Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Housing, AnimalPerciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Paenibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
"Behavior genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. IV. Responses of F1 and backcross generations to disease killed brood". ... Females nest together, possibly because those nesting alone have their eggs constantly destroyed by rivals. Even so, eggs are ... This is sometimes seen in pigs, a behavior known as savaging, which affects up to 5% of gilts. Similar behavior has been ... The genetics of this behavior are quite complex. Experiments by Rothenbuhler showed that the 'hygienic' behavior of the queen ...
Ruddy Ducks and other Stifftails: Their Behavior and Biology. 1996 (With M. Carbonell) The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at ... the Nest. 1997. Trogons and Quetzals of the World. 2000. Prairie Birds: Fragile Splendor in the Great Plains. 2001. The Nature ... Arena Birds: Sexual Selection and Behavior. 1994 This Fragile Land: A Natural History of the Nebraska Sandhills. 1995. ...
The brood chamber is also made up of multiple horizontal layers which allow for easy division of the brood comb. The nests are ... T. carbonaria sometimes displays a behavior known as a "fighting swarm" when a non-nest mate is encountered. Thousands of ... New cells are added to the brood by the advancing front. The nest cavity may be sealed off from adjoining cavities by a hard ... The young bees perform tasks within the nests, such as brood care. As they mature, they become foragers and their tasks are ...
Behavior and ecology. Breeding. They build nests in holes made in saguaro cacti or mesquite trees. Cavities ... 2-3 broods are laid a year. Both sexes incubate and feed eggs. ... Both gilded flickers and Gila woodpeckers make these cavities for nesting, but they often choose different locations on the ... Gila Woodpeckers excavate cavities in cacti and trees as nesting sites.. ...
Begging in animals
In this way, intra-brood synchronization of begging enables chicks to reduce their effort in begging. Begging behavior in ... nests. Ground-nesting birds are at a greater risk to predation than tree-nesting birds; nestlings of these species have higher ... 6] Rivers, J. (2008). "An investigation of factors influencing nestling begging behavior in a generalist brood parasite.". ... When an adult comes ashore, it approaches its nest site and gives a series of display calls. If not already at the nest site, ...
Varroa sensitive hygiene
The behavior involves the recognition of infested brood by nest cleaning bees (aged 15-18 days old). Mite-infested bee pupae ... reduction of the brood infestation rate by greater than 70%. The specifics of how hygienic bees detect mite infested brood ... Suppressed mite reproduction explained by the behavior of adult bees. Journal of Apicultural Research 44: 21-23. Ibrahim, A. G ... an abnormally low proportion of mites that produce offspring within the population that remains in capped brood and (2) ...
Worker bees are a part of the earlier broods brought forth by the queen. Their behavior as workers is influenced by the queen's ... L. cressoni is a eusocial species and bees of the Apoidae family tend to found nests in similar ways. Nests can be founded by ... L. cressonii have reproductive broods after the initial worker broods. Within these reproductive broods there will be females ... In this phase, queens will stop foraging and stay in the nest. The workers put pollen and nectar into the cells of the nest ...
Females typically brood their eggs during this time, exhibiting defensive behavior against smaller predators. Parental care ... Females often place nests in regions where soil moisture is higher than in adjacent areas. Vertical position of the nest also ... In communal nests, females may alternate foraging and guarding of the nests, leaving eggs protected at all times. Females may ... Females prefer secluded nest sites in large, moderately decayed logs. Soil moisture is also an important factor in nest ...
... with the nest located on ledges off the main chamber. Two white eggs are laid. The details of brooding behavior are not known. ... The nest is typically a shallow depression (made by the parents) in dry sand, usually lacking any materials or saliva, although ... The call is delivered both while in flight and while perched on the walls of the nesting cave. BirdLife International (2012). " ... The nests have usually been found in caves, ...
1980). Communal Nesting, Brooding Behavior, and Embryonic Survival of the Four-Toed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum. ... Solitary nesters lay and brood only their eggs. Communal nesting is normally one female brooding the eggs of two or more, up to ... 1998). Lack of Nest Defense Behavior and Attendance Patterns in a Joint Nesting Salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: ... About 1/3 of the nests of a population are joint nests, while between 50% and 70% of females lay their eggs in joint nests each ...
Inside the nest, the brood combs are constructed sequentially; these combs are removed as soon as the brood emerges from the ... brood care, colony maintenance, and provisioning. The queen influences the physiology and behavior of the workers, which are ... Their nests typically have a single entrance, which is long and narrow and penetrates deep into the nest. The nest cavity ... It prefers to nest close to the soil, in hollowed trunks or roots of trees. M. bicolor is a member of the tribe Meliponini, and ...
This behavior may help the guardian male by making his nest seem more attractive to females. Sunfish females prefer nests that ... The average brood size is approximately 15,000. Spotted sunfish are not expected to live longer than five years. Spotted ... When nest density is high a guardian male may fertilize nearby nests when the opportunity arises. Most nests in this study, 87 ... Spotted sunfish exhibit similar breeding behavior to other sunfishes. A single male guards a nest with multiple females. It is ...
Yerkes, T. (2000). "Nest-Site Characteristics and Brood-Habitat Selection of Redheads: An Association between Wetland ... Johnsgard, P.A. (1965). Handbook of Waterfowl Behavior. Ithaca (NY): Comstock Pub. Associates. ... Brood sizes range from 5-7 young, with the mother abandoning the chicks at 8 weeks old, before they are capable of flying. They ... Some redheads lay their eggs in other pochards' nests, including the canvasback, ring-necked duck and greater and lesser scaups ...
This behavior is curious, as perching outside a nest may alert predators of its location. The species does not gather with ... After brooding and until the young have fledged, the adult will no longer enter the nest and instead perches nearby, ... Males do not participate in the any part of nest building or brooding of the young, and disengage with female partners after ... Its nest is a hive-like structure made from moss and other organic materials, hung on the underside of a fern or tree. While ...
Yerkes, T. (2000). "Nest-Site Characteristics and Brood-Habitat Selection of Redheads: An Association between Wetland ... Johnsgard, P.A. (1965). Handbook of Waterfowl Behavior. Ithaca (NY): Comstock Pub. Associates.. ... Nesting. Once copulation is completed, female redheads begin forming nests. They are built with thick and strong plant ... Brood sizes range from 5-7 young, with the mother abandoning the chicks at 8 weeks old, before they are capable of flying. ...
Around this time, those females which assisted in nest foundation (if present) are driven from the nest by aggressive behavior ... Brood care and foraging behavior decline and worker numbers drop as dying individuals are no longer replaced by new ones. ... Their innate preferences for nest-building sites leads them to commonly build nests on human habitation, where they can be very ... Red paper wasp (Polistes annularis) nest Polistes sp. wasp on a nest Polistes wattii in Musandam Peninsula, Oman European ...
Interestingly, the type of nests can influence schedule of brood production. In linear nests, there is a limited time-window ... There are three forms of behavior that lead to polygynous behavior: female defense, resource defense, and male dominance ... Following they fully develop, the emerging bees may join the mother's nest, build a nest right next to the mother's nest, or ... a solitary female created a nest and made a brood consisting of three cells. The oldest daughter guarded the nest while the ...
... queens frequently nudge their nest mates and then burrow back down into the nest. This behavior draws workers into the ... Between approximately 0-40 days old, the workers perform tasks within the nest such as provisioning cell broods, colony ... The term "eusocial" was introduced in 1966 by Suzanne Batra who used it to describe nesting behavior in Halictine bees. ... Batra, Suzanne W. T. (Jan 1968). "Behavior of Some Social and Solitary Halictine Bees Within Their Nests: A Comparative Study ( ...
