Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Housing, AnimalPerciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Paenibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
  • Dr. Soares, who specializes in neuroethology -- the neural underpinnings of animal behavior -- has lately discovered a kind of sixth sense unique to crocodilians, which are often referred to generically as crocodiles. (nytimes.com)
  • Fractal scaling is a common property of temporal change in various modes of animal behavior. (nature.com)
  • We found that a conserved behavioral modulator, cyclic GMP dependent kinase (PKG) may regulate the multifractal kinetics underlying an animal behavior. (nature.com)
  • To bridge the gap between macroscopic fractal animal activities and microscopic biochemical reactions in the neuromuscular networks of animals, it is effective to combine a kinetic modeling of animal activities based on fractal scaling with genetic analyses of animal behavior. (nature.com)
  • Clearly, genes significantly influence animal behavior. (biologyreference.com)
  • The foregoing observations and experiments, and many others like these, no longer leave room for doubt that genes significantly influence animal behavior. (biologyreference.com)
  • Researchers investigating animal behavior and community dynamics need to extract information from the hundreds of thousands of images we collect, but are currently overwhelmed by the large volume of data we have collect. (umn.edu)
  • The existence of a brood parasitic nestling in a host nest implies an intrusion in the parent-offspring communication system, which will have important implications in both food delivery by parents and food acquisition by nestlings. (springer.com)
  • First, I review mechanisms allowing brood parasitic nestlings to secure parental provisioning from unrelated caregivers, such as exaggerated begging, mimicry of host begging calls, emitting a begging call that stimulates a wide range of hosts, tuning the begging call in a way that optimizes food provisioning, mimicking the begging calls of a brood, integrating visual and vocal nestling displays and procuring host assistance at the nest. (springer.com)
  • Second, I review evidence showing that exaggerated begging behaviour exhibited by brood parasitic nestlings influences begging behaviour of their nestmates and food distribution decisions by foster parents. (springer.com)
  • Bolopo D, Canestrari D, Roldán M, Baglione V, Soler M (2015) High begging intensity of great spotted cuckoo nestlings favours larger-size crow nest mates. (springer.com)
  • Dearborn DC (1998) Begging behavior and food acquisition by brown-headed cowbird nestlings. (springer.com)
  • Both parents incubate, brood, and feed nestlings. (eol.org)
  • In a carefully researched study, scientists in Spain discovered that around 40 percent of European White Stork nestlings abandoned their parents partway through development and promptly snuck into a neighboring stork family's nest. (listverse.com)
  • Lack answered this question by performing the experiment of adding one or two nestlings to the nests of certain pairs so that, instead of the normal two or three young, they would have to rear four or five. (britannica.com)
  • After hatching, cygnets and other waterfowl nestlings like ducklings and goslings often stay inside the nest for up to 24 hours as their mother broods them to keep them safe and warm. (crookstontimes.com)
  • This means that over time the lightweight nest grows into a sturdy, potlike mound, sometimes incorporating unhatched eggs and mummies of dead nestlings. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • Once their chorus brings the food, however, the larger cowbirds hog more than their fair share, often eating more than 50 percent of the food with three nestlings in the nest. (vaildaily.com)
  • We used male behavioral cues (male singing softly and closely following a female collecting nesting material, male attempting to copulate with a female, male feeding an incubating female, and male feeding nestlings) to determine the social mate of the female. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They're a little farther from the nest center," where the larvae demand care, "and they also interact less with nestmates. (wired.com)
  • The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. (pnas.org)
  • The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment. (pnas.org)
  • Spawning and caring for the eggs and larvae takes place in these nests (see Burgess, 1987, 1989 for some photos). (tolweb.org)
  • Fourth-instar larvae possess five rows of anchor-tipped hairs on their dorsal side, and we predicted that these hairs functioned to attach larvae to the nest walls. (jove.com)
  • This confirmed that anchor-tipped hairs functioned to attach larvae to the walls of the nest. (jove.com)
  • The researchers found that smaller bees that emerge in a nest are dominated by their mothers. (innovations-report.com)
  • These small bees are more likely to stay and act as helping workers, while larger bees tend to depart and start new nests as egg-laying queens. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bees that emerge from cells, or brood chambers, that also house flies are smaller than their nest mates from fly-free cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The flies may encourage worker behavior in some bees. (innovations-report.com)
  • The bees are important pollinators of night-blooming plants and the female bees can nest alone or live in small colonies. (innovations-report.com)
  • Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers and guards are significantly smaller than the queen bee in a nest, although the relative size of individual bees varied from nest to nest. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here's where the flies apparently fit in and are affecting the bees' behavior. (innovations-report.com)
  • The bees nest in hollowed twigs and sticks hanging in the tropical understory and the flies flick their eggs into the entrance to the bee nests. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mites not only inhabit the dust bunnies under the bed, they also occupy the nests of tropical sweat bees where they keep fungi in check. (phys.org)
  • In the second step, triungulin aggregations display remarkable proficiency at enticing male bees to "inspect" (hovering within 1-10 cm of the aggregations for ≥2 s) and contact the aggregations (pseudocopulation) ( Fig. 1 B ). Upon contact with a bee, the triungulins attach to the male bee en masse. (pnas.org)
