A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
Family of parasitic MITES, in the superfamily Sarcoptoidea, order Astigmata. Genera include Psoroptes and Chorioptes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.

Epitope mapping of the Brucella melitensis BP26 immunogenic protein: usefulness for diagnosis of sheep brucellosis. (1/18)

Sequencing of bp26, the gene encoding the Brucella sp. immunogenic BP26 periplasmic protein, was performed in the reference strains of Brucella abortus, B. suis, and B. ovis. The three bp26 sequences were almost identical to that published for B. melitensis 16M bp26, and only minor nucleotide substitutions, without modifying the amino acid sequence, were observed between species. The bp26 genes of the seven B. abortus biovar reference strains and B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains were also sequenced. Again, only minor differences were found. Surprisingly, the bp26 nucleotide sequence for B. abortus S19 was almost identical to that found for B. melitensis 16M and differed from the sequence described previously by others (O. L. Rossetti, A. I. Arese, M. L. Boschiroli, and S. L. Cravero, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:165-169, 1996) for the same B. abortus strain. The epitope mapping of BP26, performed by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA techniques, allowed the identification of an immunodominant region of the protein interesting for the diagnosis of B. melitensis and B. ovis infection in sheep. A recombinant fusion protein containing this region of BP26 reacted indeed, in Western blotting, as the entire recombinant BP26 against sera from B. melitensis- or B. ovis-infected sheep while it avoided false-positive reactions observed with sera from Brucella-free sheep when using the entire recombinant BP26. Thus, use of this recombinant fusion protein instead the entire recombinant BP26 could improve the specific serological diagnosis of B. melitensis or B. ovis infection in sheep.  (+info)

Lack of evidence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in Quebec. (2/18)

A study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Estrie and Bas-Saint-Laurent regions (Quebec). Rams sera (n = 258) were serologically evaluated from 224 rams in 30 commercial flocks and from 34 rams at 2 slaughterhouses by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Epididymides and testes were examined by palpation on farms and microscopically for culled rams. No ram was seropositive to Brucella ovis or had lesions suggestive of brucellosis from the farm or slaughterhouse surveys.  (+info)

Subcellular fractions of Brucella ovis distinctively induce the production of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interferon-gamma in mice. (3/18)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3 Brucella ovis subcellular protein fractions: Outer membrane (OMP), inner membrane (IMP), and cytoplasm (CP), on cellular immune response by in vitro production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Each fraction was inoculated 3 times into Balb/c mice, primary cultures of mice spleen cells were done, and these were then stimulated with the fractions. Culture supernatants were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h postinoculation. Cytokine concentration was measured by Duoset-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The OMP fraction induced highest cellular immune response of 1000 pg/mL of IL-2 at 24 h, which decreased to < 100 pg/mL by 96 h. The IL-2 response for the IMP fraction was low at 24 h, but exceeded that of the OMP fraction at 72, 96, and 120 h. The CP showed a poor IL response. Regarding the IFN-gamma production, OMP and IMP induced a high response at 120 h. These results open the possibility for the use of B. ovis outer and inner membrane proteins as a subcellular vaccine.  (+info)

A DNA vaccine coding for the Brucella outer membrane protein 31 confers protection against B. melitensis and B. ovis infection by eliciting a specific cytotoxic response. (4/18)

The development of an effective subunit vaccine against brucellosis is a research area of intense interest. The outer membrane proteins (Omps) of Brucella spp. have been extensively characterized as potential immunogenic and protective antigens. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the B. melitensis Omp31 gene cloned in the pCI plasmid (pCIOmp31). Immunization of BALB/c mice with pCIOmp31 conferred protection against B. ovis and B. melitensis infection. Mice vaccinated with pCIOmp31 developed a very weak humoral response, and in vitro stimulation of their splenocytes with recombinant Omp31 did not induced the secretion of gamma interferon. Splenocytes from Omp31-vaccinated animals induced a specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activity, which leads to the in vitro lysis of Brucella-infected macrophages. pCIOmp31 immunization elicited mainly CD8(+) T cells, which mediate cytotoxicity via perforins, but also CD4(+) T cells, which mediate lysis via the Fas-FasL pathway. In vivo depletion of T-cell subsets showed that the pCIOmp31-induced protection against Brucella infection is mediated predominantly by CD8(+) T cells, although CD4(+)T cells also contribute. Our results demonstrate that the Omp31 DNA vaccine induces cytotoxic responses that have the potential to contribute to protection against Brucella infection. The protective response could be related to the induction of CD8(+) T cells that eliminate Brucella-infected cells via the perforin pathway.  (+info)

