Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Azerbaijan" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It is the name of a country located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. If you have any questions related to geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try and help with those instead!
Formerly a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, comprising the Yugoslav section of the region of Macedonia. It was made a constituent republic in the 1946 constitution. It became independent on 8 February 1994 and was recognized as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United States Board on Geographic Names 16 February 1994.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Kyrgyz Republic.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.
**Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is an organosulfur compound with the formula HOCH2CH2SH, functionally serving as a reducing agent and a sulfhydryl group protector in biochemical and molecular biology applications.**
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
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I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country located in the western portion of the Asian continent and is not a medical term or concept. It does not have a medical definition.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

Performance of competitive and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten polysaccharide, and standard serological tests in diagnosis of sheep brucellosis. (1/1093)

Competitive and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), rose bengal (RB), complement fixation, and agar gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten (AGID-NH) were compared by using sera from Brucella-free, Brucella melitensis-infected, and B. melitensis Rev1-vaccinated sheep. The most sensitive tests were indirect ELISA and RB, and the most specific tests were AGID-NH and competitive ELISA. We show that RB followed by AGID-NH is a simple and effective system for diagnosing sheep brucellosis.  (+info)

Modulation of endocytosis in nuclear factor IL-6(-/-) macrophages is responsible for a high susceptibility to intracellular bacterial infection. (2/1093)

Activated macrophages kill bacteria, a function known to depend on the expression of NF-IL-6. Here, it is demonstrated that the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain 19 replicates much better in NF-IL-6-/- than in NF-IL-6(+/+) and NF-IL-6(+/+)-activated murine macrophages and at levels comparable to those observed in normal macrophages infected with the pathogenic strain 2308. The role of NF-IL-6 in the inhibition of intracellular bacterial replication is related to its control of endocytosis and membrane fusion between endosomes and Brucella-containing phagosomes. Addition of the granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), whose induction is impaired in NF-IL-6(-/-) macrophages, restores both endocytosis and the morphology of endosomes, together with bactericidal activity. Regulation of membrane traffic in endocytosis by G-CSF whose expression is controlled by NF-IL-6 may explain how a host cell can control intracellular bacterial replication.  (+info)

Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins. (3/1093)

Genomic DNA from reference strains and biovars of the genus Brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. Electrophoresis of DNA digested with the restriction endonuclease XbaI produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. Included in this study were strains isolated from marine mammals. The PFGE profiles from these strains were compared with those obtained from the reference strains and biovars. Isolates from dolphins had similar profiles that were distinct from profiles of Brucella isolates from seals and porpoises. Distance matrix analyses were used to produce a dendrogram. Biovars of B. abortus were clustered together in the dendrogram; similar clusters were shown for biovars of B. melitensis and for biovars of B. suis. Brucella ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae differed from each other and from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The relationship between B. abortus strain RB51 and other Brucella biovars was compared because this strain has replaced B. abortus strain 19 for use as a live vaccine in cattle and possibly in bison and elk. These results support the current taxonomy of Brucella species and the designation of an additional genomic group(s) of Brucella. The PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis was a useful tool for calculating genetic relatedness among the Brucella species.  (+info)

Immunity to Brucella in mice vaccinated with a fraction (F8) or a killed vaccine (H38) with or without adjuvant. Level and duration of immunity in relation to dose of vaccine, recall injection and age of mice. (4/1093)

Immunity to Brucella in the mouse, assessed by bacterial spleen counts 15 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a standard challenge of B. abortus 544, has been studied with two vaccines, one experimental, composed of a fraction of the bacterial cell-wall (F8) extracted from B. abortus 99, the other of killed whole bacteria, B. melitensis 53 H38, taken as reference (H38). The level of primary immunity depended on the dose of vaccine, the presence of oil adjuvant and the age of the mouse. The presence of adjuvant enabled the immunization to F8 to continue beyond the first month, to reach its maximum around the fourth month, and to remain stable for at least 7 months. A booster injection 3 or 6 months after the primary vaccination reinforced existing immunity but did not increase it beyond a certain level. The effect of the recall injection was clearly demonstrated with low doses which gave a lower level of primary immunity.  (+info)

Plaque-forming cells in mice after experimental infection with Brucella abortus. (5/1093)

Cells producing antibody to brucella lipopolysaccharide were detected in spleens of mice infected with Brucella abortus 19 by a hemolytic plaque assay. The appearance of immunoglobulin M-producing cells preceded humoral antibodies. The primary plaques were observed 5 days after inoculation, and they were still present by day 70.  (+info)

Effect of early antibiotic treatment on the antibody response to cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella melitensis in mice. (6/1093)

To test whether antibiotic therapy hampers the antibody response to Brucella antigens, 30 BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella melitensis H38 and randomized for treatment with doxycycline administered intraperitoneally for 42 days starting at 7 or 28 days postinfection (p.i.) (groups DOX7 and DOX28, respectively) or for no treatment (control group). Antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached peak levels (mean optical density [OD] = 2.618) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, and similar peak levels (mean OD = 2.486) were observed in the DOX28 group, but significantly lower peak levels (mean OD = 0.821) were observed at 28 days p.i. in the DOX7 group. The antibody response against cytoplasmic proteins depleted of LPS (CPs) reached maximal levels (mean OD = 2.402) between days 56 and 70 p.i. in the control group, but no response was detected in the DOX7 group. Anti-CP antibodies were detected in only three animals from the DOX28 group, at levels significantly lower than those in the control group (mean maximal OD = 0.791). The pattern of antibody response to an 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein of Brucella spp. was similar to that against the CP antigen. This study shows that early antibiotic treatment affects the antibody response of mice to cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella and, to a lesser extent, to LPS.  (+info)

The siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid is not required for virulence of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. (7/1093)

2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) is the only siderophore described for Brucella, and previous studies suggested that DHBA might contribute to the capacity of these organisms to persist in host macrophages. Employing an isogenic siderophore mutant (DeltaentC) constructed from virulent Brucella abortus 2308, however, we found that production of DHBA is not required for replication in cultured murine macrophages or for the establishment and maintenance of chronic infection in the BALB/c mouse model.  (+info)

Destructive aortic valve endocarditis from Brucella abortus: survival with emergency aortic valve replacement. (8/1093)

Brucella abortus infection of the aortic valve caused acute aortic regurgitation leading to severe left ventricular failure in a 62-year-old man. He made an excellent recovery after emergency aortic valve replacement. This is the third reported case of successful heart valve replacement for Brucella endocarditis and the second such case involving the aortic valve.  (+info)

Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species, which are gram-negative coccobacilli. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most common way for humans to contract brucellosis is through consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat, from infected animals like goats, sheep, and cattle.

