A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.
Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.
The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.

Breast filariasis--a case report. (1/64)

An unusual presentation of filariasis as a breast lump simulating breast carcinoma, in a 50 year old woman residing in Pokhara, Nepal. The case was reported on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and also evaluated by histopathology. Morphology of the nematode is that of Brugia species which is unusual in Nepal.  (+info)

Pulmonary inflammation induced by a recombinant Brugia malayi gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase homolog: involvement of humoral autoimmune responses. (2/64)

BACKGROUND: A major allergen from the lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi implicated in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) has recently been cloned and identified as the homolog of the membrane-bound mammalian enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT). Patients with acute TPE show autoreactive antibodies against endogenous gamma-GT from the pulmonary epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant B. malayi gamma-GT, alone or adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (AL), was used in a BALB/c mouse model to analyze its antigenic/allergenic potential, its potential to induce pulmonary inflammation, and its capacity to induce autoreacting antibodies. RESULTS: Mice immunized with B. malayi gamma-GT showed significant levels of gamma-GT-specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, IgA, IgE antibodies, and mild blood eosinophilia, even in the absence of adjuvant. Intranasal challenge with B. malayi gamma-GT induced peribronchial and perivascular inflammation characterized by a mixed infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Both IL-4 and IFN-gamma were detected in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of immunized and intranasally challenged mice. Histological analysis of murine lungs using affinity-purified antibodies from mice immunized with the parasite's gamma-GT revealed the presence of autoimmune antibodies against pulmonary epithelium. Western blot analysis identified the 55 kDa heavy chain subunit of the murine gamma-GT as the target of autoreactive/crossreacting antibodies. CONCLUSION: Our data from the in vivo mouse model demonstrate the potent allergenicity/antigenicity of B. malayi gamma-GT, and its capacity to induce pulmonary inflammation upon intranasal challenge. This leads to breakdown of tolerance against endogenous murine gamma-GT. Thus, humoral autoimmunity against the airways epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of TPE.  (+info)

High prevalence of Brugia timori infection in the highland of Alor Island, Indonesia. (3/64)

To identify areas endemic for Brugia timori infection, a field survey was carried out in 2001 on Alor, East Nusa Tenggara Timor, Indonesia. Elephantiasis was reported on this island by villagers as a major health problem. Bancroftian filariasis was detected in four villages in the coastal area, whereas B. timori was identified in four rice-farming villages. No mixed infections with both species were found. In the highland village Mainang (elevation = 880 m), 586 individuals were examined for B. timori infection and 157 (27%) microfilaria carriers were detected. The prevalence of microfilaremic individuals standardized by sex and age was 25%. The geometric mean microfilarial density of microfilaremic individuals was 138 microfilariae/ml. Among teenagers and adults, males tended to have a higher microfilarial prevalence than females. Microfilaria prevalence increased with age and a maximum was observed in the fifth decade of life. In infected individuals, the microfilarial density increased rapidly and high levels were observed in those individuals 11-20 years old. The highest microfilaria density was found in a 27-year-old woman (6,028 microfilariae/ml). Brugia timori on Alor was nocturnally periodic, but in patients with high parasite loads, a small number of microfilariae was also detected in the day blood. The disease rate was high and many persons reported a history of acute filarial attacks. Seventy-seven (13%) individuals showed lymphedema of the leg that occasionally presented severe elephantiasis. No hydrocele or genital lymphedema were observed. This study showed that B. timori infection is not restricted to the lowland and indicated that it might have a wider distribution in the lesser Sunda archipelago than previously assumed.  (+info)

Efficacy and sustainability of a footcare programme in preventing acute attacks of adenolymphangitis in Brugian filariasis. (4/64)

Lymphatic filariasis is associated with considerable disability related to the intensity and frequency of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) attacks. The global programme for elimination of lymphatic filariasis emphasizes the need to combine transmission control with alleviation of disability. Footcare aimed at the prevention of secondary bacterial infections is the mainstay of disability alleviation programmes. We evaluated the efficacy and sustainability of an unsupervised, personal footcare programme by examining and interviewing 127 patients who had previously participated in a trial that assessed the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine, penicillin and footcare in the prevention of ADL. During the trial period these patients had been educated in footcare and were supervised. During the unsupervised period, which lasted 1 year or longer, 47 patients developed no ADL, and ADL occurred less frequently in 72.5%. Most patients were practising footcare as originally advised, unsupervised and without cost, which proves that such a programme is sustainable and effective.  (+info)

Treatment of Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Indonesia using DEC or a combination of DEC and albendazole: adverse reactions and short-term effects on microfilariae. (5/64)

Filariasis caused by Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti is an important public health problem on Alor island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. To implement a control programme, adverse reactions and short-term effects on the microfilaria (mf) density were studied following a divided dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC, 6 mg/kg body weight - 100 mg on day 1 and the rest on day 3) or a single dose of DEC (6 mg/kg body weight on day 3) and albendazole (Alb, 400 mg). In order to define the most appropriate regimen, 30 persons infected with B. timori were treated in the hospital and results were compared with those obtained from the treatment of 27 persons infected with W. bancrofti. Adverse reactions consisted of systemic reactions such as fever, headache, myalgia, itching and local reactions such as adenolymphangitis. Fever experienced by a number of patients in both treatment groups generally occurred 12-24 h after drug administration and lasted up to 2 days. Adenolymphangitis tended to occur later and was resolved within 4 days. The number of W. bancrofti patients suffering from adverse reactions was lower and the reactions were milder than those of the B. timori patients. There was no difference in adverse reactions between DEC alone and DEC-Alb treatment for either infection. The geometric mean mf count decreased on day 7 in the B. timori infected patients from 234 mf/ml in the DEC group and from 257 mf/ml in the DEC-Alb group to 7 and 8 mf/ml, respectively. The mf densities of the W. bancrofti infected patients decreased on day 7 from 214 mf/ml in the DEC group and from 559 mf/ml in the DEC-Alb group to 15 and 14 mf/ml, respectively. Our data indicate that the microfilaricidal effect of the drugs is achieved more rapidly for B. timori, which is associated with more adverse reactions than W. bancrofti. In addition, 111 B. timori infected persons were treated in the community with DEC-Alb in one selected village. The adverse reactions and the reduction of mf density was similar to the findings of the hospital-based study. In this group, there was a strong correlation of mf density with the frequency and severity of adverse reactions. The addition of Alb resulted in no additional adverse reactions compared with DEC treatment alone and can also be used for the treatment of B. timori infection. In Indonesia, where the prevalence of intestinal helminths is high, the use of a combination of DEC and Alb to control lymphatic filariasis may also have impact on the control of intestinal helminths.  (+info)

