Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Dipetalonema: A filarial nematode parasite of mammalian blood with the vector being a tick or small fly.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Trans-Splicing: The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Material Safety Data Sheets: Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.LymphangitisElephantiasis: Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.Dirofilariasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.

Breast filariasis--a case report. (1/64)

An unusual presentation of filariasis as a breast lump simulating breast carcinoma, in a 50 year old woman residing in Pokhara, Nepal. The case was reported on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and also evaluated by histopathology. Morphology of the nematode is that of Brugia species which is unusual in Nepal.  (+info)

Pulmonary inflammation induced by a recombinant Brugia malayi gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase homolog: involvement of humoral autoimmune responses. (2/64)

BACKGROUND: A major allergen from the lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi implicated in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) has recently been cloned and identified as the homolog of the membrane-bound mammalian enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT). Patients with acute TPE show autoreactive antibodies against endogenous gamma-GT from the pulmonary epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant B. malayi gamma-GT, alone or adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (AL), was used in a BALB/c mouse model to analyze its antigenic/allergenic potential, its potential to induce pulmonary inflammation, and its capacity to induce autoreacting antibodies. RESULTS: Mice immunized with B. malayi gamma-GT showed significant levels of gamma-GT-specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, IgA, IgE antibodies, and mild blood eosinophilia, even in the absence of adjuvant. Intranasal challenge with B. malayi gamma-GT induced peribronchial and perivascular inflammation characterized by a mixed infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Both IL-4 and IFN-gamma were detected in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of immunized and intranasally challenged mice. Histological analysis of murine lungs using affinity-purified antibodies from mice immunized with the parasite's gamma-GT revealed the presence of autoimmune antibodies against pulmonary epithelium. Western blot analysis identified the 55 kDa heavy chain subunit of the murine gamma-GT as the target of autoreactive/crossreacting antibodies. CONCLUSION: Our data from the in vivo mouse model demonstrate the potent allergenicity/antigenicity of B. malayi gamma-GT, and its capacity to induce pulmonary inflammation upon intranasal challenge. This leads to breakdown of tolerance against endogenous murine gamma-GT. Thus, humoral autoimmunity against the airways epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of TPE.  (+info)

High prevalence of Brugia timori infection in the highland of Alor Island, Indonesia. (3/64)

To identify areas endemic for Brugia timori infection, a field survey was carried out in 2001 on Alor, East Nusa Tenggara Timor, Indonesia. Elephantiasis was reported on this island by villagers as a major health problem. Bancroftian filariasis was detected in four villages in the coastal area, whereas B. timori was identified in four rice-farming villages. No mixed infections with both species were found. In the highland village Mainang (elevation = 880 m), 586 individuals were examined for B. timori infection and 157 (27%) microfilaria carriers were detected. The prevalence of microfilaremic individuals standardized by sex and age was 25%. The geometric mean microfilarial density of microfilaremic individuals was 138 microfilariae/ml. Among teenagers and adults, males tended to have a higher microfilarial prevalence than females. Microfilaria prevalence increased with age and a maximum was observed in the fifth decade of life. In infected individuals, the microfilarial density increased rapidly and high levels were observed in those individuals 11-20 years old. The highest microfilaria density was found in a 27-year-old woman (6,028 microfilariae/ml). Brugia timori on Alor was nocturnally periodic, but in patients with high parasite loads, a small number of microfilariae was also detected in the day blood. The disease rate was high and many persons reported a history of acute filarial attacks. Seventy-seven (13%) individuals showed lymphedema of the leg that occasionally presented severe elephantiasis. No hydrocele or genital lymphedema were observed. This study showed that B. timori infection is not restricted to the lowland and indicated that it might have a wider distribution in the lesser Sunda archipelago than previously assumed.  (+info)

Efficacy and sustainability of a footcare programme in preventing acute attacks of adenolymphangitis in Brugian filariasis. (4/64)