Humans can also acquire the infection through direct contact with infected animals, their tissues, or bodily fluids, especially in occupational settings like farming, veterinary medicine, or slaughterhouses. In rare cases, inhalation of contaminated aerosols or laboratory exposure can lead to brucellosis.

The onset of symptoms is usually insidious and may include fever, chills, night sweats, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The infection can disseminate to various organs, causing complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, orchitis, and epididymoorchitis.

Diagnosis is confirmed through blood cultures, serological tests, or molecular methods like PCR. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline combined with rifampin or streptomycin. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption. Vaccination is available for high-risk populations but not for general use due to the risk of adverse reactions and potential interference with serodiagnosis.

Brucellosis, bovine is a bacterial infection caused by Brucella abortus that primarily affects cattle. It can also spread to other animals and humans through direct contact with infected animals or ingestion of contaminated food or drink. In animals, it causes abortion, reduced milk production, and weight loss. In humans, it can cause fever, sweats, headaches, joint pain, and weakness. Human infections are rare in countries where milk is pasteurized and proper sanitation measures are in place. It is also known as undulant fever or Malta fever.

'Brucella' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that are causative agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease with various clinical manifestations in humans and animals. The bacteria are primarily hosted by domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese.

There are several species of Brucella, including B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis, which primarily infect different animal hosts but can also cause disease in humans. The bacteria have a unique ability to survive and replicate within host cells, such as macrophages, allowing them to evade the immune system and establish chronic infection.

Human brucellosis is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and sweats, which can make diagnosis challenging. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, to eradicate the infection. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, vaccination of animals, and use of personal protective equipment when handling animals or their products.

'Brucella melitensis' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the primary cause of brucellosis in humans. It is a zoonotic pathogen, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and is typically found in goats, sheep, and cattle.

Humans can become infected with 'Brucella melitensis' through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or drink (such as unpasteurized milk or cheese), or inhalation of infectious aerosols.

The infection can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and swelling of the lymph nodes. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as endocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological disorders.

Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, cooking meat thoroughly, wearing protective clothing when handling animals or their tissues, and vaccination of at-risk populations. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, and may require hospitalization in severe cases.

'Brucella abortus' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the causative agent of brucellosis, also known as Bang's disease in cattle. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and is typically acquired through contact with infected animal tissues or bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or drink, or inhalation of infectious aerosols.

In cattle, 'Brucella abortus' infection can cause abortion, stillbirths, and reduced fertility. In humans, it can cause a systemic illness characterized by fever, sweats, malaise, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, brucellosis can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and neurological symptoms.

Prevention measures include vaccination of cattle, pasteurization of dairy products, and implementation of strict hygiene practices in occupational settings where exposure to infected animals or their tissues is possible. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, and may require hospitalization in severe cases.

'Brucella suis' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that causes brucellosis in both humans and animals, particularly swine. It is one of several species in the genus *Brucella* that are pathogenic to humans. The infection can be acquired through contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated food or drink. In humans, symptoms may include fever, sweats, malaise, headache, muscle and joint pain, and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and appropriately.

A Brucella vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against brucellosis, an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The most commonly used vaccine is the Brucella melitensis Rev-1 strain, which is administered to sheep and goats to prevent the spread of the disease to humans through contaminated food and animal contact.

The Brucella vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce a protective response against the bacteria. When the vaccinated animal encounters the actual bacterial infection, their immune system is better prepared to fight it off and prevent the development of clinical disease.

It's important to note that the Brucella vaccine is not approved for use in humans due to the risk of severe side effects and the possibility of causing a false positive result on brucellosis diagnostic tests. Therefore, it should only be administered to animals under the supervision of a veterinarian.

Rose Bengal is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. It's a dye that is primarily used as a diagnostic stain to test for damaged or denatured cells, particularly in the eye and mouth. In ophthalmology, a Rose Bengal stain is used to identify damage to the cornea's surface, while in dentistry, it can help detect injured oral mucosa or lesions.

The dye works by staining dead or damaged cells more intensely than healthy ones, allowing healthcare professionals to visualize and assess any abnormalities or injuries. However, it is important to note that Rose Bengal itself is not a treatment for these conditions; rather, it is a diagnostic tool used to inform appropriate medical interventions.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

'Brucella canis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Brucella. It is the causative agent of brucellosis in dogs, also known as canine brucellosis. This disease primarily affects the reproductive system of dogs, causing infertility, abortion, and stillbirths.

Transmission of 'Brucella canis' typically occurs through contact with infected placental material, vaginal discharges, semen, or urine from infected animals. It can also be spread through contaminated objects such as bedding or feeding dishes. The bacterium can survive in the environment for extended periods, increasing the risk of transmission.

In addition to reproductive issues, 'Brucella canis' infection can cause other health problems in dogs, including lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), discospondylitis (inflammation of the spinal column), and uveitis (inflammation of the eye). Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or culture of infected tissues. Treatment can be challenging due to the bacterium's ability to survive within host cells, and antibiotic therapy may need to be prolonged.

While 'Brucella canis' infection is not common in humans, it can cause a flu-like illness that may progress to more severe symptoms such as endocarditis or neurological disorders. Therefore, individuals who handle infected dogs or their tissues should take appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of transmission.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Spondylitis is a term used to describe inflammation in the spinal vertebrae, often leading to stiffness and pain. The most common form is Ankylosing Spondylitis, which is a chronic autoimmune disease where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joints in the spine. This can cause the bones in the spine to grow together, resulting in a rigid and inflexible spine. Other forms of spondylitis include reactive spondylitis, infectious spondylitis, and seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Symptoms may also include pain and stiffness in the neck, lower back, hips, and small joints of the body.

The Coombs test is a laboratory procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). It is named after the scientist, Robin Coombs, who developed the test. There are two types of Coombs tests: direct and indirect.

1. Direct Coombs Test (DCT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies directly attached to the surface of RBCs. It is often used to diagnose hemolytic anemia, a condition in which RBCs are destroyed prematurely, leading to anemia. A positive DCT indicates that the patient's RBCs have been coated with antibodies, which can occur due to various reasons such as autoimmune disorders, blood transfusion reactions, or drug-induced immune hemolysis.
2. Indirect Coombs Test (ICT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies in the patient's serum that can agglutinate (clump) foreign RBCs. It is commonly used before blood transfusions or during pregnancy to determine if the patient has antibodies against the RBCs of a potential donor or fetus, respectively. A positive ICT indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies capable of binding to and agglutinating foreign RBCs.

In summary, the Coombs test is a crucial diagnostic tool in identifying various hemolytic disorders and ensuring safe blood transfusions by detecting the presence of harmful antibodies against RBCs.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Azerbaijan" is a country's name and not a medical term or condition. It is located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. If you have any questions about Azerbaijani culture, history, or geography, I would be happy to try to help answer them, but for medical information, it would be best to consult a reliable health or medical resource.

Orchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of one or both testicles, usually caused by an infection. The most common cause of orchitis is a bacterial infection that spreads from the epididymis, resulting in a condition known as epididymo-orchitis. However, viral infections such as mumps can also lead to orchitis. Symptoms may include sudden and severe pain in the testicle(s), swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections and supportive care for symptom relief. If left untreated, orchitis can lead to complications such as infertility or testicular atrophy.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as rifamycins. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Legionella pneumophila. It is also used to prevent meningococcal disease in people who have been exposed to the bacteria.

Rifampin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. The medication is usually taken two to four times a day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Rifampin may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics.

It is important to note that rifampin can interact with several other medications, including oral contraceptives, anticoagulants, and anti-seizure drugs, among others. Therefore, it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with rifampin.

Rifampin may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of urine, tears, sweat, and saliva to a reddish-orange color. These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. However, if they persist or become bothersome, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.

In summary, rifampin is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections and prevent meningococcal disease. It works by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, preventing bacterial growth and multiplication. Rifampin may interact with several other medications, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and changes in the color of body fluids.

I apologize for any confusion, but "livestock" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is an agricultural term that refers to animals that are kept or raised on a farm or ranch for commercial purposes, such as the production of food, fiber, or labor. Examples of livestock include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, and horses. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

A veterinarian is a licensed medical professional who practices veterinary medicine. They are dedicated to the health and well-being of animals, ranging from pets and livestock to wild animals and exotic creatures. Veterinarians diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases and injuries in animals, and they also provide advice and guidance on animal care and nutrition.

Veterinarians may specialize in a particular area of veterinary medicine, such as surgery, internal medicine, dentistry, dermatology, or emergency care. They may work in private clinical practice, research institutions, government agencies, zoos, wildlife rehabilitation centers, or the animal health industry.

To become a veterinarian, one must complete a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited veterinary school and pass a licensing exam. Veterinary schools typically require applicants to have a bachelor's degree with a strong background in science courses. Additionally, veterinarians must adhere to strict ethical standards and maintain their knowledge and skills through ongoing education and training.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Central nervous system (CNS) bacterial infections refer to the invasion and infection of the brain or spinal cord by bacteria. This can lead to serious consequences as the CNS is highly sensitive to inflammation and infection. Examples of CNS bacterial infections include:

1. Meningitis: an infection of the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. It is often caused by bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

2. Encephalitis: an inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which can be caused by bacterial infections such as Listeria monocytogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Bartonella henselae.

3. Brain abscess: a localized collection of pus within the brain tissue, usually resulting from direct spread of bacteria from a nearby infection, or from bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream). Common causes include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and anaerobic bacteria.

4. Spinal epidural abscess: an accumulation of pus in the epidural space surrounding the spinal cord, which can lead to compression of the spinal cord and result in serious neurological deficits. Common causative organisms include Staphylococcus aureus and other streptococci.

5. Subdural empyema: an infection in the potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, usually caused by direct spread of bacteria from a nearby focus of infection or from bacteremia. Streptococcus species and anaerobic bacteria are common causes.

Treatment for CNS bacterial infections typically involves antibiotics, supportive care, and sometimes surgical intervention to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue. The prognosis depends on the specific infection, the patient's overall health, and how quickly treatment is initiated.

'Brucella ovis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Brucella. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen that primarily causes contagious epididymitis and orchitis in rams (male sheep), leading to infertility and decreased flock productivity.

This bacterial species is host-adapted, meaning it mainly affects sheep and goats, and does not typically cause disease in humans. However, there have been rare cases of laboratory-acquired infections in people working with infected animals or their tissues.

'Brucella ovis' infection control measures include proper sanitation practices, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and vaccination programs for susceptible animal populations to minimize transmission and disease spread.

Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is not a medical term itself but is commonly used in laboratories including medical research. It is a reducing agent and a powerful antioxidant with the chemical formula HOCH2CH2SH.

Medical Definition:
Mercaptoethanol (β-mercaptoethanol) is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor, used as a reducing agent in biochemical research and laboratory experiments. It functions by breaking disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, allowing them to unfold and denature. This property makes it useful for various applications such as protein purification, enzyme assays, and cell culture.

However, it is important to note that Mercaptoethanol has a high toxicity level and should be handled with caution in the laboratory setting.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Panuveitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation that affects the entire uveal tract, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The uveal tract is the middle layer of the eye between the inner retina and the outer fibrous tunic (sclera). Panuveitis can also affect other parts of the eye, such as the vitreous, retina, and optic nerve.

The symptoms of panuveitis may include redness, pain, light sensitivity, blurred vision, floaters, and decreased visual acuity. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or unknown causes (idiopathic). Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying cause if identified. If left untreated, panuveitis can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal damage, which can result in permanent vision loss.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Bison" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to large, hoofed mammals that are part of the Bovidae family, which also includes cattle, buffalo, and antelope. The two most commonly known species of bison are the American bison (Bison bison) and the European bison, or wisent (Bison bonasus). These animals are native to North America and Europe, respectively, and have distinctive features such as a large head, humped back, and shaggy coat. They once roamed in great herds but were hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century. Conservation efforts have helped bring their populations back from the brink, although they still face threats from habitat loss and disease.

Cetacea is a taxonomic order that includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. This group of marine mammals is characterized by their fully aquatic lifestyle, torpedo-shaped bodies, modified limbs that serve as flippers, and the absence of external hindlimbs. Cetaceans have streamlined bodies that minimize drag while swimming, and their tail flukes enable powerful propulsion through vertical movement in the water column.

Their respiratory system features a pair of blowholes on the top of their heads, which they use to breathe air at the surface. Cetaceans exhibit complex social behaviors, advanced communication skills, and sophisticated echolocation abilities for navigation and hunting. They primarily feed on fish and invertebrates, with some larger species preying on marine mammals.

Cetaceans have a global distribution, occupying various habitats such as open oceans, coastal areas, and rivers. Unfortunately, many cetacean populations face threats from human activities like pollution, habitat degradation, climate change, and direct hunting or bycatch in fishing gear. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these remarkable creatures and their vital roles in marine ecosystems.

Immunoproteins, also known as antibodies or immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins recognize, bind to, and help neutralize or remove harmful antigens from the body.

There are five classes of immunoproteins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their structure, function, and location in the body. For example, IgA is found in tears, saliva, and breast milk and helps protect mucous membranes from pathogens, while IgG is the most abundant antibody in the blood and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered antigens.

Overall, immunoproteins play a critical role in the body's defense mechanisms against infection and disease.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country, not a medical term or concept. It is located in the Asian continent, and it is known as the birthplace of Islam and home to its two holiest cities, Mecca and Medina. The country's political structure is a monarchy, and it has the largest oil reserves in the world. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. The "meat-packing industry" is not a term that has a medical definition, as it pertains to the industrial process and business practice of slaughtering animals, processing their carcasses into edible meats, and packaging them for distribution and sale to consumers.

