Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
The hospital unit in which patients with respiratory conditions requiring special attention receive intensive medical care and surveillance.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
Difficult or labored breathing.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
Systems designed to provide information primarily concerned with the administrative functions associated with the provision and utilization of services; also includes program planning, etc.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (1/2342)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (2/2342)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (3/2342)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy. (4/2342)

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial. METHODS: The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.  (+info)

The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to it systemic effects. (5/2342)

Salmeterol is approximately eight times as potent as salbutamol for systemic effects. This may be because the drug is eight times more potent on receptors or there may be differences in systemic bioavailability. The systemic effects of salbutamol are limited by its fairly high first-pass metabolism, but the oral bioavailability of salmeterol is unknown. The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to its systemic effects were analysed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were given inhaled salmeterol 400 microg, inhaled salmeterol 400 microg plus oral activated charcoal or inhaled placebo plus oral activated charcoal on three separate days. Cardiac frequency (fC), Q-T interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for 4 h following the inhaled drug. Salmeterol with and without oral charcoal produced significant changes for all measures compared to placebo. The magnitude of effect following salmeterol alone was significantly greater than that following salmeterol plus charcoal for fC and glucose (mean (95% confidence interval) differences 8 (2-13) beats x min(-1), 0.59 (0.04, 1.13) mmol x L(-1), respectively) and nonsignificantly greater for QTc interval and potassium concentration. The differences between salmeterol given with and without charcoal suggest that 28-36% of the systemic response to salmeterol administered from a metered-dose inhaler are due to drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, most of the systemic effects are due to the inhaled fraction of the drug.  (+info)

Time course of respiratory decompensation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, double-blind study of peak flow changes prior to emergency department visits. (6/2342)

The aim of this study was to look at changes in peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) prior to emergency department visits for decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was designed as a prospective, double-blind study at the Albuquerque Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Twelve patients with an irreversible component of airflow obstruction on pulmonary function tests were assessed. At entry, all subjects were instructed in the use of a mini-Wright peak flow meter with electronic data storage. They then entered a 6-month monitoring phase in which they recorded PEFR twice daily, before and after bronchodilators. The meter displays were disabled so that the patients and their physicians were blinded to all values. Medical care was provided in the customary manner. Patients were considered to have respiratory decompensation if they required treatment for airflow obstruction in the Emergency Department (ED) and no other causes of dyspnea could be identified. Simple linear regression was used to model changes in PEFR over time. The 12 subjects had 22 episodes of respiratory decompensation during 1741 patient-days of observation. Two episodes could not be analysed because of missing values. Ten episodes in seven subjects were characterized by a significant linear decline in at least one peak flow parameter prior to presentation. The mean rates of change for the four daily parameters varied from 0.22% to 0.27% predicted per day (or 1.19 to 1.44 1 min-1 day-1). The average decrement in these parameters ranged from 30.0 to 33.8 1 min-1 (or 18.6%-25.9% of their baseline values). No temporal trends were found for the 10 episodes occurring in the other five subjects. We concluded that respiratory decompensation is characterized by a gradual decline in PEFR in about half of cases. Future studies should be done to elucidate the mechanisms of respiratory distress in the other cases.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of budesonide for the prevention of post-bronchiolitis wheezing. (7/2342)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that recurrent episodes of coughing and wheezing occur in up to 75% of infants after acute viral bronchiolitis. AIM: To assess the efficacy of budesonide given by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask in reducing the incidence of coughing and wheezing episodes up to 12 months after acute viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: Children under the age of 12 months admitted to hospital with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either budesonide or placebo (200 microg or one puff twice daily) for the next eight weeks. Parents kept a diary card record of all episodes of coughing and wheezing over the next 12 months. RESULTS: Full follow up data were collected for 49 infants. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for the number of infants with symptom episodes up to six months after hospital discharge. At 12 months, 21 infants in the budesonide group had symptom episodes compared with 12 of 24 in the placebo group. The median number of symptom episodes was 2 (range, 0-13) in those who received budesonide and 1 (range, 0-11) in those who received placebo. Because there is no pharmacological explanation for these results, they are likely to be caused by a type 1 error, possibly exacerbated by there being more boys in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Routine administration of budesonide by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask system immediately after acute viral bronchiolitis cannot be recommended.  (+info)

Risk factors for death from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease after a hospital admission for asthma. (8/2342)

