Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A type C phospholipase specific for GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. It plays a role in the breaking of GPI MEMBRANE ANCHORS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
"The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ...
"Topologic analysis of the epitopes of a variant surface glycoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei". The Journal of Immunology. 140: ... NMR analysis of the cross-reacting determinant glycan from Trypanosoma brucei brucei MITat 1.6 variant specific glycoprotein". ...
"A phospholipase C from Trypanosoma brucei which selectively cleaves the glycolipid on the variant surface glycoprotein". J. ... variant-surface-glycoprotein phospholipase C, 6-(alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol, and diacylglycerol-lyase ... "Mutagenesis study of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C of Trypanosoma brucei". Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 90 (2): ... "Tetramerization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Trypanosoma brucei". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (25): ...
One obstacle is variant surface glycoprotein which makes it difficult for the immune system to recognize the infectious ... There are two known subspecies that infect humans, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Eradication ... "T-Cell Responses to the Trypanosome Variant Surface Glycoprotein Are Not Limited to Hypervariable Subregions". Infect. Immun. ... Also, Trypanosoma brucei has a direct inhibitory effect upon B cells. One strategy may involve a vaccine against the initial ...
1993 June 3;363(6428):446-8. Matthyssens G et al., Two variant surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma brucei have a conserved C- ...
... of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). In the early stages of invasion, the VSG coat is sufficient to protect the parasite ... Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum are some of the best studied examples. ... Segments of the silent cassettes recombine with the vlsE gene, generating variants of the surface lipoprotein antigen.[7] ... "Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei: joining the DOTs". PLoS Biol. 6 (7): e185. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060185. PMC ...
"The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ...
The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ...
Boothroyd JC, Cross GA, Hoeijmakers JH, Borst P. A variant surface glycoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei synthesized with a C- ... Structure of a telomeric expression site for variant specific surface antigens in Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular & Biochemical ... Kooter JM, Borst P. Alpha-amanitin-insensitive transcription of variant surface glycoprotein genes provides further evidence ... Genomic environment of the expression-linked extra copies of genes for surface antigens of Trypanosoma brucei resembles the end ...
The cell surface of the bloodstream form features a dense coat of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) which is replaced by an ... The surface of the trypanosome is covered by a dense coat of ~5 x 106 molecules of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). This ... The mammalian bloodstream forms are notable for their cell surface proteins, variant surface glycoproteins, which undergo ... T. brucei brucei - Causes animal trypanosomiasis, along with several other species of Trypanosoma. T. b. brucei is not ...
"The glycoforms of a Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein and molecular modeling of a glycosylated surface coat". ... The gene repertoires in T. brucei have diverged to become strain-specific. The variant surface glycoprotein genes of T. brucei ... "Variant Surface Glycoprotein gene repertoires in Trypanosoma brucei have diverged to become strain-specific". BMC Genomics. 8: ... Å resolution structure of the N-terminal domain of a variant surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma brucei". Journal of ...
"Genomic environment of variant surface antigen genes of Trypanosoma equiperdum". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... along with Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma equiperdum has been discovered to be most closely linked to ... This parasite efficiently evades the host animal's immune system through the use of variable surface glycoproteins or VSGs. ... Trypanosoma equiperdum is one of three known strains from the Trypanosoma family; ...
Furthermore, trypanosomes are surrounded by a coat that is composed of variant surface glycoproteins (VSG). These proteins act ... Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes the diseases in west and central Africa, whereas Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense has a ... It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei. There are two types that infect humans, Trypanosoma brucei ... human for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and animals for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense). The risk of contracting African ...
"Co-infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DBA/1 mice through induction ... conformations on the surface of a molecule for B cells and pre-processed peptide fragments of proteins for T cells. However, ... linkages common to lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes on the glycoproteins of mammalian non-hematopoietic cells and organs[23] ...
... , or dourine (French, from the Arabic darina, meaning mangy (said of a female camel), feminine of darin, meaning dirty), is a disease of horses and other members of the family Equidae. The disease is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, which belongs to an important genus of parasitic protozoa, and is the only member of the genus that is spread through sexual intercourse. The occurrence of dourine is notifiable in the European Union under legislation from the OIE. There currently is no vaccine and although clinical signs can be treated, there is no cure. Trypanosoma equiperdum is one of three known strains from the Trypanosoma family; along with Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma equiperdum has been discovered to be most closely linked to Trypanosoma evansi, so much so that even observation under microscope is not sufficient to ...
