigen demonstrated that 49 of 907 (5.4%) soldiers developed antifilarial antibodies of the IgG1 subclass after deployment, whereas 1 of 944 (0.1%) seroconverted to the IgG4 subclass. When a sub sample of 88 D. immitis-reactive sera was subject to testing with an antifilarial antibody test using Brugia malayi antigen, 46 had elevated IgG antibodies, whereas 5 had elevated antibodies of the IgG4 subclass. A total of 24 soldiers seroconverted to B. malayi, as measured by parasite-specific IgG, whereas 1 seroconverted to IgG4. The relatively low number of seroconversions indicates a low but measurable risk of exposure to human filarial parasites among Australian soldiers deployed to Timor-Leste. ...
Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D.immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D.immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and ...
Lymphatic filariasis is also known as elephantiasis. It is a disease of the tropics characterized by grotesque swelling of the limbs and male genitalia. The disease is caused by thread-like, parasitic filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. These worms lodge in the lymphatic system. They live for 4-6 years, producing millions of tiny larvae (microfilariae) that circulate in the blood.
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Natural Skin Care Through Use of Dead Sea Products The major role of the skin is to provide protection to the inner body tissues. However, the skin itself is
Key Words and Related Terms: lymphedema, leg lymphedema, lymphatic filariasis, Elephantiasis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi , B. timori, parasites. We most commonly think of lymphatic filariasis as caused by a mosquito bite where one of three microscopic parasitic worms are literally injected into your body. These parasitic worms are: Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and B. timor There is however, another parasite that is not much discussed and therefore very often missed in attempting to diagnose lymphedema in a person from a sub tropical or tropical climate. Tungiasis is an infestation by the burrowing flea Tunga penetrans or related species. The flea has many common names as listed above. Tungiasis was first reported in crewmen who sailed with Christopher Columbus. The flea is indigenous to the West Indies/Caribbean/Central America region, but it has spread to Africa, India, Pakistan, and South America. Travelers to endemic areas may import cases to other countries, including the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of antigen detection ELISA for the diagnosis of brugian and bancroftian filariasis using antibodies to recombinant filarial antigens Bm-SXP-1 and Wb-SXP-1. AU - Lalitha, Pattabhiraman. AU - Eswaran, Devarajan. AU - Gnanasekar, Muniratnam. AU - Rao, Kakuturu Venkata Nagaraja. AU - Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri. AU - Scott, Alan. AU - Nutman, Thomas. AU - Kaliraj, Perumal. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Antibodies specific to recombinant filarial antigens Wb-SXP-1 and Bm-SXP-1 have been used to develop a sandwich ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in sera from patients with lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti of Brugia malayi. In patients with W. bancrofti infections, a high proportion of microfilaria (mf) positive (MF) and low proportions of patients with chronic pathology (CP) and endemic normals (EN) showed the presence of CFA. Similarly in patients with brugian infections a high proportion of mf positive individuals ...
FIL : The filariae are parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that cause significant human morbidity in tropical regions worldwide. The macroscopic adults live in the human host and release microscopic offspring (microfilariae) into the blood or skin. The microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B timori, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, and M ozzardi are found in the blood, while the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M streptocerca are found in the skin. If microfilariae are taken up by a biting insect vector (mosquitos, blackflies, midges, and deer flies), they undergo further development in the insect and can then be transmitted to other humans.   W bancrofti and the Brugia species cause a serious condition called lymphatic filariasis. The adults live in the lymphatics and cause inflammation and scarring of the lymph vessels. Over time, the lymphatic channels are obstructed and fluid cannot drain back to the heart, resulting in massive lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the affected limb
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, and afflicts humans. The disease is prevalent in tropical countries, where 128 million are infected and 1.1 billion are at risk of being infected. Over 30% (38.4 million) of the people affected by lymphatic filariasis worldwide live in Africa. In Kenya, the disease is common in the coastal province where 2.5 million people live. The nocturnal W bancrofti is the causative agent for lymphatic filariasis in Africa. These parasites are transmitted by mosquito vector, for which 77 species have been identified. The species belong to the genera, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, and Mansonia. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of W bancrofti infections has been one of the main challenges in filariasis research. To date, this objective has been hampered by absence of microfilariae in the later stages of the disease, inconveniences of nocturnal behaviour of the parasites, lack of a sensitive diagnostic method, and safer and easier ...
Filariasis is caused by several round, coiled and thread-like parasitic worms that belongs to the family filaridea. These parasites penetrate the skin either their own or through the opening created by mosquito bites to reach the lymphatic system.. The disease is caused by the nematode worm, either Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi and is transmitted by mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia annulifera/M.uniformis respectively.. The disease generally presents with the symptoms like swelling of legs, and hydrocele and can cause a raft of societal stigma.. Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is commonly known as elephantiasis. It is a disfiguring and disabling disease, which is generally aquired in childhood. In the early stages,though there are either no symptoms or non-specific symptoms, the lymphatic system is damaged. This stage can last for several years. Infected persons sustain the transmission of the disease. The long term physical consequences are painful swollen limbs ...
Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a filarial nematode parasite that usually infects dogs or other canines, but can also infect cats, foxes, ferrets, and sea lions. The adult worms live in the right ventricle of the heart, hence their common name. After the adults mate, they produce microscopic larvae known as microfilariae, which are ingested by mosquitos when they bite the mammalian host. The larvae complete their development in the mosquito and then are transmitted to a new host when she feeds again. Although most dogs do not show signs of infection, in some cases worms can cause issues and need to be treated. However the treatments are sometimes risky because the dead worms can get carried to the lungs and cause respiratory distress or failure. Preventative therapies, such as giving dogs the drug ivermectin, are effective and safe. Heartworm are also hosts to the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia (see January 12th ...
Animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a dog lungworm (Angiostrongylus vasorum) Also known as the French heartworm, this is a common filarial nematode parasite of dogs and rarely humans. The adult worms are large, measuring up to 25 centimetres long, and they typically live in the dogs right heart and pulmonary artery. It causes the disease canine angiostrongylosis in dogs. Female worms produce microfilariae that are found in the dogs blood and can be ingested by mosquitoes. The microfilariae mature into infective juveniles in the mosquito and the infection is transmitted to a new host when the mosquito feeds such as dogs and humans. The natural intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum are land slugs, land snails and freshwater snails. - Stock Video Clip K006/9270
A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid in a body cavity. A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by fluid secreted from a remnant piece of peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, hydrocoeles below the age of 1 year usually resolve spontaneously. Primary hydrocoeles may develop in adulthood, particularly in the elderly and in hot countries, by slow accumulation of serous fluid, presumably caused by impaired reabsorption, which appears to be the explanation for most primary hydroceles, although the reason remains obscure.[citation needed] A hydrocele can also be the result of a plugged inguinal lymphatic system caused by repeated, chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively. As such, the condition would be a part of more diffuse sequelae commonly referred to as elephantiasis, which also ...
New research conducted by Dr. Richard Martin details new methods for studying a parasitic nematode that sickens millions worldwide, a development that could lead to improved therapies. Martin has developed a means of determining the function of individual genes in Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that threatens populations in tropical regions in Africa, South American and Asia. A new study on the development of an animal welfare curriculum in colleges and schools of veterinary medicine was co-authored by Dr. Suzanne Millman who writes, To ensure veterinarians are better prepared to provide leadership during public discussions, there is a need to include current and consistent information about factors that affect animals welfare and techniques for welfare assessment in the veterinary curriculum. ...
ID WOLPP_1_PE1224 STANDARD; PRT; 93 AA. AC WOLPP_1_PE1224; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (WOLPP_1.PE1224). OS WOLBACHIA ENDOSYMBIONT OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS PEL. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Anaplasmataceae; Wolbachieae; Wolbachia. OX NCBI_TaxID=570417; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS WOLPP_1.PE1224. CC Wolbachia endosymbiont of Culex quinquefasciatus Pel, complete genome. CC chromosome, complete genome. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000219995 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOMDNA; WOLPP_1.PE1224; -. KW Putative phage related protein. SQ SEQUENCE 93 AA; UNKNOWN MW; UNKNOWN CRC64; MPSGIKPYNI DYSESVIKKD IPALPAKVKL MIKKAIMERL TVDPIGLGKP LKHNLSGQRS LRVSTYRILY YIDVPEHTVV ITAIEHRKDS YQN ...
Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis ...
A fundamental aspect of Wolbachia-host interactions is the type of tissue preferentially infected by the bacteria. We have previously shown that Wolbachia tropism to the stem cell niches in the female Drosophila ovaries is important for vertical transmission, and that this tropism is ubiquitous across the Drosophila genus. Furthermore, closely related Wolbachia strains tend to display the same patterns of tropism in the ovary, indicating the importance of maintaining this phenotype for vertical transmission [14].. If the major role of niche tropism is related to Wolbachia transmission, evolutionary theory predicts that there should be reduced selective pressure to maintain niche tropism in males, since Wolbachia is not transmitted through the sperm. Patterns of Wolbachia niche tropism in the filarial nematode (B. malayi, D. immitis, L. sigmondontis, M. unguiculatus, and O. dewittei japonica) support this concept, where Wolbachia colonization of the distal tip cell (the nematode equivalent of the ...
hi..questers.. it is possible to change our inner body temperature by using reiki ? few days back i just chated with one of ma best friend n he said tht he do so. he has learnt first degree reiki and he always do so. i am just curious to know.. waiting for ur answers..dears.. love,light n...
856 million people in 52 countries worldwide are at risk of this disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes, usually in childhood. A painful and profoundly disfiguring NTD, it can leave patients physically disabled and contribute to mental, social and financial losses, stigma and poverty.. ...
筛选: Committee Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University 删除限定条件 Committee: Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt, Emory University Department Environmental Health 删除限定条件 Department: Environmental Health ...
A role for altered endothelial cell function is emerging in the pathogenesis of disease. We have previously demonstrated that Dirofilaria immitis, the canine heartworm, depresses endothelium-dependent responses and alters the mechanism of relaxation in the in vivo femoral artery of infected dogs. Exposure of rat aorta to the parasite or parasite-conditioned medium selectively depresses endothelium-dependent relaxation. D. immitis is closely related to the major human filarial pathogens. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent responses are depressed in the aorta from rats infected with B. pahangi. Rings of thoracic and abdominal aorta were suspended in muscle baths for measurement of isometric tension. Dose-response relations to norepinephrine, endothelium-dependent dilators (acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187), ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
For the upcoming WS249 release, a set of new papers have been added to the WormBase database. Some papers of interest to the parasite community are shown below.. Winter AD, Weir W, Hunt M, Berriman M, Gilleard JS, Devaney E, Britton C.Diversity in parasitic nematode genomes: the microRNAs of Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus are largely novel. BMC Genomics. 2012 Jan 4;13:4.. miRNA genes are referenced from the WBPaper00040579 entry.. Winter AD, Gillan V, Maitland K, Emes RD, Roberts B, McCormack G, Weir W, Protasio AV, Holroyd N, Berriman M, Britton C, Devaney E. A novel member of the let-7 microRNA family is associated with developmental transitions in filarial nematode parasites. BMC Genomics. 2015 Apr 22;16(1):331.. referenced genes: let-7, Bm6643, Bm5914, Bma-tag-97, Bma-mir-5364. Cinkornpumin JK, Wisidagama DR, Rapoport V, Go JL, Dieterich C, Wang X, Sommer RJ, Hong RL. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. Elife. 2014 Oct ...