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma have an increased risk of death from causes other than asthma. A study was undertaken to identify whether severity of asthma, its treatment, or associated co-morbidity were associated with increased risk of death from other causes. METHODS: Eighty five deaths from all causes occurring within three years of discharge from hospital in a cohort of 2242 subjects aged 16-64 years admitted for asthma were compared with a random sample of 61 controls aged <45 years and 61 aged >/=45 years from the same cohort. RESULTS: Deaths from asthma were associated with a history of clinically severe asthma (OR 6.29 (95% CI 1.84 to 21.52)), chest pain (OR 3.78 (95% CI 1.06 to 13.5)), biochemical or haematological abnormalities at admission (OR 4.12 (95% CI 1.36 to 12.49)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 4.04 (95% CI 1.47 to 11.13)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.45 (95% CI 1.35 to 9.10)). Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were associated with lower peak expiratory flow rates (OR 2.56 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.35) for each 50 l/min change), a history of smoking (OR 5.03 (95% CI 1.17 to 21.58)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 7.75 (95% CI 2.21 to 27.14)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.33 (95% CI 0.95 to 11.10)). Cardiovascular deaths were more common among those prescribed ipratropium bromide on discharge (OR 3.55 (95% CI 1.05 to 11.94)) and less likely in those admitted after an upper respiratory tract infection (OR 0.21 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.95)). Treatment with ipratropium bromide at discharge was associated with an increased risk of death from asthma even after adjusting for peak flow, COPD and cardiovascular co-morbidity, ever having smoked, and age at onset of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of inhaled steroids on discharge is important even for those patients with co-existent COPD and asthma. Treatment with ipratropium at discharge is associated with increased risk of death from asthma even after adjustment for a range of markers of COPD. These results need to be tested in larger studies.  (+info)

