Fiber Optic Technology
Encyclopedias as Topic
Tracheobronchial malacia and stenosis in children in intensive care: bronchograms help to predict oucome. (1/132)BACKGROUND: Severe tracheobronchial malacia and stenosis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children in intensive care, but little is known about how best to diagnose these conditions or determine their prognosis. METHODS: The records of all 62 children in whom one or both of these conditions had been diagnosed by contrast cinetracheobronchography in our intensive care unit in the period 1986-95 were studied. RESULTS: Seventy four per cent of the 62 children had congenital heart disease; none was a preterm baby with airways disease associated with prolonged ventilation. Fifteen of the children had airway stenosis without malacia; three died because of the stenosis and two died from other causes. Twenty eight of the 47 children with malacia died; only eight children survived without developmental or respiratory handicap. All children needing ventilation for malacia for longer than 14 consecutive days died if their bronchogram showed moderate or severe malacia of either main bronchus (15 cases), or malacia of any severity of both bronchi (three additional cases); all children needing ventilation for malacia for longer than 21 consecutive days died if their bronchogram showed malacia of any severity of the trachea or a main bronchus (three additional cases). These findings were strongly associated with a fatal outcome (p<0.00005); they were present in 21 children (all of whom died) and absent in 26 (of whom seven died, six from non-respiratory causes). They had a positive predictive value for death of 100%, but the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was 83.9% so up to 16% of patients meeting the criteria might survive. CONCLUSION: In this series the findings on contrast cinetracheobronchography combined with the duration of ventilation provided a useful guide to the prognosis of children with tracheobronchomalacia. The information provided by bronchoscopy was less useful. (+info)
Primary bronchomalacia and patent ductus arteriosus: simultaneous surgical correction in an infant. (2/132)We report the clinical course of a 6-month-old girl with recurrent infection of the left lung, persistent wheezing, and a suspected congenital heart anomaly (patent ductus arteriosus. Chest radiography revealed hyperinflation and slight inflammation of the left lung. Tracheobronchoscopy and left-sided bronchography showed a collapsed segment of the left main bronchus, 3 cm long. Computed tomography confirmed hyperinflation of the left lung and atelectasis of the superior lobe. There were no signs of extramural compression. Color-flow Doppler echocardiography confirmed the suspicion of patent ductus arteriosus. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other report in the literature of a patient with this combination of anomalies. After receiving 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, the patient underwent surgical repair The patent ductus arteriosus was closed by means of a triple-ligature procedure, and during the same operation a bronchopexy was performed, securing the left main bronchus to the closed ductus tissue by means of sutures. There have been no complications in the postoperative period. Clinical follow-up, as well as echocardiography and bronchoscopy, have yielded normal results 14 months after surgery. (+info)
Bronchial atresia with transient spontaneous disappearance of a mucocele. (3/132)We report the transient spontaneous disappearance of a mucocele due to bronchial atresia. Two years before presentation, a chest radiograph showed a hyperlucent right upper lung and a mucocele near the right hilum. A chest radiograph taken 1 year later showed that the mucocele had disappeared leaving an ovoid outline of a dilated bronchus. A chest radiograph obtained 3 months before presentation showed that the mucocele was present again. Atresia of the B3b bronchus of the right upper lobe was noted on thoracotomy. The "disappearance" of the mucocele probably was due to the clearance of mucoid material through collateral airways. (+info)
Mucoid impaction caused by monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune in association with bronchiectasis. (4/132)A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of fever, cough, and hemoptysis. A chest radiograph showed a partial collapse of the left upper division and infected bullae in the left upper lobe. Bronchoscopic examination showed thick mucous plugs in the left upper bronchus. The isolates of the plugs proved to be Schizophyllum commune. Neither accumulation of eosinophils nor Charcot-Leyden crystals were present in the plugs. Mild ectatic changes of the left upper bronchus had been observed 17 years previously. We describe the first case of mucoid impaction, which was independent of the immunological reactions, caused by S. commune in association with bronchiectasis. (+info)