  • Experiments in which normal honeybees were crossed with bees that do not bring out their dead traced the behavior to two genes: one that induces workers to uncap the diseased cell, and the other that induces the insects to remove the diseased pupa. (biologyreference.com)
  • Honey bees deposit these plant resins in the nest as a form of cement, called propolis. (biologists.org)
  • When honey bees nest in tree cavities, they use propolis to coat the entire inner surface of the nest cavity, constructing a propolis envelope ( Seeley and Morse, 1976 ). (biologists.org)
  • However, honey bees do not construct a natural propolis envelope within standard beekeeping equipment because the inner walls of the wooden boxes are smooth and do not elicit propolis deposition behavior. (biologists.org)
  • The worker caste of honey bees includes nurse bees, which tend the brood, and forager bees, which collect nectar and pollen. (jove.com)
  • Forager bees that venture out to collect nectar and pollen have higher levels of some miRNAs in their brains than nurse bees that are devoted to tending to brood. (scienceblog.com)
  • Ben-Shahar chose the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) as his model organism for the genetic control of behavior because the worker bees display such well-characterized division of labor. (scienceblog.com)
  • Routes of Pesticide Exposure in Solitary, Cavity-Nesting Bees Kopit, Andi M;Pitts-Singer, Theresa L 2018-04-04 00:00:00 Abstract Declines of pollinator health and their populations continue to be commercial and ecological concerns. (deepdyve.com)
  • Considering our research expertise in advancing the management of solitary bees for crop pollination, this forum focuses on routes of pesticide exposure experienced by cavity-nesting bees, incorporating the relative importance of environmental contamination due to pesticide chemical behaviors. (deepdyve.com)
  • These are cavity-nesting bees of genera Megachile and Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) that can be easily purchased for crop pollination while they are in diapause, and later incubated to produce mature adults for pollination and nesting in artificial bee tunnels in the fields. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is generally assumed that this innate behavior is costly for the cuckoo chick, and that evicting more eggs requires greater effort and higher physiological costs. (springer.com)
  • Paleontologists have long looked for answers to the question of how dinosaurs incubated their eggs because of the scarcity of evidence for incubation behaviors. (redorbit.com)
  • Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. (pnas.org)
  • A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. (pnas.org)
  • Over the last three decades, numerous discoveries of eggs, embryos, and nesting sites have greatly increased our knowledge of the evolution of reproductive behavior in nonavian dinosaurs ( 1 , 2 ), including finds of brooding maniraptorans ( 3 , 4 ), eggs preserved in the body cavity of a mother ( 5 ), and vast "rookeries" ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Now, the results of a new study describing two fossil egg nests suggest that some dinosaurs used the same nesting sites again and again. (earthmagazine.org)
  • Dr. Brewster is a professor of Quantitative Ecology in the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech. He teaches several courses including Insect Behavior & Ecology , Research & Information Systems in the life Sciences , and Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. (easternapiculture.org)
  • Owing to its simple anatomy and the availability of a range of genetic tools, C. elegans is a powerful model organism for the study of the molecular bases of behavior. (nature.com)
  • While the host ants in New York are very aggressive and often successfully thwart slave raid attempts, the hosts in West Virginia profit more from the slave rebellion behavior because, as genetic analyses have shown, the neighboring colonies are more often close relatives to the rebelling slaves. (scienceblog.com)
  • Here we show that larval aggregations of the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus , which parasitize nests of the solitary bee Habropoda pallida , cooperate to exploit the sexual communication system of their hosts by producing a chemical cue that mimics the sex pheromone of the female bee. (pnas.org)
  • A debate raged throughout the twentieth century, and probably will continue, about the relative influences of heredity and experience on human behavior. (biologyreference.com)
  • Several characteristics distinguish these three genera, but possibly the most critical relates to reproductive behavior. (thefishsite.com)
  • The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. (pnas.org)
  • Osprey nests are often located near the water, built on tall structures like nesting platforms, utility poles and channel markers. (chesapeakebay.net)
  • Davies NB, Kilner RM, Noble DG (1998) Nestling cuckoos, Cuculus canorus , exploit hosts with begging calls that mimic a brood. (springer.com)
  • Altruistic behavior is expected in humans to one extent or another. (answersingenesis.org)
  • When, for example, an animal adopts an infant of another animal, it exhibits an evolution-defying altruistic behavior. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Something as simple as opening a door for someone or as big a commitment as adopting a child are examples of altruistic behavior in humans. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolutionists, since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Biological Altruism: Theories which Explain the Presence of Altruistic Behavior in Animals. (hubpages.com)
  • Well, according to evolutionary scientists altruism or altruistic behavior promotes the survival of a group. (hubpages.com)
  • Here he states that altruistic behavior promotes the survival of the group, however, such altruistic behavior creates problems for the theory of natural selection. (hubpages.com)