PURPOSE We sought to determine the prevalence of airway obstruction and bronchodilator responsiveness in adults consulting for acute cough in primary care. METHODS Family physicians recruited 3,105 adult patients with acute cough (28 days or shorter) attending primary care practices in 12 European countries. After exclusion of patients with preexisting physician-diagnosed asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we undertook complete case analysis of spirometry results (n = 1,947) 28 to 35 days after inclusion. Bronchodilator responsiveness was diagnosed if there were recurrent complaints of wheezing, cough, or dyspnea and an increase of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 12% or more after bronchodilation. Airway obstruction was diagnosed according to 2 thresholds for the (postbronchodilator) ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC): less than 0.7 and less than the lower limit of normal. RESULTS There were 240 participants who showed bronchodilator responsiveness
Others. The Bronchodilator report does the thorough study of the key industry players to understand their business strategies, annual revenue, company profile and their contribution to the global Bronchodilator market share. Diverse factors of the Bronchodilator industry like the supply chain scenario, industry standards, import/export details are also mentioned in Global Bronchodilator Market 2017 report.. Key Highlights of the Bronchodilator Market:. A Clear understanding of the Bronchodilator market based on growth, constraints, opportunities, feasibility study.. Concise Bronchodilator Market study based on major geographical regions.. Analysis of evolving market segments as well as a complete study of existing Bronchodilator market segments.. Discover More About Report Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-bronchodilator-market-2017/54749/. Furthermore, distinct aspects of Bronchodilator market like the technological development, economic factors, opportunities and threats to the growth ...
COPD is now defined using the combination of a clinical history and objective evidence of airflow limitation. Data from this study show that these criteria identify patients with an accelerated rate of decline in FEV1. However, the distinction from chronic asthma with limited reversibility remains difficult, and most treatment guidelines use the spirometric response to a bronchodilator drug to aid the diagnosis and, in some cases, to make recommendations about treatment decisions.12 Previous studies have examined the ability of bronchodilator testing to differentiate between asthma and COPD in milder disease and have found no clear distinction spirometrically between the two.9,20 This has not prevented these criteria being widely recommended in the assessment of more severe COPD or in the selection of patients for inclusion in treatment trials.17,21 In this study we examined the reliability of the bronchodilator response in moderate to severe COPD defined as poorly reversible disease by one ...
Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.
Bronchial responsiveness to bronchodilator medications is an integrated physiological response involving airway epithelium, nerves, mediators and bronchial smooth muscle. Since the within-individual difference in response to a bronchodilator is variable, the assumption that a single test of bronchodilator response is adequate to assess both the underlying airway responsiveness and the potential for therapeutic benefits of bronchodilator therapy is overly simplistic 107. Therefore, the current authors feel that the response to a bronchodilator agent can be tested either after a single dose of a bronchodilator agent in the PFT laboratory or after a clinical trial conducted over 2-8 weeks.. The correlation between bronchoconstriction and bronchodilator response is imperfect, and it is not possible to infer with certainty the presence of one from the other.. There is no consensus about the drug, dose or mode of administering a bronchodilator in the laboratory. However, when a metered dose inhaler is ...
The sensitivity and specificity of post-bronchodilator FEV1 increment at different cut-offs is shown in Table A3 in the appendix.. Discussion. This study showed that correlation between the sputum eosinophil level and bronchodilator reversibility was weak. Although COPD patients with VPBT (ΔFEV1>0.4L and >15%) had significantly higher levels of sputum eosinophils than those without, the ability of VPBT to predict sputum eosinophilia is modest (positive predictive value: 63.6%, overall accuracy: 70.1%). In contrast, levels of sputum eosinophils did not differ between groups when subjects were dichotomized according to the widely accepted criterion for PBT (ΔFEV1>0.2L and >12%),16 which was adopted in the GINA guidelines for asthma and the 2010 version of the GOLD guidelines for COPD.4,17. Current guidelines no longer consider the extent of bronchodilator reversibility to be beneficial in the diagnosis of COPD or the differential diagnosis with asthma, even though post-bronchodilator spirometry ...
We thank M.R. Miller for his comments on our paper regarding bronchodilator reversibility in asthma and COPD [1]. We agree that it is important to look at different ways of defining bronchodilator reversibility. In our analysis, we investigated both flow-related bronchodilator reversibility, defined by the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and volume-related bronchodilator reversibility, defined by the change in forced vital capacity. We also looked at both the change in lung function parameters expressed as percent of the baseline value and the change in FEV1 standardised by the subjects predicted value. The latter was evaluated to control for the sex, age and height dependency of lung function. The results when reversibility was expressed as percent of the predicted value (in supplementary tables E3 and E4) [1] were the same as when reversibility was expressed as percent of the baseline value. Our interpretation was therefore that, in the present study, neither flow-related ...
• Active reduction of risk factors and bronchodilator treatment are central to the management of COPD.• Regular use of long-acting bronchodilators (β‎2-agonists and antimuscarinics) is more effective than short-acting bronchodilators in patients with persistent symptoms.• Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) combined with bronchodilators are indicated in patients with forced expiratory volume in 1s FEV1 < 50% predicted and repeated exacerbations.• Influenza vaccination is indicated for all COPD patients; while pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for COPD patients older than 65 years, and in those younger with FEV1 < 40% predicted.• Antibiotics should only be used for infectious exacerbations of COPD, while N-acetylcysteine only affects the frequency of exacerbations in patients off inhaled corticosteroids.• Mucolytic agents, antitussives, and vasodilators are not recommended in stable COPD.• All COPD patients benefit from exercise training programmes, while long-term oxygen therapy increases