Regenerative growth of respiratory bronchioles in dogs. (5/132)Loss of lung units due to pneumonectomy stimulates growth of the remaining lung. It is generally believed that regenerative lung growth involves only alveoli but not airways, a dissociated response termed "dysanaptic growth." We examined the structural response of respiratory bronchioles in immature dogs raised to maturity after right pneumonectomy. In another group of adult dogs, we also examined the effect of preventing mediastinal shift after right pneumonectomy on the response of respiratory bronchioles. In immature dogs after pneumonectomy, the volume of the remaining lung increased twofold, with no change in volume density, numerical density, or mean diameter of respiratory bronchiole, compared with that in the control lung. The number of respiratory bronchiole segments and branch points increased proportionally with lung volume. In adult dogs after pneumonectomy, prevention of mediastinal shift reduced lung strain at a given airway pressure, but lung expansion and regenerative growth of respiratory bronchiole were not eliminated. We conclude that postpneumonectomy lung growth is associated with proliferation of intra-acinar airways. The proportional growth of acinar airways and alveoli should optimize gas exchange of the regenerated lung by enhancing gas conductance and mixing efficiency within the acinus. (+info)
Tracheal size following tracheostomy with cuffed tracheostomy tubes: an experimental study. (6/132)In view of the severe damage caused by unyielding, low residual volume cuffs, various modifications to the cuff of an intratracheal tube have been introduced. The merits of two low-pressure cuffs were assessed in an experimental study in dogs; both cuffs produced little visible damage to the tracheal wall in dogs intubated continuously over a two-week period. A modified technique of producing tantalum tracheobronchograms without distrubing the mucous blanket or traumatizing the tracheal wall is described. These tantalum radiological studies demonstrated a progressive temporary increase in size of the trachea at cuff level over the period of intubation with these cuffs. The implications of such a progressive weakness occurring in the tracheal muscle are discussed. (+info)
Bronchial hysteresis in excised lungs. (7/132)1. Intrapulmonary bronchi in excised dog lungs were outlined with tantalum dust and stereoscopic radiographs taken during deflation and inflation of the lung with air, saline, Ringer or EDTA solutions. Dimensions of airways as a percentage of their values at full inflation were calculated from measurements of the stereoscopic X-ray images. 2. The mean deflation-inflation diameter difference at a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cm H2O was 20% in the air-filled lung, 9% in the saline filled preparation and 2% after filling with EDTA in saline. 3. These results show that the intrapulmonary bronchi have an intrinsic hysteresis separate from the hysteresis imposed on them by the expansion of the surrounding parenchyma. This intrinsic hysteresis is mainly due to the tone of the smooth muscle in the bronchial wall. (+info)
Local ablative procedures designed to destroy squamous-cell carcinoma. (8/132)In a series of experiments in dogs, the bronchial mucosa was either excised or destroyed prior to closure of a bronchial stump following a lobectomy or the reanastomosis of a divided bronchus. The experiments were designed to simulate the clinical situation in which focal areas of squamous-cell carcinoma in situ in the bronchial margin would be managed by local ablation of the mucosa rather than by excision of additional bronchus. The experiments demonstrated that the bronchial mucosa is not necessary for bronchial healing. They also demonstrated that functionally and morphologically normal bronchial epithelium regenerates across the denuded bronchus. The source of this regenerated epithelium appears to be the submucosal glands which remain in the bronchial wall after a variety of local ablative procedures. Since our clinical experience has demonstrated that these submucosal glands frequently contain small foci of squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, we have concluded that either excision or thermal destruction of the bronchial mucosa has very limited clinical application and should be considered only in patients who cannot tolerate excision of more than one lobe of the lung. (+info)
Bronchography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the airways (bronchi) of the lungs, followed by X-ray imaging to produce detailed pictures of the bronchial tree. This diagnostic procedure was commonly used in the past to identify abnormalities such as narrowing, blockages, or inflammation in the airways, but it has largely been replaced by newer, less invasive techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans and bronchoscopy.
The process of bronchography involves the following steps:
1. The patient is sedated or given a local anesthetic to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
2. A radiopaque contrast material is introduced into the bronchi through a catheter that is inserted into the trachea, either via a nostril or through a small incision in the neck.
3. Once the contrast material has been distributed throughout the bronchial tree, X-ray images are taken from various angles to capture detailed views of the airways.
4. The images are then analyzed by a radiologist to identify any abnormalities or irregularities in the structure and function of the bronchi.
Although bronchography is considered a relatively safe procedure, it does carry some risks, including allergic reactions to the contrast material, infection, and bleeding. Additionally, the use of ionizing radiation during X-ray imaging should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits of the procedure.