Intravascular filarial parasites inhibit platelet aggregation. Role of parasite-derived prostanoids. (6/64)

The nematode parasites that cause human lymphatic filariasis survive for long periods in their vascular habitats despite continual exposure to host cells. Platelets do not adhere to blood-borne microfilariae, and thrombo-occlusive phenomena are not observed in patients with circulating microfilariae. We studied the ability of microfilariae to inhibit human platelet aggregation in vitro. Brugia malayi microfilariae incubated with human platelets caused dose-dependent inhibition of agonist-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane generation, and serotonin release. As few as one microfilaria per 10(4) platelets completely inhibited aggregation of platelets induced by thrombin, collagen, arachidonic acid, or ionophore A23187. Microfilariae also inhibited aggregation of platelets in platelet-rich plasma stimulated by ADP, compound U46619, or platelet-activating factor. The inhibition required intimate proximity but not direct contact between parasites and platelets, and was mediated by parasite-derived soluble factors of low (less than 1,000 Mr) molecular weight that were labile in aqueous media and caused an elevation of platelet cAMP. Prior treatment of microfilariae with pharmacologic inhibitors of cyclooxygenase decreased both parasite release of prostacyclin and PGE2 and microfilarial inhibition of platelet aggregation. These results indicate that microfilariae inhibit platelet aggregation, via mechanisms that may include the elaboration of anti-aggregatory eicosanoids.  (+info)

Transmission-blocking antibodies recognize microfilarial chitinase in brugian lymphatic filariasis. (7/64)

Brugia malayi is a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. The monoclonal antibody MF1, which mediates clearance of peripheral microfilaremia in a gerbil infection model, recognizes two stage-specific proteins, p70 and p75, in B. malayi microfilariae. cDNA coding for the MF1 antigen was sequenced, and the predicted protein sequence shows significant similarities to chitinases from bacteria and yeast. When microfilarial extracts and purified preparations of the MF1 antigen were tested for chitinase activity, strong bands of chitin-degrading activity comigrated in SDS/PAGE with p70 and p75 and showed a reduction-dependent mobility shift characteristic of the MF1 antigen. Thus, the MF1 antigen is microfilarial chitinase, which may function to degrade chitin-containing structures in the microfilaria or in its mosquito vector during parasite development and transmission.  (+info)

Immunologic tolerance in lymphatic filariasis. Diminished parasite-specific T and B lymphocyte precursor frequency in the microfilaremic state. (8/64)

To explore the mechanisms of antigen-specific immune unresponsiveness seen in microfilaremic patients with bancroftian filariasis, T and B cell precursor frequency analysis was performed using PBMC from individuals with either asymptomatic microfilaremia (MF, n = 7) or chronic lymphatic obstruction (CP, n = 20). Highly purified CD3+ cells were partially reconstituted with adherent cells and their proliferative response to parasite antigens determined in cultures of T cells by limiting dilution analysis. A filter immunoplaque assay also assessed the frequency of both total and parasite-specific Ig-producing B cells. While the lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens and to a nonparasite antigen (Streptolysin-O, [SLO]) were similar in all groups of patients, the frequency of parasite-specific CD3+ T cells was significantly lower (geometric mean [GM], 1/3,757) in MF patients when compared to that in CP patients (GM 1/1,513; P less than 0.001). Similarly, the proportion of lymphocytes producing parasite-specific IgE or IgG was significantly lower in MF patients (IgE mean, 0.2%; IgG mean, 0.33%) compared with CP patients (IgE mean, 3.2%; IgG mean, 1.76%; P less than 0.05 for both comparisons). These observations imply that low numbers of parasite-specific T and B lymphocytes may be partially responsible for the severely diminished capacity of lymphocytes from patients with MF to produce parasite-specific antibody and to proliferate to parasite antigen in vitro. Such differences in parasite-specific lymphocyte responses suggest that tolerance by clonal anergy may be a critical mechanism for maintaining the microfilaremic state.  (+info)

