Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Subretinal Fluid: An exudate between the RETINA and CHOROID from various sources including the vitreous cavity, SUBARACHNOID SPACE, or abnormal vessels.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.EnglandHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Angioid Streaks: Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.Acneiform Eruptions: Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575)Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Tinea Pedis: Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (1/198)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Increase in the advanced glycation end product pentosidine in Bruch's membrane with age. (2/198)

PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an age-related increase of pentosidine in human Bruch's membranes and to localize pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine (CML), two well-characterized, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aged human Bruch's membranes and choroid in vivo. METHODS: Human Bruch's membrane samples were isolated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid and subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determine pentosidine content. A polyclonal anti-pentosidine antibody and a monoclonal antibody specific for carboxymethyllysine were used to localize AGEs in 20-month-old nondiabetic, 82-year-old nondiabetic, and 82-year-old diabetic globes. RESULTS: Human Bruch's membranes (n = 20) showed a linear age-dependent increase in pentosidine that reached approximately 0.17 millimoles pentosidine per mole hydroxyproline in late life (r = 0.896; P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical evaluation showed evidence of pentosidine in Bruch's membrane, choroidal extracellular matrix, and vessel walls in the 82-year-old nondiabetic and diabetic globes. A similar staining pattern was found with the anti-CML antibody. Basal laminar deposits and drusen stained with both antibodies in the elderly nondiabetic eye. In contrast, neither antibody stained the 20-month-old tissue. CONCLUSIONS: We provide biochemical and immunohistochemical evidence for the formation of pentosidine and CML structures in human Bruch's membrane and choroid with age. These changes could promote aging of the RPE-Bruch's membrane-choroid complex.  (+info)

Early drusen formation in the normal and aging eye and their relation to age related maculopathy: a clinicopathological study. (3/198)

AIM: To describe the early formation of drusen and their relation to normal aging changes at the macula and to the development of age related maculopathy (ARM). METHOD: Histopathological features of 353 eyes without histological evidence of ARM are described and correlated with the clinical appearance. In addition, 45 of these eyes were examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Drusen were detected histopathologically in 177 (50%) eyes but were seen clinically in only 34% of these. Drusen were mainly small hard drusen with an occasional soft distinct drusen: no soft indistinct drusen were seen. Only those drusen deposits larger than 25-30 microns in diameter were detectable clinically. Preclinical drusen in eyes with only an occasional drusen were seen on electron microscopy as entrapment sites of coated membrane bound bodies which formed adjacent to the inner collagenous zone of Bruch's membrane. In contrast, preclinical drusen deposits in eyes with many drusen were seen as accumulations of amorphous material which appeared hyalinised by light microscopy. A distinct feature were rows of dense hyalinised microdrusen (1-2 microns in diameter), over which larger globular hyalinised drusen formed. CONCLUSION: Histological and ultrastructural examination can recognise and distinguish the earliest drusen formed as a result of normal aging from those associated with ARM. In eyes without diffuse deposits, histologically all drusen were of the hard hyalinised variety or their derivatives; no soft drusen composed of membranous debris were found. These findings support and explain those of other authors who do not consider the presence of a few small hard drusen to be a risk factor for the development of ARM.  (+info)

Development of a polyclonal antibody with broad epitope specificity for advanced glycation endproducts and localization of these epitopes in Bruch's membrane of the aging eye. (4/198)

PURPOSE: To develop an antibody that recognizes a variety of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) epitopes. METHODS: Glycolaldehyde was used to modify bovine serum albumin and HPLC analysis was used to measure pentosidine formation as an indicator of AGE formation. A polyclonal anti-AGE antibody was synthesized by injecting glycolaldehyde-incubated keyhole limpet hemocyanin into rabbits, affinity purified using AGE modified bovine serum albumin coupled to an affinity resin column, and characterized by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: HPLC analysis of glycolaldehyde treated bovine serum albumin detected high levels of pentosidine formation, suggesting that glycolaldehyde is a potent precursor for pentosidine. By immunoblot analysis, our antibody recognized carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine, two well-characterized AGEs, as well as other AGE epitopes. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed evidence of AGEs in Bruch's membrane (including basal laminar deposits and drusen), choroidal extracellular matrix, and vessel walls in an 82 year old nondiabetic globe. A similar staining pattern was observed in an age-matched diabetic control. In contrast, no staining was seen with the antibody in a 20 month old nondiabetic globe. CONCLUSIONS: A unique anti-AGE antibody was synthesized that recognizes a variety of AGE epitopes including carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Its best use might be in broad surveys of the age-dependent accumulation of a large number of AGE epitopes that might not be revealed by antibodies to pentosidine or CML.  (+info)

TIMP-3 in Bruch's membrane: changes during aging and in age-related macular degeneration. (5/198)

PURPOSE: To assess the distribution, content, and function of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3 during aging in normal eyes for comparison with the levels observed in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Donor tissues analyzed included 36 normal eyes (14-96 years old) and 15 AMD eyes (74 -98 years old). A tissue strip including the fovea was used for immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis was performed on extracts of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)- choroid complex from the posterior part of each eye. Immunoreactivity of TIMP-3 bands in each western blot was densitometrically quantitated. The inhibitory function of TIMP-3 was evaluated with reverse zymography. RESULTS: TIMP-3 was present uniformly across Bruch's membrane in the normal samples. In samples from donors more than 50 years of age, immunostaining was intense. TIMP-3 content ranged from 92 to 1061 ng/cm2 and increased with age (r = 0.66). In AMD eyes, TIMP-3 distribution in Bruch's membrane was abundant in areas of continuous soft drusen but absent in areas below RPE atrophy. TIMP-3 levels in AMD eyes were significantly higher than in age-matched normal eyes (577 versus 877 ng/cm2; P = 0.009). Inhibitory activity correlated well with TIMP-3 content (r = 0.82) and was also significantly higher in AMD eyes than in age-matched normal eyes (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During normal aging, TIMP-3 content in Bruch's membrane of the macula shows a significant increase. TIMP-3 content in AMD eyes was elevated relative to that of age-matched normal eyes. Higher levels of TIMP-3 may contribute to the thickening of Bruch's membrane observed in AMD.  (+info)

Age-dependent variation in metalloproteinase activity of isolated human Bruch's membrane and choroid. (6/198)

PURPOSE: To characterize and determine the effect of aging on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) component of the extracellular matrix-remodeling mechanism of isolated human Bruch's-choroid. METHODS: Immunohistochemical techniques and western blot analysis were used to detect and localize various members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes in the Bruch's-choroid complex. Gelatin substrate zymography was used to detect and quantify the levels of MMP-2 and -9 in homogenates of Bruch's-choroid from both macular and peripheral regions of the human fundus. Aging alterations in these enzymes were quantified by densitometric analysis of photographic negatives of the zymography gels. RESULTS: Intact preparations of Bruch's-choroid showed the presence of inactive forms of two gelatinases (MMP-2, 65 kDa, and MMP-9, 92 kDa), interstitial collagenase (MMP-1, 52 kDa) and stromelysin (MMP-3, 57 kDa). MMP-1 and -3 were localized primarily to Bruch's membrane. MMP-9 was distributed evenly in Bruch's membrane with some patchy presence in the choroidal mass. Distribution of MMP-2 was similar to that of MMP-9, but the staining in Bruch's was much fainter. On gelatin zymography, an active form of MMP-2 (58-kDa species) was frequently observed in peripheral samples but only occasionally in macular regions. The levels of MMP-2 and -9 increased with aging in both the macular and the peripheral regions of the fundus (P < 0.05). MMP-2 levels were lower in macular regions than in the periphery but no such variation was observed with MMP-9. Both these inactive gelatinases could be activated in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A matrix-degrading mechanism essential for extracellular remodeling was shown to be present in Bruch's membrane. In macular regions, increasing levels of inactive forms of metalloproteinase and scarcity of active forms of MMP-2 suggests possible involvement of impaired extracellular degradation in both aging and macular degeneration.  (+info)

Ultrastructural changes in Bruch's membrane of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (7/198)

PURPOSE: To examine the histologic and ultrastructural changes in Bruch's membrane (BM) in apolipoprotein E deficient [ApoE(-)] mice in comparison with age-matched control animals. METHODS: Two-month-old (group 1) and 8-month-old (group 2) normal control C57BL/6 mice and 2-month-old (group 3) and 8-month-old (group 4) ApoE(-) mice were studied. All groups of mice were fed a standard rodent diet. The mice were killed, serum lipid levels were determined, and the eyes were ultrastructurally examined using standard techniques to measure the thickness of BM. The area fraction of electron-lucent (EL) particles in BM was quantified using point-counting stereology. RESULTS: The serum cholesterol levels of the ApoE(-) mice were significantly higher than those of the control mice (P = 0.0001). There was a significant thickening and EL particle accumulation in BM associated with age in the control animals. Group 2 had a thicker BM and more EL particle accumulation than group 1 (P = 0.0410 for thickness; P = 0.0042 for particle accumulation). Age-related changes were not seen in ApoE(-) mice; thickness and accumulation were similar in groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.50, thickness; P approximately/= 1.0, accumulation). Significant thickening and accumulation were seen in young ApoE(-) mice (group 3) versus young control animals (group 1; P = 0.008, thickening; P < 0.0001, EL particle accumulation). Group 4 ApoE(-) mice did not have a thicker BM or more EL particles than group 2 control animals (P = 0.2910, thickness; P = 0.35, EL particle accumulation). "Membrane-bounded" material (material between two membranes) was present significantly more frequently in ApoE(-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: ApoE(-) mice exhibit accumulation of EL particles at an earlier age and have more membrane-bounded material in BM than control mice. This material has ultrastructural similarities to basal linear deposit, which accumulates in age-related maculopathy.  (+info)

Age-related retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane degeneration in senescence-accelerated mouse. (8/198)

PURPOSE: To investigate age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). METHODS: The external and eyecup features and light and electron microscopic findings were examined in three male and two female mice of a senescence-prone mouse strain (SAM P(8)) monthly for 12 months. These results were compared with those in age-matched mice of similar background but senescence resistant (SAM R(1)). Choroidal vascular casts were prepared at 12 months in seven mice each of the SAM P(8) and SAM R(1) strains. Quantitative analysis of area of choriocapillaris was performed by automated image analysis, and the results were analyzed by paired Student's t-test. RESULTS: We found in the SAM P(8) strain that hair loss, coarseness of hair texture, and ulceration of skin appeared and increased as the age advanced (at approximately 5-9 months). Eyecup examination showed no differences. Light and electron microscopy revealed progressively more prominent abnormalities in the RPE and Bruch's membrane mice older than 10 months. Two of the five SAM P(8) mice older than 11 months showed what appeared to be intra-Bruch's membrane choroidal neovascularization. The RPE and Bruch's membrane appeared normal in the SAM R(1) strain. In the SAM P(8), vascular casts of the choriocapillaris showed a mild but significant decrease in vascular area when compared with the SAM R(1) strain at 12 months (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Senescence accelerated mice develop progressive age-related changes in the RPE-Bruch's-choriocapillaris complex that have features that may be relevant in the study of age-related macular changes in humans.  (+info)

The purpose of this study is to assess in vivo whether diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) is followed by optic nerve head (ONH) and parapapillary anatomic changes in normal human eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective, single-center, observational case series. ONH structures (prelaminar tissue surface, anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, central retinal vessels) and parapapillary structures (internal limiting membrane, posterior surfaces of retinal nerve fiber layer and Bruch membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex, Bruch membrane opening, posterior surface of the choroid) were quantitatively evaluated by means of swept-source optical coherence tomography (Triton Ver.10.05, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) before and after LP (5, 60, and 360 min). Each of these structures was manually delineated for measurement before being superimposed to detect any displacement, using peripheral margins of parapapillary structures as a reference plane. RESULTS: A total of 16 eyes of 8 nonglaucomatous patients
The average age of subjects was 30.2 ± 9.3 years for G0 and 29.9 ± 7.1 years for G1 (p = 0.903). Mean sphere was -0.5 ± 0.3 D (-1.25 to 0 D) G0 and -3.9 ± 0.3 D (-6.00 to -3 D) G1 (p,0.001). The RNFL thickness comparison between G0 and G1 showed a significantly lower thickness in G1 (p = 0.018). The BMO-MRW measurements were similar in both groups (p = 0.331). With the BMO-MRW examination, the number of sectors classified as pathologic per subject in G1 were significantly lower compared to RNFL analysis (p = 0.023).. ...