Dracunculiasis is an infection caused by the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, also known as the guinea worm. D medinensis is in the order Spirurida, an order of parasites that includes the filariae Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa.
We have cloned and characterized the gene for an immunodominant antigen of O. volvulus that is recognized by the sera of 96% of patients with onchocerciasis. Its 1.2-kb mRNA constitutes 0.3% of adult worm poly(A)+ RNA and its cDNA sequence reveals that it is not a highly conserved structural protein such as actin or tubulin. Similar but not identical genes occur in the genomes of related filarie, Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis. The recombinant antigen has both immunodiagnostic and immunoprophylactic significance. ...
Hise AG, Daehnel K, Gillette-Ferguson I, Cho E, McGarry HF, Taylor MJ, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA, Kazura JW, Pearlman E. Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, TLR6, MyD88, and Mal, but not TLR4, TRIF, or TRAM. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1068-76 ...
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Wolbachiabacteria in natural population of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in Turkey, and to exhibit the molecular...
Wolbachia, a gram negative bacterial endosymbiont belonging to the Rickettiales, has been described in the body of various species of filarial nematodes (Sironi et al. 1995; Bandi et al., 1998, Casiraghi et al., 2001). These bacteria are present in the lateral chords of both males and females, in the reproductive apparatus of females and also in the larvae present in the vector (Bandi et al., 2001). Wolbachia has also been shown to be transovarially transmitted from female worms to the offspring. In addition, a 100% prevalence of infection in the filarial species positive for Wolbachia is suggestive of an obligatory symbiosis between bacteria and its host (Bandi et al., 2001). Furthermore, drugs like tetracycline, known to be effective against Rickettsia-like bacteria, have been shown to cause detrimental effects on filarial nematodes which harbour Wolbachia, and no effects on filarial nematodes which do not harbour these bacteria (Bandi et al., 1999, Hoerauf et al., 1999; Langworthy et al., ...
Researchers from LSTMs Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics have found a way of significantly reducing the treatment required for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis from several weeks to seven days. By targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont that the filarial parasites need to live, the team has discovered a drug synergy that enables effective treatment over a shorter time.. ...
An automotive vehicle vibration reduction and damping system for use in an automotive body panel assembly having an inner body panel and an outer body panel is disclosed. An expandable material, such as a polymer-based foamable material, is disposed on at least one edge of a damping member mounted to at least a portion of the body panel assembly. The system is activated as the vehicle undergoes the final vehicle assembly process and paint operation which activates and transforms the expandable material to expand, bond and structurally adhere the damping member with the body panel assembly for vibrational damping and noise reduction.
Words starting with F (page 25): filagrees, filament, filamentary, filamentous, filaments, filander, filar, filaree, filaria, filariae, filarial, filarian, filarias, filariasis, filariid, filasse, filatories, filatory, filature, filazer...
A similar order of antifilarial activity was also obtained by the benzimida- zolylurea, (34; RCOC6H5; RIH; Cy mbalta a dose of 50 mgkg 40. 682L 7.
Powdered toast man was voiced by Gary Owens. Hed fly or teleport in or appear while saying melodramatically Powwwderrred Toooast Maaaaaaann!!!!&q...
September 2007). "Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi". Science. 317 (5845): 1756-60. Bibcode:2007Sci ... Brugia malayi (Strain:TRS), human-infecting filarial parasite (2007) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, infects pine trees (2011) ...
It is a vector of nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi. Females are known to be strongly anthropophilic (human biters). Larvae ... to nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi (Spirurida: Filariodea)". J Med Entomol. 39: 215-7. PMID 11931259. "Bionomics". ENVIS ...
"Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets". PLOS ONE. 2 (11): e1189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone ...
2005). "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nematode". PLOS Biol. 3 (4): ...
The second Wolbachia genome to be determined was one that infects Brugia malayi nematodes. Genome sequencing projects for ... In the parasitic filarial nematode species responsible for elephantiasis, such as Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ...
While posted in Hanoi, he made major advances in the study of Brugia malayi and strongyloidiasis. He also noted how ...
A 2019 report identified dogs in Kerala who have another worm which can cause filariasis, Brugia malayi. This worm is not known ... Sadarama, PV; Chirayath, D; Pillai, UN; Unny, NM; Lakshmanan, B; Sunanda, C (December 2019). "Canine Brugia malayi ...
"Field and laboratory observations on Coquillettidia crassipes in relation to transmission of Brugia malayi in Peninsular ...
His current research focuses on enteric fever and on a rapid antigen detection test for brugia malayi. Honorary Member of ...
The syndrome is caused by a distinct hypersensitive immunological reaction to microfilariae of W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi. ...
Compared to infections with other filarial parasites such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa, Mansonella ... and Brugia malayi. The dependence of these parasites on their endosymbionts has led to the use of antibiotics directed against ... Such lateral gene transfer has occurred in various geographic isolates of B. malayi, in which a fraction of the Wolbachia ...