Brugia is genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. Specifically, of the three species known, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. They are transmitted by the bite of mosquitos. The first species discovered was B. malayi. It was reported by a Dutch parasitologist Steffen Lambert Brug in 1927 from Southeast Asia (Malaya, for which the name was given). It was originally believed to be similar or closely related to another filarial roundworm then named Microfilaria bancrofti (now Wuchereria bancrofti), described by an English naturalist Thomas Spencer Cobbold in 1877. It was for this reason that Brug gave the original name Microfilaria (Filaria) malayi. Brug was aware of the difference mainly on the basis of their occurrence. He found both the worms in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes; but in New Guinea only W. ...
ALOR Care Instructions - CABLE CARE AND CLEANING ALOR cable is precious and must be treated with care to ensure it retains its original beauty and integrity. Some collections including the NOIR
RIVISTA DI SESSUOLOGIA CLINICA - Disabilità intellettive e sessualità ( La sessualità è uno dei più importanti aspetti della vita umana e sebbene le persone con disabilità intellettive (ID) abbiano i medesimi bisogni sessuali rispetto ai soggetti non disabili, ancora oggi la loro sessualità è spesso limitata da atteggia-menti riluttanti e timori fondati su credenze irrazionali. Così la sessualità delle persone con ID è divenuta un
Kultura-zientifikoa ikasgaiarekin lotura duen bisita honi esker, ikasleek zentroko ikerketa-ildoak, gure langileak eta laborategiak ezagutu ahal izan zituzten. Horretarako, zenbait ikerkuntza-proiektu gertutik ikusi zituzten eta profesionalki alor honetan jarduteko beharrezkoa den ibilbidea ere ezagutzera eman genien.. ...
Rajan, T V.; Greiner, D L.; Yates, J A.; and Shultz, L D., Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (1996). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 739 ...
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people harbour many millions of the microfilarial stage of the parasite in their blood stream and yet they show few visible symptoms of disease. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) line the blood vessels and are therefore in direct contact with microfilariae. Since vascular EC are potent immune cells functioning in the production of both immune mediators and regulating the migration of immune cells from the blood into the tissue, we have established an in vitro model in which to test the effect of live Mf upon vascular EC function. Strikingly, we observed that Mf exposure caused reduced transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes, but not lymphocytes. However, microfilariae stimulated EC production of few pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, while filarial infection is known to stimulate mediators that increase blood vessel formation in vivo, live microfilariae promoted
Abstract A small particle size formulation of 4-isothiocyanato-4′-nitrodiphenylamine has been found to have high chemotherapeutic activity when administered as a single dose to jirds infected with the filarial worm, Brugia pahangi.
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by filarioid nematodes. A comparative understanding of parasite biology and host-parasite interactions can provide information necessary for developing intervention programmes for vector control. Here, to understand such interactions, we choose highly susceptible filariasis vectors (Aedes togoi and Anopheles lesteri) as well as Anopheles paraliae, which has lower susceptibility, infected them with nocturnally subperiodic (NSP) Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) and studied the exsheathment, migration and innate immune responses among them. Mosquito-parasite relationships were systematically investigated from the time mf entered the midgut until they reached their development site in the thoracic musculature (12 time points). Results showed that exsheathment of B. malayi mf occurred in the midgut of all mosquito species and was completed within 24 h post-blood meal. The migration of B. malayi mf from the midgut to thoracic muscles of the highly
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a morbid disease caused by the tissue-invasive nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, affects millions of people worldwide. Global eradication efforts have significantly reduced worldwide prevalence, but complete elimination has been hampered by limitations of current anti-filarial drugs and the lack of a vaccine. The goal of this study was to evaluate B. malayi intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Bm-UGT) as a potential therapeutic target. To evaluate whether Bm-UGT is essential for adult filarial worms, we inhibited its expression using siRNA. This resulted in a 75% knockdown of Bm-ugt mRNA for 6 days and almost complete suppression of detectable Bm-UGT by immunoblot. Reduction in Bm-UGT expression resulted in decreased worm motility for 6 days, 70% reduction in microfilaria release from adult worms, and significant reduction in adult worm metabolism as detected by MTT assays. Because prior allergic-sensitization to a filarial antigen ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in
Aiyar, S.,Zaman, V.,Ha, C.S. (1982). Effect of immune serum on Brugia malayi microfilaria: Ultra structural observations. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 13 (1) : 100-104. [email protected] Repository ...
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-9275 (2012) Co-operation between innate CCR3-expressing granulocytes and macrophages in controlling early establishment of Brugia malayi infection. Immunology, Vol 137, Issue Supp 1, pp. 199-200. Full text not available from this repository ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_ in Brugia malayi v1.0. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_.
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Mabel is a LTR retrotransposon found in the genome of the nematode parasite Brugia malayi (Llorens et al. 2009). Its name is an acronym derived from Brugia malayi Bel/Pao element. Mabel belongs to the Tas clade (Copeland et al. 2005) within Branch 1 of the Bel/Pao family (Llorens et al. 2009). The genome of Mabel is 5.4 Kb in size (5436 bp long) and presents a single long polyprotein of 1811 amino acids containing both gag and pol associated domains (Llorens et al. 2009). No LTRs have been yet identified for this element. ...
By learning to care for your feet properly you begin to incorporate Ayurvedic practice into your footcare regime. Ayurvedic footcare treats the whole body, improves circulation and physiology and provides far more than just a cosmetic pampering enhancement to your feet.
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Spencer, L., L. Shultz, and T. V. Rajan. T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. Infection and Immunity 71.6 (2003): 3097-3106. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. ...
The first coding manual designed to give practical and fair advice to todays pedorthists and other healthcare practitioners dispensing foot and ankle DMEPOS devices. Developed by PFAs Coding Committee, it provides thoughtful and consistent guidance for pedorthic and other allied healthcare practitioners. Members of PFA can download this tremendous resource from the PFA website free of charge, or may purchase, for a nominal fee, a printed version or a version on CD through PFAs Resource Center ...
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A role for altered endothelial cell function is emerging in the pathogenesis of disease. We have previously demonstrated that Dirofilaria immitis, the canine heartworm, depresses endothelium-dependent responses and alters the mechanism of relaxation in the in vivo femoral artery of infected dogs. Exposure of rat aorta to the parasite or parasite-conditioned medium selectively depresses endothelium-dependent relaxation. D. immitis is closely related to the major human filarial pathogens. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent responses are depressed in the aorta from rats infected with B. pahangi. Rings of thoracic and abdominal aorta were suspended in muscle baths for measurement of isometric tension. Dose-response relations to norepinephrine, endothelium-dependent dilators (acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187), ...
