Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.

Effect of inhaled budesonide therapy on lung function in schoolchildren born preterm. (1/16)

We investigated the effect of inhaled glucocorticoid (GC) on bronchial obstruction and on bronchial lability in schoolchildren born preterm. Twenty-one children with bronchial obstruction, increased responsiveness to a beta2-agonist, and/or increased diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow (PEF) were selected for an open longitudinal study of the value of inhaled GC. None of these children had an earlier diagnosis of asthma or current GC treatment. Eighteen children with median (range) birth weight 1025 (640-1600) g and gestational age 28 (24-35) weeks, age at study 10.1 (7.7-13) years, were treated with inhaled budesonide in initially high (0.8 mg m(-2) day(-1) for 1 month) and subsequently lower dose (0.4 mg m(-2) day(-1) for 3 months). Daily symptom scores were recorded. Spirometric values were measured in the clinic at the beginning and end of each treatment period. At home, children used a data storage spirometer. After treatment with budesonide for 4 months, spirometric values in the clinic did not significantly change. The median forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was 74% of predicted both at entry and after budesonide treatment. However, the median number of > or = 20% diurnal change in PEF values at home decreased during treatment. According to the present study, inhaled budesonide for 4 months had no significant effect on basic lung function but may decrease bronchial lability in schoolchildren born preterm.  (+info)

Spontaneous pneumothorax: pragmatic management and long-term outcome. (2/16)

We prospectively considered 65 patients admitted for a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) to describe the pragmatic management of SP, the first recurrence-free interval after medical therapeutic procedure and to specify the first recurrence risk factors over a 7-year period in these patients treated medically. The treatment options were observation alone (9%), needle aspiration (6%), small calibre chest tube (Pleurocatheter) drainage (28%) or thoracic tube drainage (49%), and pleurodesis with video-assisted thoracic surgery procedure (8%). Duration of the drainage and length of hospital stay were shorter in the Pleurocatheter group than in the thoracic tube group (P < 0.01). Among the 47 patients (72%) with a first SP and treated medically, nine patients (19%) had a first homolateral recurrence (FHR) during a mean follow-up of 84+/-13 months. Recurrence-free intervals ranged from 1 to 24 months (mean +/- SD: 9.3+/-8.4 months). FHR cases were more frequent in the Pleurocatheter group (P < 0 04). Analysis of potential risk factors showed that the patient's height and a previous homolateral SP episode are independent recurrence risk factors.  (+info)

The biphasic spirogram: a clue to unilateral narrowing of a mainstem bronchus. (3/16)

Two patients with narrowing of a mainstem bronchus each showed two unusual functional features that are likely to be characteristic of this condition. The maximum inspiratory flow-volume curve showed an end inspiratory "tail" and the forced expiratory spirogram had a biphasic shape with normal initial curvature but a "straight line" appearance in later expiration. In one patient relief of the bronchial stenosis by the insertion of a stent restored normal contours to the spirogram and flow-volume curves.  (+info)

Associations of dairy intake with CT lung density and lung function. (4/16)

OBJECTIVE: Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but they are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional relationships between dairy intake and computed tomography (CT) lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat, and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women who were ages 45-84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3965 MESA participants. RESULTS: Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC) (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of total dairy intake was -0.92 [p for trend = 0.04] for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL [p = 0.01] for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 [p = 0.02] and -0.98 [p = 0.01] for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC. CONCLUSIONS: Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics. (5/16)


The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma. (6/16)


Dynamic hyperinflation is associated with a poor cardiovascular response to exercise in COPD patients. (7/16)


Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine and annual rate of decline in FEV1 in male smokers and ex-smokers. (8/16)