... other species are secondary or suspected vectors of Brugia malayi the cause of lymphatic filariasis, and Rift Valley fever. ...
It shows high affinity for human biting and is a potent vector of Brugia malayi to cause Malayan filariasis. In 1980, Japanese ... Natural Mortality of Mansonia annulifera with Special Reference to Mortality due to Brugia malayi Infection and Distribution of ...
Since Brugia malayi relies on symbiotic Wolbachia, this would mean that albendazole is targeting both the worm and its ... In cases of lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, albendazole is sometimes ...
It is one of the three parasitic worms, together with Brugia malayi and B. timori, that infect the lymphatic system to cause ...
Brugia malayi, and other worms and parasites. Another important disadvantage of the existence of tolerance may be ...
Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori; tropical pulmonary eosinophilia; and loiasis. In cases of onchocerciasis, another common ...
Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, and, as in other nematodes, code for components of the cuticle". Molecular and Biochemical ...
RAJAGOPALAN, P.K., PANICKER, K.N., & PANI, S.P. Impact of 50 years of vector control on the prevalence of Brugia malayi in ...
Brugia *Brugia malayi (one cause of filariasis in humans). *Brugia pahangi (parasite of domestic cats and wild animals) ...
Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These worms occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes; in chronic cases, these ... while Brugia timori rarely affects the genitals.[citation needed] Those who develop the chronic stages of elephantiasis are ...
... and Brugia malayi, which causes lymphatic filariasis. F. W. Edwards. Notes on Culicidae, with Descriptions of New Species. ...
... brugia MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.500 - brugia malayi MeSH B01.500.500.294.700.750.700.300.088.550 - brugia ...
... chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, ...
... the C-terminal domain of a metalloprotease from filarial worm Brugia malayi, adopt helical structures closely resembling ShK. ...
Brugia malayi Brugia timori Wuchereria bancrofti Three other medically important parasitic species are: Loa loa causes Loa loa ...
Brugia malayi infection) Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus infection) Soil-transmitted helminthiasis - this includes ...
Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Loa loa. Pyrantel pamoate - effective against most nematode infections residing within the ...
The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti ... The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal ... B. timori microfilariae are slightly larger than B. malayi microfilariae. Aside from vectoring Brugia species, mosquitoes also ... 1977 = Timor microfilaria, David and Edeson, 1964): morphologic description with comparison to Brugia malayi of Indonesia". J. ...
The nerve ring (excretory pore) and the nucleus of the excretory cell are said to be similar to B. malayi. Behind the nerve ... Brugia pahangi is a parasitic roundworm belonging to the genus Brugia. It is a filarial nematode known to infect the lymph ... Leoaquarius, Sreejith (January 11, 2014). "Brugia pahangi & brugia beaveri". Slideshare. Retrieved 2016-12-26. Kambris, Z; Cook ... In the Brugia genus, there are two spicules, they are the shortest in length, the left one being 200-215 μm and the right one ...
Wuchereria bancrofti/Brugia malayi/Brugia timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum/Gnathostoma ...
B74.1) Filariasis due to Brugia malayi. *(B74.2) Filariasis due to Brugia timori ...
Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori.[24] ...
Wuchereria bancrofti/Brugia malayi/Brugia timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum/Gnathostoma ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
O segundo xenoma de Wolbachia secuenciado foi o da especie que infecta ao nematodo Brugia malayi.[25] Están en marcha proxectos ... "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLos Biology 3 (4): e121. ... No nematodo parasito filarial Brugia malayi, Wolbachia converteuse nun endosimbionte obrigado e proporciona ao seu hóspede ... "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology 3 (4): e121. ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Malaria ...
Brugia malayi, Brugia timori lymph nodes blood samples tropical regions of Asia arthropods ...
... chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, ...
Brugia malayi, and other worms and parasites.[8] Another important disadvantage of the existence of tolerance may be ...
Brugia malayi. C. *Cacing parasit. *Cacing pita babi. *Cacing tambang. *Clonorchis. *Coccidia ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
B74.1) Filarioza, ki jo povzroča Brugia malayi. *(B74.2) Filarioza, ki jo povzroča Brugia timori ...
Wuchereria bancrofti/Brugia malayi/Brugia timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum/Gnathostoma ...
Wuchereria bancrofti / Brugia malayi / ,B. timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum / G. hispidum * ...
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Malaria. ...
Brugia Malayi". Edeson, J. F. B. & Wilson, T. (1964), "The epidemiology of filariasis due to Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia ... "Brugia malayi". Web Atlas of Medical Parasitology. "Bench aids for the diagnosis of filarial infections. Plate 2 - Brugia ... the Brugia malayi MIF gene is expressed in all life-cycle stages of the parasite, and results suggest that B. malayi MIF may ... "Life cycle of Brugia Malayi". The Centers for Disease Control. 2018-09-19. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved ...
The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes. During a blood meal, ... specifically the life cycle of Brugia malayi. ...
Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... The microfiliaria of Brugia malayi have been shown to have chitin in their sheaths (3). Antisera to the chitinase temporarily ... insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi ( ...
B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.. Rajan TV1, Shultz LD, ... including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. We have recently established that mice homozygous for the severe combined ... malayi. In order to determine more precisely the component of the immune system that mediates murine resistance to B. malayi, ... We demonstrate that such "B-less" mice are completely resistant to B. malayi. These data, taken in combination with the ...
J. Foster, M. Ganatra, I. Kamal et al., "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human ... M. J. Taylor, H. F. Cross, and K. Bilo, "Inflammatory responses induced by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi are mediated by ... Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein. Chantima ... "Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, ...