In contrast, reused nests have a dark coloration caused by the aging of pollen and nectar from the previous year's brood- ... Parasitization by I. schwarzi has multiple effects on the behavior of E. robusta. First, parasitized nests tend to have a ... The structure of the nest is also taken advantage of by this parasite. Because the brood is reared in a communal tunnel, ... Longer nests (which are older) are more likely to be parasitized. This may be due to the fact that an older nest simply has a ...
Unlike brood parasitism, the inquiline remains within the nest and typically its brood does not outnumber the host's brood. ... The behavior is unusual among ants but has evolved several times independently. Theft of brood for the purpose of employing the ... First, scouts individually search for potential host nests. When successful, the scout returns to its nest and recruits nest- ... Choice of a host species can occur both through the colony-founding behavior of queens and through the choice of target nests ...
This embryo, upon close examination, turned out be an Oviraptor; the original find represented Oviraptor brooding behavior ... In 2011, a nest of 15 young Protoceratops andrewsi was discovered in Mongolia. Stated as being the first Protoceratops nest ... Griffins were described as lion-sized quadrupeds with large claws and a raptor-bird-like beak; they laid their eggs in nests on ... The skull was crushed, and it was speculated that the injury was received by a Protoceratops mother defending her nest from the ...
House workers stay within the nest and are tasked with tending to the brood. They feed and incubate the brood. In select nests ... The polygynous nesting cycles lead to certain specific types of behavior including queen-queen aggression. Nests can also be ... Less dominant queens are often forced to the outside of the brood clump and sometimes are forced out of the nest/brood clump ... For those nests found on the ground, the brood comb is usually located in slight cavities a couple of centimeters below ground ...
They show opportunistic behavior in relation to nesting sites and the brood envelope, and present aggressive behavior like ... Like most bees the nests are made mostly of wax, and their brooding area containing the larvae of works, queen, and male are ... "Nesting Behavior and Colony Description of the Neotropical Bombus (Thoracobombus) brevivillus in Northeastern Brazil". Journal ... However, their nests can also be found below ground. The Bombus morio is a bumble bee, and thus shares certain features with ...
In white-fronted bee-eaters, this helping behavior is particularly well developed with helpers assisting in half of all nesting ... Non-breeding individuals become helpers to relatives and assist to raise their brood. ... White-fronted bee-eaters nest in colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging roosting and nesting holes in cliffs or banks of ... They nest in small colonies, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks but can usually be seen in low trees waiting for passing ...
Several oviraptorosaurian nests are known, with several oviraptorid specimens preserved in a brooding position over large ... Dinosaur Brooding Behavior and the Origin of Flight Feathers" Currie, Koppelhaus, Shugar, Wright. Indiana University Press. ... with the mother positioned in the center of the nest and rotating in a circle as each pair was laid. This behavior is supported ... Originally these animals were thought to be egg raiders, based on a Mongolian find showing Oviraptor on top of a nest. Recent ...
... protection of ant brood and nest material by worker antibiotics". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 68 (3): 499-507. doi: ... Wilson, E. O.; Durlach, N. I.; Roth, L. M. (1958). "Chemical Releaser of Necrophoric Behavior in Ants". Psyche: A Journal of ... Another important component of nest hygiene is waste management, which involves strict spatial separation of clean nest areas ... These "hygienic" hives have improved recovery rates following brood infections, as the earlier infected brood is removed, the ...
Cuckoos are not the only brood parasites, however the behavior is more rare in other groups of birds, including ducks, weavers ... Habitat selection hypothesis is an attempt to explain the mechanisms of brood parasite nest selection in cuckoos. ... 2002) Cuckoo females preferentially use specific habitats when searching for hot nests. Animal Behavior 64: 843-850. ... "Brood Parasitism". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-06. Danchin, Etienne; Boulinier, Thierry; Massot, Manuel (1998-10-01). " ...
This is not a fully cooperative behavior as there is little to no cooperative nest maintenance or brood care occurring. The ... Living in a colony also has another major benefit for spiders: cooperative nest maintenance. Nest maintenance does not rely ... use the same nest (web), and have some amount of generational overlap. Several permutations of social behavior exist amongst ... These species may only display social behaviors as a seasonal venture and have an obligate solitary phase. Some other species ...
These huge nests are conspicuous when the leaves fall. Where trees are scarce, though even in well-wooded country, nests are at ... They are brooded by the female for the first 5-10 days and fed by both parents. Initially the parents eat the faecal sacs ... 2012). "Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic ... The eggs are incubated for 21-22 days by the female, who is fed on the nest by the male. The chicks are altricial, hatching ...
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ecology & behavior of amphibians. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226893340 *↑ "American Bullfrog". Shastaherps.org. ... Amphibians lay their eggs in water, usually in a foam nest. After hatching they are tadpoles, which live in the water and have ... Magnificent brood frog · Northern corroboree frog · Striped burrowing frog · White's tree frog ... Wells, Kentwood (2007), The ecology and behavior of amphibians, Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-226-89334-1. CS1 maint: ref= ...
... s are opportunistically targeted by brood parasites, occasionally having eggs laid in their nests by redheads, ruddy ... The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... the nesting season has been found to be longer, eggs and clutches are larger and nest survival is generally greater compared ... Martz, Gerald F. (1967). "Effects of nesting cover removal on breeding puddle ducks". Journal of Wildlife Management. 31 (2): ...
Protonotario - Vikipedio
Ph.D. (2001). An experimental study of behavioral responses to nest predation and brood parasitism in a migratory songbird. ... 1995). Roosting behavior of Prothonotary Warblers in the non-breeding season. The Wilson Bulletin. vol 107, no 2. p. 374. ... 2003). Nest box use and nesting success of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) in a Midwestern Wetland Park. Ohio Journal of ... M.S. (2001). Breeding biology, habitat, nest site, and nest box selection by prothonotary warblers and other species in eastern ...
"Evolution of nest-building behavior in Agapornis parrots" (PDF). Auk. 115 (2): 455-464. doi:10.2307/4089204. JSTOR 4089204.. ... Social interactions are often practised with siblings, and in several species, crèches are formed with several broods. Foraging ... Almost all parrots nest in tree hollows (or nest boxes in captivity), and lay white eggs from which hatch altricial (helpless) ... With few exceptions, parrots are monogamous breeders who nest in cavities and hold no territories other than their nesting ...
Behavior. Male excavating a nest hole. These birds mainly eat insects, especially carpenter ants and wood-boring beetle ... Once the brood is raised, the pileated woodpeckers abandon the hole and do not use it the next year. When abandoned, these ... Owls and tree-nesting ducks may largely rely on holes made by pileateds in which to lay their nests. Even mammals such as ... Predators at the nest can include American martens, weasels, squirrels, rat snakes, and gray foxes. Free-flying adults have ...
... brood size has varied from 1.3 per nest prior to 1950, down to 0.3 in 1965-1985. Now the brood sizes have increased, at ... Females may sit on the nest or shelter the fledglings from rain even 28 days after fledging but usually such behavior is much ... In tree nests, the average nest diameter is about 1.5 m (4.9 ft), with nests in trees tending to be larger, more rigid and ... Nest characteristicsEdit. A nest of a white-tailed eagle in Norway. Despite the preferable location it is unoccupied, and ...
Once the swarm arrives, they immediately construct a new wax comb and begin to raise new worker brood. This type of nest ... feed brood, receive nectar, clean hive, guard duty, and foraging. Some workers engage in other specialized behaviors, ... Bee brood. Main article: Bee brood § As food. Bee brood - the eggs, larvae or pupae of honeybees - is nutritious and seen ... "Journal of Insect Behavior. 23 (6): 459-471. doi:10.1007/s10905-010-9229-5. ISSN 0892-7553. PMC 2955239. PMID 21037953.. ...