We examined the relations between bronchial reactivity, baseline FEV1, and annual decline of height corrected FEV1 (delta FEV1/ht3) over 7.5 years in 227 men (117 smokers, 71 ex-smokers, and 39 non-smokers). Men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma or receiving bronchodilator treatment were excluded. Bronchial reactivity was determined as the provocation concentration (PC20) of inhaled histamine sufficient to reduce FEV1 by 20%; subjects were divided into reactors (PC20 less than or equal to 16 mg/ml) and non-reactors (PC20 greater than 16 mg/ml). Thirty per cent of smokers, 24% of ex-smokers, and 5% of non-smokers were reactors. When smokers who were reactors were compared with non-reactors, the reactors showed a lower baseline FEV1 as percentage predicted in 1981-2 (85% v 108%), and a faster delta FEV1/ht3 (14.1 v 9.2 ml/y/m3). Baseline FEV1 correlated with PC20 in both smokers (rs = 0.51) and ex-smokers (rs = 0.61), and all 15 subjects with an FEV1 under 80% of the predicted value were reactors. In ex-smokers delta FEV1/ht3 was similar in reactors and non-reactors (m 9.0 v 7.4 ml/y/m3), despite significant differences in baseline FEV1. When analysis was confined to men with a baseline FEV1 over 80% predicted, the prevalence of reactors was significantly increased among smokers and slightly increased among ex-smokers compared with non-smokers, though the mean FEV1 was higher in the non-smokers. Bronchial reactivity was not increased in smokers aged 35 years or less. In smokers delta FEV1/ht3 was faster in those with a personal history of allergy (usually allergic rhinitis), but was not related to a family history of allergic disease, total serum immunoglobulin E level, absolute blood eosinophil count, or skinprick test score. delta FEV1/ht3 was also faster in all subjects taking beta blocker drugs. Thus increased bronchial reactivity was associated with accelerated decline of FEV1 in smokers. Although the association could be a consequence of a lower lower baseline FEV1, a trend towards increased reactivity was found in smokers with normal baseline FEV1 and delta FEV1/ht3 was dissociated from increased reactivity in ex-smokers. These findings are compatible with the "Dutch hypothesis," but the association between allergic features and accelerated delta FEV1/ht3 was relatively weak, and increased reactivity may follow rather than precede the onset of smoking.  (+info)