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people ... Brugia malayi Is the Subject Area "Brugia malayi" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Crystal Structure of the Complex of Brugia Malayi Cyclophilin and Cyclosporin A.. Ellis, P.J., Carlow, C.K., Ma, D., Kuhn, P.. ... Brugia malayi. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BMCYP-1, CYP-1. EC: 5.2.1.8. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE CYCLOPHILIN-LIKE DOMAIN FROM BRUGIA MALAYI COMPLEXED WITH CYCLOSPORIN A. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1C5F/pdb ... The resistance of the human parasite Brugia malayi to the antiparasitic activity of cyclosporin A (CsA) may arise from the ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi; BmR1 protein; protein structure prediction; epitope prediction; molecular dynamics simulation Brugia malayi; Bm ... Khor, B.Y.; Tye, G.J.; Lim, T.S.; Noordin, R.; Choong, Y.S. The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In S ... "The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 11082-11099 ...
Brugia malayi (Filarial nematode worm)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A8PXH7,A8PXH7_BRUMA Ephrin EFN-4, putative OS=Brugia malayi OX=6279 GN=Bm1_37240 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Brugia malayi (strain TRS)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Brugia malayi (strain TRS) OX=292805 GN=Wbm0373 PE=3 SV=1 MMFNFPNTRLRRRRSSKWVRNLTSESALSVNDLIFPLFVHDREETTELVSSLPGMKCYSI ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi (Bm-FAR-1), Brugia pahangi (Bp-FAR-1), Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb-FAR-1) and Loa loa (Ll-FAR-1) were chosen for MSA ... Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi, one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human ...
This study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia ... malayi. In 14 of 18 ferrets inoculated 2 or more times with infective larvae, lymphedema developed in the inoculated paw or paw ... Peripheral Lymphedema in Ferrets Infected with Brugia malayi * Richard B. Crandall, Catherine A. Crandall, Stephen A. Hines, ... study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia malayi. ...
Abstract Sexually mature male and female Brugia malayi were developed from third stage larvae after 60 days in the in vitro ... Cultivation of Sexually Mature Brugia malayi In Vitro * Authors: W. A. Riberu, Soeroto Atmosoedjono, Purnomo, S. Tirtokusumo, M ... Sexually mature male and female Brugia malayi were developed from third stage larvae after 60 days in the in vitro culture ...
In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the ... In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the ... Brugia malayi was maintained in Mastomys coucha and the third infective larval stage of the parasite (Bm-L3, n = 50) recovered ... Release of prostaglandin E2 by microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Am J Trop Med Hyg (1992) 46:520-3. doi: ...
Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1127 ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ...
Antifilarial activity of intravenous suramin and oral diethylcarbamazine citrate on subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf- ... Studies on the chemoprophylaxis of subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos) with ... Experimental infection of the leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos with subperiodic Brugia malayi. Acta ... Antifilarial activity of CGP 20376 against subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf-monkey Presbytis cristata. Tropical Medicine ...
In the present study, we identified a ~2.0 Kb cDNA clone by immunoscreening of cDNA library of adult female Brugia malayi. The ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. by patoco » Mon Dec 17, 2007 7:28 am ... Molecular cloning, purification and characterisation of myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Parasitol ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Wuchereria bancrofti vespid, Immune response, Serum immune complexes ...
T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. L. Spencer, L ... Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:1127- ... Antibody-mediated cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo of rat cells on infective larvae of Brugia malayi. Int. J. Parasitol. ... The histology and ultrastructure of the Meyers-Kouwenaar body in ferrets infected with Brugia malayi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33 ...
We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Brugia malayi. *Priyanka Bhoj, Namdev Togre, Sandeep P Bahekar, Kalyan Goswami, Hemant S Chandak, Mandakini Bhiku Patil ... We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi.. @article{Lakshmi2010AntifilarialAI ...
Brugia malayi. The cellular disorganization observed in B. malayi embryos following RNAi targeting the genes encoding γ-tubulin ... Targeting the B. malayi cell junction protein, AJM-1 gave a similar but more severe phenotype than that observed in C. elegans ... We observed cytological defects following RNAi targeting all seven B. malayi transcripts tested and the phenotypes mirror those ... Brugia malayi. The cellular disorganization observed in B. malayi embryos following RNAi targeting the genes encoding γ-tubulin ...
Brugia malayi and Brugia timori, leading to severe socio-economic consequences. Around 1.23 billion inhabitants in 58 countries ... Brugia malayi L3 were kept in 48 well plate ~200 L3/ml/well in culture medium fortified with 8 U RNase OUT, 1 mM spermidine at ... Latha AA, Narayanan R. UDP-galactopyranose mutase as a possible drug target for the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi: an ... Development of an in vivo RNAi protocol to investigate gene function in the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. PLoS Pathog. 2010 ...
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. ...
Consultation to Accelerate Elimination of Brugia malayi Transmission in Indonesia and Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 ...
Consultation to Accelerate Elimination of Brugia malayi Transmission in Indonesia and Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 ... Browsing Meeting reports by Subject "Brugia malayi". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
... against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug ... Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were ... Effect of CGP 20376 on Brugia malayi and parasite antigenemia in jirds.. *. Ramakrishnappa Chandrashekar, D. Subrahmanyam, Gary ... This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds ...