However, if you are interested in occupational health or workplace safety aspects related to this industry, there are numerous medical and epidemiological studies that discuss the potential health risks and hazards faced by workers in meat-packing plants, such as exposure to infectious diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, and chemical hazards.

Dairy products are foods produced from the milk of animals, primarily cows but also goats, sheep, and buffalo. The term "dairy" refers to the place or process where these products are made. According to the medical definition, dairy products include a variety of foods such as:

1. Milk - This is the liquid produced by mammals to feed their young. It's rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
2. Cheese - Made from milk, it can vary greatly in texture, taste, and nutritional content depending on the type. Cheese is a good source of protein and calcium.
3. Yogurt - This is formed by bacterial fermentation of milk. It contains probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain gut health.
4. Butter - Made from cream or churned milk, butter is high in fat and calories but also provides some essential nutrients like vitamin A.
5. Ice Cream - A frozen dessert made from cream, milk, sugar, and often egg yolks. While it can be a source of calcium and protein, it's also high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
6. Casein and Whey Proteins - These are proteins derived from milk that are often used as dietary supplements for muscle building and recovery after exercise.

Individuals who are lactose intolerant may have difficulty digesting dairy products due to the sugar lactose found in them. For such individuals, there are lactose-free versions of these products available or they can opt for plant-based alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, etc.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Pancytopenia is a medical condition characterized by a reduction in the number of all three types of blood cells in the peripheral blood: red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). This condition can be caused by various underlying diseases, including bone marrow disorders, viral infections, exposure to toxic substances or radiation, vitamin deficiencies, and certain medications. Symptoms of pancytopenia may include fatigue, weakness, increased susceptibility to infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