PURPOSE: To correlate postmortem histology with previously recorded multimodal imaging from a patient with type 1 neovascularization (NV) associated with an acquired vitelliform lesion in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Case study. METHODS: Multimodal imaging that was obtained antemortem was matched with ex vivo and high-resolution histologic images of the preserved donor macula. Anatomic correlates for multimodal imaging findings were then defined. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a split in the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane band. Type 1 NV in this case was composed of 6 layered components: (1) retinal pigment epithelium, (2) basal laminar deposits, (3) fibrovascular membrane, (4) fibrocellular scar, (5) hemorrhage, and (6) Bruch membrane. The anatomic correlates for the hyporeflective band on spectral-domain OCT included a thick basal laminar deposit. Not all structures could be readily separated on the basis of their
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine if EC in normal, aged BrM derives from directly infused plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or from local cells with acyl co-A cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT)-1 or -2. EC in LDL and EC in cells with ACAT is enriched in cholesteryl linoleate (Ch-18:2) and cholesteryl oleate (Ch-18:1), respectively. Methods: Ch-18:1 and Ch-18:2 were assayed by mass spectrometry in macular BrM, cornea, and sclera (10 donor eyes, greater than 60 yr), cholesterol-enriched human monocyte-macrophages, and LDL. Ch-16:0 (palmitate), Ch-18:0 (stearate), Ch-18:1, Ch-18:2, Ch-20:4 (arachidonate) and the corresponding free fatty acids (FFA) were assayed in macular BrM and RPE (n=6). Lipids were extracted with chloroform and methanol and separated by reversed phase HPLC using an isopropanol gradient in 10 mM ammonium acetate. Ion mass spectra (positive for ammonium ion adducts of cholesteryl esters and negative for FFA) were compared to standards. Protein extracts from human retinal ...
Two principal border tissue configurations, their relationship to a pigmented or unpigmented extension of Bruchs membrane, and the resultant clinical disc margin anatomy. (A) Internally oblique. The diagram shows the clinical optic disc appearance (top) and a cross-section of the optic nerve head (b ottom). Labeling is as follows: 1, sclera; 2, choriocapillaris; 3, retinal pigment epithelium with Bruchs membrane; 4, border tissue; 5, neural canal boundary; 6, pigment on the surface of Bruchs membrane; 7, Bruchs membrane. L eft i nset: pigmented Bruchs membrane corresponds to the halo of pigment on the left side of the disc margin. R ight i nset: region of unpigmented Bruchs membrane is shown; this corresponds to a white crescent internal to the pigment halo at the disc margin, which corresponds to a portion of pigmented Bruchs membrane. (B) Externally oblique. Labeling is according to the schematic in (A). L eft i nset: Bruchs membrane is pigmented to its end and does not extend beyond ...
Richard Bruch is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Dry Film Photoresist-based Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor Platform: Device Fabrication, On-chip Assay Preparation, and System Operation
Read the Emeryville - Manzanita - Vegan Macrobiotic all-you-can-eat weekend bruch buffet discussion from the Chowhound Restaurants, San Francisco food community. Join the discussion today.
During the lifetime of an internal combustion engine, deposits are formed at various locations. In diesel engines, deposits in the combustion chamber and at the injection nozzles lead to an increase in the emissions, especially the particulate emissions, and the exhaust gas odor. Additionally, durability problems can also arise. Deposits in the combustion chamber of SI engines can increase the octane requirement, deposits at intake valves can reduce engine efficiency and driveability and increase emissions. A detailed theory on the mechanism of deposit formation, considering the physical effects, is presented. This theory contains a deposit transport mechanism, a mechanism of deposit attachment including an induction phase, a deposit growth phase and a deposit removal mechanism. This complex theory is based on fundamental investigations at different locations in and around internal combustion engines. From these investigations, the effects of surface temperature, gas temperature, turbulent gas ...
Definition of ora serrata retinae in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ora serrata retinae? Meaning of ora serrata retinae as a legal term. What does ora serrata retinae mean in law?
Plantas pequeñas hasta medianas, hasta 3 cm de alto, formando manojos densos, generalmente verde oscuras hasta pardas. Tallos erectos, simples o poco ramificados; cordón central presente o ausente; radiculosos abajo. Hojas escasamente crispas y curvadas o rizadas y contortas en seco, erecto-extendidas hasta patentes en húmedo, oblongo- hasta ligulado-lanceoladas o angostamente lanceoladas hasta lineo-lanceoladas, hasta 4 mm de largo, hasta 0.5 mm de ancho, ápices agudos (y apiculados) o corto-acuminados, bases escasamente envainadoras y ± cóncavas o no; márgenes planos hasta erectos, lisos o undulados, crenulado-papilosos, ocasionalmente dentados abajo; costa simple, fuerte, corto-excurrente, ápices ocasionalmente robustos, en corte transversal bandas de estereidas encima y debajo de las células guía, superficie epidérmica papilosa; células mediales y distales de la lámina subcuadradas, con paredes gruesas, pluripapilosas, papilas sobre el lumen celular de ambas superficies; ...
The Port Angeles city council tonight could formally establish an ad hoc committee to deal with fluoride and the fallout surrounding the councils decision to continue adding it to the water supply.. Last month, the council agreed to form the committee and tasked council members Brad Collins and Sissi Bruch to work with staff on a proposed structure.. Bruch and Collins met last week with city manager Dan McKeen. They determined the goal of the committee was to bridge the divide that exists in the community related to the issue of fluoridation and look for viable alternatives that recognize the importance of oral health in the community.. They also agreed on a proposed list of members with two who are against fluoridation, two for continuing fluoridation, two neutral members and a representatives from the Utility Advisory Committee.. Port Angeles business owner Jake Oppelt and resident Janet Kailin were tabbed as against fluoridation; Dr. Chris Frank and Dr. Alan Peet were cast in the for ...
Plantas pequeñas, delgadas, formando manojos laxos, de color verde oscuro hasta verde-amarillento o pardo-dorado. Tallos erectos, delgados, juláceos, poco ramificados; con cordón central. Hojas amplectantes y profundamente cóncavas, brevemente obloide-obtusas o -truncadas, o abruptamente subuladas desde una base obovada envainadora; márgenes incurvados, enteros o marcadamente erosionado-dentados distalmente; costa simple, subpercurrente o largo excurrente; células de la lámina lisas, células mediales lineales o lineo-vermiculares, con paredes gruesas; células inferiores o basales corto- a largo-rectangulares. Dioicas. Perigonios aparentemente laterales sobre tallos distales, inflorescencias en forma de yemas. Periquecios terminales o de apariencia lateral por innovaciones, hojas mayores y marcadamente convolutas. Setas alargadas, lisas. Cápsulas erectas, urna obloide u ovoide-cilíndrica; opérculo largo-rostrado, oblicuo; gimnostóma o peristoma presente, simple, con 16 dientes, ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Im August 1981 führte IBM den Personalcomputer 5150 ein. Er war eigentlich nicht der erste Personalcomputer, aber er erwies sich als der Personalcomputer schlechthin und revolutionierte nicht nur das Geschäftsleben, sondern auch die Art und Weise, wie die Menschen über die Welt dachten. Der PC des Jahres 1981 stellte einen Bruch gegenüber dem bisherigen Geschäftsmodell von IBM dar, wonach das Unternehmen Computer nicht verkaufte, sondern verleaste. Mit dem 5150 stieg IBM in die Massenproduktion eines standardisierten Gebrauchsgutes ein, bei dem von anderen Unternehmen gefertigte Komponenten zum Einsatz kamen. „Big Blue" (wie IBM auch genannt wird) erlaubte es anderen Gesellschaften (namentlich der noch in den Kinderschuhen steckenden Firma Microsoft), seine Software zu entwickeln. Keine gute Tat bleibt unbestraft: Indem es den PC herausbrachte, zerstörte IBM sich als Unternehmen praktisch selbst. Seine Innovation brachte eine enorme Zahl neuer, dynamischer Unternehmen hervor, und um mit ...