Lymphatic filariasis is associated with considerable disability related to the intensity and frequency of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) attacks. The global programme for elimination of lymphatic filariasis emphasizes the need to combine transmission control with alleviation of disability. Footcare aimed at the prevention of secondary bacterial infections is the mainstay of disability alleviation programmes. We evaluated the efficacy and sustainability of an unsupervised, personal footcare programme by examining and interviewing 127 patients who had previously participated in a trial that assessed the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine, penicillin and footcare in the prevention of ADL. During the trial period these patients had been educated in footcare and were supervised. During the unsupervised period, which lasted 1 year or longer, 47 patients developed no ADL, and ADL occurred less frequently in 72.5%. Most patients were practising footcare as originally advised, unsupervised and without cost, which proves that such a programme is sustainable and effective.  (+info)

Treatment of Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Indonesia using DEC or a combination of DEC and albendazole: adverse reactions and short-term effects on microfilariae. (5/64)

Filariasis caused by Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti is an important public health problem on Alor island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. To implement a control programme, adverse reactions and short-term effects on the microfilaria (mf) density were studied following a divided dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC, 6 mg/kg body weight - 100 mg on day 1 and the rest on day 3) or a single dose of DEC (6 mg/kg body weight on day 3) and albendazole (Alb, 400 mg). In order to define the most appropriate regimen, 30 persons infected with B. timori were treated in the hospital and results were compared with those obtained from the treatment of 27 persons infected with W. bancrofti. Adverse reactions consisted of systemic reactions such as fever, headache, myalgia, itching and local reactions such as adenolymphangitis. Fever experienced by a number of patients in both treatment groups generally occurred 12-24 h after drug administration and lasted up to 2 days. Adenolymphangitis tended to occur later and was resolved within 4 days. The number of W. bancrofti patients suffering from adverse reactions was lower and the reactions were milder than those of the B. timori patients. There was no difference in adverse reactions between DEC alone and DEC-Alb treatment for either infection. The geometric mean mf count decreased on day 7 in the B. timori infected patients from 234 mf/ml in the DEC group and from 257 mf/ml in the DEC-Alb group to 7 and 8 mf/ml, respectively. The mf densities of the W. bancrofti infected patients decreased on day 7 from 214 mf/ml in the DEC group and from 559 mf/ml in the DEC-Alb group to 15 and 14 mf/ml, respectively. Our data indicate that the microfilaricidal effect of the drugs is achieved more rapidly for B. timori, which is associated with more adverse reactions than W. bancrofti. In addition, 111 B. timori infected persons were treated in the community with DEC-Alb in one selected village. The adverse reactions and the reduction of mf density was similar to the findings of the hospital-based study. In this group, there was a strong correlation of mf density with the frequency and severity of adverse reactions. The addition of Alb resulted in no additional adverse reactions compared with DEC treatment alone and can also be used for the treatment of B. timori infection. In Indonesia, where the prevalence of intestinal helminths is high, the use of a combination of DEC and Alb to control lymphatic filariasis may also have impact on the control of intestinal helminths.  (+info)

Intravascular filarial parasites inhibit platelet aggregation. Role of parasite-derived prostanoids. (6/64)

The nematode parasites that cause human lymphatic filariasis survive for long periods in their vascular habitats despite continual exposure to host cells. Platelets do not adhere to blood-borne microfilariae, and thrombo-occlusive phenomena are not observed in patients with circulating microfilariae. We studied the ability of microfilariae to inhibit human platelet aggregation in vitro. Brugia malayi microfilariae incubated with human platelets caused dose-dependent inhibition of agonist-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane generation, and serotonin release. As few as one microfilaria per 10(4) platelets completely inhibited aggregation of platelets induced by thrombin, collagen, arachidonic acid, or ionophore A23187. Microfilariae also inhibited aggregation of platelets in platelet-rich plasma stimulated by ADP, compound U46619, or platelet-activating factor. The inhibition required intimate proximity but not direct contact between parasites and platelets, and was mediated by parasite-derived soluble factors of low (less than 1,000 Mr) molecular weight that were labile in aqueous media and caused an elevation of platelet cAMP. Prior treatment of microfilariae with pharmacologic inhibitors of cyclooxygenase decreased both parasite release of prostacyclin and PGE2 and microfilarial inhibition of platelet aggregation. These results indicate that microfilariae inhibit platelet aggregation, via mechanisms that may include the elaboration of anti-aggregatory eicosanoids.  (+info)