Porcine brucellosis (agent US) Bovine brucellosis (agent AA) Caprine brucellosis (agent AM) Agent US was in advanced ... Brucellosis of sheep or goats has never been reported. Brucellosis of pigs does occur. Feral pigs are the typical source of ... Brucellosis in the intervertebral disc is one possible cause of discospondylitis. Symptoms of brucellosis in dogs include ... Journal archive "Brucellosis". mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved June 5, 2022. "Brucellosis". mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic ...
... is a vaccine for cattle, sheep and goats used against brucellosis. It is an attenuated vaccine based on a ... "Brucellosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 15 May 2013. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Ko J, Splitter GA (January 2003). "Molecular Host-Pathogen Interaction in Brucellosis: Current Understanding and Future ... "Evaluation of Brucellosis Vaccines: A Comprehensive Review". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 9: 925773. doi:10.3389/fvets. ...
Brucellosis. With the idiopathic variant, an allergic component was believed to be involved since, in some patients at least, ...
Brucellosis occurs in the Yellowstone Bison Herd and the normal winter migrations of bison outside the park have raised ... Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals ... Cheville, Norman (1998). Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Gaines, Leslie; ... The plan is aimed at: Maintain a wild, free-ranging bison population; Reduce the risk of brucellosis transmission from bison to ...
"Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison". Brucellosis. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Archived from the original on ... APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout ... About half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis, a bacterial disease that came to North America with ... To combat the perceived threat of brucellosis transmission to cattle, national park personnel regularly corral bison herds back ...
"Brucellosis". www.who.int. Retrieved 2023-10-01. "Cat Scratch Disease". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2023-10- ... Anthrax Brucellosis Cat scratch fever Legionellosis Leptospirosis Listeriosis Lyme disease Lymphogranuloma venereum Mastitis ...
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... is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Brucellaceae and is one of the causative agents of brucellosis. The ... A few of the symptoms of brucellosis include: fever, chills, headache, backache, and weight loss. As with any disease, there ... 2011). "Brucellosis". Cattle Medicine. London: Manson Pub. p. 34. ISBN 978-1840766110. "microbewiki". microbewiki.kenyon.edu. ... ". "Brucellosis: Brucella Abortus" (PDF). Kaden, R.; Ferrari, S.; Jinnerot, T.; Lindberg, M.; Wahab, T.; Lavander, M. (2018). " ...
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Accordingly, the disease has been renamed brucellosis. When Bruce was transferred to South Africa, he was sent to Zululand to ... The bacterium, Brucella, and the disease it caused, brucellosis, along with the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, are named in his ... Wyatt, Harold Vivian (October 2005). "How Themistocles Zammit found Malta Fever (brucellosis) to be transmitted by the milk of ... Mochmann H, Köhler W (1988). "100 years of bacteriology-history of the discovery of brucellosis. 1: Uncovering the etiology of ...
Canine Brucellosis: Facts for Dog Owners Brucellosis FAQs for Dog Owners. Georgia Division of Public Health in Partnership with ... Brucella canis is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Brucellaceae that causes brucellosis in dogs and other canids. It is ... Morisset R, Spink WW (November 1969). "Epidemic canine brucellosis due to a new species, brucella canis". The Lancet. 2 (7628 ... Mantur BG, Amarnath SK, Shinde RS (July 2007). "Review of clinical and laboratory features of human brucellosis". Indian ...
In 1886 he led the Malta Fever Commission that investigated an outbreak of Malta fever (later eponymously called brucellosis) ... Corbel, M. J. (1997). "Brucellosis: an overview". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 (2): 213-221. doi:10.3201/eid0302.970219. PMC ...
"CDC - Home - Brucellosis". www.cdc.gov. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-12-24. "Brucellosis in Goats - Goats". goats.extension.org. ... "brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)". www.cabi.org. Retrieved 22 March 2018. "Brucellosis in Humans: Symptoms, Treatment, Cause ... Brucellosis can be confirmed with the help of post mortem lesions in the reproductive tract, udders, and supramammary lymph ... This disease is known as ovine brucellosis, and is a reportable disease in the USA. In goats and sheep, B. melitensis can cause ...
Brucellosis in dogs is caused by Brucella canis. It is a sexually transmitted disease, but can also be spread through contact ... "Brucellosis in Dogs: Introduction". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-14. "Lyme disease recognized in 48 ... cause of brucellosis in dogs. There are also common tick-borne bacterial diseases, including Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and ...
can remain latent in a macrophage via inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion; causes brucellosis (undulant fever).[citation ...
Meyer, K. F. (1957). "Review of The Nature of Brucellosis by Wesley W. Spink". Science. 125 (3240): 197-198. doi:10.1126/ ... Spink, Wesley W. (1956). The Nature of Brucellosis. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781452912547. Wesley W. Spink Papers: ... Spink did research on gonorrhea, streptococcal pharyngitis, staphylococcal infections, brucellosis, and sepsis and septic shock ... Brucellosis Collection. 1987. Spink, Wesley William (January 1978). Infectious Diseases: Prevention and Treatment in the ...
Brucellosis is another prominent malady. In an observational study, the seroprevalence of this disease was generally low (2 to ... Brucellosis is caused by different biotypes of Brucella abortus and B. melitensis. Other internal parasites include Fasciola ... Abbas, B.; Agab, H. (2002). "A review of camel brucellosis". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 55 (1): 47-56. doi:10.1016/S0167- ...
Brucellosis affects almost all mammals. It is distributed worldwide, while fishing and pollution have caused porpoise ... "Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2: 3. doi:10.3389/fcimb. ...
In domesticated cattle, brucellosis causes infertility, abortions, and reduced milk production. It is transmitted to humans as ... "Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison" (PDF). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, USDA. Archived from the original (PDF) ... "Brucellosis Detected in Wyoming Elk Hunt Area". The Cheyenne Post. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 9 November 2022. Retrieved 10 November ... Though bison are more likely to transmit the disease to other animals, elk inadvertently transmitted brucellosis to horses in ...
Gentamicin and doxycyclin if brucellosis.[citation needed] "monocytosis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Rice, Lawrence; Jung, ... Diseases that produce such a chronic inflammatory state:[citation needed] Infections: tuberculosis, brucellosis, listeriosis, ...
This is the so-called brucellosis. Meyer never just stayed in the laboratory. He wanted to put his expertise to practical use, ... Meyer contributed significantly to the understanding of the broad spectrum of the disease forms of Brucellosis. He suggested ...
The fever was renamed after Bruce, as brucellosis. The MFC managed to find cure and ways to eradicate the fever, but had a hard ... Wyatt, Harold Vivian (October 2005). "How Themistocles Zammit found Malta Fever (brucellosis) to be transmitted by the milk of ... Vassallo, D. J. (21 September 1996). "The saga of brucellosis: controversy over credit for linking Malta fever with goats' milk ... 1 (2): 4-18.[permanent dead link] Republished in Vivian Wyatt, Harold (2015). "Brucellosis and the Maltese goats in the ...
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease: marine mammal brucellosis can infect other species, including human beings. B. ceti is a ... There have been four confirmed cases of humans becoming infected with marine mammal brucellosis. Cetacean specific brucellosis ... Brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises can result in serious clinical signs including fetal abortions, male infertility, ... Only a small portion of those with Brucella ceti have overt clinical signs of brucellosis indicating that many have the ...
Horses can also carry brucellosis and thousands were mustered in the far north in the 1980s under the Brucellosis-Tuberculosis ... Animal Health Australia (2005). Disease strategy: Bovine brucellosis (version 3.0). Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan ( ...
He died in February 1999 from brucellosis. 1968 - Göteborg, Ullevi - 13th - 3pts 1973 - Borås (with Dag Lövaas) - 5th - 17pts ( ...
Brucellosis is a notable bacterial disease of Hector's and Māui dolphins that can cause late pregnancy abortion in terrestrial ... Brucellosis has been determined from necropsies to have killed both Hector's and Māui dolphins and to have caused reproductive ... Buckle, K (2017). "Brucellosis in Endangered Hector's Dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori)". Veterinary Pathology. 54 (5): 838- ...
Its type strain is BO1T (=BCCN 09-01T =CPAM 6436T). It is a potential cause of brucellosis. Scholz, H. C.; Nockler, K.; Gollner ...
... administered AgResults Brucellosis vaccine prize competition. He is a member of the Management Board of the Medical Research ... ". "AgResults.org - $30 Million Brucellosis Vaccine Prize". Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 21 April ...
Barton also studied Paragonimiasis, Leishmaniasis, and Brucellosis. He had a son named Hugo Andres Vizcarra Barton. He was ...
Diagnosing Brucellosis. Brucellosis can be diagnosed in a laboratory by finding bacteria in samples of blood, bone marrow or ... Learn which Brucella species, the bacteria that cause brucellosis, more commonly infect humans and animals. ...
