Lung weight parallels disease severity in experimental coccidioidomycosis. (1/173)Evidence provided by histopathological study of lesions is a valuable adjunct for evaluating chemotherapeutic efficacy in experimental animal models, In addition, this should be correlated with a measure of disease severity in the same animal. The latter could be obtained by homogenization of infected organs and quantitative enumeration of viable cells of the etiological agent, but this would preclude histopathological studies in the same animal. Progression of disease in pulmonary infection is associated with replacement of air space by fluid, cells, and cellular debris. Therefore, an increase in lung weight should reflect severity of disease. Results with the murine model of coccidioidomycosis demonstrate that increasing lung weight parallels the increasing census of fungus cells in the lungs of both treated and nontreated infected mice. This was supported with evidence obtained from microscopic studies of lesions indicating that specific chemotherapy limited spread of the infection and inhibited multiplication of the fungus in the lung. Therefore, lung weight can be used as a measure of disease severity in the murine model of coccidioidomycosis. (+info)
A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast. (2/173)A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection. (+info)
Influence of sex on clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever. (3/173)Clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever were correlated with sex through a retrospective case note review of 102 hospitalized culture-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. Intestinal perforation (P = 0.04), occult blood losses in stools (P = 0.04), and a mild reticulocytosis in the absence of hemolysis (P = 0.02) occurred more frequently in males than in females. A single pretreatment Widal O antibody titer > or = 1:640 was also a statistically significant occurrence in males (P = 0. 006). Female patients were significantly more severely ill (P = 0.0004) on admission and had chest signs consistent with bronchopneumonia (P = 0.04), transverse myelitis (P = 0.04), abnormal liver function test results (P = 0.0003), and abnormal findings in urinalyses (P = 0.02). Typhoid hepatitis (P = 0.04) and glomerulonephritis (P = 0.02) were present significantly more frequently in females. Whether these differences were due to differences in host's immune response to acute infection need to be determined in a prospective study. (+info)
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia. (4/173)The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC-II), CD68, and the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 (also called MRP8 and MRP14, respectively) was assessed in lung tissues from cattle that succumbed to pneumonia. Expression patterns of these markers were related to the types of lung lesion. iNOS expression was only observed in lungs infected with Arcanobacterium pyogenes or Pasteurella haemolytica but not in lungs from cattle with subacute chronic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia due to Escherichia coli infection. High levels of iNOS were expressed by cells (probably leukocytes) surrounding necrotic foci. Occasionally, iNOS was expressed by intraalveolar macrophages in viable parenchyma, by leukocytes within the airways, and by some chondrocytes in the supporting cartilage of bronchi. Cells expressing MHC-II were distributed relatively evenly throughout areas of inflammation and did not display any clear association with necrotic foci. Cell types expressing MHC-II included type II alveolar epithelial cells, spindle-shaped cells of the interstitium, cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and leukocytes in lymph and blood vessels but largely excluded iNOS-positive cells. Likewise, CD68-positive cells were rarely positive for iNOS and were not confined to the areas surrounding necrotic tissue. As with MHC-II and CD68, there was little if any coexpression of iNOS and either of the S100 proteins tested. Thus, in cattle with necrotizing bronchopneumonia, iNOS-expressing cells were largely restricted to the cellular zone surrounding necrotic areas. (+info)
Isoimmune haemolysis in pathogenesis of anaemia after cardiac surgery. (5/173)A patient who had received multiple transfusions developed antiglobulin-positive haemolytic anaemia due to a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. Many cases of haemolytic anaemia after cardiac surgery could be explained on this basis. (+info)
Familial opsonization defect associated with fatal infantile dermatitis, infections, and histiocytosis. (6/173)Members of four generations of a family had a defect of serum opsonization for yeast phagocytosis consistent with dominant inheritance. 2 were healthy, one had chronic osteomyelitis, and the fourth developed a fatal illness in infancy characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, diarrhoea, multiple bacterial infections, and failure to thrive, which resembled the two prevously reported cases with this opsonization defect. At necropsy the infant also had lymphoid depletion, which was possibly secondary, and massive histiocytic infiltration. (+info)