Transmission-blocking antibodies recognize microfilarial chitinase in brugian lymphatic filariasis. (7/64)

Brugia malayi is a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. The monoclonal antibody MF1, which mediates clearance of peripheral microfilaremia in a gerbil infection model, recognizes two stage-specific proteins, p70 and p75, in B. malayi microfilariae. cDNA coding for the MF1 antigen was sequenced, and the predicted protein sequence shows significant similarities to chitinases from bacteria and yeast. When microfilarial extracts and purified preparations of the MF1 antigen were tested for chitinase activity, strong bands of chitin-degrading activity comigrated in SDS/PAGE with p70 and p75 and showed a reduction-dependent mobility shift characteristic of the MF1 antigen. Thus, the MF1 antigen is microfilarial chitinase, which may function to degrade chitin-containing structures in the microfilaria or in its mosquito vector during parasite development and transmission.  (+info)

Immunologic tolerance in lymphatic filariasis. Diminished parasite-specific T and B lymphocyte precursor frequency in the microfilaremic state. (8/64)

To explore the mechanisms of antigen-specific immune unresponsiveness seen in microfilaremic patients with bancroftian filariasis, T and B cell precursor frequency analysis was performed using PBMC from individuals with either asymptomatic microfilaremia (MF, n = 7) or chronic lymphatic obstruction (CP, n = 20). Highly purified CD3+ cells were partially reconstituted with adherent cells and their proliferative response to parasite antigens determined in cultures of T cells by limiting dilution analysis. A filter immunoplaque assay also assessed the frequency of both total and parasite-specific Ig-producing B cells. While the lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens and to a nonparasite antigen (Streptolysin-O, [SLO]) were similar in all groups of patients, the frequency of parasite-specific CD3+ T cells was significantly lower (geometric mean [GM], 1/3,757) in MF patients when compared to that in CP patients (GM 1/1,513; P less than 0.001). Similarly, the proportion of lymphocytes producing parasite-specific IgE or IgG was significantly lower in MF patients (IgE mean, 0.2%; IgG mean, 0.33%) compared with CP patients (IgE mean, 3.2%; IgG mean, 1.76%; P less than 0.05 for both comparisons). These observations imply that low numbers of parasite-specific T and B lymphocytes may be partially responsible for the severely diminished capacity of lymphocytes from patients with MF to produce parasite-specific antibody and to proliferate to parasite antigen in vitro. Such differences in parasite-specific lymphocyte responses suggest that tolerance by clonal anergy may be a critical mechanism for maintaining the microfilaremic state.  (+info)

  • He created a new genus Brugia in honour of the original discoverer, thus renaming B. malayi, B. pahangi, and B. patei. (
  • Immunocompetent mice are resistant to the growth and development of human lymphatic filarial parasites, including the aperiodic strain of Brugia malayi. (
  • Strongyloides and related genera, representing soil-transmitted intestinal parasites, and Brugia malayi , representing the mosquito-transmitted lymphatic filariae. (
  • The mechanism of relaxation in the Brugia-infected abdominal aorta appears to be altered when compared with control, suggesting that parasites are capable of modulating vascular reactivity by inducing changes in endothelial cell behavior. (
  • Backpack PCR: A point-of-collection diagnostic platform for the rapid detection of Brugia parasites in mosquitoes. (
  • Species of Brugia are similar to W. bancrofti and Loa loa. (
  • Wuchereria contains W. bancrofti , which so far has only been found to infect humans, and the Brugia genus contains B. malayi , which infects humans and animals, as well as other zoonotic species. (
  • The agent is probably Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, although Brugia lepori of the rabbit or some other undescribed species may be responsible. (
  • In contrast, endothelium-dependent responses in abdominal aorta of Brugia-infected rats were significantly depressed when compared with control aorta from noninfected rats. (
  • For brugian filariasis, one of the available diagnostics is the rapid immunochromatography detection of IgG4 antibody (Brugia Rapid). (
  • It was later shown to infect cats experimentally (Harbut and Orihel, 1995) and natural infections in cats in the USA with Brugia spp. (