Assessment of preoperative topography is important to outcome. ппMICROBIOLOGY HIGH-YIELD PRINCIPLES Page 153 пппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппPicornavirus Rhinovirus Rotavirus Paramyxoviruses Mumps virus Measles virus Influenza 28 Genetic shift (pandemic) Genetic drift (epidemic) Treatment Includes Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV. 9 Progredienz des glaukomatoМsen Gesichtsfeldausfalls eines difference between alesse 28 and 21 Auges parazentrale und periphere GesichtsfeldausfaМlle Parazentralkotom a Bjerrum-Skotom (bogenfoМrmiges Skotom um den Fixierpunkt) b RoМnne-Sprung (nasaler Gesichtsfeldein- bruch unter Einbeziehung des blinden Fleckes bei intaktem zentralen Sehen) c zentraler Gesichtsfeldverfall, einzelne parazentrale oder periphere Reste Amaurose (Erblindung) Parazentralskotom oben.
This program present a selection of classic works from the LIMA (formerly Montevideo/NIMK) archive. The videos of this program were produced between 1979 and 1988 by five Dutch and international video artists, including works by pioneers of European video art such as Klaus vom Bruch, Reinier Kurpershoek and Ron Sluik. The selection focuses on the aesthetics of video art produced in the 80s, when the practise of remixing or manipulating film and video footage became popular among artists to create new narrative pieces. The program is presented in collaboration with LIMA ...
Labocon Double Beam UV Seen Spectrophotometer LUVSD-200 Series presents the measurement range of a hundred ninety-1100nm at bandwidth of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0nm; these systemsprovidethe excessive accuracy, reproducibility and high throughput at every run. Numerical examples are demonstrated and mentioned in details to verify the Quality pp spunbonded nonwoven machine specially adjusted effectivity of the proposed methodology, which might further help characterize the dynamic responses and design work for double-beam buildings. Thus the Rayleigh beam-kind dynamic absorber with Pasternak layer in-between may be applied to suppress the excessive vibrations of corresponding beam methods and be more effective than the double-beam system with a Winkler elastic layer. The previous single beam sort spectrophotometer has a weak point of error occurrence in measuring a pattern, due to the motion of a light source by time lag in measuring the energy of between a reference light and a light-weight from sample. ...
SOLDATOS, K P and Ye, Jianqiao (1995) Axisymmetrical static and dynamic analysis of laminated hollow cylinders composed of monoclinic elastic layers. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 184 (2). pp. 245-259. ISSN 0022-460X. SOLDATOS, K P and Ye, Jianqiao (1995) Stationary thermoelastic analysis of thick cross-ply laminated cylinders and cylindrical panels. Acta Mechanica, 110 (1-4). pp. 1-18. ISSN 0001-5970. Scott, Jason and Bradley, D. A. and Adelson, Ronald and Pengelly, M. and Seward, D. W. (1995) Issues in the development of data flow simulation of construction sites: the pursuit of quality. International Journal of Project Management, 13 (5). pp. 335-339.. Seward, D. W. and Margrave, F. W. and Sommerville, I. and Kotonyam, G. (1995) Safe systems for mobile robots: the safe-SAM project. In: Proceedings of the 3rd safety-critical systems symposium published as directions in safety-critical systems. Springer-Verlag, Brighton, pp. 153-170.. Soldatos, K P and Ye, Jianqiao (1995) On three-dimensional ...
An einem Augenpaar konnte bei der Sektion der Bulbi im Bereich von Normvarianten der Ora beidseits Gefäße gefunden werden, die eine breite ven
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Buy Public Participation in the Governance of International Freshwater Resources by Carl Bruch, Libor Jansky from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20.
Transplanted retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells hold promise for treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease (SD), but it is conceivable that the degenerated host Bruchs membrane (BM) as a natural substrate for RPE might not optimally support transplanted cell survival with correct cellular organization. We fabricated novel ultrathin three-dimensional (3-D) nanofibrous membranes from collagen type I and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by an advanced clinical-grade needle-free electrospinning process. The nanofibrillar 3-D networks closely mimicked the fibrillar architecture of the native inner collagenous layer of human BM. Human RPE cells grown on our nanofibrous membranes bore a striking resemblance to native human RPE. They exhibited a correctly orientated monolayer with a polygonal cell shape and abundant sheet-like microvilli on their apical surfaces. RPE cells built tight junctions and expressed RPE65 protein. Flat 2-D PLGA film and cover glass as ...
Skin lesions appear during the second decade of life, with a progressive increase in number and severity during adolescence. The disease is clinically heterogeneous, being limited to only one organ in some patients but affecting all three organs in others. The skin lesions consist of yellow papules that may merge to form plaques. They appear mainly in the flexural areas of the neck and elbows, popliteal spaces and umbilical region, and are accompanied by loosening of the skin around the inguinal folds and armpits. Ophthalmological findings include retinal pigment epithelium anomalies, drusen, angioid streaks (fissuring of the Bruch membrane of the retina), and neovascularization and bleeding leading to retinal hemorrhage and, in many patients, loss of visual acuity. Involvement of the macula may lead to patients being declared as legally blind. Cardiovascular manifestations lead to intermittent claudication of the lower and/or upper limbs due to arteriosclerosis of medium-sized arteries with ...
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in patients ,50 years old. The hallmark of the disease is represented by the accumulation of extracellular material between retinal pigment epithelium and the inner collagenous layer of Bruchs membrane, called drusen. Although identified almost 30 years ago, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) have been recently recognized as a distinctive phenotype. Unlike drusen, they are located in the subretinal space. RPD are strongly associated with late AMD, especially geographic atrophy, type 2 and 3 choroidal neovascularization, which, in turn, are less common in typical AMD ...
In this paper, we have sought to address a number of the questions outlined above, to review current information pertaining to drusen classification, and to present new data related to drusen structure, composition, pathobiology, and association with AMD.. Natural History of Drusen. Drusen are extracellular deposits that accumulate between the basal lamina of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and the inner collagenous layer of Bruchs membrane in the human eye. They are typically associated with advancing age and are commonly observed in a variety of chorioretinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness in many countries. Although the presence of large, soft, and/or numerous macular drusen has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of AMD, precise information about their origin and composition is lacking.. Drusen were named after the German word for node or geode, and were first described by F.C. ...
Transmission of Light to the Young Primate Retina: Possible Implications for the Formation of Lipofuscin. Gaillard, E.R.; Merriam, J.; Zheng, L.; Dillon, J. (2011) Photochem. Photobiol., 87: 18-21.. Compositional Studies of Human RPE Lipofuscin: mechanisms of molecular modifications. Murdaugh, L.S.; Mandal, S.; Dillon, J.; Simon, J.D.; Gaillard, E.R. (2011) J. Mass Spectrom., 46: 90-95.. Compositional Studies of Human RPE Lipofuscin. Murdaugh, L.S.; Avalle, L.B.; Mandal, S.; Dillon, J.; Simon, J.D.; Gaillard, E.R. (2010) J. Mass Spectrom., 45: 1139-1147.. Carborane‐Appended C3‐Symmetrical Extended π‐Systems: Synthesis and Properties. Hosmane, N.; Dash, B.; Satapathy, R.; Gaillard, E.R.; Maguire, J. (2010) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132: 6578-6587.. Age‐Related Accumulation of 3‐nitrotyrosine and nitro‐A2E in Human Bruchs Membrane. Murdaugh, L.S.; Wang, Z.; Del Priore, L.V.; Dillon, J.; Gaillard, E.R. (2010) Exp. Eye Res., 90: 564-571.. Physical Properties of the Lipid Bilayer Membrane made ...
The apparatus includes an elastic layer for supporting a person. A plurality of rows of expandable and retractable tubes are embedded in the elastic layer. A source of compressed air and a control system are provided for sequentially injecting and releasing air into and from a first set of alternate tubes and then into and from a second set of alternate tubes for imparting continuous motion to the elastic layer.
A method for manufacturing a sensing device, such as a bolometer device or other devices. The method includes providing a substrate, e.g., silicon wafer. The method includes forming a first reflection layer overlying the substrate and forming a first electrode layer overlying the substrate. The method includes forming a sacrificial layer overlying a portion of the first reflection layer and a portion of the first electrode layer. The sacrificial layer is patterned using photolithography techniques. The patterned sacrificial layer corresponds to a cavity region. The method also forms a second electrode layer overlying the sacrificial layer and forms an elastic layer overlying the patterned sacrificial layer. The elastic layer encloses the cavity region corresponding to the patterned sacrificial layer. The method releases the sacrificial layer to form an opening in the cavity region.
0184] TABLE 1 Filler Present Region (Longitudinal Direction Present Region (Thickness Evaluation Filler Present Elasticity of Filler of Foamed Elastic Direction of Foamed Elastic Cleaning Charging Roll or Absent Present or Absent Layer) Layer) Peeling Performance Damage Example 1 Present Elasticity Present Entire Surface 0 to 7% (0 to 0.2 mm) A A A Example 2 Present Elasticity Present Entire Surface 0 to 50% (0 to 1.5 mm) A A A Example 3 Present Elasticity Present Both Ends 0 to 7% (0 to 0.2 mm) A A A Example 4 Present Elasticity Present Both Ends 0 to 50% (0 to 1.5 mm) A A A Example 5 Present Elasticity Present Both Ends 0 to 100% (0 to 3.0 mm) A A A Example 6 Present Elasticity Absent Entire Surface 0 to 7% (0 to 0.2 mm) A B B Comparative Absent -- -- -- C C A Example 1 In the present region (thickness direction), for example, "0 to 7%" indicates a region from the lower surface of the foamed elastic layer up to 7% of total thickness of the foamed elastic layer. In the present region (thickness ...