Üks põhilik küsimus trypanosoma uurimisel on see, kuidas enamikku VSG geene hoitakse nii "vaikselt", ja kuidas neid geene ümber lülitatakse. Ekspresseeritud VSG on alati paigutatud ekspressioonitsooni - leidub suurte ja keskmiste kromosoomide telomeeridel. Sel ajal kui on vähemalt 20 tuntud ekspressioonitsooni, aktiivseks võib olla ainult üks neist. Selle protsessiga kaasuvad mitmed mehhanismid, kuid täpne geenide vaigistamise olemus ei ole veel selge.[9] VSG-d on võimalik ümber lülitada kas aktiivse ekspressiooni muutmisel (aktiivse kohta vahetamine varem vaiksele kohale) või VSG geeni vahetamisel aktiivses kohas. Genoom sisaldab palju võimalikke VSG geenide koopiaid, nii minikromosoomidel kui ka korduvates sektsioonides kromosoomide sisemuses. Need on peamiselt vaiksed, tüüpiliselt vahelejäänud sektorid või enneaegsed stoppkoodonid, kuid need on olulised uute VSG geenide evolutsioonis. Umbes 10% T. brucei genoomist võib koosneda VSG geenidest või ...
... , also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei. There are two types that infect humans, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (TbG) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (TbR). TbG causes over 98% of reported cases. Both are usually transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly and are most common in rural areas. Initially, in the first stage of the disease, there are fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains. This begins one to three weeks after the bite. Weeks to months later the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness and trouble sleeping. Diagnosis is via finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. A lumbar puncture is often needed to tell the difference between first and second stage disease. ...
... is a parasite species in the genus Trypanosoma. It causes the disease nagana, also known as animal trypanosomiasis, affecting cattle or wild mammals such as the nyala. It is mainly occurring in West Africa, although it has spread to South America. Symptoms of T. vivax include "rapid weight loss, lethargy, weakness, clumsiness, pale mucosa, swelling of superficial lymph nodes, anemia, and fluctuating pyrexia, causing[...]a drop in animal productivity." A novel proline racemase of medical and veterinary importance has been described in T. vivax (B8LFE4). The smallest variable surface glycoprotein (40 kDa in size) to date has been found in T. vivax, which bears little carbohydrate. It also produces vivapain, a cysteine peptidase. Batista JS, Rodrigues CM, García HA, Bezerra FS, Olinda RG, Teixeira MM, Soto-Blanco B (2011). "Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in cerebrospinal fluid in ...
Üks põhilik küsimus trypanosoma uurimisel on see, kuidas enamikku VSG geene hoitakse nii "vaikselt", ja kuidas neid geene ümber lülitatakse. Ekspresseeritud VSG on alati paigutatud ekspressioonitsooni - leidub suurte ja keskmiste kromosoomide telomeeridel. Sel ajal kui on vähemalt 20 tuntud ekspressioonitsooni, aktiivseks võib olla ainult üks neist. Selle protsessiga kaasuvad mitmed mehhanismid, kuid täpne geenide vaigistamise olemus ei ole veel selge.[9] VSG-d on võimalik ümber lülitada kas aktiivse ekspressiooni muutmisel (aktiivse kohta vahetamine varem vaiksele kohale) või VSG geeni vahetamisel aktiivses kohas. Genoom sisaldab palju võimalikke VSG geenide koopiaid, nii minikromosoomidel kui ka korduvates sektsioonides kromosoomide sisemuses. Need on peamiselt vaiksed, tüüpiliselt vahelejäänud sektorid või enneaegsed stoppkoodonid, kuid need on olulised uute VSG geenide evolutsioonis. Umbes 10% T. brucei genoomist võib koosneda VSG geenidest või ...