Brugia malayiとは - goo Wikipedia (ウィキペディア). Brugia malayi S.L. Brug, 1927 Brugia malayi Classification and external resources ... ADW: Brugia malayi: INFORMATION - Animal Diversity Web. Read about Brugia malayi on the Animal Diversity Web. ... Disclaimer: ... Wuchereria and Brugia and renamed Filaria malayi as Brugia malayi. Wuchereria contains W. bancrofti, which so far has only been ... scientists sequenced the genome of Brugia malayi in the paper "Draft Genome for the Filarial Nematode Parasite Brugia malayi" ...
Profiling of gender-regulated gene transcripts in the filarial nematode Brugia malayi by cDNA oligonucleotide array analysis.. ... was spotted with sequences selected from the extensive Brugia malayi EST database (). Arrays were hybridized with Cy dye ... This study has provided the first broad view of gender-regulated gene expression in B. malayi; this should lead to improved ...
... including the life cycles of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. ... Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori are considered human parasites as animal reservoirs are of minor ... Brugia malayi, B. timori An estimated 90% of LF cases are caused by W. bancrofti (Bancroftian filariasis). ... Brugia timori is restricted to the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.. Clinical Features. While severe manifestations do not ...
"Brugia malayi" by people in this website by year, and whether "Brugia malayi" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Brugia malayi" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W. Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Brugia malayi" by people in Profiles. ...
Domain combinations containing the Periplasmic binding protein-like I superfamily in Brugia malayi v1.0. Domain architectures ... 8 domain combinations include a Periplasmic binding protein-like I domain in Brugia malayi v1.0. . With a total of 4 different ... Home > Genomes > Brugia malayi v1.0. > Periplasmic binding protein-like I > Domain combinations ... Domain combinations for Periplasmic binding protein-like I superfamily in Brugia malayi v1.0. ...
  • The two other filarial causes of lymphatic filariasis are Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori, which both differ from B. malayi morphologically, symptomatically, and in geographical extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne, painful and disfiguring parasitic disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , leading to severe socio-economic consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brugia timori is restricted to the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent estimates of global prevalence of lymphatic filariasis revealed that there are about 106.2 million people with W. bancrqfti and 12.9 million with B. malayi and B.timori infection. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori . (news-medical.net)
  • It is a mosquito-borne disease caused by tissue-dwelling nematodes of Brugia malayi, Brugia timori , and Wuchereria bancrofti species [ 1 , 3 ] and is estimated to affect about 120 million people worldwide [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Brugia timori is found only in Timor and its adjacent islands [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. (nih.gov)
  • The resistance of the human parasite Brugia malayi to the antiparasitic activity of cyclosporin A (CsA) may arise from the presence of cyclophilins with relatively low affinity for the drug. (rcsb.org)
  • Infections with the helminth parasite Brugia malayi share many key features with Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including recruitment of eosinophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • In a murine model of filarial infection, the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi is surgically implanted into the peritoneal cavity of mice ( 15 , 16 , 19 , 20 ) where the recruitment of both AAMφ and eosinophils occurs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular cloning, purification and characterisation of myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in vitro motility assay with adult worms and microfilariae, a biochemical test for viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-reduction assay), and two animal models, Meriones unguiculatus (implanted adult worms) and Mastomys coucha (natural infections). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking m" by T V. Rajan, D L. Greiner et al. (jax.org)
  • Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (jax.org)
  • Persons between 3 and 100 years of age diagnosed with or suspected of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Bugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, or other parasitic worms may be eligible for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The susceptibility of Brugia malayi and Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae to H2O2 and NO either in cell-free culture or from IFN gamma-activated macrophages was examined. (nih.gov)
  • Of these, the most significant are Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and Onchocerca volvulus . (isradiology.org)
  • They reported the occurrence of a species of human filariae in North Sumatra that was both physiologically and morphologically distinct from the W. bancrofti microfilariae commonly found in Jakarta and named the pathogen Filaria malayi . (meddic.jp)
  • Adults produce microfilariae, measuring 177 to 230 μm in length and 5 to 7 μm in width, which are sheathed and have nocturnal periodicity (in some regions B. malayi may be sub-periodic, and note that microfilariae are usually not produced in B. pahangi infections). (cdc.gov)
  • Collecting brugia malayi microfilariae by lavage of the peritoneal cavities of jirds-with an intraperitoneal filarial infection of 3 months or more duration. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The ability of Pam2 to enhance the efficacy of a soluble Brugia malayi microfilariae extract (BmMfE) vaccine to protect against filarial infection was also assessed in a peritoneal infection model of B. malayi filariasis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, B. malayi microfilariae were relatively resistant to H2O2, with concentrations as high as 50 microM having no effect on motility or viability. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this study show that B. malayi and O. lienalis microfilariae have different susceptibility to H2O2, but are equally affected by exposure to NO. Moreover both species are killed by IFN gamma-activated macrophages and in the case of B. malayi, killing is dependent on the generation of NO via TNF alpha. (nih.gov)
  • Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia microfilariae have a diurnal periodicity. (proprofs.com)
  • Several independent studies in murine models have also highlighted the rapid induction of Th2-like responses after infection with B. malayi or B. pahangi . (asm.org)
  • T cells have been shown to be essential for host protection in murine infections with Brugia malayi and the closely related feline parasite B. pahangi ( 3 , 41 , 51 - 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Our laboratory has shown that, in the absence of IL-4 production or when signaling through the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) or subsequent Stat6 activation is blocked, mice become significantly more susceptible to infection with either B. malayi or B. pahangi ( 2 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • The timing of the third molt coincided largely with reports for subcutaneous Brugia pahangi infections of cats and jirds, but the final molt occurred considerably later and lasted longer than those reported for subcutaneous B. pahangi models. (springer.com)