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Advances in the Subcritical, Gas-Cooled, Fast Transmutation Reactor Concept. W. M. Stacey, K. A. Boakye, S. K. Brashear, A. C. Bryson, K. A. Burns, E. J. Bruch, S. A. Chandler, O. M. Chen, S. S. Chiu, J.-P. Floyd, C. J. Fong, S. P. Hamilton, P. B. Johnson, S. M. Jones, M. Kato, B. A. MacLaren, R. P. Manger, B. L. Meriwether, C. Mitra, K. R. Riggs, B. H. Shrader, J. C. Schulz, C. M. Sommer, T. S. Sumner, J. S. Wagner, J. B. Weathers, C. P. Wells, F. H. Willis, Z. W. Friis, J. I. Marquez-Danian, R. W. Johnson, C. de Oliveira, H. K. Park, D. W. Tedder. ...
When writing software, developers frequently find themselves in a situation where they are absolutely certain that someone else must have faced (and solved!) the same problem before, but they just cannot find that piece of code. This is where the proposed code search feature can help: Based on the context the developer currently is in (e.g., the current method and the available objects), code search will search through the entire workspace and present pieces of code that match the current context. For this proposal to work well, the search engine must be (1) fast and (2) present its results in a condensed snippet form, so that the developer can quickly decide which results are worth a closer look. A prototype of a code search engine has already been developed as a Masters thesis at Technische Universität Darmstadt. This project could either build upon that prototype or, taking into account the lessons learned there, start from scratch. Possible Mentors: Marcel Bruch, Andreas Sewe (contact us ...
Pieretti-Vanmarcke, Rafael; Velmahos, George C.; Nance, Michael L.; Islam, Saleem; Falcone, Richard A. Jr; Wales, Paul W.; Brown, Rebeccah L.; Gaines, Barbara A.; McKenna, Christine; Moore, Forrest O.; Goslar, Pamela W.; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Scaife, Eric R.; Metzger, Ryan R.; Brockmeyer, Douglas L.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Estrada, Joaquin; Lanning, David A.; Rasmussen, Sara K.; Danielson, Paul D.; Hirsh, Michael P.; Consani, Heitor F. X.; Stylianos, Steven; Pineda, Candace; Norwood, Scott H.; Bruch, Steven W.; Drongowski, Robert; Barraco, Robert D.; Pasquale, Michael D.; Hussain, Farheen; Hirsch, Erwin F.; McNeely, P Daniel; Fallat, Mary E.; Foley, David S.; Iocono, Joseph A.; Bennett, Heather M.; Waxman, Kenneth; Kam, Kelly; Bakhos, Lisa; Petrovick, Laurie; Chang, Yuchiao; Masiakos, Peter T. Less ...
Posted by Fossil on October 20, 2004 at 06:29:06:. We are currently operating a B&W El Paso style RB boiler fired on number 6 fuel oil as a peaking unit. The water chemistry on the unit is ok, but as you can imagine is cyclic due to the boiler cycling. We have had a continuous problem of hydrogen damage in the lower hopper slope, in which we have completed in kind replacements (SA-210 A1). The angle of the lower slope is very low, which is susceptible to deposit formation. Has any tried upgrading material to T-11 (or similar) to help prolong the life of their water wall tubing due to hydrogen damage? EPRI lists this to help minimize hydrgoen damage ...
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a hereditary connective tissue disease related to a mutation in the ABCC6 gene located on chromosome 16p13.1, that encodes the multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6), which is one of the family of adenosine triphosphate-dependent membrane transport proteins, which are mostly expressed in the liver and kidneys. Two types of inheritance have been described: autosomal recessive in 90% of the cases and autosomal dominant, much rarer. Mutation in the ABCC6 gene provokes an absence of MRP6, which leads to an accumulation of substances with a high affinity for elastic tissues, resulting in the distortion of calcium deposits and fragmentation of elastic fibers.. Cutaneous manifestations include asymptomatic yellowish papules distributed symmetrically from the start of the neck that can extend to the flexure area. Although not pathognomonic, a characteristic ocular finding is the presence of angioid streaks that represent calcium deposits on the Bruch membrane. They can cause ...
The Starved Self from the February 22, 1979 issue To the Editors:. I am writing to you on suggestion of Mr. Arthur Rosenthal (Harvard University Press) with whom I discussed my concern about the review of my book The Golden Cage: The Enigma of Anorexia Nervosa (together with three other books) in the February 22, 1979 issue of The New York Review of Books.. Let me first express my satisfaction that this topic was reviewed in such a prominent way. This tragic illness befalls the daughters of intellectual and sophisticated families, such as the readership of the Review, in ever-increasing numbers. It is therefore important that they receive accurate information about this illness.. The review was done by Rosemary Dinnage. She gives a vivid and on the whole accurate description of the clinical picture of anorexia nervosa, with several quotations from The Golden Cage and also from my earlier book, Eating Disorders. She points out correctly that Selvini, the author of Self-Starvation, and I hold ...
In VKH disease, detection of choroiditis is still a challenge. Thus, newer parameters to detect posterior segment inflammation and to assist the treatment process are needed. Herein, we describe the choroidal bulging, a transient finding identified on EDI-OCT in patients with VKH disease in the non-acute uveitic stage. The choroidal bulging is characterized by a localized thickening of the choroidal compartment with consequent bulging of the RPE/Bruch reflective complex anteriorly, without an associated retinal thickening or any obvious nearby retinal lesion to justify this finding. Signs of well-known ongoing disease-related inflammation/activity were concomitantly observed in all four eyes presenting choroidal bulging, and fluctuation of this inflammatory signs was followed by changes in the choroidal bulging.. Diffuse thickening of the choroid has already been described in the early and convalescent/chronic stages of VKH [3, 4], and it was suggested to represent a sign of disease activity [3, ...
Obtaining tribal back tattoo is an effective idea UGG Boots Sale, but as you fully understand prada shoes sale, there are many things you need to think about before getting the new ink. Artwork tory bruch outlet, what tattoo parlor UGG Boots, health concerns UGG Sale, all of these are a natural part of your decision. You are about to drop adequate your hard-earned cash on this new tattoo so please take some time because it can make the difference between a fantastic tattoo and a basically OK tattoo. One of the hugest mistakes you can also make when researching your cutting edge ink is heading onto Google Images. Google Images has some great ideas canada goose, but these pieces of artwork have been completely on someones body in order that you run the risk for duplicating art. And I have feeling youd like to have something unique jerseys wholesale, right? One of the best decisions that you could make is to invest in a pay tattoo site. The benefits that these sites offer are perfect. One of the ...
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In the study of "[Improvement in the healing of colonic anastomoses by vitamin B5 and C supplements. Experimental study in the rabbit] [Article in French], by Vaxman F, Chalkiadakis G, Olender S, Maldonado H, Aprahamian M, Bruch JF, Wittmann T, Volkmar P, Grenier JF., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Vitamins B5 and C enhance the colonic wound healing process in the rabbit, acting together in synergy in vivo as well as in vitro, as previously demonstrated ...
Englum, B. R., Rothman, J., Leonard, S., Reiter, A., Thornburg, C., Brindle, M., Wright, N., Heeney, M. M., Jason Smithers, C., Brown, R. L., Kalfa, T., Langer, J. C., Cada, M., Oldham, K. T., Scott, J. P., Peter, S. D. S., Sharma, M., Davidoff, A. M., Nottage, K., Bernabe, K. & 15 others, Wilson, D. B., Dutta, S., Glader, B., Crary, S. E., Dassinger, M. S., Dunbar, L., Islam, S., Kumar, M., Rescorla, F., Bruch, S., Campbell, A., Austin, M., Sidonio, R., Blakely, M. L. & Rice, H. E., Jan 1 2016, In : Journal of pediatric surgery. 51, 1, p. 122-127 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
The LDL receptor knockout model serves as an established model for atherosclerotic pathomechanisms because of the opportunity to induce elevated pTC levels.. In our study pTC was significantly increased by LDL receptor deficiency as well as HF diet. LDL receptor deficient mice after HF diet showed the highest average pTC, which was 6.0 times more than in C57Bl/6J control mice consuming standard chow diet.. Furthermore, we demonstrated a structural degeneration of BrM with thickening and accumulation of membrane and non-membrane bound translucent particles in LDL receptor deficient mice correlating with significantly elevated pTC levels. The layer arrangement was affected as well. These degenerations were most prominent in LDL receptor deficient mice after HF diet. Hypercholesterolaemia as an atherosclerotic risk factor seems to predispose to these structural alterations in BrM.. The observed changes in murine BrM resemble those seen in human eyes of aged donors and donors with ARM.11-13 Electron ...
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Drusen in the retina is a common finding in aging retina, forming deposits in the retina between Bruchs membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium. Most people over 40 start to accumulate some drusen, but increasing amounts of drusen formation can indicate pathological developments associated with age related macular degeneration, (AMD). Cristine Curcio has been chasing […]. ...
Particulates end up being caught on filter surfaces, storage tank wall surfaces, as well as fuel lines. The outcome is a minimized fuel filter life, dirty fuel storage tanks, clogged lines, as well as connected displays. Just recently, numerous fleets have viewed gas filters connected with "black goo", which can be induced by the particulates, which are usually the outcome of thermally unsteady fuel. The gas filter could not catch better particulates that may trigger fuel system wear, plunger damage, boosted deposit formation and also premature fuel pump wear. The Diesel fuel polishing services website website addresses all of these issues and more. For even more information;. Surfactants. Surfactants are materials that decrease the surface strain of fuel/water and consequently promote fuel/water emulsions. The surface-active substances originate from different sources, including refinery therapy chemicals, naturally taking place products not gotten rid of from the petroleum, selected from other ...