... , or dourine (French, from the Arabic darina, meaning mangy (said of a female camel), feminine of darin, meaning dirty), is a disease of horses and other members of the family Equidae. The disease is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum, which belongs to an important genus of parasitic protozoa, and is the only member of the genus that is spread through sexual intercourse. The occurrence of dourine is notifiable in the European Union under legislation from the OIE. There currently is no vaccine and although clinical signs can be treated, there is no cure. Trypanosoma equiperdum is one of three known strains from the Trypanosoma family; along with Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma equiperdum has been discovered to be most closely linked to Trypanosoma evansi, so much so that even observation under microscope is not sufficient to ...
The glycosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle that contains the glycolytic enzymes. The term was first used by Scott and Still in 1968 after they realized that the glycogen in the cell was not static but rather a dynamic molecule. It is found in a few species of protozoa including the Kinetoplastida which included the suborders Trypanosomatina and Bodonina, most notably in the human pathogenic trypanosomes, which can cause sleeping sickness and Chagas's disease, and leishmaniasis. The organelle is bounded by a single membrane and contains a dense proteinaceous matrix. It is believed to have evolved from the peroxisome. This has been verified by work done on Leishmania genetics. The glycosome is currently being researched as a possible target for drug therapies. Glycosomes are unique to kinetoplastids. The term glycosome is also used for glycogen-containing structures found in hepatocytes responsible for storing sugar, but these are not membrane bound organelles. Glycosomes are composed of ...
Professor Keith Gull CBE, FRS (born 29 May 1948) is a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow and Professor of Molecular microbiology at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford. He has been the principal of St Edmund Hall, Oxford since 1 October 2009, succeeding Michael Mingos. Gull was educated at Eston Grammar School and King's College London where he was awarded a first class Bachelor of Science degree in 1969 followed by a PhD in 1973. On completion of his PhD, he moved to a lectureship at the University of Kent. He held a personal chair at Kent when he moved to the University of Manchester where he spent the 1990s involved with the development of the School of Biological Sciences as Head of Biochemistry and Research Dean. He moved to Oxford in 2002. He was Chairman of the Biochemical Society (1999-2002), and is a trustee of Cancer Research UK. According to Google Scholar and Scopus his most cited peer-reviewed scientific papers are on Trypanosoma ...
Protozoa are largely defined by their method of locomotion, including flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia.[34] While there has been considerable debate on the classification of protozoa caused by their sheer diversity, in one system there are currently seven phyla recognized under the kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Loukozoa, Percolozoa, Microsporidia and Sulcozoa.[35][36] Protozoa, like plants and animals, can be considered heterotrophs or autotrophs.[32] Autotrophs like Euglena are capable of producing their energy using photosynthesis, while heterotrophic protozoa consume food by either funneling it through a mouth-like gullet or engulfing it with pseudopods, a form of phagocytosis.[32] While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction.[32] Protozoa with sexual capability include the pathogenic species Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei, Giardia ...
Protozoa are largely defined by their method of locomotion, including flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia.[33] While there has been considerable debate on the classification of protozoa caused by their sheer diversity, in one system there are currently seven phyla recognized under the kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Loukozoa, Percolozoa, Microsporidia and Sulcozoa.[34][35] Protozoa, like plants and animals, can be considered heterotrophs or autotrophs.[31] Autotrophs like Euglena are capable of producing their energy using photosynthesis, while heterotrophic protozoa consume food by either funneling it through a mouth-like gullet or engulfing it with pseudopods, a form of phagocytosis.[31] While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction.[31] Protozoa with sexual capability include the pathogenic species Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei, Giardia ...
... is a lipidation modification where a myristoyl group, derived from myristic acid, is covalently attached by an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue. Myristic acid is a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (14:0) with the systematic name of n-Tetradecanoic acid. This modification can be added either co-translationally or post-translationally. N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes the myristic acid addition reaction in the cytoplasm of cells. This lipidation event is common among many organisms including animals, plants, fungi, protozoans and viruses. Myristoylation allows for weak protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions and plays an essential role in membrane targeting, protein-protein interactions and functions widely in a variety of signal transduction pathways. In 1982, Koiti Titani's lab identified an "N-terminal blocking group" on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from cow as n-Tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in ...
Glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase 1 also known as myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020936 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Duronio RJ, Reed SI, Gordon JI (May 1992). "Mutations of human myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase cause temperature-sensitive myristic acid auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89 (9): 4129-33. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.4129. PMC 525646 . PMID 1570339. "Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1". Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). "N-myristoyltransferase". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). "Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. PMC 1083955 . ...
প্রয়োজনীয় তেল (Essential oil), নিকট্যান্থিন (nyctanthin), ডি-মানিটল (d-mannitol), ট্যানিন ও গ্লুকোজ (tannin and glucose), ক্যারোটিনয়েড (carotenoid), গ্লুকোসিডেজ (glycosides) যেমন- মনোজেন্টিওবায়োসিডেজ আলফা ক্রোদিটিনের এস্টার (β-monogentiobioside ester of α - crocetin or crocin-3), বিটা-মনোজেনোবায়োসাইড আলফা ক্রোসিটিন ক্যারোটিন এর বিটা-ডি মনোগ্লুকোসাইড এস্টার (β-monogentiobioside -β-D monoglucoside ester of α-crocetin), β-digentiobioside ester of α-crocetin (or crocin-1).. বীজ (Seeds): Arbortristoside A&B, Glycerides of linoleic oleic, lignoceric, stearic, palmitic and myristic acids, nyctanthic acid, 3-4 ...
Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein. WAYNE J. MASTERSON ... Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein ... Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein ... Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein ...
Crystallization of amino-terminal domains and domain fragments of variant surface glycoproteins from Trypanosoma brucei brucei ... Structure of variant surface glycoproteins from Trypanosoma b. brucei. Unknown, 1983. The release of variant surface ... Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. brucei gambiense, and T. brucei rhodesiense: common glycoproteins and glycoprotein ... The carbohydrate structures of Trypanosoma brucei brucei MITat 1.6 variant surface glycoprotein. A re-investigation of the C- ...
Kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of the GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei ... Kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of the GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei ... Kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of the GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei ... Kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of the GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei ...
variant surface glycoprotein. Introduction. Transcriptional control of the variant surface glycoprotein gene (VSG) expression ... Johnson JG and Cross GAM (1979) Selective cleavage of variant surface glycoproteins from Trypanosoma brucei. Biochem J, 178, ... Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein regulation involves coupled activation/inactivation and chromatin remodeling of ... The promoter for a variant surface glycoprotein gene expression site in Trypanosoma brucei. EMBO J, 9, 2791-2801. ...
... we have addressed the question of whether this structure directs the protein to the cell surface by a different pathway from ... where it is integrated into the surface coat. Treatment of trypanosomes with 1 microM monensin had no effect on VSG transport, ... a treatment that arrests intracellular transport from the trans-Golgi region to the cell surface in mammalian cells, caused the ... VSG is nevertheless subsequently transported along the classical intracellular route for glycoproteins, and is delivered to the ...
... DSpace/Manakin Repository. ... Identification of peptide mimotopes of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense variant surface glycoproteins. Van Nieuwenhove, L. C.; Rogé ... are based on native variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) of Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense. These native VSGs are ... Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Vectors. Tsetse flies. Glossina morsitans morsitans. Diagnosis. Antibody detection. Variants. ...
The variable domain of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) ILTat 1.24 has been shown by X-ray crystallography to ... The glycoforms of a Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein and molecular modeling of a glycosylated surface coat.. * ... Structural features affecting variant surface glycoprotein expression in Trypanosoma brucei.. *Jun Wang, Ulrike Böhme, George A ... Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense variant surface glycoprotein LiTat 1.5.. *Liesbeth Van Nieuwenhove, S. Benítez ...
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT); Trypanosoma brucei; Antigenic Variation; DNA Repair; Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) ... Spike glycoprotein, lentiviral vectors and B/T-cell vaccine. *The use of Artificial Intelligence Methods to Discriminate Covid- ... Spike glycoprotein, lentiviral vectors and B/T-cell vaccine. *The use of Artificial Intelligence Methods to Discriminate Covid- ...
The variant surface glycoprotein (VSGs) of Trypanosoma brucei are synthesized with a hydrophobic COOH-terminal peptide that is ... N2 - The variant surface glycoprotein (VSGs) of Trypanosoma brucei are synthesized with a hydrophobic COOH-terminal peptide ... AB - The variant surface glycoprotein (VSGs) of Trypanosoma brucei are synthesized with a hydrophobic COOH-terminal peptide ... Biosynthesis of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoproteins. N-Glycosylation and addition of a phosphatidylinositol ...