They breed seasonally in accordance with the climate and lay three to 16 eggs per year in nests built on the ground or in trees ... The most extreme case are the Megapodiidae, where the adults do not brood, but leave incubation to mounds of rotting vegetation ... Males often have elaborate courtship behaviors that include strutting, fluffing of tail or head feathers, and vocal sounds. ... Their frail-looking yet sturdy nests are made of sticks and leaves. Their clutch size is three or four eggs. The males make a ...
Bronzomolotro - Vikipedio
1984). Nest Parasitism by Cowbirds on Buff-Breasted Flycatchers Empidonax-Fulvifrons with Comments on Nest-Site Selection. ... Bird Behavior. vol 13, no 2. p. 63-67.. *Peer BD & Sealy SG. (2004). Fate of grackle (Quiscalus spp) defenses in the absence of ... 2006). Egg destruction and egg removal by avian brood parasites: Adaptiveness and consequences. Auk. vol 123, no 1. p. 16-22. ... 1986). The Parasitic Behavior of the Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus-Aeneus in South Texas USA. Condor. vol 88, no 1. p. 11-25. ...
... a specific batch of brood may be more closely related than a specific batch of brood laid at a later date. However, many other ... in a hive or nest is 3⁄4. This means the workers in such monogamous single-queen colonies are significantly more closely ... 4 relatedness coefficient amongst full haplodiploid sisters is responsible for the frequency of evolution of eusocial behavior ...
Brood parasites may be either obligate brood parasites, which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they ... "Nesting Behavior of Sunbitterns (Eurypyga helias) in Venezuela" (PDF). The Condor. 92 (3): 576-81. doi:10.2307/1368675. ... and feathers are often used for nest insulation. Some bird species have no nests; the cliff-nesting common guillemot lays ... Territories, nesting and incubation. See also: Bird nest. Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same ...
Sometimes nests abandoned by other birds are used. Nests may be re-used for subsequent broods or in following years. The nest ... "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological ... The brown-headed cowbird, a brood parasite, will lay its eggs in house finch nests, although the diet house finches feed their ... The female lays clutches of eggs from February through August, two or more broods per year with 2 to 6 eggs per brood, most ...
When they hatch, the male carries the tadpoles around in brood pouches on his hind legs. The aquatic Surinam toad (Pipa ... Crump, Martha L. (1996). "Parental care among the Amphibia". Advances in the Study of Behavior. Advances in the Study of ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ... The brood feed as a batch for about seven minutes at intervals of approximately three days which gives the skin an opportunity ...
Balthazart, J.; Adkins-Regan (2002). "Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in birds". Hormones, Brain and Behavior. 4: ... Many birds that nest in colonies can locate their chicks using their calls. Calls are sometimes distinctive enough for ... help brood parasites, or protect against predation, but strong support is lacking for any function. Many birds, especially ... Carew, Thomas J. (2000). Behavioral Neurobiology: The Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0 ...
... s are generally known to raise only a single brood. Fledging, when the young leave the nest, occurs at about one ... Behavior. Migration. Wintering in South America, purple martins migrate to North America in spring to breed. Spring ... The nest is made inside the cavity of such artificial structures and retains a somewhat flat appearance. The nest is a ... A territory can consist of several potential nest sites. After forming a pair, both the male and female inspect available nest ...
Both members of a breeding pair build the nest using plant material from the surrounding area. Nest sites are usually marshes, ... The parents brood the chicks for up to three weeks after hatching, feeding them intensively for the first few weeks, then ... BehaviorEdit. Play media. A huge flock at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico ... The second viable egg from a two-egg nest was occasionally removed from the nests, starting in 1965, to become part of a ...
Great blue heron
... most males choose a different nest each year. Great blue herons build a bulky stick nest. Nests are usually around 50 cm ( ... Egg weight ranges from 61 to 80 g (2.2 to 2.8 oz). One brood is raised each year. First broods are laid generally from ... A quantitative analysis of the annual cycle of behavior in the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). Phd Thesis. Univ. Calif. Los ... Repeated human intrusion into nesting areas often results in nest failure, with abandonment of eggs or chicks. However, ...
6 Brood production. *7 Nest foundation by the queen. *8 Nest. *9 Behaviors *9.1 Dance-like wing movement of the queen ... This behavior signals other workers to fly to the entrance of the nest and defend. However, if the nest is disturbed enough ... The larger a nest is the better it will be in conserving the nest warmth. The optimal temperature of the nest is around 32 °C. ... Many variations are seen in the characteristics of the nests within the species. Aerial nests and nests that are very close to ...
This behavior signals other workers to fly to the entrance of the nest and defend. However, if the nest is disturbed enough ... Stage 1 - solitary stage - the queen builds the nest, provisions the cells and rears the first brood of workers. ... The larger a nest is the better it will be in conserving the nest warmth. The optimal temperature of the nest is around 32 °C. ... Many variations are seen in the characteristics of the nests within the species. Aerial nests and nests that are very close to ...
The common cuckoo is a well known example of a brood parasite. Female cuckoos lay a single egg in the nest of the host species ... According to Lack, this brood behavior is an ecological insurance that allows the larger birds to survive in poor years and all ... Other examples of brood parasites include honeyguides, cowbirds, and the large blue butterfly. Brood parasite ... False gapes from brood parasite offspring cause host parents to collect more food. Another example of a brood parasite is ...
Another simple form of parental care is to construct a nest (a burrow or an actual construction, either of which may be simple ... The larvae reacted to the touch of the heated probe with a stereotypical rolling behavior that was not exhibited when the ... two or many broods (generations) in a year. ... Social behaviorEdit. A cathedral mound created by termites ( ... The eusocial insects build nests, guard eggs, and provide food for offspring full-time (see Eusociality). Most insects, however ...
Elphick, Jonathan (2016). Birds: A Complete Guide to their Biology and Behavior. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. pp. 53-54. ... The chicks of many ground-nesting birds such as partridges and waders are often able to run virtually immediately after ... Drinking behavior. There are three general ways in which birds drink: using gravity itself, sucking, and by using the tongue. ... The only other group, however, which shows the same behavior, the Pteroclidae, is placed near the doves just by this ...
Rather than building a nest, each male protects his egg by balancing it on the tops of his feet, enclosed in a special brood ... Active father figures may play a role in reducing behavior and psychological problems in young adults. An increased amount ... Fatherhood as legitimate identity can be dependent on domestic factors and behaviors. For example, a study of the relationship ...
... shrub nesters must have more broods and shorter nesting times. Birds also choose appropriate habitat (e.g., thick foliage or ... Predators limit the growth of prey both by consuming them and by changing their behavior. Increases or decreases in the ... It is lowest for those such as woodpeckers that excavate their own nests and progressively higher for those on the ground, in ... Eggs and nestlings are particularly vulnerable to predation, so birds take measures to protect their nests. Where birds ...
Apis dorsata laboriosa
The bees forage at altitudes of up to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). Due to its peculiar nesting behavior, the Himalayan giant honey bee ... Woyke J., Wilde J., Wilde M. (2001) A scientific note on Apis laboriosa winter nesting and brood rearing in the Himalayas, ... It mostly nests at altitudes between 2,500 and 3,000 m (8,200 and 9,800 ft), building very large nests under overhangs on the ... Underwood B.A. (1990) Seasonal nesting cycle and migration patterns of the Himalayan honey bee Apis laboriosa, Natl. Geogr. Res ...