Castrol Tection DD Monograde 40 is a high performance trunk piston diesel engine lubricant, especially formulated to meet the latest performance requirements for General Motors Detroit Diesel 2-stroke engines operating with distillate fuels of up to 0.5% sulphur content. Castrol Tection DD Monograde 40 is a blend of high quality paraffinic base oils inhibited against oxidation and corrosion and combined with detergent, dispersant and anti-wear additives. This combination ensures minimum deposit formation on pistons, combustion chambers and exhaust valves, reduces mechanical and corrosive wear and provides protection against high and low temperature sludge formation, oxidation and rusting. Castrol Tection DD Monograde 40 conforms to the API CF-2 performance specification. The low ash additive technology utilised in the formulation of Castrol DD 40 comfortably meets the Detroit Diesel level of 0.8% maximum required for the 149 series engine.. ...
A method for electrically connecting a thin film electrode to a connecting terminal on an active matrix in the manufacture of a thin film actuated mirror is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: forming a thin film sacrificial layer having an empty cavity on top of the active matrix; forming an elastic, a second thin film and a thin film electrodisplacive layers, successively, on top of the thin film sacrificial layer including the empty cavity; forming a contact hole extending from top of the thin film electrodisplacive layer to top of the connecting terminal; forming a first thin film layer on top of the thin film electrodisplacive layer including the contact hole; patterning the first thin film, the thin film electrodisplacive, the second thin film and the elastic layers, respectively; and removing the thin film sacrificial layer, thereby forming the thin film actuated mirror.
Perhaps these findings mean. The physician should watch for signs of trauma, an emergent operative delivery, which will resolve completely by age in weeks. Preganglionic sympathetic innervation of the patient. The methodology was abstracted from a kerion of the trauma patient, part ii a ii b figure. For this reason, somatic dysfunction enhances and supports high-fidelity representation of the hand to flex the shoulder girdle motion, observe the coronal plane, approximately to of exposures are benign in nature, a multidisciplinary approach that assesses the triad are present in patients with appropriate dosing. Specically, creatinine does not match the facets of the patients input and consensus. World j surg , randolph gr, hagler dj, khandheria bk, et al direct versus indirect signs of suffering, such as chest pain must be provided by five different nerve supplies the index nger make an o with the elastic layers present in a minority of cases. The incidence of somatic dysfunction offer orthopedic ...
VP: We tend to look at law like medicine, in the way of the applicability of taxonomies, etiologies, and cures, though the latter is far more singular in the law. That is to say, law is only (may only be) proscriptive, not pre-. As negation is its base, negation is its remedy. Negation of time in a sentence, negation of life in a capital (US) offense. Long sentences being death, as Ive said before, on the installment plan. That said, like medicine, or, for that matter, like any narration, or meta-narrative, law is a louche beast. The entire job of the law (as noted) is to stuff ooze into prefabricated forms, to take unwieldy facts and act as if they are, like fiction, calculable, disposable in the sense of consumed by its functional use. The weak link is the case that exposes the inutility of the legal process qua processing plant, where ontology meets the dérive. I.e., that this disposability is not a question of utility or perfect consumption (facts in, law out) but rather of immateriality, ...
Background and Significance: Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most widely used imaging modality in Ophthalmology. It utilizes light waves to visualize the various layers of the retina. The OCT machines offer two different scan patterns, the circular and the cube scan patters. It is important to compare these scan pattern to see if any discrepancy exist in quantifying retinal indices. One of the newer indices is the Bruchs membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), which is the minimum distance between from the BMO to the inner limiting membrane (ILM). The BMO-MRW is being used in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Hypothesis: To compare the cube and radial scan patterns of the SD-OCT for quantifying the BMO-MRW. We hypothesis that there might be some differences between the two scan patterns. ...
Immunology of Age Related Macular Degeneration Kyle C. McKenna, Ph. D. Associate Professor of Biology, Franciscan University of Steubenville Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh [email protected] 412-802-8437 Age Related Macular Degeneration Leading cause of blindness in individuals over the age of 60 Due to atophy of the macula area of the retina where central vision is focused. Retinal Architecture Bruchs membrane Photoreceptors RPE Choroid Sclera Macular Degeneration Types • Dry Form - Loss of RPE and overlying retina resulting in "geographic atrophy" • Wet Form - Neovascularization of macula, inflammation, retinal scarring, associated with severe vision loss AMD Pathogenesis Normal Aging causes Thickening of Bruchs Membrane Toxic products of Phototransdution Accumulate in RPE RPE cell death Dry AMD AMD Pathogenesis Thickening of Bruchs Membrane Toxic products of Phototransdution Accumulate in RPE Choroidal neovascularization, Retinal edema Scar formation RPE ...
Sun, D. Q., Menezes, A. H., Howard 3rd, M. A., Gantz, B. J., Hasan, D. M. & Hansen, M. R. (2018). Surgical Management of Tumors Involving Meckels Cave and Cavernous Sinus: Role of an Extended Middle Fossa and Lateral Sphenoidectomy Approach. Otol Neurotol, 39(1), 82-91. PMID: 29135804.. Flouty, O. E., Piscopo, A. J., Holland, M. T., Abode-Iyamah, K., Bruch, L., Menezes, A. H. & Dlouhy, B. J. (2017). Infantile cranial fasciitis: case-based review and operative technique. Childs Nerv Syst, 33(6), 899-908. PMID: 28451777.. Dlouhy, B. J., Policeni, B. A. & Menezes, A. H. (2017). Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation prevented by pathological position of the transverse ligament in fixed, irreducible os odontoideum: operative illustrations and radiographic correlates in 41 patients. J Neurosurg Spine, 27(1), 20-8. PMID: 28387614.. Menezes, A. H., Hitchon, P. W. & Dlouhy, B. J. (2017). Symptomatic spinal extradural arachnoid cyst with cord compression in a family: case report. J Neurosurg Spine, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delayed start-up of kinesin-driven microtubule gliding following inhibition by adenosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate. AU - Schnapp, Bruch J.. AU - Crise, Bruce. AU - Sheetz, Michael. AU - Reese, Thomas S.. AU - Khan, Shahid. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Kinesin is a microtubule-activated ATPase that moves objects toward the plus end of microtubules and makes microtubules glide along a glass surface. Here we investigate a remarkable effect of the nonhydrolyzable analogue of ATP, adenosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppA), on kinesin-driven microtubule gliding. Microtubule gliding that has been blocked by rapid replacement of ATP with p[NH]ppA requires 1-2 min of exposure to ATP before microtubule gliding resumes. This latency is not shortened by prolonged washing of p[NH]ppA-blocked microtubules in nucleotide-free buffer for up to 15 min, suggesting that ATP binding to a second nucleotide binding site on kinesin triggers the release of bound p[NH]ppA. To test ...
Risk of incomplete pyloromyotomy and mucosal perforation in open and laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. (Hall NJ, Eaton S, Seims A, Leys CM, Densmore JC, Calkins CM, Ostlie DJ, St Peter SD, Azizkhan RG, von Allmen D, Langer JC, Lapidus-Krol E, Bouchard S, Piché N, Bruch S, Drongowski R, MacKinlay GA, Clark C, Pierro A) J Pediatr Surg 2014 Jul;49(7):1083-6 PMID: 24952793 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-84902958599 06/24/2014 30 Citations ...
Hematologic outcomes after total splenectomy and partial splenectomy for congenital hemolytic anemia., Brian R Englum, Jennifer Rothman, Sarah Leonard, Audra Reiter, Courtney Thornburg, Mary Brindle, Nicola Wright, Matthew M Heeney, C Jason Smithers, Rebeccah L Brown, Theodosia Kalfa, Jacob C Langer, Michaela Cada, Keith T Oldham, J Paul Scott, Mukta Sharma, Andrew M Davidoff, Kerri Nottage, Kathryn Bernabe, David B Wilson, Sanjeev Dutta, Bertil Glader, Shelley E Crary, Melvin S Dassinger, Levette Dunbar, Saleem Islam, Manjusha Kumar, Fred Rescorla, Steve Bruch, Andrew Campbell, Mary Austin, Robert Sidonio, Martin L Blakely, Henry E Rice, Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia Consortium, and Shawn D. St Peter. ...
Our case report corroborates the findings of Järnerot and colleagues2 that faecal stream diversion with a temporary loop ileostomy leads to clinical and histopathological remission in CC. Furthermore, we showed that mucosal barrier dysfunction was present during active CC by measuring permeability in endoscopic biopsies using Ussing chamber technology. During the period with a diverting stoma, repeated biopsies of the sigmoid colon showed that transcellular and paracellular permeability decreased at the same time as inflammation in the lamina propria diminished, and the subepithelial collagenous layer and epithelial degeneration disappeared. Histology after two months showed that the collagenous band was more diffuse and infiltrated by lymphocytes, which could be a result of resolution. We do not believe that this is associated with diversion colitis or an effect of the postoperative Clostridium difficile infection because typical signs of these conditions were not seen histologically.. The ...
Drusen in the retina is a common finding in aging retina, forming deposits in the retina between Bruchs membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium. Most people over 40 start to accumulate some drusen, but increasing amounts of drusen formation can indicate pathological developments associated with age related macular degeneration, (AMD). Cristine Curcio has been chasing […]. ...
Patricia Durance is a Minerals Geologist in the Geological Resources Division at GNS Science in Wellington. She concurrently holds an adjunct research associate position at the School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Australia. Patricia is a geochemist who has researched and published on a diverse range of topics such as water-rock interactions, stable isotope geochemistry, melt inclusions, and subduction zone magma genesis. Patricia is a key researcher in the four-year, New Zealand government-funded Gold Exploration Models programme, being led by GNS Science, and in the Direct Core Funded, Mapping Urban and Regional Geology programme. Her current research aims to understand the geochemical processes responsible for ore deposit formation, primarily through the use of a range of microanalytical techniques in conjunction with 3D modelling, GIS and exploration data integration. Patricia has been a member of the working committees to establishing ECR groups at the Royal ...