Vaccination with the recombinant Brucella outer membrane protein 31 or a derived 27-amino-acid synthetic peptide elicits a CD4+ T helper 1 response that protects against Brucella melitensis infection. (5/18)

The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant 31-kDa outer membrane protein from Brucella melitensis (rOmp31), administered with incomplete Freund's adjuvant, were evaluated in mice. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rOmp31 conferred protection against B. ovis and B. melitensis infection. rOmp31 induced a vigorous immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, with higher IgG1 than IgG2 titers. In addition, spleen cells from rOmp31-immunized mice produced interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon, but not IL-10 or IL-4, after in vitro stimulation with rOmp31, suggesting the induction of a T helper 1 (Th1) response. Splenocytes from rOmp31-vaccinated animals also induced a specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activity, which led to the in vitro lysis of Brucella-infected macrophages. In vitro T-cell subset depletion indicated that rOmp31 immunization elicited specific CD4+ T cells that secrete IL-2 and gamma interferon, while CD8+ T cells induced cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activity. In vivo depletion of T-cell subsets showed that the rOmp31-elicited protection against B. melitensis infection is mediated by CD4+ T cells while the contribution of CD8+ T cells may be limited. We then evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a known exposed region from Omp31 on the Brucella membrane, a peptide that contains amino acids 48 to 74 of Omp31. Immunization with the synthetic peptide in adjuvant did not elicit a specific humoral response but elicited a Th1 response mediated by CD4+ T cells. The peptide in adjuvant induced levels of protection similar to those induced by rOmp31 against B. melitensis but less protection than was induced by rOmp31 against B. ovis. Our results indicate that rOmp31 could be a useful candidate for the development of subunit vaccines against B. melitensis and B. ovis.  (+info)

CGHScan: finding variable regions using high-density microarray comparative genomic hybridization data. (6/18)

BACKGROUND: Comparative genomic hybridization can rapidly identify chromosomal regions that vary between organisms and tissues. This technique has been applied to detecting differences between normal and cancerous tissues in eukaryotes as well as genomic variability in microbial strains and species. The density of oligonucleotide probes available on current microarray platforms is particularly well-suited for comparisons of organisms with smaller genomes like bacteria and yeast where an entire genome can be assayed on a single microarray with high resolution. Available methods for analyzing these experiments typically confine analyses to data from pre-defined annotated genome features, such as entire genes. Many of these methods are ill suited for datasets with the number of measurements typical of high-density microarrays. RESULTS: We present an algorithm for analyzing microarray hybridization data to aid identification of regions that vary between an unsequenced genome and a sequenced reference genome. The program, CGHScan, uses an iterative random walk approach integrating multi-layered significance testing to detect these regions from comparative genomic hybridization data. The algorithm tolerates a high level of noise in measurements of individual probe intensities and is relatively insensitive to the choice of method for normalizing probe intensity values and identifying probes that differ between samples. When applied to comparative genomic hybridization data from a published experiment, CGHScan identified eight of nine known deletions in a Brucella ovis strain as compared to Brucella melitensis. The same result was obtained using two different normalization methods and two different scores to classify data for individual probes as representing conserved or variable genomic regions. The undetected region is a small (58 base pair) deletion that is below the resolution of CGHScan given the array design employed in the study. CONCLUSION: CGHScan is an effective tool for analyzing comparative genomic hybridization data from high-density microarrays. The algorithm is capable of accurately identifying known variable regions and is tolerant of high noise and varying methods of data preprocessing. Statistical analysis is used to define each variable region providing a robust and reliable method for rapid identification of genomic differences independent of annotated gene boundaries.  (+info)

Improved immunogenicity of a vaccination regimen combining a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella melitensis outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and recombinant Omp31 boosting. (7/18)