  • 1973 ), and IP-derived B. pahangi and B. malayi have been widely used for decades, however the developmental timing for neither species has been reported for the IP model. (springer.com)
  • This is surprising because the majority of B. malayi and its sister species B. pahangi that are used for molecular, immunologic, and -omics studies are generated using the IP jird model. (springer.com)
  • The disease is caused by the parasitic filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. (bmj.com)
  • Immunocompetent mice are resistant to the growth and development of human lymphatic filarial parasites, including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. (nih.gov)
  • Lack of an established and simple animal model for W. bancrofti infection has necessitated the use of antigens derived from other filarial parasites particularly from its closely related lymphatic filarial parasite B. malayi in immunodiagnostic assays aimed to detect bancroftian filariasis. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Brugia malayi , one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human and animals. (mdpi.com)
  • It is widely distributed among several nematodes such as the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic Brugia spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brugia malayi is a helminth of class Nematodes (roundworm), one of the threecausative agents of lymphatic filariasis also called elephantiasis in humans. (escientificpublishers.com)
  • A number of other mammalian-parasitic nematodes, including the giant roundworm Ascaris suum and the tissue-dwelling filarial nematode Brugia malayi , are also now amenable to transgenesis and/or RNAi in some contexts. (biologists.org)
  • The in vitro gene silencing of adult B. malayi parasites was undertaken to observe the effects on parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human lymphatic filariasis is caused by the infection with major nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrqfti and Brugia malayi. (allindianpatents.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Influence of diethylcarbamazine on the patent period of infection in periodic Brugia malayi. (who.int)
  • A search for natural infections of periodic Brugia malayi in cats. (bvsalud.org)
  • The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes . (cdc.gov)
  • Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W. Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis determines its distribution in adult host tissues. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. (wustl.edu)
  • Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. (wustl.edu)
  • This study of doxycycline induced changes in gene expression has provided new clues regarding the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and B. malayi. (wustl.edu)
  • In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. (eurekamag.com)
  • Patent infections are produced by injecting infective third-stage larvae (L3) of B. malayi subcutaneously (SQ) into jirds. (springer.com)
  • The L1 larvae of W.bancrofti and B.malayi develop to L3 larvae in the. (proprofs.com)
  • Elephantiasis resulting from B. malayi infection typically affects the distal portions of the extremities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is thought to be important in the exsheathment process of the microfilaria (1). (neb.com)
  • In 1957, two subspecies of human infecting B. malayi were discovered by Turner and Edeson in Malaysia based on the observation of different patterns of microfilaria periodicity. (meddic.jp)
  • Daily diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of Brugia malayi microfilaria carriers. (bvsalud.org)
  • We evaluated the long term effects of three different dosage regimes of diethylcarbamazine --6, 9 and 12 mg per kg body weight --to a total of 72 mg on 93 microfilaria carriers of Brugia malayi . (bvsalud.org)
  • A process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mfES-22) glycoprotein' This invention relates to a process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mf ES-22) glycoprotein for use in diagnosis and monitoring of active filarial infection comprising. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Further, in vitro culture of dendritic cells with an excretory or secretory protein isolated from B. malayi causes the dendritic cells to prime naive T cells to differentiate along the Th2 pathway ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report improved and effective in vitro RNAi procedures we have developed using heterogeneous short interfering RNA (hsiRNA) mixtures that when coupled with optimized immunostaining techniques yield detailed analysis of cytological defects in the human parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considerable reduction in the number of Mf released by female B. malayi in vitro post tpp gene silencing was noticed within 24 h reaching ~75% within 48 h demonstrating potent adverse effect of gene silencing on Mf release. (cdri.res.in)
  • Isolated from the supernatant of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi (kindly provided by J. Fuhrman) (1). (neb.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the identified clone showed 94.3% homology with C-terminal part of myosin heavy chain gene of Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • The cellular disorganization observed in B. malayi embryos following RNAi targeting the genes encoding γ-tubulin, and the polarity determinant protein, PAR-1, faithfully phenocopy the known defects associated with gene silencing of their C. elegans orthologs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Profiling of gender-regulated gene transcripts in the filarial nematode Brugia malayi by cDNA oligonucleotide array analysis. (scienceexchange.com)
  • By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • In view of the its vital role in filarial biology and absence of tpp gene in mammals, this enzyme was also exploited as antifilarial drug target by RNA interference studies that validated B. malayi TPP as a promising antifilarial drug target too. (cdri.res.in)
  • Bm-TPP gene was found to be expressed in all the major life-stages (Mf, L3 and adult) of B. malayi. (cdri.res.in)
  • MTT reduction assay for adult worm viability also corroborated with the motility findings demonstrating profound adverse effect of target gene silencing on B. malayi viability and survival. (cdri.res.in)
  • In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). (wustl.edu)
  • Targeting the B. malayi cell junction protein, AJM-1 gave a similar but more severe phenotype than that observed in C. elegans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transmission protein antacids of brugia malayi incomplete locusts. (lelycenter.dk)
  • This observation suggests that components of the adaptive (antigen-specific) immune system are obligate requirements for murine resistance to B. malayi. (nih.gov)