4 Foraging behavior *4.1 Variation in honey bee proboscis extension response. *4.2 Evolution of foraging behavior in honey bees ... These adaptations include brood cycles synchronized with the bloom period of local flora, forming a winter cluster in colder ... Schneider, S.S.; Deeby, T.; Gilley, D.C.; Degrandi-Hoffman, G. (2004). "Seasonal nest usurpation of European colonies by ... Evolution of foraging behavior in honey bees. The differences in a variety of behaviors between different species of ...
Penguinology: June 2009
Behavior. King penguins form large groups on seven main islands in sub-Antarctic region. These colonies range in size from 30 ... Antarctic bird nest?. Discovery of avian fossils suggests Antarctica may have been origin of modern species. By Peter Rejcek, ... Penguin chicks are not able to regulate their body temperature when first hatched, they are brooded by both parents alternately ... Key behaviors:. terricolous; diurnal ; motile ; nomadic ; social ; colonial .. Communication and Perception. When king penguins ...
Begging Behaviour, Food Delivery and Food Acquisition in Nests with Brood Parasitic Nestlings | SpringerLink
The existence of a brood parasitic nestling in a host nest implies an intrusion in the parent-offspring communication system, ... Rivers JW, Blundell MA, Loughin TM, Peer BD, Rothstein SI (2013) The exaggerated begging behavior of an obligate avian brood ... Soler M, de Neve L (2013) Brood mate eviction or brood mate acceptance by brood parasitic nestlings? An experimental study with ... Food Delivery and Food Acquisition in Nests with Brood Parasitic Nestlings. In: Soler M. (eds) Avian Brood Parasitism. ...
Gray Catbird » Bird Watcher's Digest
Two broods are common.. WOW!. The Gray Catbird, as a species, has learned to recognize eggs of the Brown-headed Cowbird, a nest ... Nesting Behavior. Singing from deep within a thicket, the male catbird courts his female in spring. After mating, she builds a ... The catbirds often pierce the cowbird eggs and throw them out of the nest. ...
Wood Thrush | Audubon Field Guide
It sometimes nests in suburbs and city parks, and it is still common in many eastern woodlands, where its flutelike songs add ... 1-2 broods per year.. Young. Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave the nest about 12 days after hatching. 1-2 broods per ... Feeding Behavior. Forages mostly on ground, usually in forest undergrowth but occasionally on open lawns. Will use its bill to ... Nest (built by female) is rather like Robins nest, an open cup of grass, leaves, moss, weeds, bark strips, mixed with mud; has ...
Now you see it, now you don't: flushing hosts prior to experimentation can predict their responses to brood parasitism |...
However, attending parents often need to be flushed from their nests to add experimental eggs. If these birds witness ... We found that, after being flushed, female blackbirds, Turdus merula, remained close to their nests. Flushed females were more ... nests, leaving hosts to raise their offspring. To understand parasite-host coevolutionary arms races, many studies have ... which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. When statistically considering flushing ...
Frontiers | Innate Immune Memory in Invertebrate Metazoans: A Critical Appraisal | Immunology
Behavior genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. IV. Responses of F1 and backcross genereations to disease-killed brood. Am ... Thus, protective mechanisms also take advantage of traits directly tied to host fitness, as for instance hygienic behavior (33 ... In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the interaction with pathogenic bacteria generates a conditioned behavior, which causes ... intracellular behavior of Brucella melitensis in monocytes from vaccinated animals. J Exp Med. (1957) 106:545-54. doi: 10.1084/ ...
Brown Thrasher | Audubon Field Guide
2 broods per year, perhaps sometimes 3.. Young. Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave nest about 9-13 days after hatching. 2 ... Feeding Behavior. Does much foraging on the ground, using its bill to flip dead leaves aside or dig in the soil as it rummages ... Nest: Usually placed 2-7 above the ground in a dense shrub, vine tangle, or low tree. Sometimes on the ground under dense ... Nest (built by both sexes) is a bulky structure, with foundation of sticks supporting a loose cup of twigs, leaves, weeds, ...
Nest - Wikipedia
Brooding (incubating eggs by sitting on them) is common among birds. In general, nest complexity increases in relation to the ... A site known as Egg Mountain in Montana provides exceptional evidence of dinosaur nesting behavior. The site features dozens of ... Nest building. Purposes of nesting. Structural purposes. Nest building is often driven by a biological urge ... "Largest birds nest". Guinness World Records. Retrieved August 20, 2013.. *^ a b c d "Mammal Nests and Burrows". Kids Inquiry ...
instinct facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about instinct
Brood parasites are bird species that lay their eggs in the nests of other species, thereby sparing themselves the time and ... evidence for the evolution of behavior, the inheritance of behavior, and the adaptiveness of behavior. A restricted and precise ... If a gray lag goose suddenly notices that one of her eggs is outside the nest, she rolls it back to her nest with a series of ... predator avoidance or defensive behavior, food-gathering behavior, parental care behaviors, and self-grooming. ...
Brood parasite - Wikipedia
True brood parasites. Further information: Nest usurpation and Myrmecophily. True brood parasitism is rare among insects. ... This hypothesis revolves around host manipulations induced by behaviors of the brood parasite. Upon the detection and rejection ... For instance, American coots may kick the parasites eggs out, or build a new nest beside the brood nests where the parasites ... Nesting females who have their own nests may also be parasitic due to temporary situations like sudden loss of nests, or they ...
Gila woodpecker - Wikipedia
Behavior and ecology. Breeding. They build nests in holes made in saguaro cacti or mesquite trees. Cavities ... 2-3 broods are laid a year. Both sexes incubate and feed eggs. ... Both gilded flickers and Gila woodpeckers make these cavities for nesting, but they often choose different locations on the ... Gila Woodpeckers excavate cavities in cacti and trees as nesting sites.. ...
Volume 128 Issue 3 | The Wilson Journal of Ornithology
The Wilson Journal of Ornithology publishes work related to the study of living birds and their behavior, ecology, adaptive ... All 17 nests consisted of round tunnels in earthen banks terminating in widened brood chambers. Tunnels averaged 405.41 ± 59.52 ... The diet of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nestlings and adult nest provisioning behaviors in southern Indiana ... KEYWORDS: Chasiempis sclateri, Hawai̒i, nest predation, nest substrate, nest-tree species, nest success, passerine. ...
Endotherm - Wikipedia
Infanticide (zoology) - Wikipedia
"Behavior genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. IV. Responses of F1 and backcross generations to disease killed brood". ... Females nest together, possibly because those nesting alone have their eggs constantly destroyed by rivals. Even so, eggs are ... This is sometimes seen in pigs, a behavior known as savaging, which affects up to 5% of gilts. Similar behavior has been ... The genetics of this behavior are quite complex. Experiments by Rothenbuhler showed that the hygienic behavior of the queen ...
Richard T. Reynolds | Rocky Mountain Research Station
Brood division and postnesting behavior of Flammulated Owls. Reynolds, Richard T.; Linkhart, Brian D., 1984. Methods and ... Nest observations of the long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Benton County, Oregon, with notes on their food habits ... Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks. Reynolds, Richard T.; Scott, J. M.; Nussbaum, R. A ... Forest composition and structure strongly influence goshawk habitat selection and hunting behavior, prey abundance, and goshawk ...
Richard T. Reynolds - People - US Forest Service Research & Development
Brood division and postnesting behavior of Flammulated Owls.. *Reynolds, Richard T.; Linkhart, Brian D. 1984. Methods and ... Nest observations of the long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Benton County, Oregon, with notes on their food habits. ... Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks.. *Reynolds, R. T.; Scott, J. M.; Nussbaum, R. A. ...