In the present study, we report an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of the Omp31 antigen by a DNA prime-protein boost immunization regimen. We immunized BALB/c mice with an Omp31 DNA vaccine (pCIOmp31) followed by boosting with recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and characterized the resulting immune responses and the protective efficacy against Brucella ovis and B. melitensis infection. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a titers were higher in sera from pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized mice than in sera from mice immunized with pCIOmp31 or rOmp31 alone. Splenocytes from pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized mice produced significantly higher levels of gamma interferon than did those from mice given rOmp31 alone. In contrast, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production levels were comparable between the two groups of immunized mice. Cells from all immunized mice produced undetectable levels of IL-4. Notably, rOmp31 stimulated IL-10 production in the pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized group but not in the pCIOmp31- or rOmp31-immunized group. Although the prime-boost regimen induced specific cytotoxic responses, these responses could not reach the levels achieved by the pCIOmp31 immunization. In conclusion, pCIOmp31 priming followed by rOmp31 boosting led to moderately improved protection against a challenge with B. ovis or B. melitensis.  (+info)

Role of the Omp25/Omp31 family in outer membrane properties and virulence of Brucella ovis. (8/18)

The genes coding for the five outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the Omp25/Omp31 family expected to be located in the outer membrane (OM) of rough virulent Brucella ovis PA were inactivated to evaluate their role in virulence and OM properties. The OM properties of the mutant strains and of the mutants complemented with the corresponding wild-type genes were analyzed, in comparison with the parental strain and rough B. abortus RB51, in several tests: (i) binding of anti-Omp25 and anti-Omp31 monoclonal antibodies, (ii) autoagglutination of bacterial suspensions, and (iii) assessment of susceptibility to polymyxin B, sodium deoxycholate, hydrogen peroxide, and nonimmune ram serum. A tight balance of the members of the Omp25/Omp31 family was seen to be essential for the stability of the B. ovis OM, and important differences between the OMs of B. ovis PA and B. abortus RB51 rough strains were observed. Regarding virulence, the absence of Omp25d and Omp22 from the OM of B. ovis PA led to a drastic reduction in spleen colonization in mice. While the greater susceptibility of the Deltaomp22 mutant to nonimmune serum and its difficulty in surviving in the stationary phase might be on the basis of its dramatic attenuation, no defects in the OM able to explain the attenuation of the Deltaomp25d mutant were found, especially considering that the fully virulent Deltaomp25c mutant displayed more important OM defects. Accordingly, Omp25d, and perhaps Omp22, could be directly involved in the penetration and/or survival of B. ovis inside host cells. This aspect, together with the role of Omp25d and Omp22 in the virulence both of B. ovis in rams and of other Brucella species, should be thoroughly evaluated in future studies.  (+info)

'Brucella ovis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Brucella. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen that primarily causes contagious epididymitis and orchitis in rams (male sheep), leading to infertility and decreased flock productivity.

This bacterial species is host-adapted, meaning it mainly affects sheep and goats, and does not typically cause disease in humans. However, there have been rare cases of laboratory-acquired infections in people working with infected animals or their tissues.

'Brucella ovis' infection control measures include proper sanitation practices, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and vaccination programs for susceptible animal populations to minimize transmission and disease spread.

'Brucella' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that are causative agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease with various clinical manifestations in humans and animals. The bacteria are primarily hosted by domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese.

There are several species of Brucella, including B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis, which primarily infect different animal hosts but can also cause disease in humans. The bacteria have a unique ability to survive and replicate within host cells, such as macrophages, allowing them to evade the immune system and establish chronic infection.

Human brucellosis is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and sweats, which can make diagnosis challenging. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, to eradicate the infection. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, vaccination of animals, and use of personal protective equipment when handling animals or their products.

Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species, which are gram-negative coccobacilli. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most common way for humans to contract brucellosis is through consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat, from infected animals like goats, sheep, and cattle.

Humans can also acquire the infection through direct contact with infected animals, their tissues, or bodily fluids, especially in occupational settings like farming, veterinary medicine, or slaughterhouses. In rare cases, inhalation of contaminated aerosols or laboratory exposure can lead to brucellosis.

The onset of symptoms is usually insidious and may include fever, chills, night sweats, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The infection can disseminate to various organs, causing complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, orchitis, and epididymoorchitis.

Diagnosis is confirmed through blood cultures, serological tests, or molecular methods like PCR. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline combined with rifampin or streptomycin. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption. Vaccination is available for high-risk populations but not for general use due to the risk of adverse reactions and potential interference with serodiagnosis.

'Brucella abortus' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the causative agent of brucellosis, also known as Bang's disease in cattle. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and is typically acquired through contact with infected animal tissues or bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or drink, or inhalation of infectious aerosols.