Bronchiectasis is a medical condition characterized by permanent, abnormal widening and thickening of the walls of the bronchi (the airways leading to the lungs). This can lead to recurrent respiratory infections, coughing, and the production of large amounts of sputum. The damage to the airways is usually irreversible and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infections, genetic disorders, immune deficiencies, or exposure to environmental pollutants. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Treatment typically includes chest physiotherapy, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and sometimes surgery.
Iodopyridones are a class of compounds that contain an iodine atom and a pyridone ring. They are used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers for diagnostic purposes, particularly in nuclear medicine scans such as SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging.
One example of an iodopyridone compound is Iodipamide, which is a radiocontrast agent used to enhance the visibility of the gallbladder and bile ducts during diagnostic imaging procedures. The iodine atom in these compounds is able to absorb X-rays or gamma rays, allowing for visualization of the body's internal structures.
It is important to note that Iodopyridones are not commonly used as a therapeutic agent but rather as a diagnostic tool.
Iodobenzoates are organic compounds that consist of a benzoic acid molecule with an iodine atom substituted at the carboxyl group. Specifically, an iodobenzoate is an ester derived from benzoic acid and iodine, in which the hydrogen atom of the carboxylic acid group (-COOH) has been replaced by an iodine atom.
The general formula for an iodobenzoate can be represented as C6H4(IO)CO2R, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. Iodobenzoates have various applications in organic synthesis and pharmaceuticals, including the production of dyes, drugs, and other chemical intermediates.
It's worth noting that iodobenzoates are not a medical condition or diagnosis but rather a class of chemical compounds with potential uses in medical research and therapeutics.
Bronchial diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These diseases can cause inflammation, narrowing, or obstruction of the bronchi, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing.
Some common bronchial diseases include:
1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurring episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing.
2. Chronic Bronchitis: A long-term inflammation of the bronchi that leads to a persistent cough and excessive mucus production.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the bronchi become damaged and widened, leading to chronic infection and inflammation.
4. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchi that can cause coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness.
5. Emphysema: A lung condition that causes shortness of breath due to damage to the air sacs in the lungs. While not strictly a bronchial disease, it is often associated with chronic bronchitis and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease).
Treatment for bronchial diseases may include medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or surgery may be necessary.
Fiber optic technology in the medical context refers to the use of thin, flexible strands of glass or plastic fibers that are designed to transmit light and images along their length. These fibers are used to create bundles, known as fiber optic cables, which can be used for various medical applications such as:
1. Illumination: Fiber optics can be used to deliver light to hard-to-reach areas during surgical procedures or diagnostic examinations.
2. Imaging: Fiber optics can transmit images from inside the body, enabling doctors to visualize internal structures and tissues. This is commonly used in medical imaging techniques such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and laparoscopy.
3. Sensing: Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure various physiological parameters such as temperature, pressure, and strain within the body. These sensors can provide real-time data during surgical procedures or for monitoring patients' health status.
Fiber optic technology offers several advantages over traditional medical imaging techniques, including high resolution, flexibility, small diameter, and the ability to bend around corners without significant loss of image quality. Additionally, fiber optics are non-magnetic and can be used in MRI environments without causing interference.
Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.
"Flushing" is a medical term that refers to a sudden, temporary reddening of the skin, often accompanied by feelings of warmth. This occurs when the blood vessels beneath the skin dilate or expand, allowing more blood to flow through them. Flushing can be caused by various factors such as emotional stress, alcohol consumption, spicy foods, certain medications, or medical conditions like carcinoid syndrome or menopause. It is generally harmless but can sometimes indicate an underlying issue that requires medical attention.
Hemoptysis is the medical term for coughing up blood that originates from the lungs or lower respiratory tract. It can range in severity from streaks of blood mixed with mucus to large amounts of pure blood. Hemoptysis may be a sign of various underlying conditions, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cancer, or blood disorders. Immediate medical attention is required when hemoptysis occurs, especially if it's in significant quantities, to determine the cause and provide appropriate treatment.
Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
Copyright is a legal concept that gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its use and distribution, usually for a limited period of time. In the medical field, copyright protection can apply to various works such as medical textbooks, journal articles, educational materials, software, and multimedia presentations. It is important to note that copyright law seeks to strike a balance between protecting the rights of creators and promoting the progress of science and knowledge by allowing for limited use of copyrighted material under certain circumstances, such as fair use.