  • In order to determine more precisely the component of the immune system that mediates murine resistance to B. malayi, we have used mouse strains in which individual genes involved in the maturation of specific components of the immune system have been disrupted by homologous recombination. (nih.gov)
  • In the murine model of infection, T-cell responses to Brugia are predominantly type 2 in nature. (asm.org)
  • The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia. (ucdenver.edu)
  • We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. (elsevier.com)
  • The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets, However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. (elsevier.com)
  • Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. (elsevier.com)
  • For brugian filariasis, one of the available diagnostics is the rapid immunochromatography detection of IgG4 antibody (Brugia Rapid). (mdpi.com)
  • We evaluated an anti- BmRI-IgG4 antibody test namely, 'Brugia Rapid' in a large study meant to understand the clinical and pathological manifestations of brugian filariasis in children. (who.int)
  • The primary organism currently used for laboratory study of LF is B. malayi because the entire life cycle can be propagated experimentally. (springer.com)
  • In cultures with B. malayi and activated macrophages, inhibition of these effects was achieved by the addition of either L-NMMA, to abolish NO production, or neutralizing anti-TNF alpha antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • We observed cytological defects following RNAi targeting all seven B. malayi transcripts tested and the phenotypes mirror those documented for orthologous genes in the model organism C. elegans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. Malayi genes. (elsevier.com)
  • On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti-oxidants, and others with unknown functions had increased expression signals after doxycycline treatment. (wustl.edu)
  • The present findings demonstrate the usefulness of B. malayi recombinant myosin as vaccine candidate against human lymphatic filariasis. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Here we report the recombinant expression and purification of a ∼20 kDa B. malayi dihydrofolate reductase (BmDHFR). (montclair.edu)
  • The work embodied in the present thesis primarily involves molecular and immunological characterisation of recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of human filariid B. malayi as a possible vaccine candidate. (cdri.res.in)
  • Development and replication of B. malayi occurs in two discrete phases: in the mosquito vector and in the human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquito: The mosquito serves as a biological vector and intermediate host - it is required for the developmental cycle and transmission of B. malayi. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. malayi is transmitted by a mosquito vector. (meddic.jp)
  • The typical vector for Brugia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Es un modelo gr fico que trata de explicar como se desarrollan las infecciones por el nematodo Brugia malayi en poblaciones de humanos, reservorio animal (gato en el modelo) y de su vector (Mansonia sp) en el Sudeste asi tico. (northwestern.edu)
  • Abscess formation and ulceration of the affected lymph node occasionally occurs during B. malayi infection, more often than in Bancroftian filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we identified a ~2.0 Kb cDNA clone by immunoscreening of cDNA library of adult female Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • [ 4 ] Cats, dogs, monkeys, slow lorises, civet cats, and hamsters have all been successfully experimentally infected with B. malayi from man and may serve as important reservoirs. (meddic.jp)
  • 90% of infections are caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and the remainder Brugia malayi. (coursera.org)
  • Wuchereria contains W. bancrofti , which so far has only been found to infect humans, and the Brugia genus contains B. malayi , which infects humans and animals, as well as other zoonotic species. (meddic.jp)
  • Certain rare species like Brugia malayi can also affect some animal species. (coursera.org)
  • It is an early manifestation of filariasis, usually occurs in the inguinal area during B. malayi infection and can occur before the worms mature. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] However, despite epidemiological studies identifying Filaria malayi in India, Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Malaysia in the 1930s, Lichentenstein and Brug's hypothesis was not accepted until the 1940s, when Rao and Mapelstone identified two adult worms in India. (meddic.jp)
  • Brugia malayi is a filarial (arthropod-borne) nematode (roundworm), one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of B. malayi in humans is most frequently modeled in the domestic shorthair cat ( Felis catus ) or in the Mongolian jird ( Meriones unguiculatus ), commonly referred to as the Mongolian gerbil, with the jird model being most popular because they are easier to handle and more economical to maintain than cats. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds ( Meriones unguiculatus ). (springer.com)
  • Adult male jirds were IP infected with 150 freshly isolated FR3 strain B. malayi L3s at UW Oshkosh using standard methods (Michalski et al. (springer.com)
  • The patent period of infection which reflects the fecundic life span of the adult female worm was estimated for periodic B. malayi in south India by using immigration death model. (who.int)
  • In the B. malayi vaccine model, the use of Pam2 as an adjuvant with BmMfE induced significant protective immunity to the same level as inclusion of an Alum adjuvant. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Brugia malayi (B. malayi) is one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, a neglected parasitic disease. (montclair.edu)
  • To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of CGP 20376 on Brugia malayi and parasite antigenemia in jirds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report a morphological temporal study of IP B. malayi development in the jird host and demonstrate that the third molt occurs slightly sooner than reported for SQ B. malay i infection and that the asynchronous fourth molt is earlier and longer in duration than that reported in SQ infected jirds. (springer.com)
  • Because B. malayi is known to secrete homologs ( Bm macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-1 and -2) of the human cytokine MIF, we chose to investigate the role this cytokine mimic may play in the development of the novel macrophage phenotype observed during infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Based on the similarities with W. bancrofti , Rao and Mapelstone proposed to call the parasite Wuchereria malayi [ 2 ] In 1960, however, Buckley proposed to divide the old genus Wuchereria , into two genera, Wuchereria and Brugia and renamed Filaria malayi as Brugia malayi . (meddic.jp)
  • Current literature suggests that dihydrofolate reductase is a potential drug target for the elimination of B. malayi. (montclair.edu)
  • The lack of a reliable daytime diagnostic test has been seen as an important barrier to the successful implementation and monitoring of elimination programmes in brugia endemic areas. (who.int)
  • Lichentenstein and Brug first recognized B. malayi as a distinct pathogen in 1927. (meddic.jp)