In cattle, 'Brucella abortus' infection can cause abortion, stillbirths, and reduced fertility. In humans, it can cause a systemic illness characterized by fever, sweats, malaise, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, brucellosis can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and neurological symptoms.

Prevention measures include vaccination of cattle, pasteurization of dairy products, and implementation of strict hygiene practices in occupational settings where exposure to infected animals or their tissues is possible. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, and may require hospitalization in severe cases.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

'Brucella melitensis' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the primary cause of brucellosis in humans. It is a zoonotic pathogen, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and is typically found in goats, sheep, and cattle.

Humans can become infected with 'Brucella melitensis' through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or drink (such as unpasteurized milk or cheese), or inhalation of infectious aerosols.

The infection can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and swelling of the lymph nodes. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as endocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological disorders.

Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, cooking meat thoroughly, wearing protective clothing when handling animals or their tissues, and vaccination of at-risk populations. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, and may require hospitalization in severe cases.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Actinobacillosis is a bacterial disease caused by the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria Actinobacillus spp. This disease primarily affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and swine, causing symptoms such as abscesses, respiratory distress, and lameness. In rare cases, actinobacillosis can also affect humans, particularly those who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

In humans, actinobacillosis typically manifests as a localized infection of the skin or mucous membranes, although it can also cause more widespread systemic infections. Symptoms may include fever, chills, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and painful abscesses or ulcers at the site of infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any abscesses.

It is important to note that actinobacillosis is a relatively rare disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of this infection in individuals who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

A Brucella vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against brucellosis, an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The most commonly used vaccine is the Brucella melitensis Rev-1 strain, which is administered to sheep and goats to prevent the spread of the disease to humans through contaminated food and animal contact.

The Brucella vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce a protective response against the bacteria. When the vaccinated animal encounters the actual bacterial infection, their immune system is better prepared to fight it off and prevent the development of clinical disease.

It's important to note that the Brucella vaccine is not approved for use in humans due to the risk of severe side effects and the possibility of causing a false positive result on brucellosis diagnostic tests. Therefore, it should only be administered to animals under the supervision of a veterinarian.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that belongs to the order Rickettsiales. It is the etiological agent of ovine anaplasmosis, which primarily affects sheep and goats. The bacteria infect and replicate within the host's erythrocytes (red blood cells), causing clinical signs such as anemia, jaundice, weight loss, and abortion in pregnant animals. Transmission typically occurs through tick vectors, with the most common vector being Ixodes ricinus in Europe and Ixodes holocyclus in Australia.

In humans, Anaplasma ovis is not known to cause disease, and there are no reports of human infection or illness associated with this bacterium. However, other species within the Anaplasma genus, such as A. phagocytophilum and A. platys, can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively.

It is essential to consult a medical or veterinary professional for accurate information regarding specific pathogens and their associated diseases.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

'Brucella canis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Brucella. It is the causative agent of brucellosis in dogs, also known as canine brucellosis. This disease primarily affects the reproductive system of dogs, causing infertility, abortion, and stillbirths.

Transmission of 'Brucella canis' typically occurs through contact with infected placental material, vaginal discharges, semen, or urine from infected animals. It can also be spread through contaminated objects such as bedding or feeding dishes. The bacterium can survive in the environment for extended periods, increasing the risk of transmission.

In addition to reproductive issues, 'Brucella canis' infection can cause other health problems in dogs, including lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), discospondylitis (inflammation of the spinal column), and uveitis (inflammation of the eye). Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or culture of infected tissues. Treatment can be challenging due to the bacterium's ability to survive within host cells, and antibiotic therapy may need to be prolonged.

While 'Brucella canis' infection is not common in humans, it can cause a flu-like illness that may progress to more severe symptoms such as endocarditis or neurological disorders. Therefore, individuals who handle infected dogs or their tissues should take appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of transmission.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Brucellosis, bovine is a bacterial infection caused by Brucella abortus that primarily affects cattle. It can also spread to other animals and humans through direct contact with infected animals or ingestion of contaminated food or drink. In animals, it causes abortion, reduced milk production, and weight loss. In humans, it can cause fever, sweats, headaches, joint pain, and weakness. Human infections are rare in countries where milk is pasteurized and proper sanitation measures are in place. It is also known as undulant fever or Malta fever.