The helminthic parasites of humans are multicellular (metazoan) animal species that survive only by spending part of their lives infecting organ tissues or digestive spaces within the human body. In countries with high prevalence rates of helminth infection, consideration is now being given to the comorbid effects of parasitic helminths with infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis in addressing the local and regional burden of disease. In this chapter, parasite life cycles and vector ecology are touched briefly. Collectively, the three filarial organisms that include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori are known to be the most common etiologic agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF). During chronic LF, there is a complex regulation of immune responses to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, with reduced responsiveness of T cells to antigens produced by microfilariae and decreased production of gamma interferon. Dracunculiasis is a significantly
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.
Abstract Through preliminary experiments, an effective method for radiolabeling Brugia malayi-infected mosquitoes in order to produce labeled infective Brugia larvae was developed. Starting on the 6th day after the infective blood meal, mosquitoes were fed a 7% sucrose solution containing 100 µCi/ml 75Se-L-methionine for 5 days. Infective larvae, retrieved 2 days after this labeling period, averaged 381 ± 136 counts/min. Jirds were infected with these infective, labeled larvae either by allowing infected mosquitoes to feed on uninfected jirds for 30 min or by inoculating jirds subcutaneously in the groin with washed larvae recovered from mosquitoes. Jirds were killed at various times after infection and were sliced into approximately 0.5 mm thick sagittal sections, which were dried and placed on X-ray film. Autoradiograms were developed after 30-60 days at 5°C. In a sample of 26 inoculated jirds, approximately 30% of the infecting larvae could subsequently be accounted for as Ag° foci on
Microarray technology permits high-throughput comparisons of gene expression in different parasite stages or sexes and has been used widely. We report the first use of this technology for analysis of gene expression in filarial male and female worms. The slide array (comprised of 65-mer oligos representing 3569 EST clusters) was spotted with sequences selected from the extensive Brugia malayi EST database (). Arrays were hybridized with Cy dye labeled male and female cDNA. The experimental design included both biological and technical (dye-flip) replicates. The data were normalized for background and probe intensity, and the relative abundance of hybridized cDNA for each spot was determined. Genes showing two-fold or greater differences with P,0.05 were considered gender-regulated candidates. One thousand one hundred and seventy of 2443 clusters (48%) with signals above threshold in at least one sex were considered as gender-regulated gene candidates. This included 520 and 650 clusters ...
Behavior of the B. malayi microfilariae in the peripheral blood of human carrier in the intergradation area of Mahakam Delta East Kalimantan.
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Ms Brugia referred to Cedefops long tradition of cooperating with the EESC, stressing that it was, in fact, this Committee that proposed the setting up of a European Centre dealing with vocational education and training (VET).
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, Timorean filariasis CHARACTERISTICS: Filarial parasite (nematode), sheathed microfilariae are 200-300 µm in length and 4-7 µm in width SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Characterized by recurring lymphadenitis and lymphangitis accompanied with fever; lymphatic abscesses and consequent scarring are common features; lymphedema appears and progresses to elephantiasis usually confined to the distal extremities in a small proportion of cases EPIDEMIOLOGY: B. malayi endemic in Southeast Asia, rural southwest India, Sri Lanka, China and South Korea: B. timori found in Timor, Flores, Alor, Roti, and South East Indonesia HOST RANGE: Humans, cats, civet, nonhuman primates and mosquitoes INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By the bite of an infected mosquito; B. malayi transmitted by ...
In the present study, we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The third molt for male worms occurred between 4 and 7 days
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Meriones albipes, Meriones auziensis, Meriones isis, Gerbillus richardii, Gerbillus savii, Gerbillus sellysii, Meriones trouessarti, Meriones shawi crassibulla, Meriones shawi laticeps, Meriones shawi longiceps ...
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Cedefop Acting Director Mara Brugia opened the event, telling participants that the agencys three-year study on VETs changing nature and role, which finishes at the end of the year, aims to explore with stakeholders potential risks and opportunities VET may face in the coming decade and inform EU-level reflection and country-context action.
There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. It may be present in protected areas. Further studies are needed into the abundance, natural history and threats to this species. In China, it has been regionally Red Listed as Least Concern (Wang and Xie 2004 ...
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Tze Yen Teoh, October 7, 1976 - August 9, 1995, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. That best portion of a good mans life, His little nameless, unremembered act of kindness and of love. -Wordsworth. ...
"Brugia (1062227)". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 10 February 2020. "Annual report of the Supervising Inspector-general ...
Brugia *Brugia malayi (one cause of filariasis in humans). *Brugia pahangi (parasite of domestic cats and wild animals) ...
2016 Global Alitalia video campaign directed by Federico Brugia; Michael Haussman's video for Galbani France; video clip ...
Three types of worms are known to cause the disease: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, with Wuchereria ... Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, all of which are transmitted by bites from infected mosquitoes. It is a type of helminth ... On September 20, 2007, geneticists published the first draft of the complete genome (genetic content) of Brugia malayi, one of ... September 2007). "Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi". Science. 317 (5845): 1756-60. Bibcode:2007Sci ...
September 2007). "Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi". Science. 317 (5845): 1756-60. Bibcode:2007Sci ... Brugia malayi (Strain:TRS), human-infecting filarial parasite (2007) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, infects pine trees (2011) ...
"Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets". PLOS ONE. 2 (11): e1189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone ...
Nandi NC (1982). "Brugia-type microfilariae in the Madras tree shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse)". J. Helminthol. 56 (2): 93- ...
2005). "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nematode". PLOS Biol. 3 (4): ...
The second Wolbachia genome to be determined was one that infects Brugia malayi nematodes. Genome sequencing projects for ... In the parasitic filarial nematode species responsible for elephantiasis, such as Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ... 2005). "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology. 3 (4 ...
In the Domesday Book the town is listed as Brugie, while Brugia was also used. After the Norman invasion the land was given to ...
While posted in Hanoi, he made major advances in the study of Brugia malayi and strongyloidiasis. He also noted how ...
A 2019 report identified dogs in Kerala who have another worm which can cause filariasis, Brugia malayi. This worm is not known ... Sadarama, PV; Chirayath, D; Pillai, UN; Unny, NM; Lakshmanan, B; Sunanda, C (December 2019). "Canine Brugia malayi ...
"Field and laboratory observations on Coquillettidia crassipes in relation to transmission of Brugia malayi in Peninsular ...
His current research focuses on enteric fever and on a rapid antigen detection test for brugia malayi. Honorary Member of ...
It is a natural vector for filarial worms such as zoonotic Brugia pahangi, and Wuchereria bancrofti, which cause filariasis to ... "Armigeres subalbatus incriminated as a vector of zoonotic Brugia pahangi filariasis in suburban Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular ...