Porcine brucellosis (agent US) Bovine brucellosis (agent AA) Caprine brucellosis (agent AM) Agent US was in advanced ... Brucellosis of sheep or goats has never been reported. Brucellosis of pigs does occur. Feral pigs are the typical source of ... Brucellosis in the intervertebral disc is one possible cause of discospondylitis. Symptoms of brucellosis in dogs include ... Journal archive "Brucellosis". mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved June 5, 2022. "Brucellosis". mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic ...
Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. ... Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. ... Brucellosis is rare in the United States. About 100 to 200 cases occur each year. Most cases are caused by the Brucella ... Brucellosis. In: Ryan ET, Hill DR, Solomon T, Aronson NE, Endy TP, eds. Hunters Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious ...
Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the bacterial genus Brucella. The bacteria are transmitted from animals to humans ... Brucellosis is generally uncommon in infants. The international literature suggests that brucellosis may be more common in ... encoded search term (Brucellosis) and Brucellosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... This complication of acute brucellosis does not usually resolve with anti-brucellosis treatments, although such treatments may ...
Brucellosis. CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travel-Associated Infections & Diseases Author(s): María Negrón, Rebekah Tiller, Grishma ... Travelers brucellosis can be caused by B. suis or B. canis infection because certain travelers might have contact with animal ... CDC website: Brucellosis. The following authors contributed to the previous version of this chapter: María E. Negrón, Rebekah ... Invasive human brucellosis infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of raw ...
Brucellosis: Although risk of infection from mares milk is low in Germany, BfR still recommends heat treatment 245.9 KB. ... Anthrax, rabbit fever and brucellosis: How can the population be better protected from highly pathogenic bacteria in food? ... Brucellosis: discovered more than 100 years ago and still a hot topic ...
Azoospermia, Brucellosis, Granulomas, Infertility, Prostatitis, Sperm, Theriogenologist, Merry Fitzgerald DVM, Health ... bronchitis, Brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, canine distemper, Canine influenza, colds, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, flu ... anti-fungal ketoconazole, Brucellosis, cyclophosphamide, epididymitis, fucosidosis, morphology, orchitis, PCD, primary ciliary ...
The extent of different T cell subsets imbalanced and their function dysregulated in patients with brucellosis remain not ... These results indicate that peripheral T lymphocyte immunity was involved in patients with brucellosis and represents a target ... IL-17A and IL-17F are the main effector molecules of Th17 cells [25-29]. The expression of IL-17A in patients with brucellosis ... Brucellosis is considered to be a zoonotic disease with a high disability rate and great harm, which seriously threatens public ...
Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. The incidence of brucellosis in developing ... Blood culture test results were positive for brucellosis, confirming the diagnosis of brucellosis. After oral anti-infection ... Brucellosis in China: history, progress and challenge. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9:55. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] ... Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019;33. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in ...
Viewpoints @ Brucellosis Vaccine Prize launch: Why a vaccine is important Posted on 2016-07-05 ... GALVmed and AgResults announced the launch of the Brucellosis Vaccine Initiative, a US $30 million prize competition aimed at ... incentivising animal health companies to develop a vaccine against brucellosis to be used mainly in developing countries. ...
Brucellosis is a very serious disease in animals and people and drinking raw milk should be discouraged as the risks of ... Recently a case of brucellosis was diagnosed in a Texas man from drinking raw milk from a licensed raw milk dairy. Brucellosis ... Brucellosis is a very serious disease in animals and people and drinking raw milk should be discouraged as the risks of ... Other animals commonly affected with brucellosis include sheep, goats, pigs and others. The disease can also cause fistulous ...
We can explain the high prevalence of brucellosis in this study by the fact that the control of brucellosis is insufficient in ... Vaccination against brucellosis in cattle is still forbidden in Algeria. Raw milk and milk products are widely consumed by the ... Brucellosis is considered the most important of the zoonoses in the Mediterranean region and its economic impact is great [1-3 ... Brucellosis is widely regarded as an insidious disease, demanding the most thorough care in diagnosis. No single test is ...
... - noun (plural brucelloses) Etymology: New Latin Date: 1930 infection with or disease caused by brucellae … New ... brucellosis. bruceliozė statusas T sritis apsauga nuo naikinimo priemonių apibrėžtis Sunki užkrečiamoji nekontaktinė liga. ... brucellosis - [bro͞o΄sə lō′sis] n. [< ModL, after Sir David Bruce (1855 1931), Scot physician + OSIS] a disease, esp. in ... brucellosis - /brooh seuh loh sis/, n. Pathol., Vet. Pathol. infection with bacteria of the Brucella genus, frequently causing ...
Kaplan, Martin M. "WHO progress in brucellosis" 1951, no. 8 (1951). Kaplan, Martin M. "WHO progress in brucellosis" vol. 1951, ... Title : WHO progress in brucellosis Personal Author(s) : Kaplan, Martin M. Corporate Authors(s) : Communicable Disease Center ( ... Kaplan, Martin M. (1951). WHO progress in brucellosis. 1951(8). ...
A false claim about China leaking a new virus called Brucellosis has been going viral on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, ... The claim made by The Tatva India and shared by many is that Brucellosis is a "new virus" that was leaked by a Chinese Lab. ... The Brucellosis outbreak was caused by a leak at a biopharmaceutical company last year. The leak took place when the company ... Based on the studies by WHO, CDC and Department of Microbiology, Belgaum, brucellosis is a bacterial disease and not a viral ...
Females aged 24 months or older were randomly selected in each farm and diagnosed with brucellosis by serial serology (AAT and ... A cross-sectional study on the epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis was carried out in the state of Tocantins to ... Effect of vaccination on the apparent prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the state of Tocantins, Brazil / Efeito da vacinação ... In addition, animal replacement remains a major risk factor for bovine brucellosis in Tocantins since 20022003; therefore, the ...
Brucellosis. Brucellosis is a contagious disease of livestock with significant economic impact. The disease is caused by ... Other Resources and Materials on Brucellosis. *Animal disease information on Brucellosis. *The Center for Food Security and ... The incidence of Brucellosis is very high in China and India.. In our region, Japan, Australia and New Zealand are believed to ... Brucellosis in cattle (B. abortus), in sheep and goats (B. melitensis) and in swine (B. suis) are diseases listed in the World ...
Brucellosis is rare in the United States. About 100 to 200 cases occur each year. Most cases are caused by the Brucellosis ... Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. ... If there are complications from brucellosis, you will likely need to take the drugs for a longer period. ... is the most important way to reduce the risk of brucellosis. People who handle meat should wear protective eyewear and clothing ...
Access Brucellosis (Brucella spp.) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Brucellosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Brucellosis Symptoms of brucellosis can begin 5 days to several months after people are exposed to Brucella ... Prevention of Brucellosis The best way to prevent brucellosis is to avoid eating undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Brucellosis: A resource providing information about brucellosis, including ...
... so patient history is critical to the identification of brucellosis. ... Once brucellosis has been confirmed, start treatment immediately to prevent chronic infection. Treatment for brucellosis is ... Visit the CDCs brucellosis website or consult the CDCs brucellosis reference guide for more information on the different ... Its not every day that you see a case of brucellosis in your practice. The disease is rare in the United States, with only ...
... please contact canine brucellosis test. Other Canine products are available in stock. Specificity: Canine Category: Brucellosis ... The Canine Brucellosis Tests reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase ... Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the canine brucellosis tests reagents distributed by Genprice. ...
Bundara Downs has always maintained a high standard of animal health with OJD and Brucellosis accreditation, Hypotrichosis and ...
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Laboratory techniques in brucellosis / G. G. Alton, Lois M. Jones & D. E. Pietz. by Alton, G. G , Jones, Lois M , Pietz, D. E ... Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory / G. G. Alton ... [et al.] by Alton, G. G , Institut national de la recherche ... Joint FAO/WHO Expert Panel on Brucellosis : report on the first session, Washington, D.C., 6-13 November 1950. by Joint FAO/WHO ... Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Brucellosis [meeting held in Lima from 9 to 14 October 1957] : third report. by Joint FAO/WHO ...
Brucellosis is a major healthcare issue in Mongolia for both, humans as well as lifestock farming, leading to ... enormous ... The feasibility of developing immunological and molecular diagnostic tools for routine diagnosis of brucellosis under ...