Psoroptidae is a family of mites that are primarily parasites of mammals, including sheep, goats, cattle, and horses. The most common species in this family is Psoroptes ovis, also known as the sheep scab mite. These mites cause a condition called psoroptic mange or sheep scab, which is characterized by intense itching, scratching, and the formation of crusty lesions on the skin. The mites feed on skin cells and bodily fluids, leading to significant discomfort and potential secondary infections in their hosts. Psoroptic mange is a highly contagious condition that can spread rapidly among animals in close contact.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

A domestic sheep (Ovis aries) is not a medical term, but it is an animal species that humans keep and breed for a variety of purposes, including meat, wool, and milk production. While the term "sheep" may appear in medical contexts, such as in discussions of zoonotic diseases (diseases transmissible between animals and humans), the specific definition you are looking for is not medical in nature. Domestic sheep are social herbivores that prefer to eat short grasses and can be found in various parts of the world. They have been domesticated for thousands of years, making them one of the earliest animals to be domesticated by humans.

  • Along with Brucella melitensis, it is responsible for causing ovine brucellosis, which is a notifiable disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of the bacteria that cause brucellosis - Brucella abortus , Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis - are designated as select agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis are gram-negative pathogens of sheep that cause severe economic losses and, although B. ovis is non-zoonotic, B. melitensis is the main cause of human brucellosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brucellosis is a worldwide extended disease caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella that has a severe impact on animal and human health [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brucellosis (Brucella spp. (visavet.es)
  • Bacteria of the genus Brucella are the causative agents of brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis that affects a broad range of mammals, including livestock and humans. (mgc.ac.cn)
  • considering the importance of knowledge of ovine brucellosis pathogenesis, few papers published and the growing of ovine culture in Brazil, the aim of this work is correlate the histopathologic lesions of genital organs to serologic response, B. ovis isolation in semen, urine and organs and clinical symptoms of these animals evaluating them as a source of infections to the herd. (fapesp.br)
  • But not only bovine brucellosis ( Brucella abortus ), there has also been an increase in Brucella ovis , which primarily affects sheep, as well as a few incidents of Brucella melitensis , which causes Malta fever in humans. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Brucellosis in dairy cows is a chronic zoonotic infectious disease caused by Brucella. (ballyabio.com)
  • Brucellosis in dogs is usually overlooked and yet there is extensive contact between humans and their pets.Objective: This study investigated brucellosis in children and dogs using a confirmatory serological testing series that screens for three Brucella sp.Methods: Residual blood samples from malaria smear-negative febrile children were collected and tested for Brucella sp and malaria parasite. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using Brucella abortus Strain 19 (S19) to control bovine brucellosis is restricted due to induce antibodies to the O-side chain of the smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which may be difficult to differentiate vaccinated and infected animals. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The pathology of brucellosis reflects the outcome of the battle between the host genome and the Brucella genome. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The genus Brucella consists of six classic species, designated on the basis of host preference, antigenic and biochemical characteristics as Brucella melitensis (goats and sheep), Brucella abortus (cattle), Brucella suis (pigs), Brucella canis (dogs), Brucella ovis (sheep) and Brucella neotomae (wood rats). (mgc.ac.cn)
  • 2002. The Brucella suis genome reveals fundamental similarities between animal and plant pathogens and symbionts. (mgc.ac.cn)
  • 2005. Completion of the genome sequence of Brucella abortus and comparison to the highly similar genomes of Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis . (mgc.ac.cn)
  • The AsurDx TM Brucella Ovis Antibody Test Kit (Sheep) is designed for the detection of antibodies specific to Brucella ovis (B. ovis) in sheep serum and plasma . (biostoneah.com)
  • Sheep Blood products may be contaminated with a Brucella species (B. ovis). (fda.gov)
  • Description: Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Sheep Brucella Kit in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids. (chipab.com)
  • At present, more than 60 kinds of livestock, poultry, and wild animals are known to be the host of Brucella and are highly infectious to sheep, cattle, horses, and pigs. (ballyabio.com)
  • Blasco J.M., Garin-Bastuji B., Marín C., Gerbier G., Fanlo J., Jiménez De Bagués M., Cau C., Efficacy of different Rose Bengal and Complement Fixation antigens for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis in sheep and goats, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Jiménes De Bägues M.P., Marín C., Blasco J.M., Moriyón I., Gamazo C., An Elisa with Brucella lipopolysaccharide antigen for the diagnosis of B. melitensis infection in sheep and for the evaluation of serological responses following subcutaneous or conjuntival B. melitensis strain Rev 1 vaccination, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Mahajan N.K., Kulshreshtha C.L., Comparison of serological tests for Brucella melitensis infection in sheep, Trop. (vetres.org)