  • Nests of prairie dogs and several social insects can host millions of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects that exhibit the most complex nest building also exhibit the greatest social structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using examples from object optimization behavior in insects, we will argue that heuristics do not inevitably imply a lower computational burden or lower decision accuracy. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, insects make a variety of intricate nests and inhabitations that provide protection and even climate control ( Korb, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The available evidence suggests that natural selection more often favors specialization over flexibility in nest construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found no evidence that male nest attentiveness was affected by their expected opportunity to obtain extra-pair copulations - neither differences in male attractiveness due to tail-length manipulation (shortening or elonption) nor changes in the operational sex ratio affected the male's relative share of incubation duties. (lu.se)
  • More importantly, recent evidence of an avian behavior in a non-avian dinosaur led to the interpretation that a 130 millions years old basal troodontid (Xu and Norell, 2004) would have already acquired a homeothermic physiology. (scielo.br)
  • As predicted by the FPDH, the female cowbird mount elicited the most aggressive responses and the female cardinal mount the least aggressive, as measured by number of times more than one male redwing responded and number of times the male host attacked the mount, and by Principal Component Analyses yielding the highest redwing aggressive behavior and intimidation scores. (bioone.org)
  • The two groups differed only in behaviors that were a priori defined as responses to the novel object (latency to first feeding, time spent near the nest, and inspecting the novel object by hovering in front of it) indicating that mate-removal per se had no effect on female behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Eggs are laid in the nest, fertilized and collected by the female. (fishbase.org)
  • Both male and female are active in the selection of the nest site, which usually resides in poor or sandy soils with slight depressions. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
  • During copulation, the lark sparrow is unique in that the male will pass a twig to the female who then flies off to the nest site. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
  • On average, they have 4 eggs per brood and the female incubates for about a week and a half. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
  • They don't live in large beehives like the honeybee, but each female bee often builds multiple nests and feeds her offspring alone. (phys.org)
  • Now that the young are starting to fledge, the female will be off the nest more and she will forage for herself. (conservewildlifenj.org)
  • In the third step of the sequence, the triungulins transfer to the female bee when a male bee infested with triungulins copulates or simply makes contact in attempts to copulate with her ( Fig. 1 C ). Finally, in the fourth step, the female bee transports the triungulins to her nest, where they dismount to feed and develop on the nest's pollen and nectar provisions and the bee egg. (pnas.org)
  • When Lack removed the eggs laid each day from a pair's nest he discovered that the female could lay up to 72 or more eggs in a season. (britannica.com)
  • And when the female swan began testing out her nest-bowl with her body by sitting in it, she began using her neck like a long-reach excavator as she reached dredged up other vegetation with her beak to fortify and shape her nest just so. (crookstontimes.com)
  • During nest building, the female sits on the nest and makes a flimsy platform of straw, stems, and sticks from materials brought to her one at a time by the male. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • The male brings one twig or stem at a time to the female to build a nest. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • On 4 May, we observed a color-banded male (male 1) singing softly and closely following a color banded female as she collected nesting material. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The female was completing construction of a new nest as her previous nesting attempt with male 1 was depredated earlier that morning. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We did not observe any other male golden-cheeked warblers attempting to follow or copulate with this female while she was constructing the nest or laying eggs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Both male and female help build the nest in a tree, cliff ledge or occasionally on man-made structures. (sfzoo.org)
  • in the meantime the male brings food to the female who does most of the brooding. (sfzoo.org)
  • Both male and female guard the eggs which are attached to the surface of aquatic vegetation in a nest area (Ref. 46591 ). (mnhn.fr)
  • This bizarre imprisonment lasts until the brood is ready to fledge, and is thought to provide protection against nest predators. (listverse.com)
  • Both gilded flickers and Gila woodpeckers make these cavities for nesting, but they often choose different locations on the cactus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although they do not use them immediately, waiting first for the sap to harden, Gila Woodpeckers excavate cavities in cacti and trees as nesting sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nest (built by both sexes) is a bulky structure, with foundation of sticks supporting a loose cup of twigs, leaves, weeds, grass, bark fibers, lined with finer materials such as grass or rootlets. (audubon.org)
  • Nests are usually placed on outer reaches of branches in dense clusters of twigs and needles high in conifers. (borealbirds.org)
  • Therefore it stands to reason that a host's egg discrimination could be facilitated when hosts watch the researcher place an egg within their nest. (nature.com)
  • Both sexes often return to the previous year's nest territory, so re-pairings are common. (borealbirds.org)
  • The total percent of time that eggs were incubated (nest attentiveness) by both sexes declined through the day, largely due to a response to increasing temperature. (lu.se)
  • To elucidate the neural basis of honeybee behavior, we detected neural activity in freely-moving honeybee workers using an immediate early gene (IEG) that is expressed in a neural activity-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite identification of humoral factors and the completion of transcriptomic profiling, the neural mechanisms of social behaviors remain elusive. (mdpi.com)
  • Climate change and nesting behaviour in vertebrates: a review of the ecological effects and potential for adaptive responses. (bou.org.uk)
  • The standard protocol to test egg rejection abilities is to add a foreign egg into a host nest or manipulate a host egg(s) and record whether and how long it takes before the egg is rejected 6 , 7 . (nature.com)