Coping with novelty and stress in free-living house sparrows | Journal of Experimental Biology
... and the time spent brooding [if individuals spent more than 1 min inside the nest box, they were considered to be brooding the ... In each focal nest, we observed the baseline behavior of the parents on day 7 (i.e. when the chicks were 7 days old). ... Therefore, hovering in front of the nest box is probably a form of exploratory behavior by which the birds could observe the ... A third group of the birds showed an interesting combination of behaviors: they returned to the nest quickly, but inspected the ...
American Robin Behavior - Whatbird.com
Common Redpoll Behavior - Whatbird.com
Young stay in nest 9 to14 days and are fed mostly by the female; have one or two broods per year. ... Breeding and Nesting. Common Redpoll: Four to seven green or blue green eggs, with purple or red brown spots concentrated at ... Nest Location: Generally hidden in dense low shrubs, occasionally in crevices in rocks or rocky outcroppings. ... Nest Material: Moss, feathers, plant material, and animal fur., Lined with twigs and grass. ...
Farming tilapia: life history and biology | The Fish Site
All tilapia species are nest builders; fertilized eggs are guarded in the nest by a brood parent. Species of both Sarotherodon ... The feeding behavior of tilapia allows them to use a mash (unpelleted feeds) more efficiently than do catfish or trout, but ... After a short mating ritual the female spawns in the nest (about two to four eggs per gram of brood female), the male ... Feeding behavior and nutrition requirements. Tilapia ingest a wide variety of natural food organisms, including plankton, some ...
Not Just Another Pretty Face - The New York Times
University of Maryland neuroscientist who specializes in neuroethology of crocodilian behavior, has determined that mysterious ... "Like birds, crocodiles build good nests, brood their eggs, protect their eggs, fuss over their eggs," Dr. Ross said. If the ... Crocodilians are also think tanks, and will engage in sophisticated behavior that leaves most reptiles in the cold. They ... When the hatchlings emerge, they cheep like chicks, which alerts the mother to uncover the nest and begin carrying the newborns ...
Eucyclogobius newberryi, Tidewater goby
Additional Brood Parasitism Papers
Patterns of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead and canvasback ducks. Pp. 357-375 in S.I. Rothstein & S.K. ... Parasitic egg laying in canvasbacks: frequency, success and individual behavior. The Auk 110: 57-69.. ... Additional Brood Parasitism Papers. Spottiswoode, C.N., K.F. Stryjewski, S. Quader, J.F.R. Colebrook-Robjent & M.D. Sorenson. ... Host-specific differentiation within brood parasitic honeyguide species.. Krüger, O., M.D. Sorenson & N.B. Davies. 2009. Does ...
Blindsnakes (Typhlopidae) | Encyclopedia.com
Behavior. The natural behavior of typhlopids is poorly known. Because these small snakes spend most of their lives hidden ... Ant nests are located by following pheromone trails laid down by adult ants. As many as 1,500 or more ant larvae and pupae may ... The blackish blindsnake feeds almost exclusively on ant brood, although other small invertebrates (e.g., earthworms, leeches) ... behavior. Little is known about the behavior of this species. However, numerous morphological features (e.g., pointed head, ...
Brown thrasher articles - Encyclopedia of Life
Both parents incubate, brood, and feed nestlings. They incubate by sitting tightly on the nest and slip off when disturbed. ... The brown thrasher has been noted for having an aggressive behavior, and is a staunch defender of its nest. However, ... The nests are typically built in a dense shrub or low in a tree, usually up to 2.1 m (6.9 ft) high, but have built nests as ... Brown thrashers have tendencies to double-brood or have failures on their first nesting attempts due to predation. Grey ...
Fossil Dinosaur Egg Reveals Unusual Incubation Technique And Evolutionary Link To Birds - Redorbit
... mound-nesting birds and brooding birds.. "For now, this particular study helps substantiate that some bird-like nesting ... behaviors evolved in meat-eating dinosaurs prior to the origin of birds. It also adds to the growing body of evidence that ... This bird broods its eggs while they are partially buried in the nest´s sandy substrate. ... While Troodon´s nesting style is unusual, Varricchio says that it shares similarities with the Egyptian Plover. ...
Experimental increase in eviction load does not impose a growth cost for cuckoo chicks | SpringerLink
This behavior eliminates competition inside the nest and is beneficial for the fitness of the parasite.... ... Abstract Chicks of many avian brood parasites evict their hosts eggs within 48 h of hatching. ... Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species. Many parasitic chicks, like cuckoos, avoid competition ... This behavior eliminates competition inside the nest and is beneficial for the fitness of the parasite. Several studies have ...
VENT Birding Tours-Thailand Highlights
For the second year running there was a Hodgsons Frogmouth nesting. The male was brooding a small white downy chick. We ... Also feeding on the road was a Giant Nuthatch, the second time I have seen this behavior at Doi Lang. This was followed by a ... nesting Banded Kingfishers (male and female perched side by side), a Green Magpie on a nest, and Long-tailed Broadbills that ... We found a nesting Ashy Drongo, a Rufous-bellied Niltava, found our first Oriental Honey-buzzard, and enjoyed some fantastic ...
Pseudocrenilabrus philander, Southern mouthbrooder : fisheries
Eggs are laid in the nest, fertilized and collected by the female. The females withdraws to a nursery to brood the eggs until ... Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity , Reproduction , Spawning , Eggs , Fecundity , Larvae Female lays batches of eggs on a ... Breeds from early spring to late summer; males defend a territory, construct a simple cleared nest and attract ripe females. ...
Home Remedies for Sick Birds and Optimum Avian Nutrition
Excessive courtship behavior: one bird plucks the other. *Parents picking their chicks to drive them from the nest so they can ... Overenthusiastic plucking of a brood patch by an egg laying female. * ... Then I found out that, allopathically speaking, this is common behavior for birds when they reach sexual maturity. Solutions ... and forth from nest, or standing on floor of cage, even resting on the tail with legs apart.) This condition can cause acute ...
Pelmatolapia mariae, Spotted tilapia : fisheries, aquarium
Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity , Reproduction , Spawning , Eggs , Fecundity , Larvae Produces up to 2000 eggs. ... Parents prepare nest site on logs, leaves and other debris. The eggs (600-3300 per female) are guarded by the parents and hatch ... Parental care of the brood continues until the fish are about 2.5-3.0 centimeters (Ref. 44894). Substrate brooder (Ref. 81260 ...