Identification of mimotopes with diagnostic potential for **Trypanosoma brucei gambiense** variant surface glycoproteins using ...
variant surface glycoprotein (VSG, atypical), putative [Trypanosoma brucei brucei TREU927]. 497 aa protein ... variant surface glycoprotein (VSG, atypical), putative [Trypanosoma brucei brucei TREU927]. 533 aa protein ... variant surface glycoprotein (VSG, atypical), putative [Trypanosoma brucei brucei TREU927]. 489 aa protein ... variant surface glycoprotein (VSG, atypical), putative [Trypanosoma brucei brucei TREU927]. 487 aa protein ...
Evaluating a novel methodology for sequencing expressed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes in Trypanosoma brucei. ...
Variant Surface Glycoprotein Diversification in Trypanosoma brucei. RAMIREZ, STEVE. HARVARD UNIVERSITY. Artificially Modulating ...
A similar gene is shared by both the variant surface glycoprotein and procyclin gene transcription units of Trypanosoma brucei. ... Differential RNA elongation controls the variant surface glycoprotein gene expression sites of Trypanosoma brucei. ... Trypanosoma brucei: enrichment by UV of intergenic transcripts from the variable surface glycoprotein gene expression site. ... in Trypanosoma brucei demonstrates a structural relationship with the N-terminal domain of the variant surface glycoprotein. ...
1991 Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei: a telomeric expression site for variant-specific surface glycoprotein genes ... 1995 A developmentally regulated position effect at a telomeric locus in Trypanosoma brucei. Cell 83: 555-561. ... as well as Drosophila and Trypanosoma, repress, or silence, the expression of nearby genes (Leviset al. 1985; Gottschlinget al. ...
Origins of variant surface glycoproteins in Trypanosoma brucei (Chapter). Jackson, A. P., & Barry, J. D. (2012). Origins of ... variant surface glycoproteins in Trypanosoma brucei. In D. L. Sibley, B. J. Howlett, & J. Heitman (Eds.), Evolution of ... Telomeric Expression Sites Are Highly Conserved in Trypanosoma brucei (Journal article). Hertz-Fowler, C., Figueiredo, L. M., ... Variant antigen repertoires in Trypanosoma congolense populations and experimental infections can be profiled from deep ...
"The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ...
Sheader K., Vaughan S., Minchin J., Hughes K., Gull K., Rudenko G. Variant surface glycoprotein RNA interference triggers a ... RNAi of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in BSF trypanosomes resulted in a rapid pre-cytokinesis block; 2N2K cells ... variant surface glycoprotein; FAZ, flagellum attachment zone; APC, anaphase promoting complex; MEN, mitotic exit network; FEAR ... Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. BMC Genom. 2005:6. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ...
"The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ...
Detection of Trypanosoma brucei Variant Surface Glycoprotein Switching by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting and Flow Cytometry ... Conformational Evaluation of HIV-1 Trimeric Envelope Glycoproteins Using a Cell-based ELISA Assay, The Use of the Ex Vivo ... Single-cell Quantitation of mRNA and Surface Protein Expression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected CD4+ T Cells Isolated ... Detection of Trypanosoma brucei Variant Surface Glycoprotein Switching by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting and Flow Cytometry. ...
"Topologic analysis of the epitopes of a variant surface glycoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei". The Journal of Immunology. 140: ... NMR analysis of the cross-reacting determinant glycan from Trypanosoma brucei brucei MITat 1.6 variant specific glycoprotein". ...
The bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei contains transcripts of at least four genes showing partial sequence homology to the ... A gene from the variant surface glycoprotein expression site encodes one of several transmembrane adenylate cyclases located on ... A gene from the variant surface glycoprotein expression site encodes one of several transmembrane adenylate cyclases located on ... A gene from the variant surface glycoprotein expression site encodes one of several transmembrane adenylate cyclases located on ...