We have calculated the effective time (t eff) of the forced expiratory spirogram in healthy non-smokers, in patients with simple chronic bronchitis, and in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Effective time was obtained by dividing the area underneath the forced expiratory spirogram by the forced vital capacity (FVC) and is equal to the time constant of lung emptying if the FVC-time curve is a single exponential. In 75 healthy non-smoking adults, t eff showed a linear increase with age but no difference between the sexes. In 37 patients with low forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FVC ratios, t eff, as expected, was increased. In 19 subjects with simple chronic bronchitis and normal FEV1/FVC ratios, t eff was longer than or at the upper limit of 2 SE above the mean for healthy subjects of the same age. A comparison of t eff with FEV1/FVC suggested that in most normal subjects and patients the forced expiratory spirogram was a multiple exponential and that t eff was a more ...
It has been proposed that increased production of IgE, a feature of atopy, is a cause of the non-specific bronchial hyper-reactivity that is characterisitc of asthma. This hypothesis was examined by selecting groups of subjects with asthma or rhinitis and a group of healthy control subjects and studying the relationship between their bronchial histamine reactivity and their atopic status. In none of the groups tested was there a significant association between the degree of bronchial histamine reactivity and either the serum level of total IgE or the number of extracts of aeroallergens giving positive prick test reactions.
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Both Genetic Programming (GP) and Fast Evolutionary Programming (FEP) combined with a Reduced Parameter Bilinear (RPBL) model have been recognized as effective time series modeling methods. This study compares the performance of these two methods for their ability to model time series data in terms of their accuracy and time efficiency. A brief review of GP and FEP are presented. Then the accuracy and time efficiency of these two methods are evaluated on several different time series. The performances of the two methods are compared against each other.
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Those at high risk for lung cancer undergoing CT lung scans are more likely to attempt smoking cessation, even if the scan is negative.
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CT Lung Screenings Now Available for only $99* A randomized clinical trial conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, released its results in November 2010. The trial showed screening current and former heavy smokers with CT scans reduced their risk of dying from lung cancer by 20%. With 100 million smokers and ex-smokers in the US and over 160,000 Americans dying early from lung cancer, CT lung screening could potentially save thousands of lives annually by catching tumors at an even earlier, more treatable stage than chest x-rays. Chest x-rays only have the capability of detecting tumors greater than 1 cm in size. A CT scan detects tumors significantly smaller than 1 cm in size. CT Lung Screenings can also provide information to physicians on cardiovascular disease, emphysema, and other pulmonary diseases. A Growing Problem, an Agressive Response No one knows for certain why lung disease is on the rise, but it is. Each year, ...
The following post was contributed by Geraldine B. McGinty, MD, MBA, FACR When an email from CMS pinged my inbox at 4 oclock this past Monday I read with relief of Medicares decision that the evidence supports coverage of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer. I was delighted to see included in the Agencys specifications for…
Computed tomography provided effective lung cancer screening among those with the highest risk, but was not effective among low-risk patients, researchers found.
I had a PFT test and it showed my dclo is 68 - it was 80 about a year ago - My rhem sent me for a CT lung scan today - I have been more tired than usual a...
Discrepancies are frequently noted between the degree of lung involvement as shown by the roentgenogram and the severity of subjective symptoms of the patient. With the advent of pulmonary functional studies, such as bronchospirometry and pulmonary artery catheterization, discrepancies were still observed between the degree of functional impairment and the degree of involvement on the roentgen-ray picture. It is also well known that there is often very little correlation between cardiorespiratory insufficiency that is observed in silicotics and the degree of pulmonary involvement as seen both on roentgenographic picture and at postmortem examination. Reisner,1 in a review of sarcoidosis, stated ...
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Because of the dynamic nature of the cases, the examiner cannot give you a time warning, but will keep track of the time. Instead, you should listen for cues from the examiner that tell you whether you should slow down or speed up. For example, the nurse is asking what you would like to do next, is a cue that you should move a little more quickly. The nurse asks you to repeat your orders, is a cue that the examiner needs more to time to record your actions. Its important to demonstrate effective time management during each case. Cases are designed to be manageable within the time limits, and the examiners help by guiding the pace of each encounter, so you have enough time to finish. You are not scored on speed, so be responsive to examiners efforts to either slow down or move the case along.. ...
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The cardiac silhouette is enlarged on the lateral view extending more than 2/3 the height of the thorax and occupying 4 ½ intercostal spaces. The trachea is elevated and runs nearly perpendicular to the spine. There is enlargement of the left atrium on the lateral view and bowing of the mainstem bronchi on the VD/DV view also indicating left atrial enlargement. The left ventricle also appears to be enlarged. On the VD/DV view, there is a focal dilation of the proximal descending aorta. There is also a dilation of the main pulmonary outflow. There is a prominent vascular pattern in the caudal dorsal lung fields and pulmonary veins appear larger than pulmonary arteries. ...
A five-item lung cancer risk-assessment tool was able to identify high-risk patients who might benefit from screening with computed tomography, investigators reported.
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The development of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) has rekindled hope that effective lung cancer screening might yet be found. Screening is justif
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Lung cancer is the number one leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States due to the fact that it is not often found until the latest stages. Since early detection is a proven, successful strategy for fighting many forms of cancer, Harrison Memorial Hospital is now offering the low-dose CT lung cancer screening program. The low-dose CT scan has been proven to save lives by discovering lung cancer in its earliest stages before symptoms occur ...