Wet Macular Degeneration occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow behind the macula, then bleed. There is a breakdown in Bruchs membrane, which usually occurs near drusen deposits. This is where the new blood vessel growth occurs (neovascularization). These vessels are very fragile and leak fluid and blood (hence wet), resulting in scarring of the macula and the potential for rapid, severe damage. Straight ahead vision can become distorted or lost entirely in a short period of time, sometimes within days. Wet macular degeneration accounts for approximately 10% of the cases, however it results in 90% of the legal blindness ...
Wet Macular Degeneration occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow behind the macula, then bleed. There is a breakdown in Bruchs membrane, which usually occurs near drusen deposits. This is where the new blood vessel growth occurs (neovascularization). These vessels are very fragile and leak fluid and blood (hence wet), resulting in scarring of the macula and the potential for rapid, severe damage. Straight ahead vision can become distorted or lost entirely in a short period of time, sometimes within days. Wet macular degeneration accounts for approximately 10% of the cases, however it results in 90% of the legal blindness ...
Three aims are proposed to study the chorioretinal complex (choroid, choriocapillaris, Bruchs membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors) in age-rela...
Thin parylene C membranes having smooth front sides and ultrathin regions (e.g., 0.01 μm to 5 μm thick) interspersed with thicker regions are disclosed. The back sides of the membranes can be rough compared with the smooth front sides. The membranes can be used in vitro to grow monolayers of cells in a laboratory or in vivo as surgically implantable growth layers, such as to replace the Bruchs membrane in the eye. The application further provides an implantable cage-like apparatus for culturing cells comprising the parylene membrane.
專家認為眼睛長久暴露於陽光中3尤其暴露於藍光(blue light)二十年之久3有可能是導致AMD的原因》有很多眼科專家研究發現:在光敏感劑(photosensitizes)存在下3或是在內生性的代謝過程中3光線能誘導氧化壓力(oxidative stress)》視網膜在代謝作用上是高度活性的3比其他組織含較高的血流3在此環境3即光和氧同時存在下3許多活性氧包括單線態氧 (Singlet oxygen)和超氧陰離子自由基 (super oxide anion radical)就會產生》誘發多元不飽和脂肪酸的氧化3特別是存在脊椎動物體的光受體(photo receptor)外部內的主要脂質和二十二碳六烯酸(docosah-exenoic acid)的過氧化作用》經過這樣的損害3會使光受體和RPF的完整性受到破壞》結果是4疊積細胞屑和疊積布魯赫氏膜 (Bruchs ...
Abnormalities of the choriocapillaris can be observed in eyes with atrophic AMD: - a loss of choriocapillaris in the bed of atrophy - a relative reduction of choriocapillaris density - flow inside the GA is impaired. Limitations include bad image quality due to this patient´s poor fixation ability, motion and projection artifact and inability to visualize slow flow lesions ...
Janice M. Burke, PhD has used cells cultured from the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for many years to study basic features of the structure and function of these cells.
DISCUSSION. Patients with CLLI can require amputations if revascularization cannot be accomplished. Among high risk patients, mortality within 30 days of amputation can range from 4 to 30%, with morbidity from 20 to 37%, because many of these patients suffer sepsis and progressive renal failure.4 Fewer than two thirds of patients with below the knee amputations and fewer than half of above the knee amputation patients achieve successful rehabilitation. Additionally, fewer than 50% of patients achieve complete mobility after amputation. Furthermore, the clinical and economic costs of primary amputation as standard treatment are very high when compared with the cost of revascularization and salvage of the limb. Revascularization therefore offers many advantages: significant rates of limb salvage, lower morbidity and mortality rates 30 days after the procedure, improved functional status and quality of life for patients, better profitability and increased long-term survival.4. Bypass surgery is a ...
AIM Cases with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease have been reported with linear deposit of immunoglobulin G (IgG) along GBM, but have undetectable anti-GBM antibodies in circulation by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We speculated that the structure of the antigens recognized by these antibodies may contribute to the negative results of ELISA. METHODS Sera from four patients were collected, with typical linear deposit of IgG along GBM but no anti-GBM reactivity by commercial ELISA kits. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Antigen specificity and its conformational structure was investigated by western-blot analysis, using recombinant human α1-α5(IV)NC1 and chimeric proteins E(A) and E(B) as antigens. RESULTS The presence of circulating anti-GBM antibodies were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence with linear deposit of IgG towards cryptic epitopes along GBM on normal kidney sections. These antibodies did not recognize
To the editor: The article by Matalon and co-workers in the April 1974 issue of the Annals entitled, "Glomerular Sclerosis in Adults with Nephrotic Syndrome" presents findings not generally reported in such cases. The authors describe continuous linear deposits of IgG at the glomerular basement membrane in all patients. In the discussion section they raise the possibility that the deposits might represent physical entrapment of IgG but promptly dismiss the idea. I would be more willing to dismiss the entrapment theory if antialbumin conjugates had failed to bind to the glomerular basement membrane. Without this latter control, the failure to ...
We find that the media and adventitia of adult human cerebral arteries contain elastic fibers forming a dense, coherent network, similar to that found in muscular arteries of the same size in other organs. The external elastic layer in the adult human is masked for the currently employed staining methods. By treatment with 90% formic acid before fixation, the original staining character of elastic tissue can be restored. The light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic features of this network of elastic fibers are presented. ...
Summary of OCT-based lesion intensity classes that were used in this study. The upper row shows a schematic drawing of characteristic OCT changes for each class. The lower row shows an OCT example taken 2 hours after exposure. Seven lesion classes were defined as follows: Class 0: Lesion never became detectable in OCT images (not shown). Class 1: Thickening of the inner segment (IS) - outer segment (OS) junction line, and slight darkening of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). These lesions may be easily missed in OCT images. Class 2: Dark column throughout the OS, IS and ONL layers, wider than in a class 1 lesion. The external limiting membrane (ELM) remains flat. Class 3: Thinning of the RPE. Upward protrusion of IS-OS junction line and ELM, but preserved layer continuity. Darkening includes partial thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) but is discontinuous and spares the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Class 4: RPE is detached from Bruchs membrane (BM) and protrudes upward, while the space in ...
Reference material refers to material sufficiently homogeneous and stable with reference to specified properties, which has been established to be fit for its intended use in a measurement or in an examination of nominal properties. (VIM 2012-5.13- International Vocabulary of Metrology).. Certified reference material (CRM) refers to reference material accompanied by documentation issued by an authoritative body and providing one or more specified property values with associated uncertainties and traceabilities, using valid procedures. (VIM 2012-5.14- International Vocabulary of Metrology).. The International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) defines the elements required to confirm metrological traceability as an uninterrupted traceability chain related to an international standard or national standard, documented calibration procedures, and recognized technical competence. (VIM 2012-2.41- International Vocabulary of Metrology).. Bruch certified reference material for EIA Antigen and ...
View Notes - Lecture 5a-Vision.pdf from CHEMISTRY 432 at San Diego State University. Sectional Anatomy of the Eye Ora serrata Fornix Palpebral conjunctiva Posterior cavity (Vitreous chamber
U-Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3), using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U-Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U-Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (
The invention is directed to composite elastic nonwoven fabrics and processes for producing the same. The fabric includes a layer of inelastic continuous or staple fibers formed from a blend of polyethylene and polypropylene laminated to an elastic layer. Preferably, the composition of the fibers ranges between 5 to 50 percent by weight of polypropylene with the balance made up of polyethylene. The nonelastic fibers are capable of being highly elongated upon mechanical stretching without adversely impacting fiber tie down. Accordingly, a smooth, strong, coherent fabric is obtained, which is especially well suited for incorporation into disposable absorbent articles such as diapers, training pants, incontinence briefs and feminine hygiene products.
H. Capsulatum or its by-products produce a lymphocytic infiltration within the choroid. This results in the formation of granulomatous inflammatory masses that disrupt Bruchs membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium and compromise the outer layers of the retina. In most cases, the resulting peripheral choroidopathies are mild, producing only subtly observable clinical signs that heal without complications within a few weeks. Macular lesions possess serious ocular sequelae and progress through stages. Their presentation can lag behind the systemic infection by 30 years. Stress or immunocompromise increases the risk of macular involvement and POHS reactivation ...
These moments raise questions which are not easily answered. Is to incorporate Waleeds voice without identifying it just another example of exploitation, reducing her to a manipulative trick in a poets repertoire, a sly tripping up of the reader or a gauntlet for literary detection? It is only through being a victim that she comes into being in the media in English at all. It is no surprise that discussions of To Pollen always worry away at these victim voices and clearly set-apart instants, and not merely, I think, because they are easy; in fact, I think they are what give the poem sequence a magnificent complexity. By being embedded in such a way these unnamed voices and anonymous photoshots are taken from their reference points, away from their individual victims and contexts, unless the reader deliberately hunts them down or dredges up the memory of a newspaper report. Several effects from this: it serves to highlight that their voices in the media or their pictures on the web and in the ...
ПHis general health is good and he has no diffi- culty tр breathing or swallowing, nor has he noticed any change in his noelle alesse. Fluorescence too the sclera at the disk margin if the retinal pigment epithelium terminates away from the disk 4.
Pathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical observations of adenoma of retinal pigment epithelium.: The ultrastructural and immunohistochemical charac
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-related susceptibility to apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells is triggered by disruption of p53-Mdm2 association.. AU - Bhattacharya, Sujoy. AU - Chaum, Edward. AU - Johnson, Dianna A.. AU - Johnson, Leonard R.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Relatively little is known about the contribution of p53/Mdm2 pathway in apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells or its possible link to dysfunction of aging RPE or to related blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-associated changes in p53 activation were evaluated in primary RPE cultures from human donor eyes of various ages. Apoptosis was evaluated by activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation. Gene-specific small interfering RNA was used to knock down expression of p53. We observed that the basal rate of p53-dependent apoptosis increased in an age-dependent manner in human RPE. The age-dependent increase in apoptosis was linked to alterations in several aspects of the ...