ParasitismFemalesAnimal behaviorNestlingsParasiticCourtshipLarvaeBrown-headedParasiteBeesCuckooDinosaursInsect BehaviorCowbirdsBuild nestsGeneticForagingParasitize nestsHuman BehaviorReproductive behaviorOsprey nestsChicksDefenseCuckoosAltruistic behaviorInsectsEvidenceLarvalFemaleFledgeCavitiesMatesTwigsHostsPopulationsSexesNeuralBehaviourMaleBehavioralParentalLaysMechanismsStyle is unusualPigeonsHensEggshellsScrapeAntsHost nestSocial insect
- In contrast, flushing did not predict responses and latency to responses to parasitism by song thrush, Turdus philomelos , which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. (nature.com)
- Our results have broad implications because more vigilant and/or bolder parents can gain more information about parasitism events and therefore have better chances of successfully defending against brood parasitism. (nature.com)
- Second, we determined if hosts' responses to experimental parasitism can be predicted by whether they were flushed from their nest at the time of experimental manipulation. (nature.com)
- Brood parasitism relieves the parasitic parents from the investment of rearing young or building nests for the young, enabling them to spend more time on other activities such as foraging and producing further offspring . (wikipedia.org)
- 2002. Molecular genetic perspectives on avian brood parasitism. (bu.edu)
- 2001. A single, ancient origin of obligate brood parasitism in African finches: implications for host-parasite coevolution. (bu.edu)
- Effects of intra- and interspecific brood parasitism on a precocial host, the canvasback, Aythya valisineria. (bu.edu)
- Evidence of conspecific nest parasitism and egg discrimination in the sora. (bu.edu)
- What most disturbs some birders is cowbird breeding behavior, which biologists call "brood parasitism. (vtecostudies.org)
- We often think of parasitism in terms of it affecting an animal's fitness, its survival or its ability to reproduce," said Sean O'Donnell, a UW associate professor of psychology and co-author of the paper appearing in the current issue of the Journal of Insect Behavior. (innovations-report.com)
- The lack of co-evolution in brood parasitism of cowbirds compared to that of cuckoos is puzzling. (wikibooks.org)
- First we determined whether blackbirds and song thrush were equally likely to remain close-by as foreign egg models were added to their nests, by measuring how far females flew from their nests after flushing (hereafter, fleeing distance sensu 13 ). (nature.com)
- The goldeneye often lays its eggs in the nests of other females. (wikipedia.org)
- This form of cuckoldry is taken a step further when females of the goldeneye ( Bucephala clangula ) often lay their eggs in the nests of other individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- They usually lay only one egg per nest, although in some cases, particularly the cowbirds , several females may use the same host nest. (wikipedia.org)
- It is usually the male who benefits from this behavior, though in cases where males play similar roles to females in parental care the victim and perpetrator may be reversed (see Bateman's principle for discussion of this asymmetry). (wikipedia.org)
- To prevent mates from influencing each others' behavior, we removed the males temporarily from nests and tested the females the following day either with a novel object placed on the nest box or as control. (biologists.org)
- Based on these variables, females' coping behaviors were categorized as 'bold', 'inquisitive' or 'shy' by discriminant analysis. (biologists.org)
- males defend a territory, construct a simple cleared nest and attract ripe females. (fishbase.org)
- The females withdraws to a nursery to brood the eggs until juvenile stage (Ref. 7248 ). (fishbase.org)
- After having indiscriminate sex, females wander the landscape laying eggs in the nests of other songbirds, leaving the unwitting foster parents to raise the cowbird chicks. (vtecostudies.org)
- females contribute more when time is short, such as after failed nest attempts. (borealbirds.org)
- The nest attentiveness of both males and females was negatively correlated with nest temperature (i.e., air temperature near the nest) but not consistently with weather. (lu.se)
- Females begin construction of open-cup nests in mid-March and usually lay three or four eggs per clutch but occasionally five eggs (Pulich, 1976). (thefreelibrary.com)
- 2006), incubation, or brooding but feed females on the nest during incubation as well as nestlings and fledglings. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Nesting: Females lay a single egg and then carefully transfer it to the male who incubates the egg in his brood pouch for approximately 65 days, without food. (artglass-pottery.com)
- Dr. Soares, who specializes in neuroethology -- the neural underpinnings of animal behavior -- has lately discovered a kind of sixth sense unique to crocodilians, which are often referred to generically as crocodiles. (nytimes.com)
- Fractal scaling is a common property of temporal change in various modes of animal behavior. (nature.com)
- We found that a conserved behavioral modulator, cyclic GMP dependent kinase (PKG) may regulate the multifractal kinetics underlying an animal behavior. (nature.com)
- To bridge the gap between macroscopic fractal animal activities and microscopic biochemical reactions in the neuromuscular networks of animals, it is effective to combine a kinetic modeling of animal activities based on fractal scaling with genetic analyses of animal behavior. (nature.com)
- Clearly, genes significantly influence animal behavior. (biologyreference.com)
- The foregoing observations and experiments, and many others like these, no longer leave room for doubt that genes significantly influence animal behavior. (biologyreference.com)
- Researchers investigating animal behavior and community dynamics need to extract information from the hundreds of thousands of images we collect, but are currently overwhelmed by the large volume of data we have collect. (umn.edu)
- The existence of a brood parasitic nestling in a host nest implies an intrusion in the parent-offspring communication system, which will have important implications in both food delivery by parents and food acquisition by nestlings. (springer.com)
- First, I review mechanisms allowing brood parasitic nestlings to secure parental provisioning from unrelated caregivers, such as exaggerated begging, mimicry of host begging calls, emitting a begging call that stimulates a wide range of hosts, tuning the begging call in a way that optimizes food provisioning, mimicking the begging calls of a brood, integrating visual and vocal nestling displays and procuring host assistance at the nest. (springer.com)
- Second, I review evidence showing that exaggerated begging behaviour exhibited by brood parasitic nestlings influences begging behaviour of their nestmates and food distribution decisions by foster parents. (springer.com)
- Bolopo D, Canestrari D, Roldán M, Baglione V, Soler M (2015) High begging intensity of great spotted cuckoo nestlings favours larger-size crow nest mates. (springer.com)
- Dearborn DC (1998) Begging behavior and food acquisition by brown-headed cowbird nestlings. (springer.com)
- Both parents incubate, brood, and feed nestlings. (eol.org)
- In a carefully researched study, scientists in Spain discovered that around 40 percent of European White Stork nestlings abandoned their parents partway through development and promptly snuck into a neighboring stork family's nest. (listverse.com)
- Lack answered this question by performing the experiment of adding one or two nestlings to the nests of certain pairs so that, instead of the normal two or three young, they would have to rear four or five. (britannica.com)
- After hatching, cygnets and other waterfowl nestlings like ducklings and goslings often stay inside the nest for up to 24 hours as their mother broods them to keep them safe and warm. (crookstontimes.com)
- This means that over time the lightweight nest grows into a sturdy, potlike mound, sometimes incorporating unhatched eggs and mummies of dead nestlings. (allaboutbirds.org)
- Once their chorus brings the food, however, the larger cowbirds hog more than their fair share, often eating more than 50 percent of the food with three nestlings in the nest. (vaildaily.com)
- We used male behavioral cues (male singing softly and closely following a female collecting nesting material, male attempting to copulate with a female, male feeding an incubating female, and male feeding nestlings) to determine the social mate of the female. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Patterns of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead and canvasback ducks. (bu.edu)
- Parasitic egg laying in canvasbacks: frequency, success and individual behavior. (bu.edu)
- The functional significance of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead ducks: an analysis of individual behaviour. (bu.edu)
- Several studies have proposed that this behavior is costly for the parasitic chick and may limit opportunities for cuckoos to exploit hosts with large clutch sizes. (springer.com)
- Many parasitic chicks, like cuckoos, avoid competition inside the nest by evicting all the other eggs laid by the host. (springer.com)
- A tiny parasitic fly is affecting the social behavior of a nocturnal bee, helping to determine which individuals become queens and which become workers. (innovations-report.com)
- Up to five different calls have been recognized by researchers, used for begging, alarm, courtship and nest defense. (chesapeakebay.net)