Topic: Brucellosis. (Please note that the documents listed below are sorted by date.). Human Exposure to Brucella abortus ...
Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.. Last ... Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher ... Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast. ... The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above ...
Considering the importance of this study, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in Kohgiluyeh ... Introduction: Brucellosis is a common infectious disease between humans and livestock, which can cause severe economic and ... Spondylodiskitis Associated with Epidural Abscess Due to Brucellosis A Case Of Brucellosis Lymphadenitis Mimicking ... Brucellosis is a common infectious disease between humans and livestock, which can cause severe economic and health damage to ...
the battle against human brucellosis is very much. dependent on the control and eventual eradication of. animal brucellosis. ... Medicines, teaches us more about brucellosis. This is. a costly disease that has both economic and health. implications to ...
  • Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gul HC, Erdem H. Brucellosis ( Brucella species). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interest in brucellosis has been increasing because of the growing phenomena of international tourism and migration, in addition to the potential use of Brucella as a biological weapon. (medscape.com)
  • Travelers' brucellosis can be caused by B. suis or B. canis infection because certain travelers might have contact with animal populations infected with these Brucella species (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Three isolates were identified from 105 blood samples from humans with brucellosis and 50 samples of milk and tissues from infected cows and they were all Brucella melitensis biovar 3. (who.int)
  • Brucellosis - An infectious disease due to the bacteria Brucella that causes rising and falling (undulant) fevers, sweats, malaise, weakness, anorexia, headache, myalgia (muscle pain) and back pain. (en-academic.com)
  • brucellosis - noun infection by the bacterium, Brucella, which is carried by ruminants. (en-academic.com)
  • According to the World Health Organisation ( WHO), Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the Brucella group. (thequint.com)
  • Brucellosis (Brucella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of brucellosis can begin 5 days to several months after people are exposed to Brucella bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although brucellosis is mainly a bacterial disease of animals, several species of Brucella bacteria are known to cause disease in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: To better understand farm ers' knowledge, attitudes and practices associated with brucellosis we interviewed 51 farm ers and tested 314 goats for Brucella melitensis. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast. (sciensano.be)
  • Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1-8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5-5.0). (who.int)
  • Studies conducted in the past have shown high seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy personnel in contact with infected animals, especially in the states of Haryana and Gujarat. (thequint.com)
  • Tsegay A, Tuli G, Kassa T, Kebede N. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo export abattoir, Central Ethiopia. (ejgm.org)
  • Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. (who.int)
  • Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. (who.int)
  • Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 5 ] Familiarity with the manifestations of brucellosis and knowledge of the optimal laboratory studies are essential for the recognition of this reemerging zoonosis. (medscape.com)
  • Over 500,000 new human cases of brucellosis-a bacterial zoonosis-are reported worldwide each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Brucellosis is a zoonosis highly infectious for humans causing a disease often called undulant fever or Malta fever, since it was first recognized in Malta during the 1850s. (woah.org)
  • Brucellosis is an acute, subacute or chronical disease , from the zoonosis group, caused by various types of bacteria belonging to genus Brucellae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Humans are accidental hosts, but brucellosis continues to be a major public health concern worldwide and is the most common zoonotic infection. (medscape.com)
  • Brucellosis is considered to be a zoonotic disease with a high disability rate and great harm, which seriously threatens public health. (hindawi.com)
  • Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and a major public health problem. (figshare.com)
  • Recently a case of brucellosis was diagnosed in a Texas man from drinking raw milk from a licensed raw milk dairy. (vin.com)
  • It's not every day that you see a case of brucellosis in your practice. (medscape.com)
  • those who don't receive treatment for brucellosis can develop serious disease that can affect their lives and persist for years. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment for brucellosis is typically a combination of doxycycline and rifampin for at least 6 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Various clinical manifestations of brucellosis infection]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brucellosis has been recognized in animals and humans since the early 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brucellosis in humans is usually associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and soft cheeses made from the milk of infected animals-often goats-infected with B. melitensis, and with occupational exposure of laboratory workers, veterinarians, and slaughterhouse workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Overall findings support that brucellosis poses an occupational risk to goat farmers with specific areas of concern including weak awareness of disease transmission to humans and lack of knowledge on specific safe farm practices such as quarantine practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canine brucellosis can spread to humans by close contact to vaginal secretions, aborted puppies, or urine from infected dogs. (medscape.com)
  • Brucellosis is a common infectious disease between humans and livestock, which can cause severe economic and health damage to the community. (ejgm.org)
  • As the disease can be transmitted between animals and humans, the battle against human brucellosis is very much dependent on the control and eventual eradication of animal brucellosis. (international-animalhealth.com)
  • The majority of respondents demonstrated important gaps in knowledge on disease transmission in animals and knowledge of human brucellosis was particularly limited with just over half (54%) reporting that humans could become infected. (cdc.gov)
  • Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. (sciensano.be)
  • The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. (sciensano.be)
  • Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle. (sciensano.be)
  • and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. (who.int)
  • Based on previous research and estimates provided from the Thai national brucellosis surveillance system, zero seropositivity was less than expected. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of brucellosis relies on:[citation needed] Demonstration of the agent: blood cultures in tryptose broth, bone marrow cultures: The growth of brucellae is extremely slow (they can take up to two months to grow) and the culture poses a risk to laboratory personnel due to high infectivity of brucellae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definite diagnosis of brucellosis requires the isolation of the organism from the blood, body fluids, or tissues, but serological methods may be the only tests available in many settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis is based on culture, serologic techniques, or both. (medscape.com)
  • A cross-sectional study on the epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis was carried out in the state of Tocantins to evaluate the effectiveness of its vaccination program. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brucellosis is a bacterial disease of cattle that was very common in Texas 50 years ago but is now rarely found due to vaccination and testing. (vin.com)
  • Amid the COVID-19 outbreak, now several thousand people in northwest China have tested positive for brucellosis, a bacterial disease, the authorities confirmed last week. (thequint.com)
  • Based on the studies by WHO, CDC and Department of Microbiology, Belgaum, brucellosis is a bacterial disease and not a viral disease. (thequint.com)
  • Brucellosis can be diagnosed in a laboratory by finding bacteria in samples of blood, bone marrow or other bodily fluids. (cdc.gov)
  • Inform the laboratory that brucellosis is suspected when submitting blood, bone marrow, or other clinical specimens for culture because the bacteria take longer to grow, and laboratory personnel require additional personal protective equipment when handling the clinical specimens and culture. (cdc.gov)
  • Anthrax, rabbit fever and brucellosis: How can the population be better protected from highly pathogenic bacteria in food? (bund.de)
  • Most cases are caused by the Brucellosis melitensis bacteria. (zdrav.kz)
  • People can also acquire brucellosis if they have contact with infected dogs, deer, moose, buffalo, or other animals or if they inhale airborne particles containing the bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Data about the prevalence of brucellosis in animals are incomplete and cover only a small proportion of the national livestock. (who.int)
  • Thus, continuing the vaccination program in the state is recommended, preferably increasing the quality of the processes involved, from commercialization to inoculation in animals, since immunization remains the most effective means to reduce the prevalence of brucellosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the importance of this study, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in 2017. (ejgm.org)