It's worth mentioning that while copyright protection can apply to medical works, there are also exceptions and limitations to copyright law that may allow for the use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright owner in certain situations. For example, in the United States, the "fair use" doctrine allows for limited use of copyrighted material without obtaining permission from the copyright owner, depending on factors such as the purpose and character of the use, the nature of the copyrighted work, the amount and substantiality of the portion used, and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
When using medical works that are protected by copyright, it is important to obtain permission from the copyright owner or ensure that the use falls under an exception or limitation to copyright law, such as fair use, in order to avoid infringing on the exclusive rights of the copyright owner.
Nonprofit organizations in the medical context are private entities that operate on a nonprofit basis and are typically dedicated to furthering a particular social, healthcare-related, or advocacy mission. They are usually tax-exempt and rely on donations, grants, and sometimes membership fees to support their work. Examples of nonprofit organizations in the medical field include hospitals, clinics, research institutions, patient advocacy groups, and health-related foundations. Their primary goal is to provide services or conduct activities that benefit the community or a specific group, rather than generating profits for shareholders or owners.
A patent, in the context of medicine and healthcare, generally refers to a government-granted exclusive right for an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell their invention for a certain period of time, typically 20 years from the filing date. In the medical field, patents may cover a wide range of inventions, including new drugs, medical devices, diagnostic methods, and even genetic sequences.
The purpose of patents is to provide incentives for innovation by allowing inventors to profit from their inventions. However, patents can also have significant implications for access to medical technologies and healthcare costs. For example, a patent on a life-saving drug may give the patent holder the exclusive right to manufacture and sell the drug, potentially limiting access and driving up prices.
It's worth noting that the patent system is complex and varies from country to country. In some cases, there may be ways to challenge or circumvent patents in order to increase access to medical technologies, such as through compulsory licensing or generic substitution.
MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.
MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.
Computer security, also known as cybersecurity, is the protection of computer systems and networks from theft, damage, or unauthorized access to their hardware, software, or electronic data. This can include a wide range of measures, such as:
* Using firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and other technical safeguards to prevent unauthorized access to a network
* Encrypting sensitive data to protect it from being intercepted or accessed by unauthorized parties
* Implementing strong password policies and using multi-factor authentication to verify the identity of users
* Regularly updating and patching software to fix known vulnerabilities
* Providing security awareness training to employees to help them understand the risks and best practices for protecting sensitive information
* Having a incident response plan in place to quickly and effectively respond to any potential security incidents.
The goal of computer security is to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computer systems and data, in order to protect the privacy and safety of individuals and organizations.
List of MeSH codes (E01)
Bronchography - Wikipedia
Bronchiectasis Imaging: Practice Essentials, Radiography, Computed Tomography
Occult carcinoma of the bronchus
Bronchiectasis: comparison of preoperative thin-section CT and pathologic findings in resected specimens
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Bronchoscopy and bronchography2
- Until the advent of HRCT scanning, bronchography was the classic modality used for imaging bronchiectasis. (medscape.com)
- Bronchography is rarely performed, as it has been made obsolete with improvements in computed tomography and bronchoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
- Bronchography is a radiological technique, which involves x-raying the respiratory tree after coating the airways with contrast. (wikipedia.org)
- Bronchography is performed by instilling an iodine-based contrast material via a catheter or bronchoscope, but it is rarely, if ever, performed today, as CT scanning has replaced it as the diagnostic modality of choice. (medscape.com)
- An emulsion of ethyl iodophenylundecylate also is used in bronchography and in the examination of the spinal canal (myelography). (britannica.com)
- Bronchography is rarely performed, as it has been made obsolete with improvements in computed tomography and bronchoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients who had undergone high-resolution computed tomography of the lungs or bronchography were included in the study. (nih.gov)
- 8 patients (52%) had bronchiectasis, diagnosed by means of high-resolution computed tomography (n = 6) or bronchography (n = 2). (nih.gov)
- 9. Comparison of thin section computed tomography with bronchography for identifying bronchiectatic segments in patients with chronic sputum production. (nih.gov)
- The results obtained from the dataset allow the generation of enhanced multi-surface and three-dimensional images of the airway, including those obtained from techniques developed specifically for airway imaging, such as virtual bronchography and virtual bronchoscopy [ 4 ]. (springeropen.com)
- Modern technique in bronchography. (nih.gov)