The syndrome is caused by a distinct hypersensitive immunological reaction to microfilariae of W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi. ...
Compared to infections with other filarial parasites such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa, Mansonella ... and Brugia malayi. The dependence of these parasites on their endosymbionts has led to the use of antibiotics directed against ...
... other species are secondary or suspected vectors of Brugia malayi the cause of lymphatic filariasis, and Rift Valley fever. ...
There is evidence it is a vector for Japanese encephalitis, as well as the roundworm Brugia malayi in Thailand. Norbert Becker ...
It shows high affinity for human biting and is a potent vector of Brugia malayi to cause Malayan filariasis. In 1980, Japanese ... Natural Mortality of Mansonia annulifera with Special Reference to Mortality due to Brugia malayi Infection and Distribution of ...
In 2013 Italian director Federico Brugia cast Northover as the villain in his feature debut Tutti i rumori del mare. Set in the ...
Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These worms occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes; in chronic cases, these ... while Brugia timori rarely affects the genitals.[citation needed] Those who develop the chronic stages of elephantiasis are ...
Since Brugia malayi relies on symbiotic Wolbachia, this would mean that albendazole is targeting both the worm and its ... In cases of lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, albendazole is sometimes ...
Trichuris muris and Brugia pahangi". Biochem. J. 335 (3): 495-8. PMC 1219807. PMID 9794786. Biology portal v t e. ...
It is one of the three parasitic worms, together with Brugia malayi and B. timori, that infect the lymphatic system to cause ...
Brugia malayi, and other worms and parasites. Another important disadvantage of the existence of tolerance may be ...
Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori; tropical pulmonary eosinophilia; and loiasis. In cases of onchocerciasis, another common ...
Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi, and, as in other nematodes, code for components of the cuticle". Molecular and Biochemical ...
O segundo xenoma de Wolbachia secuenciado foi o da especie que infecta ao nematodo Brugia malayi.[25] Están en marcha proxectos ... No nematodo parasito filarial Brugia malayi, Wolbachia converteuse nun endosimbionte obrigado e proporciona ao seu hóspede ... "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLos Biology 3 (4): e121. ... "The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode". PLOS Biology 3 (4): e121. ...
RAJAGOPALAN, P.K., PANICKER, K.N., & PANI, S.P. Impact of 50 years of vector control on the prevalence of Brugia malayi in ...
Brugia malayi and Brugia timori cause lymphatic filariasis in humans; and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats ... Vincent, Albert L.; Frommes, Stephen P.; Ash, Lawrence R. (1976). "Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Brugia patei: Pulmonary ... Brugia roundworms are small, measuring less than a centimetre. The longest female is 60 mm long and 0.19 mm wide, and male is ... Brugia is a genus for a group of small roundworms. They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. ...
The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti ... The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal ... So far Brugia timori has only been found in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. It is locally confined to areas inhabited by ... Aside from vectoring Brugia species, mosquitoes also maintain Wolbachia spp. which has been found to be an obligate ...
The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes. During a blood meal, ... specifically the life cycle of Brugia malayi. ...
Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is ... The microfiliaria of Brugia malayi have been shown to have chitin in their sheaths (3). Antisera to the chitinase temporarily ... insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi ( ...
NAME: Brugia spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Brugia malayi, B. timori, filariasis, Brugian filariasis, Malayan filariasis, ...
Brugia timori explanation free. What is Brugia timori? Meaning of Brugia timori medical term. What does Brugia timori mean? ... Looking for online definition of Brugia timori in the Medical Dictionary? ... Brugia timori. Brugia timori. A filarial nematode that causes Timor filariasis, which has only been identified on the Sunda ... The major offending organisms in lymphatic filariasis are Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi or Brugia timori.. Lymph node ...
B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.. Rajan TV1, Shultz LD, ... including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. We have recently established that mice homozygous for the severe combined ...
A. L. Vincent, A. C. Vickery, M. J. Lotz, and U. Desai, "The lymphatic pathology of Brugia pahangi in nude (athymic) and thymic ... J. Foster, M. Ganatra, I. Kamal et al., "The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi: endosymbiont evolution within a human ... C. Bandi, J. W. McCall, C. Genchi, S. Corona, L. Venco, and L. Sacchi, "Effects of tetracycline on the filarial worms Brugia ... M. J. Taylor, H. F. Cross, and K. Bilo, "Inflammatory responses induced by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi are mediated by ...
Author Summary Brugia malayi is a nematode which causes lymphatic filariasis in South and South-East Asia. Most infected people ... Brugia malayi Is the Subject Area "Brugia malayi" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Crystal Structure of the Complex of Brugia Malayi Cyclophilin and Cyclosporin A.. Ellis, P.J., Carlow, C.K., Ma, D., Kuhn, P.. ... Brugia malayi. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BMCYP-1, CYP-1. EC: 5.2.1.8. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE CYCLOPHILIN-LIKE DOMAIN FROM BRUGIA MALAYI COMPLEXED WITH CYCLOSPORIN A. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1C5F/pdb ... The resistance of the human parasite Brugia malayi to the antiparasitic activity of cyclosporin A (CsA) may arise from the ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Keywords: Brugia malayi; BmR1 protein; protein structure prediction; epitope prediction; molecular dynamics simulation Brugia ... Khor, B.Y.; Tye, G.J.; Lim, T.S.; Noordin, R.; Choong, Y.S. The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In S ... "The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 11082-11099 ...
Brugia malayi (Filarial nematode worm)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A8PXH7,A8PXH7_BRUMA Ephrin EFN-4, putative OS=Brugia malayi OX=6279 GN=Bm1_37240 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Brugia malayi (strain TRS)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Brugia malayi (strain TRS) OX=292805 GN=Wbm0373 PE=3 SV=1 MMFNFPNTRLRRRRSSKWVRNLTSESALSVNDLIFPLFVHDREETTELVSSLPGMKCYSI ...
Abstract Oral transmission of Brugia pahangi, already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. Beagle puppies ... Oral transmission of Brugia pahangi, already demonstrated in jirds, has now been accomplished in dogs. Beagle puppies, four ...
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi (Bm-FAR-1), Brugia pahangi (Bp-FAR-1), Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb-FAR-1) and Loa loa (Ll-FAR-1) were chosen for MSA ... Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by ... Brugia malayi, one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human ...
This study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia ... Peripheral Lymphedema in Ferrets Infected with Brugia malayi * Richard B. Crandall, Catherine A. Crandall, Stephen A. Hines, ... This study examines the production and persistence of peripheral lymphedema in ferrets experimentally infected with Brugia ...
In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the ... In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the ... Brugia malayi was maintained in Mastomys coucha and the third infective larval stage of the parasite (Bm-L3, n = 50) recovered ... Release of prostaglandin E2 by microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Am J Trop Med Hyg (1992) 46:520-3. doi: ...