Nitrated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients at risk of ventilator-associated bronchopneumonia. (7/173)The study was designed to identify markers of oxidative injury, related to the nitric oxide derived cascade, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from intensive care patients suspected of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty-eight patients developing VAP and/or ARDS (VAP/ARDS group) were compared to 20 ventilated patients without VAP/ARDS (control group). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and elastase, taken as markers of neutrophil activation were measured by enzymatic techniques, and nitrated proteins (NTPs) by an immunological method. The cytotoxicity of the BAL fluid was tested using cultured human epithelial alveolar cells by the release of pre-incorporated 51Cr. Mean NTP concentration and, MPO and elastase activities were different between the VAP/ARDS and control groups (p<0.05 for NTPs; p<0.005 for MPO; p<0.005 for elastase). NTP concentration correlated with MPO and elastase activity and neutrophil number (r=0.93, 0.91 and 0.87, respectively), but not to protein concentration and arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction. The cytotoxicity of BAL correlated with NTP concentration (r=0.92) and MPO activity (r=0.89). It was concluded that the concentrations of nitrated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlated with the oxidant activity of neutrophils and that, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytotoxicity was correlated with the nitrated protein concentration and may be mediated by oxidants. (+info)
Early discharge of infants of low birth weight: a prospective study. (8/173)A total of 495 African infants of low birth weight were discharged from Harari Maternity Hospital, Salisbury, between October 1972 and September 1973. Criteria used for discharge were (a) no clinical evidence of disease, (b) satisfactory feeding by mouth (breast or bottle or both), and (c) stable temperature control under normal room conditions. Of the 495 babies 264 fulfilled these criteria when they weighed 1801-1900 g (group 1), 99 when they weighed 1901-2000 g (group 2), and 132 (group 3) when they weighed 2001-2500 g. The overall follow-up rate of those infants living in greater Salisbury was 85-5%, the health visitor playing an important contributory role in their progress, especially those in group 1. More than two clinic visits in the first four to five weeks after discharge were essential for continuing weight gain in groups 1 and 2 but not in group 3. The mean daily weight gain for all babies at the end of four to five weeks was 26 g. Readmission rates for babies in groups 1,2, and 3 were 9-5%, 1%, and 0-8%, respectively, the largest single cause for readmission being bronchopneumonia associated with hypothermia. Altogether 60% of the readmissions occurred during the two winter months (June and July). Hypothermia, associated with low environmental temperatures played a significant part in morbidity and mortality, and twins, particularly in group 1, had a mortality rate three times greater than singletons in the same group. In general, even in underdeveloped communities singleton babies born outside the winter months with reasonable clinic or home visiting facilities can be discharged at a weight of 1800 g or more. (+info)
Bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can lead to respiratory failure and other complications if left untreated. It is important for individuals with bronchopneumonia to seek medical attention promptly if they experience any worsening symptoms or signs of infection, such as increased fever or difficulty breathing.
Bronchopneumonia can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial and viral infections, and can affect individuals of all ages. It is most common in young children and the elderly, as well as those with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Treatment for bronchopneumonia typically involves antibiotics to treat any bacterial infections, as well as supportive care to help manage symptoms and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment and monitoring.
In addition to antibiotics and supportive care, other treatments for bronchopneumonia may include:
* Oxygen therapy to help increase oxygen levels in the blood
* Pain management medications to relieve chest pain and fever
* Breathing exercises and pulmonary rehabilitation to improve lung function
* Rest and relaxation to help the body recover
Prevention is key in avoiding bronchopneumonia, and this can be achieved through:
* Good hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette
* Avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against pneumococcal disease and the flu
* Practicing good hygiene during travel to avoid exposure to respiratory infections.
In conclusion, bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and can affect individuals of all ages. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, and prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and vaccination. With proper treatment and care, individuals with bronchopneumonia can recover and lead active lives.
The symptoms of pneumonic pasteurellosis in humans include fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the infection can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.
Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures and chest x-rays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of pneumonic pasteurellosis includes avoiding close contact with infected animals, wearing protective clothing and equipment when handling animals, and properly cleaning and disinfecting animal products and facilities. Vaccination of animals is also recommended to reduce the risk of transmission to humans.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Some common horse diseases include:
1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.
These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
Pasteurella infections are more common in people who work closely with animals, such as veterinarians, farm workers, and pet owners. The bacteria can enter the body through open wounds, cuts, or abrasions, and it can cause a variety of illnesses, including:
1. Pasteurellosis: A respiratory infection caused by Pasteurella multocida, which is common in dogs and cats. It can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected animals.
2. Pneumonia: A type of lung infection that can be caused by Pasteurella multocida, especially in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing respiratory conditions.
3. Sinusitis: An infection of the sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull, can be caused by Pasteurella multocida.
4. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can be caused by Pasteurella multocida.
5. Endocarditis: An infection of the inner lining of the heart, which is rare but can be caused by Pasteurella multocida.
The symptoms of Pasteurella infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness. Common symptoms include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, chills, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, Pasteurella infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or meningitis.
Diagnosis of Pasteurella infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood cultures, chest X-rays, and CT scans. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the bacteria, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of Pasteurella infections primarily involves avoiding contact with animals that may carry the bacteria, as well as good hygiene practices such as handwashing and covering wounds. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection in high-risk individuals, such as those with weakened immune systems or pre-existing respiratory conditions.
Overall, while Pasteurella infections are rare, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time, especially in high-risk individuals.
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- Pneumonia and bronchopneumonia treated with sulfonamides and antibiotics]. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial pathogens commonly involved in bronchopneumonia in cattle are Histophilus somni , Mannheimia haemolytica , Mycoplasma bovis , and Pasteurella multocida ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- G. anatis has rarely been isolated in Belgium, from bovine feces ( 13 ) or from unknown sources ( 13 , 14 ), but has not, to the authors' knowledge, been reported from nasopharyngeal and tracheal bacterial communities of healthy cattle or cattle with bacterial bronchopneumonia ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)
- The president of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, decided to definitively suspend his trip to China until he recovers from the "bacterial and viral bronchopneumonia due to influenza A" that he suffers and from which he is progressively improving. (agencyefe.com)
- After a clinical evaluation, he was diagnosed with "bacterial and viral bronchopneumonia due to influenza A" and began treatment with antibiotics. (agencyefe.com)
- Bacterial bronchopneumonia was the most common pathology (50 %) undiagnosed ante-mortem in 69 % of cases. (biomedcentral.com)
- The left-wing leader, 77, was admitted to a hospital in the capital, Brasilia, with flu-like symptoms and was diagnosed with "bacterial and viral bronchopneumonia due to influenza A", the palace said in a statement. (aljazeera.com)
- All these particles induced chronic bronchopneumonia and lymphadenitis, accompanied by pulmonary fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
- Repeated and/or prolonged exposures may cause productive cough, running nose, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary oedema (fluid build-up in lungs), and reduction of pulmonary function. (edocr.com)
- Infectious bronchopneumonia has a major economic impact, causing high morbidity and mortality rates in cattle production systems worldwide ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Rarely does infectious tracheobronchitis develop into a serious bronchopneumonia which requires more aggressive treatment, according to vet professionals. (beedogs.com)
- ventilated patients developing bronchopneumonia ( n = 19 samples) or with acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) ( n = 14), and from ARDS/infection-free patients ( n = 11). (portlandpress.com)
- Blood samples of a resident of the Salyan District, who died from bronchopneumonia late last January at the Institute of Lung Diseases, have been sent to the Weybridge Laboratory of the World Health Organization (WHO). (trend.az)
- Bacterial pathogens commonly involved in bronchopneumonia in cattle are Histophilus somni , Mannheimia haemolytica , Mycoplasma bovis , and Pasteurella multocida ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Histologically, the bronchopneumonia was characterized by bronchiectasis, purulent bronchiolitis, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, chronic non-suppurative peribronchiolitis and perivasculitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and acute to subacute purulent pneumonia. (nih.gov)