Software that reads CT lung scans had been used primarily to detect cancer. Now its retooled to look for signs of pneumonia caused by coronavirus.
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A number of mechanisms have been proposed as the basis for the relationship between nonspecific airway responsiveness and prechallenge pulmonary function. Because resistance to flow through a tube is inversely proportional to the radius to the fourth power, a given degree of bronchoconstrictor-induced circumferential airway narrowing can be expected to cause a proportionally larger increase in airway resistance in a narrow airway than in a wider airway. Intersubject differences in the distribution of resistance along the bronchial tree may influence both the pattern of aerosol deposition and the relative impact on total airway resistance of bronchoconstriction at particular sites such as the peripheral airways. Airway hyperresponsiveness may result in heightened bronchomotor tone prior to challenge and thereby be correlated with reduced prechallenge pulmonary function. The convention of expressing responsiveness in terms of percentage of change in FEV, (eg, PD20FEV,) imposes a mathematical ...
30 In the absence of light input to the clock, nonphotic time cues are obviously a potential therapeutic option to treat non-24-hour circadian rhythms disorder. in the blind. There are currently no therapeutic guidelines, but some preliminary research suggests that it may be beneficial for patients to try to maintain a regular 24-hour schedule. Klerman Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and colleagues92 showed that the circadian system of a blind man with a period of 24.1 h became entrained when he lived on a 23.8 h day. AU aspects of his schedule were shifted simultaneously in this protocol including the sleep-wake cycle, meal times, activity, posture, and interaction with staff, precluding identification of the effective time signal, but collectively at least they were able to induce a phase advance. Other attempts to entrain circadian rhythms in blind people using a potential complex zeitgeber including exercise (bicycle riding, 50 W over 15 mins), a strict social routine, a cold ...
Nighttime sleep is the most effective time when your skin can absorb all of the ingredients of cosmetics. We have made a unique formulation to ensure its optimum regeneration. The need for deep moisturising will be satisfied by collagen, hyaluronic acid, red macroalgae and sea minerals. Jojoba oil, rich in phytosterols and vitamins, regenerates the skin and leaves it extremely soft. Unsaturated fatty acids and moringa oil protect the skin against oxidation and ensure its excellent nutrition. Sleep tight, your cream will do the rest ...
This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of|i| emergency vehicles |/i|(EV). A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV
Would you like to find easy methods to change into an ultimate travel survivor in any tremendous-scary catastrophe or eye-popping emergency? Travel companies in Benin are the rated and checked travel professionals who can arrange a pleasant tour. The revisions include explicit exemptions for authorized permanent residents or present visa holders and waivers are allowed on a case-by-case foundation for some enterprise, diplomatic and different travelers. The most effective time to travel is mostly the start of the dry season which is between October & November.. Similar to the desires that assist you to work out the issues and frustrations of the day, so astral travel has some benefits as effectively. Add your travel critiques and help travelers around the globe plan and e-book their good journeys. It can be quite a bit cheaper if travelers book a complete bundle together with flight and lodging together. But if our neural time travel psychological machines are damaged by illness, age or ...
Why Low Dose CT Vs. Standard CT or a Chest X-ray?. Standard CT scans of the chest provide more detailed pictures than chest x-rays and are better at finding small abnormalities in the lungs. Low-dose CT of the chest uses lower amounts of radiation than a standard chest CT but it is more than the dose from a chest x-ray. So LDCT is a balance, offering the detail closer to standard CT with the radiation dose closer to a chest x-ray.. Do all imaging centers provide Low Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening?. No. Not all imaging centers have Low Dose CT scanners. Screening should only be done at facilities that have the right type of CT scanner and have developed a proper Low Dose CT imaging protocol specific for Lung Cancer Screening. University Medical Imaging was the first to provide Low Dose CT to the Rochester Community in 2006 and is the community leader in reduced dose CT.. Is this test right for me?. Low Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening is not recommended for everyone. Individuals interested in ...
Why Low Dose CT Vs. Standard CT or a Chest X-ray?. Standard CT scans of the chest provide more detailed pictures than chest x-rays and are better at finding small abnormalities in the lungs. Low-dose CT of the chest uses lower amounts of radiation than a standard chest CT but it is more than the dose from a chest x-ray. So LDCT is a balance, offering the detail closer to standard CT with the radiation dose closer to a chest x-ray.. Do all imaging centers provide Low Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening?. No. Not all imaging centers have Low Dose CT scanners. Screening should only be done at facilities that have the right type of CT scanner and have developed a proper Low Dose CT imaging protocol specific for Lung Cancer Screening. University Medical Imaging was the first to provide Low Dose CT to the Rochester Community in 2006 and is the community leader in reduced dose CT.. Is this test right for me?. Low Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening is not recommended for everyone. Individuals interested in ...
CHICAGO-Baseline and second-round screening results from the Dutch-Belgian NELSON randomized CT lung screening trial show a low rate of positive tests: 2.6% on baseline screening and 1.8% on second-round screening. This could make low-dose CT screening
An incentive spirometer trains people to take slow, deep breaths. Its used during recovery from some types of surgery or as a way to manage illness. Find out how it works.
About Smoking Cessation Forum - September 2019 Ex-Smokers - So glad you posted. Now I understand. I PMd you back. I was looking at your list the other day and realize we have not heard from a lot of people. I hope they are still going strong and just not posting much. To all of us that are still posting lets keep going one day at a time and keep holding each other up. Onward we go to the terrific 3rd month, Meredith.
Other tests assessing differential lung function include bronchospirometry, lateral position testing, and total unilateral ...
Carlens E. A new flexible double-lumen catheter for bronchospirometry. J Thorac Surg 1949;18:742-6. [PubMed] ...

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