- Courtship and nest building or repair begin once a pair has reunited. (chesapeakebay.net)
- This has been seen for aggression in honeybees, courtship in Drosophila, breeding behaviors of cichlid fishes, food preferences in garter snakes, bird migratory and nesting behaviors, and bird distress calls. (biologyreference.com)
- Searching for nest sites and nest building are integral parts of courtship. (crookstontimes.com)
- An international team of scientists has discovered the first tangible evidence that dinosaurs engaged in courtship behaviors: parallel scrape marks up to about 1.8 meters long and 40 centimeters deep that were gouged in the ground during the Cretaceous. (earthmagazine.org)
- Courtship behavior or copulation. (usgs.gov)
- They're a little farther from the nest center," where the larvae demand care, "and they also interact less with nestmates. (wired.com)
- The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. (pnas.org)
- The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment. (pnas.org)
- Spawning and caring for the eggs and larvae takes place in these nests (see Burgess, 1987, 1989 for some photos). (tolweb.org)
- Fourth-instar larvae possess five rows of anchor-tipped hairs on their dorsal side, and we predicted that these hairs functioned to attach larvae to the nest walls. (jove.com)
- This confirmed that anchor-tipped hairs functioned to attach larvae to the walls of the nest. (jove.com)
- This behavior eliminates competition inside the nest and is beneficial for the fitness of the parasite. (springer.com)
- Anderson MG, Moskat C, Ban M, Grim T, Cassey P, Hauber ME (2009) Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite. (springer.com)
- The finding by researchers from the University of Washington and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute is the first documented example of a parasite having a positive affect on the social behavior of its host. (innovations-report.com)
- Slave workers have to care for the brood in parasite nests, bring food to their masters and feed them, and even defend the nest. (scienceblog.com)
- A brood parasite is a bird that does not build its own nest. (vaildaily.com)
- A recent study found that cowbirds, compared to another common brood parasite, the cuckoo bird, often allow their nest mates to survive so that their combined calls will convince the mother bird to bring more food. (vaildaily.com)
- The researchers found that smaller bees that emerge in a nest are dominated by their mothers. (innovations-report.com)
- These small bees are more likely to stay and act as helping workers, while larger bees tend to depart and start new nests as egg-laying queens. (innovations-report.com)
- Bees that emerge from cells, or brood chambers, that also house flies are smaller than their nest mates from fly-free cells. (innovations-report.com)
- The flies may encourage worker behavior in some bees. (innovations-report.com)
- The bees are important pollinators of night-blooming plants and the female bees can nest alone or live in small colonies. (innovations-report.com)
- Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers and guards are significantly smaller than the queen bee in a nest, although the relative size of individual bees varied from nest to nest. (innovations-report.com)
- Here's where the flies apparently fit in and are affecting the bees' behavior. (innovations-report.com)
- The bees nest in hollowed twigs and sticks hanging in the tropical understory and the flies flick their eggs into the entrance to the bee nests. (innovations-report.com)
- Mites not only inhabit the dust bunnies under the bed, they also occupy the nests of tropical sweat bees where they keep fungi in check. (phys.org)
- In the second step, triungulin aggregations display remarkable proficiency at enticing male bees to "inspect" (hovering within 1-10 cm of the aggregations for ≥2 s) and contact the aggregations (pseudocopulation) ( Fig. 1 B ). Upon contact with a bee, the triungulins attach to the male bee en masse. (pnas.org)
- Experiments in which normal honeybees were crossed with bees that do not bring out their dead traced the behavior to two genes: one that induces workers to uncap the diseased cell, and the other that induces the insects to remove the diseased pupa. (biologyreference.com)
- Honey bees deposit these plant resins in the nest as a form of cement, called propolis. (biologists.org)
- When honey bees nest in tree cavities, they use propolis to coat the entire inner surface of the nest cavity, constructing a propolis envelope ( Seeley and Morse, 1976 ). (biologists.org)
- However, honey bees do not construct a natural propolis envelope within standard beekeeping equipment because the inner walls of the wooden boxes are smooth and do not elicit propolis deposition behavior. (biologists.org)
- The worker caste of honey bees includes nurse bees, which tend the brood, and forager bees, which collect nectar and pollen. (jove.com)
- Forager bees that venture out to collect nectar and pollen have higher levels of some miRNAs in their brains than nurse bees that are devoted to tending to brood. (scienceblog.com)
- Ben-Shahar chose the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) as his model organism for the genetic control of behavior because the worker bees display such well-characterized division of labor. (scienceblog.com)
- Routes of Pesticide Exposure in Solitary, Cavity-Nesting Bees Kopit, Andi M;Pitts-Singer, Theresa L 2018-04-04 00:00:00 Abstract Declines of pollinator health and their populations continue to be commercial and ecological concerns. (deepdyve.com)
- Considering our research expertise in advancing the management of solitary bees for crop pollination, this forum focuses on routes of pesticide exposure experienced by cavity-nesting bees, incorporating the relative importance of environmental contamination due to pesticide chemical behaviors. (deepdyve.com)
- These are cavity-nesting bees of genera Megachile and Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) that can be easily purchased for crop pollination while they are in diapause, and later incubated to produce mature adults for pollination and nesting in artificial bee tunnels in the fields. (deepdyve.com)
- Paleontologists have long looked for answers to the question of how dinosaurs incubated their eggs because of the scarcity of evidence for incubation behaviors. (redorbit.com)
- Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. (pnas.org)
- A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. (pnas.org)
- Over the last three decades, numerous discoveries of eggs, embryos, and nesting sites have greatly increased our knowledge of the evolution of reproductive behavior in nonavian dinosaurs ( 1 , 2 ), including finds of brooding maniraptorans ( 3 , 4 ), eggs preserved in the body cavity of a mother ( 5 ), and vast "rookeries" ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Now, the results of a new study describing two fossil egg nests suggest that some dinosaurs used the same nesting sites again and again. (earthmagazine.org)
- Cowbirds lay many eggs in their nests, so the thrushes often raise mainly cowbirds, with few young of their own. (audubon.org)
- As forests are cut into smaller fragments, it apparently becomes easier for cowbirds to penetrate these small woodlots and find more of the thrush nests. (audubon.org)
- We conducted these presentations at 25 active redwing nests at Newark Road Prairie in south-central Rock County, Wisconsin, USA, where 18% of redwing nests were parasitized by cowbirds in 2015. (bioone.org)
- Cowbirds build no nests of their own. (vtecostudies.org)
- Cowbirds leave the nest early, sometimes after just 10 to 13 days, but they depend on their parents to feed them until they are 25 to 39 days old. (vaildaily.com)
- Owing to its simple anatomy and the availability of a range of genetic tools, C. elegans is a powerful model organism for the study of the molecular bases of behavior. (nature.com)
- While the host ants in New York are very aggressive and often successfully thwart slave raid attempts, the hosts in West Virginia profit more from the slave rebellion behavior because, as genetic analyses have shown, the neighboring colonies are more often close relatives to the rebelling slaves. (scienceblog.com)
- We are familiar with many bird behaviors and lifestyles such as migration, foraging strategies and nesting. (listverse.com)
- Examples of parental care include foraging for and feeding young, construction of the nest, incubation, protecting young from predators, and defense of territory (Stacey and Koenig, 1990). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Although the workers are female, they are sterile and engage in social labors such as brood rearing, nest building, guarding, and foraging. (mdpi.com)
- Several characteristics distinguish these three genera, but possibly the most critical relates to reproductive behavior. (thefishsite.com)
- The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. (pnas.org)
- Above, a male osprey returns to its partner and chicks with a stick for their nest at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Dorchester County, Md., on June 8, 2019. (chesapeakebay.net)
- They sometimes even push eggs or chicks out of the nest. (vtecostudies.org)
- Staggered hatch, hen won't leave nest with chicks a week later. (backyardchickens.com)
- My question is, do I need to remove the other eggs so she will come off the nest with the baby chicks? (backyardchickens.com)
- This is the problem with a staggered hatch -- you will either need to remove the hatched chicks and brood them in a brooder while she continues to set the remaining eggs or remove the remaining eggs (sacrifice or incubate artificially). (backyardchickens.com)