Figure 2. Life cycle of Brugia spp. Filariae such as Brugia spp. live as adults in the blood or lymphatic circulation, the ... Brugia malayi is one of eight filarial parasites that infect humans (the others being Brugia timori, Wuchereria bancrofti, ... 3. Brugia spp.. 3.1. Rearing and maintenance of parasites. 3.2. Methods for gene transfer. 4. Future priorities. 4.1. ... and Brugia spp.*. James B. Lok1§ and Thomas R. Unnasch2. 1Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of ...
Expansion of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Mice Infected with the Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi. Henry J. McSorley, Yvonne M. ... Expansion of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Mice Infected with the Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi ... Expansion of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Mice Infected with the Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi ... Expansion of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Mice Infected with the Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi ...
Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1127 ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ... A Brugia malayi Homolog of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reveals an Important Link Between Macrophages and Eosinophil ...
The agent is probably Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, although Brugia lepori of the rabbit or some other undescribed species may ... Brugia beaveri Ash and Little, 1964. This worm was originally described from the lymph nodes, skin, and carcass of the raccoon ... Brugiabeaveri sp. n. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the raccoon (Procyonlotor) in Louisiana. J Parasitol 50:119-123. ... Brugiabeaveri: microscopic morphology in host tissues and observations on its life history. J Parasitol 81:239-243. ...
Antifilarial activity of intravenous suramin and oral diethylcarbamazine citrate on subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf- ... Studies on the chemoprophylaxis of subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos) with ... Experimental infection of the leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos with subperiodic Brugia malayi. Acta ... Antifilarial activity of CGP 20376 against subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf-monkey Presbytis cristata. Tropical Medicine ...
... we describe intraperitoneal development of the FR3 strain of Brugia malayi in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The ... Ash LR (1973) Chronic Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi infections in Meriones unguiculatus. J Parasitol 59:442-447 ... Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927), and Brugia timori (Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, ... Brugia spp. development varies by host species and route of infection. Bm B. malayi, Bp B. pahangi, IP intraperitoneal, SQ ...
In the present study, we identified a ~2.0 Kb cDNA clone by immunoscreening of cDNA library of adult female Brugia malayi. The ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. by patoco » Mon Dec 17, 2007 7:28 am ... Molecular cloning, purification and characterisation of myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Parasitol ... Myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Wuchereria bancrofti vespid, Immune response, Serum immune complexes ...
Depression of endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta from rats with Brugia pahangi lymphatic filariasis.. L Kaiser, P K ... This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium- ... The mechanism of relaxation in the Brugia-infected abdominal aorta appears to be altered when compared with control, suggesting ... In contrast, endothelium-dependent responses in abdominal aorta of Brugia-infected rats were significantly depressed when ...
T Cells Are Required for Host Protection against Brugia malayi but Need Not Produce or Respond to Interleukin-4. L. Spencer, L ... Brugia pahangi in nude mice: protective immunity to infective larvae is Thy-1.2+ cell dependent and cyclosporin A resistant. J ... The L3 of Brugia induces a Th2-polarized response following activation of an IL-4-producing CD4− CD8− αβ T-cell population. Int ... Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:1127- ...
Devaney, E. , Bancroft, A. and Egan, A. (1993) The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi. Parasite ... The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi was investigated. Labelling with ... The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi ...
Jecock, R. M. and Devaney, E. (1992) Expression of small heat shock proteins by the third-stage larva of Brugia pahangi. ... Changes in proteins synthesised by the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi were examined ... Expression of small heat shock proteins by the third-stage larva of Brugia pahangi ...
We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Immunomodulatory Activity of Sulfonamide Chalcone Compounds in Mice Infected with Filarial Parasite, Brugia malayi. *Priyanka ... We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in ... Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi.. @article{Lakshmi2010AntifilarialAI ...
Brugia malayi. The cellular disorganization observed in B. malayi embryos following RNAi targeting the genes encoding γ-tubulin ... Despite the published genomes of Brugia malayi[7], a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis and elephantiasis, and its ... Efficient in vitro RNA interference and immunofluorescence-based phenotype analysis in a human parasitic nematode, Brugia ... Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W: Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis ...
  • While this disease was first described in 1965, the identity of Brugia timori as the causative agent was not known until 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other human filariasis infections, Brugia timori filariasis causes acute fever and chronic lymphedema. (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal periodicity of the disease symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far Brugia timori has only been found in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, with a cephalic space length-to-width ratio of about 3:1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthelmintics such as diethylcarbamazine and albendazole have shown promise in the treatment of Brugia timori filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Related filarial nematodes have been found highly sensitive to elimination of their endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria, and this may be a powerful attack route against Brugia timori as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia timori sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microfilaria of Brugia timori (Partono et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a disease caused by a group of nematode worms belonging to the order "Filariidae" and transmitted to man by the infective bites of blood-sucking arthropods in man, and caused by three parasites namely: Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb), Brugia malayi (Bm) and Brugia timori (Bt). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the two types, known as filariasis, is caused by thread-like parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , all of which parasites being transmitted by mosquitoes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • About 120 million people live in 83 countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific are infected with LF, primarily by Wuchereria bancrofii and to a lesser extent, by Brugia malayi and Brugia timori (3-5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphatic filariasis, a disease caused by filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , is a major health problem with nearly 1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne, painful and disfiguring parasitic disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , leading to severe socio-economic consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two other filarial causes of lymphatic filariasis are Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori , which differ from B. malayi morphologically, symptomatically, and in geographical extent. (meddic.jp)
  • Brugia timori is restricted to the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphatic Filariasis is a tropical disease caused by large tissue dwelling nematode parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori . (uconn.edu)