... of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). In the early stages of invasion, the VSG coat is sufficient to protect the parasite ... Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum are some of the best studied examples. ... Segments of the silent cassettes recombine with the vlsE gene, generating variants of the surface lipoprotein antigen.[7] ... "Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei: joining the DOTs". PLoS Biol. 6 (7): e185. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060185. PMC ...
Variant surface glycoprotein gene expression site switches in Trypanosoma brucei. J Biol Chem. 1986 May 05; 261(13):6056-63. ... Conserved sequences and transcription of the hsp70 gene family in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Dec; 6(12):4657-66. ... or extracellular pH do not mediate P-glycoprotein-dependent multidrug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Oct 15; 90(20 ...
The TGSGP protein localizes to the flagellar pocket, and exhibits features compatible with a role as surface receptor. Here we ... We have previously identified TGSGP as a gene specific to the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense subspecies. TGSGP is a truncated VSG ... The transposition unit of variant surface glycoprotein gene 118 of Trypanosoma brucei. Presence of repeated elements at its ... A receptor-like flagellar pocket glycoprotein specific to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Mol Biochem Parasitol 113 : 127-138.. [ ...
  • However, the parasite's genome has over 1,000 genes that code for different variants of the VSG protein, located on the subtelomeric portion of large chromosomes , or on intermediate chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • T. brucei possesses a two-unit genome, a nuclear genome and a mitochondrial (kinetoplast) genome with a total estimated size of 35Mb/haploid genome. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • The T. brucei genome contains a ~0.5Mb segmental duplication affecting chromosomes 4 and 8, which is responsible for some 75 gene duplicates unique to this species. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Beowulf Genomics funded a pilot scheme to sequence chromosome Ia of T. brucei as a collaboration with Professor Keith Gull (University of Oxford) and Dr. Sara Melville (University of Cambridge) within the framework of the World Health Organisation T. brucei Genome Project. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • In April 2000, the Wellcome Trust, via its Beowulf Genomics Initiative, awarded more funding to the T.brucei genome project at the Sanger Institute to sequence chromosomes IX (3.5 Mb), X (4.4 Mb) and XI (5.2 Mb) in collaboration with Dr. Sara Melville and the WHO/TDR supported T. brucei Genome Network. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Annotation and curation of the whole T. brucei genome sequence is ongoing. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of whole chromosome-sized DNAs from the genome of T. brucei strain 927 resolves 2 "intermediate-sized" bands of ~350kb, representing 2, or possibly 4, intermediate chromosomes. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the 927 genome contains ~100 minichromosomes of 30 - ~150kb in size, which expand the parasite's repertoire of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • We used a targeted oligonucleotide microarray, representing the strongly developmentally-regulated T. brucei membrane trafficking system and ~10% of the Trypanosoma brucei genome, to investigate both between-stage, or differentiation-dependent, transcriptome changes and within-stage flexibility in response to various challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These locus-specific controls reveal compartmentalization of the T. brucei genome in terms of the DNA-damage response and suppression of antigenic variation by HAT3. (pasteur.fr)
  • Replacing the CRAM transmembrane domain with the invariant surface glycoprotein 65-derived transmembrane region did not affect the flagellar pocket location of CRAM. (asm.org)
  • In addition, recent advances have identified a role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in the uptake of the antitrypanosomal drug, suramin, via invariant surface glycoprotein 75, and in the uptake of trypanosome lytic factor 1 via haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor. (nih.gov)
  • In Trypanosoma brucei , considerable progress has been made over recent years in identifying molecular regulators of the cell cycle and elucidating their functions, although many regulators undoubtedly remain to be identified, and there is still a long way to go with respect to determining signal transduction pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A novel heterodimeric transferrin receptor encoded by a pair of VSG expression site-associated genes in T. brucei. (ac.be)
  • The endocytic activity of the flagellar pocket in Trypanosoma brucei is regulated by an adjacent phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, when CRAM was truncated between 29 and 40 amino acids from the C terminus, CRAM was not only distributed in the ER but also located to the flagellar pocket and spread to the cell surface and the flagellum. (asm.org)
  • Baron DM, Kabututu ZP, Hill KL (2007a) Stuck in reverse: loss of LC1 in Trypanosoma brucei disrupts outer dynein arms and leads to reverse flagellar beat and backward movement. (springer.com)