- I would have a heating pad cave system set up just in case you need it, and I would brood any rejects right next to the broody and her other chicks so all of them know they belong to the same flock which will make integration much easier in a few weeks hence. (backyardchickens.com)
- however, chicks hatched from the later brood are usually unable to survive the winter. (kiwifoto.com)
- Altruistic behavior is expected in humans to one extent or another. (answersingenesis.org)
- When, for example, an animal adopts an infant of another animal, it exhibits an evolution-defying altruistic behavior. (answersingenesis.org)
- Something as simple as opening a door for someone or as big a commitment as adopting a child are examples of altruistic behavior in humans. (answersingenesis.org)
- Intraspecific adoption is troublesome for evolutionists, since they must explain altruistic behavior when their dogma predicts a complete lack of altruism. (answersingenesis.org)
- Biological Altruism: Theories which Explain the Presence of Altruistic Behavior in Animals. (hubpages.com)
- Well, according to evolutionary scientists altruism or altruistic behavior promotes the survival of a group. (hubpages.com)
- Here he states that altruistic behavior promotes the survival of the group, however, such altruistic behavior creates problems for the theory of natural selection. (hubpages.com)
- Nests of prairie dogs and several social insects can host millions of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- Insects that exhibit the most complex nest building also exhibit the greatest social structure. (wikipedia.org)
- Using examples from object optimization behavior in insects, we will argue that heuristics do not inevitably imply a lower computational burden or lower decision accuracy. (frontiersin.org)
- For instance, insects make a variety of intricate nests and inhabitations that provide protection and even climate control ( Korb, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The available evidence suggests that natural selection more often favors specialization over flexibility in nest construction. (wikipedia.org)
- We found no evidence that male nest attentiveness was affected by their expected opportunity to obtain extra-pair copulations - neither differences in male attractiveness due to tail-length manipulation (shortening or elonption) nor changes in the operational sex ratio affected the male's relative share of incubation duties. (lu.se)
- More importantly, recent evidence of an avian behavior in a non-avian dinosaur led to the interpretation that a 130 millions years old basal troodontid (Xu and Norell, 2004) would have already acquired a homeothermic physiology. (scielo.br)
- As predicted by the FPDH, the female cowbird mount elicited the most aggressive responses and the female cardinal mount the least aggressive, as measured by number of times more than one male redwing responded and number of times the male host attacked the mount, and by Principal Component Analyses yielding the highest redwing aggressive behavior and intimidation scores. (bioone.org)
- The two groups differed only in behaviors that were a priori defined as responses to the novel object (latency to first feeding, time spent near the nest, and inspecting the novel object by hovering in front of it) indicating that mate-removal per se had no effect on female behavior. (biologists.org)
- Eggs are laid in the nest, fertilized and collected by the female. (fishbase.org)
- Both male and female are active in the selection of the nest site, which usually resides in poor or sandy soils with slight depressions. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
- During copulation, the lark sparrow is unique in that the male will pass a twig to the female who then flies off to the nest site. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
- On average, they have 4 eggs per brood and the female incubates for about a week and a half. (birdwatchersdigest.com)
- They don't live in large beehives like the honeybee, but each female bee often builds multiple nests and feeds her offspring alone. (phys.org)
- Now that the young are starting to fledge, the female will be off the nest more and she will forage for herself. (conservewildlifenj.org)
- In the third step of the sequence, the triungulins transfer to the female bee when a male bee infested with triungulins copulates or simply makes contact in attempts to copulate with her ( Fig. 1 C ). Finally, in the fourth step, the female bee transports the triungulins to her nest, where they dismount to feed and develop on the nest's pollen and nectar provisions and the bee egg. (pnas.org)
- When Lack removed the eggs laid each day from a pair's nest he discovered that the female could lay up to 72 or more eggs in a season. (britannica.com)
- And when the female swan began testing out her nest-bowl with her body by sitting in it, she began using her neck like a long-reach excavator as she reached dredged up other vegetation with her beak to fortify and shape her nest just so. (crookstontimes.com)
- During nest building, the female sits on the nest and makes a flimsy platform of straw, stems, and sticks from materials brought to her one at a time by the male. (allaboutbirds.org)
- The male brings one twig or stem at a time to the female to build a nest. (allaboutbirds.org)
- On 4 May, we observed a color-banded male (male 1) singing softly and closely following a color banded female as she collected nesting material. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The female was completing construction of a new nest as her previous nesting attempt with male 1 was depredated earlier that morning. (thefreelibrary.com)
- We did not observe any other male golden-cheeked warblers attempting to follow or copulate with this female while she was constructing the nest or laying eggs. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Both male and female help build the nest in a tree, cliff ledge or occasionally on man-made structures. (sfzoo.org)
- in the meantime the male brings food to the female who does most of the brooding. (sfzoo.org)
- Both male and female guard the eggs which are attached to the surface of aquatic vegetation in a nest area (Ref. 46591 ). (mnhn.fr)
- Both gilded flickers and Gila woodpeckers make these cavities for nesting, but they often choose different locations on the cactus. (wikipedia.org)
- Although they do not use them immediately, waiting first for the sap to harden, Gila Woodpeckers excavate cavities in cacti and trees as nesting sites. (wikipedia.org)
- The key here is relative body size compared to nest mates. (innovations-report.com)
- Although cowbird fledglings do not evict their nest mates, up to 50% of the nests may be parasitized in some areas. (wikibooks.org)
- After about a week, she will progress to other tasks, such as grooming nest mates, ventilating the nest and packing pollen. (scienceblog.com)
- Nest (built by both sexes) is a bulky structure, with foundation of sticks supporting a loose cup of twigs, leaves, weeds, grass, bark fibers, lined with finer materials such as grass or rootlets. (audubon.org)
- Nests are usually placed on outer reaches of branches in dense clusters of twigs and needles high in conifers. (borealbirds.org)
- Nest building reinforces social behavior, allowing for larger populations in small spaces to the point of increasing the carrying capacity of an environment. (wikipedia.org)
- Instead we suggest that nest temperature or feeding conditions are the most likely factors influencing the differences in male incubation behavior between European and North American populations. (lu.se)
- Browsing activity of these elk populations has reduced the growth of saplings and limited their availability as nesting sites in the subsequent summer months (Martin & Maron, 2012). (bou.org.uk)
- To elucidate the neural basis of honeybee behavior, we detected neural activity in freely-moving honeybee workers using an immediate early gene (IEG) that is expressed in a neural activity-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
- Despite identification of humoral factors and the completion of transcriptomic profiling, the neural mechanisms of social behaviors remain elusive. (mdpi.com)
- Male mice show great variation in behavior over time. (wikipedia.org)
- He (we can tell he is a male because of the fit of his bands and the lack of brown feathers on his breast) had some strong hops with short flights directly over the nest yesterday and took flight today. (conservewildlifenj.org)
- Using DNA fingerprinting, we also found that the male contribution was not affected by his paternity in the brood. (lu.se)
- The male actively digs under the rocks in the lake to build a secret nesting place. (sinica.edu.tw)
- We observed two male golden-cheeked warblers feeding at the same nest in May 2009. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Bengtsson H, Ryden O (1983) Parental feeding rate in relation to begging behavior in asynchronously hatched broods of the great tit Parus major . (springer.com)
- Nest complexity is roughly correlated with the level of parental care by adults. (wikipedia.org)
- Many nest builders provide parental care to their young, while others simply lay their eggs and leave. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, nest complexity increases in relation to the level of parental care provided. (wikipedia.org)
- Parental care of the brood continues until the fish are about 2.5-3.0 centimeters (Ref. 44894 ). (fishbase.org)