  • The focalizations of brucellosis occur usually in bones and joints, and osteomyelitis or spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine accompanied by sacroiliitis is very characteristic of this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ability helps explain why brucellosis is a systemic disease and can involve almost every organ system. (medscape.com)
  • Brucellosis is a very serious disease in animals and people and drinking raw milk should be discouraged as the risks of developing disease are not worth taking the chance. (vin.com)
  • Although steady progress is being made in brucellosis control in this region, serious difficulties remain due the complexity of the epidemiology of the disease. (who.int)
  • Many diseases are endemic in the studied species (brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, tuberculosis, rabies) and the main clinical signs of several diseases are diarrhoea, abortion, lameness and respiratory problems. (who.int)
  • The US Centre for Disease Control (CDC), in its analysis , has said that human-to-human transmission of the disease is extremely rare and the mortality rate due to the Brucellosis is close to 2 percent. (thequint.com)
  • Brucellosis is a contagious disease of livestock with significant economic impact. (woah.org)
  • But when you do encounter brucellosis, it's vitally important to order the right tests so that you can diagnose properly and treat the disease promptly with appropriate antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • By planning properly and timely, you can prevent the disease, complications and dangers of brucellosis. (ejgm.org)
  • Although predominantly Mediterranean Brucellosis is a worldwide spread disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • Brucellosis is one of the most easily acquired laboratory infections, and strict safety precautions should be observed when handling cultures and heavily infected samples, such as products of abortion. (woah.org)
  • People at increased risk of getting brucellosis include laboratory workers and people who may handle infected animals or animal tissue, including meat packers, veterinarians, hunters, farmers, and livestock producers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Approximately 70%-75% of US brucellosis cases reported annually to CDC are due to the bacterial species B melitensis and B abortus . (medscape.com)
  • Brucellosis remains under-diagnosed in India and is often treated with medications for the symptoms. (thequint.com)
  • When you suspect brucellosis, getting a thorough medical history is an important first step because symptoms can develop anywhere from 5 days to 6 months after exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosing brucellosis cannot be done by symptom presentation alone because initial symptoms are nonspecific and resemble those of other febrile illnesses. (medscape.com)
  • Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. (who.int)
  • Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. (who.int)
  • GALVmed and AgResults announced the launch of the Brucellosis Vaccine Initiative, a US $30 million prize competition aimed at incentivising animal health companies to develop a vaccine against brucellosis to be used mainly in developing countries. (galvmed.org)
  • Most of these cases are associated with consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (such as raw milk and cheese) while travelling internationally to places where brucellosis is endemic in animals. (medscape.com)
  • Females aged 24 months or older were randomly selected in each farm and diagnosed with brucellosis by serial serology (AAT and 2-ME). (bvsalud.org)
  • infection among cattle in western Algeria, to evaluate a number of serological tests and to discuss some epidemiological aspects of brucellosis. (who.int)
  • Brucellosis is considered the most important of the zoonoses in the Mediterranean region and its economic impact is great [1-3]. (who.int)
  • Brucellosis is rare in the United States, Canada, and Europe but is more common in the Middle East, the Mediterranean, Mexico, and Central America. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Canine Brucellosis Tests reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (peoriaobserver.com)
  • The serum agglutination test was positive in respect to brucellosis , the titre ranged from 180 to 11280. (bvsalud.org)
  • Drinking and eating only pasteurized dairy products, such as milk and cheeses, is the most important way to reduce the risk for brucellosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brucellosis is acquired mainly by having contact with infected animals or by consuming unpasteurized contaminated milk or other dairy products or undercooked contaminated meat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices associated with brucellosis among small-scale goat farm ers in Thailand. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives: This study aimed to identify occupational risk factors for brucellosis among small scale goat farm ers in Thailand. (cdc.gov)
  • Brucellosis in cattle (B. abortus), in sheep and goats (B. melitensis) and in swine (B. suis) are diseases listed in the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH, founded as OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and must be reported to the organisation (for updates to the Code). (woah.org)
  • Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the canine brucellosis tests reagents distributed by Genprice. (peoriaobserver.com)
  • To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact canine brucellosis test. (peoriaobserver.com)
  • Findings from this study contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of brucellosis in Thailand by identifying specific occupational risk factors and describing areas where farm er education and training should be strengthened. (cdc.gov)
  • Although domesticated animals are of particular importance, brucellosis is also found in wild animals that exist in herds (eg, bison or elk in North America and wild boar in Germany). (medscape.com)
  • Other animals commonly affected with brucellosis include sheep, goats, pigs and others. (vin.com)
  • therefore, the state must implement a strong health education program explaining to farmers the importance of testing animals for brucellosis before introducing them into their herds. (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidemiology of brucellosis in Shahr-e- Kord during the years 2010 to 2014. (ejgm.org)
  • Osteoarticular involvement is the most common brucellosis complication, as is reproductive system involvement. (cdc.gov)
  • In a report published in South China Morning Post , a professor at Yangzhou University's College of Veterinary Medicine, Zhu Guoqiang, said that in severe cases, brucellosis could cause lasting damage to the reproductive system. (thequint.com)
  • The global burden of human brucellosis remains enormous. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 60% of human brucellosis cases in the United States now occur in California, Texas, Arizona, and Florida. (medscape.com)
  • Human Brucellosis and Its Complications. (ejgm.org)
  • However, the genetic mechanism of brucellosis in sheep remains unclear. (figshare.com)
  • Finally, 19 brucellosis-resistant group (BRG) sheep and 22 brucellosis-susceptible group sheep (BSG) were screened for whole-genome sequencing. (figshare.com)
  • These findings provide valuable molecular markers for brucellosis resistance breeding in sheep and novel insights into the genetic mechanism of brucellosis resistance. (figshare.com)
  • If there are complications from brucellosis, you will likely need to take the medicines for a longer period. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When concurrent with lumbar vertebra infection and erosion, brucellosis can easily be misdiagnosed as prostate cancer with bone metastasis. (wjgnet.com)
  • Once brucellosis has been confirmed, start treatment immediately to prevent chronic infection. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, 25%-30% of brucellosis cases are due to B suis and almost all are diagnosed in people who hunt and slaughter feral swine. (medscape.com)
  • Although rare, endocarditis can occur and is the principal cause of death among patients with brucellosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Boyer Ahmad city has the highest rate with 107 cases and Bahmei city with the least amount of brucellosis in 9 cases. (ejgm.org)
  • Less than 5% of people with brucellosis die, usually when the brain, meninges, or heart valves are infected. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Asia and the Pacific region, there are 3 WOAH Reference Laboratories for Brucellosis situated in China, Korea (Rep. of) and Thailand, respectively. (woah.org)
  • The extent of different T cell subsets imbalanced and their function dysregulated in patients with brucellosis remain not explicit. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that peripheral T lymphocyte immunity was involved in patients with brucellosis and represents a target for the preclinical and clinical assessment of novel immunomodulating therapeutics. (hindawi.com)
  • In our previous studies [ 10 ], we systematically evaluated the changes of T lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of patients with brucellosis by meta-analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • The results showed that the frequency of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with brucellosis were significantly lower than those of healthy controls, and the frequency of CD8+ T lymphocytes was higher than that of healthy controls. (hindawi.com)
  • There are few or no reports on the expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg-related T cell subsets and PD-1 in patients with brucellosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Information about 300 patients with brucellosis, collected from April to July 1996, was collected. (ejgm.org)
  • In order to collect data from a researcher-made list, data collection for brucellosis patients was used. (ejgm.org)
  • 2 patients developed brucellosis. (who.int)