  • Marín C., Jimenéz de Bagüés M.P., Barberán M., Blasco J.M., Comparison of two selective media for the isolation of Brucella melitensis from naturally infected sheep and goats, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Marin C.M., Alonso-Urmeneta B., Moriyón I., Pérez-Gómez S., Blasco J.M., Comparison of polyclonal, monoclonal and Protein G peroxidase conjugates in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis in sheep, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Ten species are recognized within the genus Brucella . (hindawi.com)
  • A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. (harvard.edu)
  • A commercial biotyping system (Taxa Profile™, Merlin Diagnostika) testing the metabolization of various substrates by bacteria was used to determine if a set of phenotypic features will allow the identification of members of the genus Brucella and their differentiation into species and biovars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The comprehensive testing of metabolic activity allows cluster analysis within the genus Brucella . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of our study was to develop a miniaturised semi-automated system for the reliable identification of members of the genus Brucella and the differentiation of its species based on comprehensive metabolic activity testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2008. Genome sequence of Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19 compared to virulent strains yields candidate virulence genes. (mgc.ac.cn)
  • The biotyping system developed for the identification of Brucella and differentiation of its species and biovars may replace or at least complement time-consuming tube testing especially in case of atypical strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A biotyping assay useful for Brucella identification and species differentiation must consequently be able to identify the rising number of upcoming new species as well as single atypical strains which do not fit within the pre-existing scheme [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brucella is a tiny globular polymorphic bacterium with slightly convex or straight edges, blunt rounded ends, negative Gram staining, no flagella, no spore formation, and virulent strains can have capsules. (ballyabio.com)
  • After confirming their attenuation and protection against B. ovis in mice, were tested in rams for efficacy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All H38Δ wbkF vaccinated rams developed a protracted antibody response in ELISA and immunoprecipitation B. ovis diagnostic tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. ovis causes alterations in the reproductive tract of rams. (visavet.es)
  • Epididymal lesions of B. ovis-infected rams were histologically classified into early and advanced. (visavet.es)
  • Our animals are every year tested for Brucella melitensis, Meadi-visna and rams for Brucella ovis. (romanovsheep.info)
  • Ficapal A., Alonso-Urmeneta B., Velasco J., Moriyón I., Blasco J.M., Diagnosis of Brucella ovis Infection of rams with an ELISA using Protein G conjugate, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • 2005. Whole-genome analyses of speciation events in pathogenic Brucellae . (mgc.ac.cn)
  • 2011. Interactions of the human pathogenic Brucella species with their hosts. (mgc.ac.cn)
  • Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Exposure to most species of Brucella , such as those associated with certain types of animals, could potentially lead to infection. (cdc.gov)
  • So far, seven species of Brucella have been identified. (ballyabio.com)
  • Brucellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that can infect many species of animals and man. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on specific and stable reactions a 96-well " Brucella identification and typing" plate (Micronaut™) was designed and re-tested in 113 Brucella isolates and a couple of closely related bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to their typical metabolic profiles a differentiation of Brucella isolates to the species level could be achieved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. melitensis carries a smooth (S) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with an N-formyl-perosamine O-polysaccharide (O-PS) that is absent in the rough LPS of B. ovis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. melitensis cells have a surface smooth (S)-type lipopolysaccharide (LPS) made of a lipid A-core oligosaccharide linked to an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide (O-PS) that carries the epitopes relevant in S Brucella serodiagnostic tests [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lipopolysaccharide core of Brucella abortus acts as a shield against innate immunity recognition. (ijbiotech.com)