  • Currently, molecular xenomonitoring efforts for lymphatic filariasis rely on PCR or real-time PCR-based detection of Brugia malayi, Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquito vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast to classical lymphatic filariasis caused by B. malayi and B. timori , which are found in Asia, most zoonotic Brugia infections have been reported from the northeastern United States ( 2 , 3 ) or South America ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori . (news-medical.net)
  • It is a mosquito-borne disease caused by tissue-dwelling nematodes of Brugia malayi, Brugia timori , and Wuchereria bancrofti species [ 1 , 3 ] and is estimated to affect about 120 million people worldwide [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Brugia timori is found only in Timor and its adjacent islands [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • B lymphocytes are not required for murine resistance to the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. (nih.gov)
  • The resistance of the human parasite Brugia malayi to the antiparasitic activity of cyclosporin A (CsA) may arise from the presence of cyclophilins with relatively low affinity for the drug. (rcsb.org)
  • Infections with the helminth parasite Brugia malayi share many key features with Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including recruitment of eosinophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • In a murine model of filarial infection, the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi is surgically implanted into the peritoneal cavity of mice ( 15 , 16 , 19 , 20 ) where the recruitment of both AAMφ and eosinophils occurs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Molecular cloning, purification and characterisation of myosin of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • T cells have been shown to be essential for host protection in murine infections with Brugia malayi and the closely related feline parasite B. pahangi ( 3 , 41 , 51 - 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Changes in proteins synthesised by the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi were examined with respect to the temperature shift encountered by the parasite as it migrates from insect to mammal, and the presence of serum in the culture medium. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We evaluated the antifilarial activity of 6 flavonoids against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using an in vitro motility assay with adult worms and microfilariae, a biochemical test for viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-reduction assay), and two animal models, Meriones unguiculatus (implanted adult worms) and Mastomys coucha (natural infections). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Based on the similarities with W. bancrofti , Rao and Mapelstone proposed to call the parasite Wuchereria malayi [ 2 ] In 1960, however, Buckley proposed to divide the old genus Wuchereria , into two genera, Wuchereria and Brugia and renamed Filaria malayi as Brugia malayi . (meddic.jp)
  • Previous studies have indicated that the promoters of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi are unusual in that they do not exhibit the CAAT or TATAA sequences usually found in the core domains of promoters of most eukaryotic organisms. (usf.edu)
  • Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum possess antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in experimental rodent host. (qxmd.com)
  • Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models. (qxmd.com)
  • In vitro and in vivo antifilarial potential of marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick), against human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi: antifilarial activity of H. exigua. (qxmd.com)
  • Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking m" by T V. Rajan, D L. Greiner et al. (jax.org)
  • Growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. (jax.org)
  • Orihel & Eberhard (1998) summarize the human infections with zoonotic Brugia species in lymph tissue have been observed and note that there have been some 30 cases of human infection in the United States. (aavp.org)
  • Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. (eurekamag.com)
  • This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic infection with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi on endothelium-mediated responses of the rat aorta in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • T cells are known to be required for host protection in mouse models of Brugia malayi infection. (asm.org)
  • In the murine model of infection, T-cell responses to Brugia are predominantly type 2 in nature. (asm.org)
  • suggested that the critical function for CD4 + T cells in host protection against a challenge infection with Brugia is the production of Th2 cytokines (i.e., interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-9) ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Formulation of strategy for eradication of Brugia malayi filarial infection from India : national workshop, 15-16 December 1994 , report and recommendations / compiled & edited by Ashok Kumar, V. K. Raina, Sujeet Singh. (who.int)
  • A total of 753 serum samples from 6 institutions in 3 countries (Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were used to evaluate an immunochromatographic rapid dipstick test, Brugia Rapid, for diagnosis of Brugia malayi infection. (afpm.org.my)
  • Brugia Rapid is thus a promising diagnostic tool for detection of B. malayi infection, and would be especially useful for the brugian filariasis elimination programme. (afpm.org.my)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Brugia pahangi in small laboratory animals: the screening of infection rate. (who.int)
  • Utilizing a murine intraperitoneal Brugia infection model, previous reports from our lab have suggested that formation of 'granuloma' around the larvae to be the predominant mechanism involved in worm elimination. (uconn.edu)
  • Detailed analysis of the cellular responses in the peritoneal cavity following Brugia infection, suggest that T cells are critical in recruitment of cells to the site of infection, especially eosinophils, and in activation of macrophages. (uconn.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Influence of diethylcarbamazine on the patent period of infection in periodic Brugia malayi. (who.int)
  • The leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos, experimentally infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi, have been used for studies on the pathoimmunology of the infection and the screening of potential filaricides during the last 6-8 years, and considerable information on the pattern of microfilaraemia and adult worm recoveries have been obtained. (meta.org)
  • A process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mfES-22) glycoprotein' This invention relates to a process for the preparation of brugia malayi microfilarial excretory-secretory (mf ES-22) glycoprotein for use in diagnosis and monitoring of active filarial infection comprising. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Collecting brugia malayi microfilariae by lavage of the peritoneal cavities of jirds-with an intraperitoneal filarial infection of 3 months or more duration. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Human lymphatic filariasis is caused by the infection with major nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrqfti and Brugia malayi. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Antifilarial activity of marine sponge Haliclona oculata against experimental Brugia malayi infection. (qxmd.com)
  • The ability of Pam2 to enhance the efficacy of a soluble Brugia malayi microfilariae extract (BmMfE) vaccine to protect against filarial infection was also assessed in a peritoneal infection model of B. malayi filariasis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Zoonotic brugian filariasis is an incidental infection of humans with Brugia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia microfilariae have a diurnal periodicity. (proprofs.com)
  • Aside from vectoring Brugia species, mosquitoes also maintain Wolbachia spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia supports essential biochemical pathways necessary for the survival of Brugia, especially processes such as embryogenesis and molting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landmann F, Foster JM, Slatko B, Sullivan W. Asymmetric Wolbachia segregation during early Brugia malayi embryogenesis determines its distribution in adult host tissues. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Prior killing of intracellular bacteria Wolbachia reduces inflammatory reactions and improves antifilarial efficacy of diethylcarbamazine in rodent model of Brugia malayi. (qxmd.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. (wustl.edu)
  • Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Brugia malayi is a nematode (roundworm), one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans. (meddic.jp)
  • In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Devaney, E. , Bancroft, A. and Egan, A. (1993) The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The effect of irradiation on the third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi was investigated. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Chemoattractant activity of tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane for Brugia pahangi infective third-stage larvae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro chemotactic responses of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to sodium ions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro chemotaxis of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to the sera and hemolymph of mammals and lower animals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The antifilarial properties of these hybrids were assessed against microfilariae as well as adult worms of Brugia malayi. (qxmd.com)
  • The susceptibility of Brugia malayi and Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae to H2O2 and NO either in cell-free culture or from IFN gamma-activated macrophages was examined. (nih.gov)
  • Immunocompetent mice are resistant to the growth and development of human lymphatic filarial parasites, including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. (nih.gov)
  • Strongyloides and related genera, representing soil-transmitted intestinal parasites, and Brugia malayi , representing the mosquito-transmitted lymphatic filariae. (wormbook.org)
  • The mechanism of relaxation in the Brugia-infected abdominal aorta appears to be altered when compared with control, suggesting that parasites are capable of modulating vascular reactivity by inducing changes in endothelial cell behavior. (ahajournals.org)
  • Backpack PCR: A point-of-collection diagnostic platform for the rapid detection of Brugia parasites in mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • Brugia malayi , one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, falls under the category of nematodes that infects human and animals. (mdpi.com)
  • It is widely distributed among several nematodes such as the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic Brugia spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brugia malayi is a helminth of class Nematodes (roundworm), one of the threecausative agents of lymphatic filariasis also called elephantiasis in humans. (escientificpublishers.com)
  • A number of other mammalian-parasitic nematodes, including the giant roundworm Ascaris suum and the tissue-dwelling filarial nematode Brugia malayi , are also now amenable to transgenesis and/or RNAi in some contexts. (biologists.org)
  • Species of Brugia are similar to W. bancrofti and Loa loa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wuchereria contains W. bancrofti , which so far has only been found to infect humans, and the Brugia genus contains B. malayi , which infects humans and animals, as well as other zoonotic species. (meddic.jp)
  • We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. (elsevier.com)
  • In the September 21, 2007 issue of Science , the researchers report solving the complete genome of Brugia malayi , one of the worms that causes the often debilitating disease elephantiasis. (nih.gov)
  • The typical vector for Brugia malayi filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes . (cdc.gov)
  • When a new species (now called Brugia pahangi) was discovered in 1956 from dog and cat, J. J. C. Buckley and J. F. B. Edeson named it Wuchereria pahangi after the village Pahang in Malay, where it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agent is probably Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, although Brugia lepori of the rabbit or some other undescribed species may be responsible. (aavp.org)
  • detailed sequence comparison identified the isolate as a novel Brugia (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) species closely related to B. pahangi and B. malayi ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • Mara Brugia is the Deputy Director of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Cedefop, since September 2014. (europa.eu)
  • The timing of the third molt coincided largely with reports for subcutaneous Brugia pahangi infections of cats and jirds, but the final molt occurred considerably later and lasted longer than those reported for subcutaneous B. pahangi models. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, endothelium-dependent responses in abdominal aorta of Brugia-infected rats were significantly depressed when compared with control aorta from noninfected rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • We report improved and effective in vitro RNAi procedures we have developed using heterogeneous short interfering RNA (hsiRNA) mixtures that when coupled with optimized immunostaining techniques yield detailed analysis of cytological defects in the human parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zoonotic Filariasis Caused by Novel Brugia sp. (cdc.gov)
  • The adult worms and microfilaria seemed to be viable, although zoonotic Brugia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi: inherent difference in immune activation in the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti. (edu.sa)
  • For brugian filariasis, one of the available diagnostics is the rapid immunochromatography detection of IgG4 antibody (Brugia Rapid). (mdpi.com)
  • Brugia roundworms complete their life cycle in two different hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycle of Brugia malayi, the causal agent of Filariasis. (nih.gov)
  • Isolated from the supernatant of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells infected with an AcNPV chiA minus recombinant baculovirus carrying the BmCHT1 gene cloned from Brugia malayi (kindly provided by J. Fuhrman) (1). (neb.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the identified clone showed 94.3% homology with C-terminal part of myosin heavy chain gene of Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Profiling of gender-regulated gene transcripts in the filarial nematode Brugia malayi by cDNA oligonucleotide array analysis. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Chemical constituents and antifilarial activity of Lantana camara against human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi and rodent filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in rodent hosts. (qxmd.com)
  • It was later shown to infect cats experimentally (Harbut and Orihel, 1995) and natural infections in cats in the USA with Brugia spp. (aavp.org)
  • In the present study, we identified a ~2.0 Kb cDNA clone by immunoscreening of cDNA library of adult female Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • By this the worm can be diagnosed as adult Brugian filarial worm and most probably Brugia malayi as this is the only other filarial worm found in the Indian subcontinent according to the literature. (escientificpublishers.com)
  • Characteristics of the adult worms and microfilaria were most consistent with those of Brugia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Brugia malayi (B. malayi) is one of the three causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, a neglected parasitic disease. (montclair.edu)
  • Stability of filaria diagnostic antigen (Brugia malayi). (bvsalud.org)
  • Antifilarial activity in vitro and in vivo of some flavonoids tested against Brugia malayi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • which has been found to be an obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbiont of Brugia spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brugia malayi chitinase (BmCHT1) is expressed in the microfilarial stage, the first larval stage, of the organism and is thought to be important in the exsheathment process of the microfilaria (1). (neb.com)
  • The Brugia pahangi infective larval response to jird serum was studied using an agar plate assay. (semanticscholar.org)