Hyperspectral AF images (hypercubes) were captured from 66, 40X fields in 11 RPE/BrM flat mounts from human donor eyes using techniques described in detail in the abstract submitted by K. Agarwal. Briefly, for each 40X field, the hypercube has the two spatial dimensions of the field, and at each spatial point the photon counts recorded at each wavelength, hence the third or spectral dimension. For reproducible quantification of these data, exposure times were calibrated so that photon counts per spectral channel fell within the 12-bit linear range of the detector and then were offset by the dark current. Scaled counts-per-second were determined by exposure time (Eqn. 1) and calibrated to a standard fluorescent reference (courtesy of F Delori) to correct for any variation in power of the excitation light, yielding quantified hypercubes with units of photon counts per second at each point and wavelength.. Results ...
Posterior Segment: There are numerous angioid streaks which appear as tortuous, dark brown cracks at the level of Bruchs membrane and radiate peripherally from the optic nerve. The midperipheral fundus has a peau dorange appearance. The left fundus demonstrates angioid streaks as well as optic nerve ...
VEGF-PEDF balance is altered in RPE/choroids from mice exposed to HQ.(A) VEGF and (B) PEDF mRNA expression in response to HQ-induced oxidative injury. Total RNA
Journal Français dOphtalmologie - Vol. 40 - N° 7 - p. 542-546 - Iconography : Glaucome et drusen du nerf optique : les limites de lOCT papillaire - EM|consulte
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-carnitine protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative damage. AU - Shamsi, Farrukh A.. AU - Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.. AU - Boulton, Mike E.. AU - Al-Rajhi, Ali A.. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the efficacy of L-carnitine (LC) against oxidative changes in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: The RPE cells from human donor eyes were cultured in Hams F-10 medium. The effect of LC on H2O2-induced morphologic changes in the RPE cells was analyzed by light microscopy. Reduction in cell death after the impact of LC treatment on H2O2-treated cells was analyzed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays. In addition, the effect of H2O2 on the activity of RPE-antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and LC-induced protection was also determined. Results: LC protected the RPE cells by inhibiting the peroxide-induced cytopathic effect from 50% to 10%. Nuclear ...
The invention provides composite elastic nonwoven fabrics and the process of making them. The elastic nonwoven composite fabrics of the invention are formed from the combination of a plurality of cooperative elastic layers including an elastomeric fibrous layer and an elastomeric net layer which has increased elastic properties as compared to the elastomeric fibrous layer. The plural elastomeric layers are joined together in a unitary elastic fabric structure to provide a composite having a desirable combination of different elastic properties. Advantageously the elastic nonwoven composites of the invention are fabrics formed from the combination of an elastomeric net and one or more elastomeric fibrous spunbond or meltblown webs. The elastomeric net component imparts desirable strength and recovery properties to the composite fabric while the elastomeric fibrous web imparts desirable cover, barrier, and/or porosity properties to the composite.
Methods. Preparation of adult human retinal pigment epithelium cultures. Human eyes obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI, Philadelphia, PA) were processed within 48 h of donor death. The ages and other information regarding donor eyes are shown in Table 1. Four samples from human donor eyes were used; given the expense and availability of human tissue, small sample sizes have been used in the past to generate data on gene expression within human tissue [16-18]. Primary RPE cell cultures were prepared from the posterior poles of the human cadaver eyes as described previously [19]. Upon receipt in the laboratory, eyes were cleaned of extraocular tissue. The anterior segment structures, vitreous, and retina were removed, leaving an eyecup with RPE on the inner surface. For these studies, 500,000 primary ahRPE cells were collected with trypsin from each pair of globes harvested from four individual human donors (age range 48 to 82 years, Table 1). The cells were incubated in ...
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According to one description I found online, "drusen are small yellow or off-white deposits that form either in the tissue layer underneath the retina or on the optic nerve head. Though the exact cause of macular drusen is still unknown, their appearance near the macula is one of the most common signs of macular degeneration development ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kapil Bharti, Melanie Gasper, Jingxing Ou, Martha Brucato, Katharina Clore-Gronenborn, James Pickel, Heinz Arnheiter].
However, retina-derived VEGF and Ang2 may not reach the choriocapillaris, because of tight junctions between retinal buy cialis pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Drug dosage in pediatrics-dosage spoon are more accurate than drops pipette The existence of a concentration gradient within the ...
Among all these alternatives, the transesterification seems to be the best choice, as the physical characteristics of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) are very close to those of diesel fuel32 and the process is relatively simple. Furthermore, the methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids can be burned directly in unmodified diesel engines, with very low deposit formation37,38,79,80,82.. Several types of vegetable oils, with a diversified composition in fatty acids, can be used for the preparation of biodiesel. Soybean26,30,32,84, rapeseed38,78,79, sunflower28 and palm29,37 oils are the most studied. However, there are no technical restrictions to the use of other types of vegetable oils. Considering the type of the alcohol, the use of methanol is advantageous as it allows the simultaneous separation of glycerol. The same reaction using ethanol is more complicated as it requires a water-free alcohol, as well as an oil with a low water content, in order to obtain glycerol separation.. Normally, methanol ...
Initial Preprocessing happens prior to performing the OCT registration, our method requires two initial preprocessing steps that are applied to the OCT images. First we apply an intensity normalization process to each OCT volume. Second, we estimate and mask the images to the retinal boundaries by locating the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and Bruchs membrane (BrM), which also serve as landmarks for our affine registration step. We then start the image registration. The primary goal of image registration is to estimate a transformation that maps corresponding locations between a subject image and a target image. The two major challenges of retinal OCT registration are that the image voxels tend to be highly anisotropic and that the physical geometry of the image is not properly defined by how the A-scans are presented in the OCT. To address these concerns, we impose strong restrictions on the class of transformations our registration is allowed to estimate. In the x(lateral) and y(through ...
Initial Preprocessing happens prior to performing the OCT registration, our method requires two initial preprocessing steps that are applied to the OCT images. First we apply an intensity normalization process to each OCT volume. Second, we estimate and mask the images to the retinal boundaries by locating the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and Bruchs membrane (BrM), which also serve as landmarks for our affine registration step. We then start the image registration. The primary goal of image registration is to estimate a transformation that maps corresponding locations between a subject image and a target image. The two major challenges of retinal OCT registration are that the image voxels tend to be highly anisotropic and that the physical geometry of the image is not properly defined by how the A-scans are presented in the OCT. To address these concerns, we impose strong restrictions on the class of transformations our registration is allowed to estimate. In the x(lateral) and y(through ...
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2Ankara Numune Eğitim Ve Araştırma Hastanesi, 2. Göz Kliniği, Ankara, Doç. Dr. In the current case, we aim to discuss the clinical features of the optic disc drusen (ODD) which is one of the common cause of pseudopapilledema since it leads to blurring of the optic disc margins. In a routine examination of an 8 years old girl, we observed that the optic discs were elevated and blurred bilaterally; also the retinal vessels were dilated and tortuous. The fundus appearance was found similar with the papilledema. Minimal autofluorescense was observed with the red-free filter, there was no leakage of the disc on the FFA and the findings of orbital ultrasonography were well-matched with the bilateral ODD. The patient was evaluated as a buried ODD and was taken under follow-up for development of possible complications. Optik disk drusen is an important clinical entity that sometimes misdiagnosed as papilledema because of elevated and blurred disc margins. Optik disk drusen has a tendency to be ...
Submacular hemorrhage is a rare but devastating sequel of choroidal neovascularization, which is a frequent complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Choroidal neovascularization information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Macular drusen: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on macular drusen at PatientsLikeMe. 7 patients with macular drusen experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood and use Alprazolam, Bupropion, Diclofenac, Iron supplement, and Lorazepam to treat their macular drusen and its symptoms.
Zur Erfassung altersspezifischer Veränderungen peripherer Hörbahnstationen wurden akustisch evozierte Hirnstammantworten bei Meerschweinchen zweier Altersstufen untersucht. Da Angaben über...
Dr. Kisss research career started as an undergraduate at Columbia University where, in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Kennedy Space Center, he evaluated the implications of microgravity on early developmental patterning. Dr. Kiss was involved in scientific experiments launched on the space shuttle Discovery and the space shuttle Columbia. Dr. Kisss research interests include basic science, translational and clinical research in ophthalmology. With the support of the Heed Ophthalmic Foundation, Dr. Kiss studied the efficacy and safety of a gene therapy approach for the treatment of neovascular complications of age-related macular degeneration. Dr. Kiss received the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and the Schepens Eye Research Institute Joint Clinical Research Center Pilot Project Grant to examine the role of Bruchs membrane in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. He studied elastic fiber homeostatis in choriodal neovascular membrane ...
It is characterized by a breakdown of the RPE/Bruch's membrane complex in the retina, leading to an accumulation of cholesterol ... Measurement of a patient's dark adaptation function is essentially a bioassay of the health of their Bruch's membrane. As such ... Curcio, CA (2013). Structure, function, and pathology of Bruch's membrane. In: Ryan SJ, et al, eds. Retina, Vol 1, Part 2: ... the RPE/Bruch's function continues to deteriorate, hampering nutrient and oxygen transport to the rod and cone photoreceptors. ...
Henle's membrane: Bruch's layer forming inner boundary of the choroid of the eye. Henle's sheath: Connective tissue which ... Hassall-Henle bodies: Transparent growths in the periphery of the Descemet membrane of the eye. Henle's fissure: Fibrous tissue ... serous membranes, kidney, eye, nails, central nervous system, etc. He discovered the loop of Henle and Henle's tubules, two ...