  • 5. Zygmunt MS, Blasco JM, Letesson JJ, Cloeckaert A, Moriyon I. DNA polymorphism analysis of Brucella lipopolysaccharide genes reveals marked differences in O-polysaccharide biosynthetic genes between smooth and rough Brucella species and novel species-specific markers. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Characterization of Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide and core lipopolysaccharide mutants and demonstration that a complete core is required for rough vaccines to be efficient against Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis in the mouse model. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Species and biovar classification of brucellae is historically based on natural host preference and phenotypic traits, i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brucella abortus depends on pyruvate phosphate dikinase and malic enzyme but not on Fbp and GlpX fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases for full virulence in laboratory models. (harvard.edu)
  • ELISA showed positive results in three wild boars from two areas (28.5%) with any Brucella-positive ticks. (visavet.es)
  • Description: The Brucella IgG Antibody ELISA Test Kit has been designed for the the detection and the quantitative determination of specific IgG antibodies against Brucella in serum and plasma. (chipab.com)
  • Alice: Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-brucella ovis em ovinos Santa Inês no municíio de Frei Paulo, Sergipe. (embrapa.br)
  • Their control and eradication require vaccination, but B. melitensis Rev 1, the only vaccine available, triggers anti-O-PS antibodies that interfere in the S-brucellae serodiagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, the only vaccine available for the immunoprophylaxis of B. melitensis and B. ovis is B. melitensis Rev 1, a live-attenuated S strain that elicits antibodies to the O-PS that interfere in B. melitensis serodiagnostic tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complementation of Brucella abortus RB51 with a functional wboA gene results in O-antigen synthesis and enhanced vaccine efficacy but no change in rough phenotype and attenuation. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Kittelberger R., Diack D.S., Vizcaíno N., Zigmunt M.S., Cloeckaert A., Characterization of an immuno-dominant antigen in Brucella ovis and evaluation of its use in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Brucella abortus and Pregnancy in Mice: Impact of Chronic Infection on Fertility and the Role of Regulatory T Cells in Tissue Colonization. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification of protective outer membrane antigens of Brucella ovis by passive immunization of mice with monoclonal antibodies. (iransolarium.com)
  • 2002. The genome sequence of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis . (mgc.ac.cn)
  • B Lymphocytes provide an infection niche for intracellular bacterium Brucella abortus. (harvard.edu)
  • Since these vaccinal antibodies encumber B. melitensis eradication and surveillance and this zoonotic species is a priority, Rev 1 is banned after B. melitensis eradication, and the same reasons make Rev 1 unsuitable for use in B. melitensis -free countries but yet affected by B. ovis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since eradication and serological surveillance of the zoonotic species are priorities, Rev 1 is banned once B. melitensis is eradicated or where it never existed, hampering B. ovis control and eradication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagnostic must associate bacteriology and serology.B. ovis pathogenesis has not been studied recently. (fapesp.br)
  • The isolate was cultured onto Brucella Agar (BBL™, UK) for 4 days at 37 °C and later transferred into Brucella broth (BBL™, UK) and was further incubated at 37 °C for another 4 days in an orbital shaker incubator (YIH-DER LM-510, Taiwan). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cellular response in B. ovis lesions was predominantly T lymphocytes (CD3+), while there were low numbers of B lymphocytes and plasma cells (CD79cy+). (visavet.es)
  • Brucella ovis is a Gram-negative coccobacillus from the Brucellaceae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two new brucella species, provisionally called B. pinnipediae and B. cetaceae , have been isolated from marine hosts within the past few years. (mgc.ac.cn)
  • Using commercially available rapid bacterial identification systems such as the API 20 NE ® (BioMerieux, Nürtingen, Germany) which include a restricted number of biochemical tests Brucella spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The wbkA gene, which is one of the LPS O-chain coding genes, was knocked out in vaccinal Brucella abortus S19. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Kittelberg R., Bundesen P.G., Cloeckaert A., Greiser-Wilke I., Letessen J.J., Serological cross-reactivity between Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolytica 0:9: evaluation of the M and C epitope antibody response for the specific detection of B. abortus infection, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Farrell I.D., The development of a new selective medium for the isolation of Brucella abortus from contaminated sources, Res. (vetres.org)
  • Altering the antigenic structure of S Brucella has been the preferred strategy to develop vaccines that circumvent the interference in S serological tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Logically, O-PS removal was the first choice and some R mutants have been investigated as B. ovis vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objective of this PhD Thesis has been to explore new aspects of the epidemiology, immune response, and pathology of Brucella infection in domestic and wild animals to implement both diagnosis and control of this disease. (visavet.es)
  • Work away from an enthusiastic atherogenic lipid profile after therapy of acute disease having Brucella. (totalprepespanol.com)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the brucella test done on a dog reagents distributed by Genprice. (iowaodes.com)