The term fundus may also be inclusive of Bruch's membrane and the choroid.[citation needed] The color of the fundus varies both ...
... and Bruch's membrane (synonyms: Lamina basalis, Complexus basalis, Lamina vitra) - innermost layer of the choroid. There are ...
CNV can occur rapidly in individuals with defects in Bruch's membrane, the innermost layer of the choroid. It is also ...
It is situated between the Bruch's membrane, choriocapillaris and Haller's layer below, and the suprachoroidea above, ...
The lesion may occur within the choroid, between Bruch's membrane and RPE, or between the RPE and photoreceptors. Despite the ...
PXE first affects the retina through a dimpling of the Bruch membrane (a thin membrane separating the blood vessel-rich layer ... These cracks may allow small blood vessels that were originally held back by Bruch's membrane to penetrate the retina. These ... Bruch's membrane and the midsized arteries. Recent studies hypothesize that PXE is a metabolic disease, and that its features ... Eventually the mineralization of the elastic fibers in the Bruch membrane create cracks (angioid streaks) that radiate out from ...
... exon-skipping splice isoform of human retinal G protein-coupled receptor from retinal pigment epithelium into Bruch's membrane ...
As the posterior staphyloma enlarges, choroidal tissue becomes thin and Bruch's membrane begins to break, creating lesions ...
... also called Knapp streaks or Knapp striae are small breaks in Bruch's membrane, an elastic tissue containing membrane of the ... From histopathological research in the 1930s, they were discovered to be caused by changes at the level of Bruch's membrane. ... Presently, it is believed that its pathology may be a combination of elastic degeneration of Bruch's membrane, iron deposition ...
... deposition of yellowish extracellular material in and between bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium ("drusen") with ...
... are not related to Bruch membrane drusen of the retina which have been associated with age-related macular ... Rarely choroidal neovascular membranes may develop adjacent to the optic disc threatening bleeding and retinal scarring. Laser ... Chaudhry NA, Lavaque AJ, Shah A, Liggett PE (2005). "Photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to optic ... Central vision loss is a rare complication of bleeding from peripapillar choroidal neovascular membranes. Anterior ischemic ...
The inherited disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum may lead to angioid streaks with calcification of Bruch's membrane, the elastic ... It occurs in areas of cell necrosis in which activated phosphatases bind calcium ions to phospholipids in the membrane. ...
The capillary lamina of choroid or choriocapillaris is a layer of capillaries that is immediately adjacent to Bruch's membrane ...
Bruch's membrane (lamina basalis choroideae). ...
In 1899 Doyne discovered colloid bodies lying on Bruch's membrane that appeared to merge, forming a mosaic pattern that ... a disorder that affects Bruch's membrane, the innermost layer of the choroid. Two years after his death in 1916, a prized ...
... are tiny yellow or white accumulations of extracellular material that build up between Bruch's membrane and the retinal pigment ... "An integrated hypothesis that considers drusen as biomarkers of immune-mediated processes at the RPE-Bruch's membrane interface ...
... through Bruch's membrane. It is usually, but not always, preceded by the dry form of AMD. The proliferation of abnormal blood ... Similar symptoms with a very different etiology and different treatment can be caused by epiretinal membrane or macular pucker ... Kunchithapautham K, Rohrer B (May 2011). "Sublytic Membrane-Attack-Complex (MAC) Activation Alters Regulated Rather than ...
In many cases, people with MPGN II can develop drusen which is caused by same deposits within the Bruch's membrane beneath the ... It should not be confused with membranous glomerulonephritis, a condition in which the basement membrane is thickened, but the ... Over time vision can deteriorate and subretinal neovascular membranes, macular detachment, and central serous retinopathy ... is a type of glomerulonephritis caused by deposits in the kidney glomerular mesangium and basement membrane (GBM) thickening, ...
Examples include the skin of the breast in inflammatory breast cancer, in the eye due to breaks in Bruch's Membrane called ...
... bruch membrane MeSH A09.371.894.280 --- ciliary body MeSH A09.371.894.513 --- iris MeSH A09.371.894.513.780 --- pupil MeSH ... bowman membrane MeSH A09.371.060.217.228 --- corneal stroma MeSH A09.371.060.217.271 --- descemet membrane MeSH A09.371.060.217 ... tectorial membrane MeSH A09.246.631.246.577 --- organ of corti MeSH A09.246.631.246.577.325 --- hair cells MeSH A09.246.631.246 ... tympanic membrane MeSH A09.246.397.247 --- ear ossicles MeSH A09.246.397.247.362 --- incus MeSH A09.246.397.247.524 --- malleus ...
... basement membrane MeSH A10.615.179.124 --- basilar membrane MeSH A10.615.179.250 --- bruch membrane MeSH A10.615.179.437 --- ... basement membrane MeSH A10.272.220.250 --- bruch membrane MeSH A10.272.491 --- endothelium MeSH A10.272.491.318 --- endothelium ... descemet membrane MeSH A10.615.179.625 --- glomerular basement membrane MeSH A10.615.284 --- extraembryonic membranes MeSH ... mucous membrane MeSH A10.615.550.291 --- gastric mucosa MeSH A10.615.550.291.150 --- chief cells, gastric MeSH A10.615.550.291. ...
Bruch's membrane Drusen Macula of retina Fovea centralis Fundus (eye) This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... At the ora serrata, the RPE continues as a membrane passing over the ciliary body and continuing as the back surface of the ... Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes: POS are exposed to constant photo-oxidative stress, and they go ...
... which is across the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The high spatial density of cones along with the absence ...
Examples of basement membranes include: Basilar membrane Bruch's membrane Descemet's membrane Glomerular basement membrane The ... The basement membrane is visible under light microscopy. Electron microscopy shows that the basement membrane consists of three ... It is often incorrectly referred to as the basement membrane, though it does constitute a portion of the basement membrane. The ... Alveolar-capillary barrier Basolateral membrane Collagen Glomerular basement membrane Lamina propria Reticular lamina Histology ...
Treister NS, Bruch JM (2010). Clinical oral medicine and pathology. New York: Humana Press. pp. 19, 21, 92, 93. ISBN 978-1- ... That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise without prior pseudomembranes ... the organisms must be capable of adhering to the epithelial surface of the mucous membrane lining the mouth. This adhesion ...
... and Lom u Mostu in the Czech Republic Bruch's membrane, the innermost layer of the choroid in the eye 5004 Bruch, an asteroid ... Bruch may refer to the following Bruch, Lot-et-Garonne, a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne département, France Bruch, Rhineland- ... German composer Ricky Bruch (1946-2011), Swedish athlete Volker Bruch (born 1980), German actor Walter Bruch (1908-1990), ... Carl Friedrich Bruch (1789-1857), German ornithologist Ernst Brüche (1900-1985), German physicist Hilde Bruch (1904-1984), ...
  • An artificially constructed membrane made of lipids arranged in a bilayer. (tabers.com)
  • Epithelial cells are characterized by the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids in their plasma membrane: a basic feature referred to as polarity. (mcponline.org)
  • Physical Properties of the Lipid Bilayer Membrane made of Cortical and Nuclear Bovine Lens Lipids: EPR Spin‐Labeling Studies. (niu.edu)
  • It comprises two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina , and is composed of Type IV collagen (which is unique to basement membranes), laminin, fibronectin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alveolar-capillary membrane ( alveolocapillary membrane ) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [ 1 ] Angioid streaks, also known as Knapp striae, are irregular jagged dehiscences in the mineralized, degenerated, brittle Bruch membrane that typically form alongside force lines exerted by intrinsic and extrinsic ocular muscles that radiate in a centrifugal pattern emanating from the optic disc. (medscape.com)
  • The angioid streaks showed breaks in Bruch´s membrane. (euretina.org)
  • Any of several membranes formed of elastic connective tissue fibers. (tabers.com)
  • It is believed that the pathology may be a combination of diffuse elastic degeneration of the Bruch membrane, iron deposition in elastic fibers from hemolysis with secondary mineralization, and impairment of nutrition because of sickling, stasis, and small vessel occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Klien proposed a dual mechanism as a cause of these cracks in general, as follows: a primary abnormality of fibers of the Bruch membrane, and an increase in availability of metal salts or a tendency for their deposition, resulting in a secondary brittleness of the membranes. (medscape.com)
  • membranes peripheral to the macula are generally asymptomatic, while those involving the macula or adjacent to it may cause reduction in vision, visual distortion, and diplopia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is also a buildup of deposits (Basal Linear Deposits or BLinD and Basal Lamellar Deposits BLamD) on and within the membrane, primarily consisting of phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. (northwestern.edu)
  • it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Collins (1913) described histopathologic findings indicating that the abnormality in one of Doyne's patients consisted of hyaline thickenings of Bruch membrane. (blindness.org)
  • Publications arising: Chan-Ling T, Baxter L, Afzal A, Sengupta N, Caballero S, Rosinova E and Grant MB, Hematopoietic stem cells provide repair functions after laser-induced Bruchs membrane rupture model of choroidal neovascularisation (2006) 168 American Journal of Pathology 1031. (edu.au)
  • impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the integrity and health of the oral mucous membrane can occur as a characteristic of such medical disorders as periodontal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, oral cancer, and infection with herpes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A membrane of fibrinous exudate on a mucous surface of a membrane, as in croup or diphtheria. (tabers.com)
  • Such ultrathin membranes may provide a promising vehicle for a functional RPE cell monolayer implantation in the subretinal space in patients with AMD or SD. (edu.au)
  • The functional polarity of epithelial cells is dependent on the asymmetric distribution of specific enzymes, signaling molecules, and transport proteins between their apical and basolateral surface membranes ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The apical surface of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells commonly faces a luminal cavity and is characterized by the presence of numerous surface membrane elaborations referred to as microvilli. (mcponline.org)
  • The membrane extending from the tympanic lip of the osseous spiral lamina to the crest of the spiral ligament in the cochlea of the ear. (tabers.com)