Neogens Bronchodilator Group ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) test kit is a qualitative one-step kit designed for use as a screening device for the detection of Bronchodilator Group drugs and/or their metabolites. The kit was designed for screening purposes and is intended for forensic use only.. ...
Here authors performed a comparative analysis of the efficacy of umeclidinium and vilanterol bronchodilator fixed-dose, when compared to other available dual-bronchodilator combinations, in treating patients with COPD.
This test is often done in your healthcare providers office. The reversibility testing steps usually include the following: 1. You will be asked to take a deep breath and then blow into the mouthpiece of the spirometer as hard as you can. This is a baseline measurement. The spirometer records the results. 2. You will be given a dose of bronchodilator medicine using an inhaler or nebulizer.. 3. You will wait for about 15 minutes.. 4. You will take a deep breath and then blow into the mouthpiece spirometer as hard as you can. Again, the spirometer records the results. 5. You will be asked to blow into the mouthpiece more than once to get the best reading possible. ...
Long-acting bronchodilators (LABD) are similar in structure to short-acting selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, but have much longer side chains resulting in a 12-hour effect, and are used to give a smoothed symptomatic relief (used morning and night). While patients report improved symptom control, these drugs do not replace the need for routine preventers, and their slow onset means the short-acting dilators may still be required. In November 2005, the American FDA released a health advisory alerting the public to findings that show the use of long-acting β2-agonists could lead to a worsening of symptoms, and in some cases death. Currently available long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists include salmeterol, formoterol, bambuterol, and sustained-release oral albuterol. Combinations of inhaled steroids and long-acting bronchodilators are becoming more widespread; the most common combination currently in use is fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair in the United States, and Seretide in the United ...
According to a Canadian study published May 20 in JAMA Internal Medicine, older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are new users of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) and long-acting anticholinergics (LAAs) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Although LABAs salmeterol xinafoate and formoterol fumarate and the LAA tiotropium bromide monohydrate generally are considered effective treatments for COPD, the cardiovascular safety of the medications remains a matter of debate.
Indacaterol is a long-acting bronchodilator. Bronchodilators are medicines that are breathed in through the mouth to open up the bronchial tubes (air passages) in the lungs. They relieve cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and troubled breathing by increasing the flow of air through the bronchial tubes. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Results The distribution of change was right skewed with 416 subjects having a fall in FEV1 post BD. The table shows the median baseline FEV1 and the male to female ratio for those meeting (+ve) and not meeting (-ve) the various BDR criteria. Definitions based on % change from baseline were biased to positive results in those with smaller pre BD FEV1. BDR criteria including absolute change were biased to those with a larger FEV1 and gave a higher proportion of males with a positive BDR result. The criterion ,400ml FEV1 change gave the highest male to female ratio of 2.34. Criteria including both absolute and change as % predicted had both sex and FEV1 size bias whereas using only change as % predicted avoided these biases.. ...
Marlborough Community Health Hub This is a theory and practical refresher.. For more information contact Linda Flintoft:. [email protected] or 03 520-5001. ...
This network meta-analysis compares four different classes of long-acting inhalers for people with COPD who need more than short-acting bronchodilators. Quality of life and lung function were improved most on combination inhalers (LABA and ICS) and least on ICS alone at 6 and at 12 months. Overall L …
Despite being an irreversible airflow obstruction disorder, bronchodilators are still used in the treatment of COPD. Different patients of bronchitis need
A total of 179 Tyneside children who had suffered at least one episode of wheeze since school entry were seen at the age of 7. All but 14 had visited a doctor for chest symptoms, but a diagnosis of asthma had been offered to the parents of only 21 children, including three of the 56 children experiencing four to 12 wheezy episodes a year and 11 of the 31 children experiencing more than 12 episodes a year. Bronchodilator treatment was rarely offered in the absence of such a diagnosis, and two thirds of the children had never received a bronchodilator. Of the children experiencing four or more episodes a year, only a third had received bronchodilator drugs regularly, though half had lost more than 50 days from school because of wheeze. School absenteeism fell 10-fold in the 31 children finally offered continuous prophylactic treatment. Although many doctors had feared that use of the word asthma would cause anxiety, parents were uniformly relieved when given an explanation of their childs ...
Worldwide patterns of bronchodilator responsiveness: results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Wan C Tan; William M Vollmer; Bernd Lamprecht; David M Mannino; Anamika Jithoo; Ewa Nizankowska-Mogilnicka; Filip Mejza; Thorarinn Gislason; Peter G J Burney; A Sonia Buist // Thorax;Aug2012, Vol. 67 Issue 8, p718 RationaleCriteria for a clinically significant bronchodilator response (BDR) are mainly based on studies in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Little is known about the BDR in healthy general populations, and even less about the worldwide patterns.Methods10 360 adults aged... ...
The difficulty arises in deciding on the pharmacological treatment for each group. Generally, group A patients receive short-acting bronchodilators, whereas group B must be given LAMA or a LABA, and groups C and D should take an ICS in combination.. Conclusion. The disease progression of COPD should be explained to patients to help them overcome the denial of the causality of smoking. It is very important for patients to stay active; patients with symptomatic airflow obstruction should be offered a rehabilitation program as part of an optimal treatment plan.. It is difficult to treat dyspnoea or completely eliminate it, and this can require the use of double combinations of bronchodilators, i.e. LAMA plus LABA. If the patient does not respond, then a triple combination is recommended, with the addition of ICS. Some patients still do not improve, and one should consider adding a low dose of theophylline.20,21 Sometimes, nebulized bronchodilators may help as a back-up management. The last resort ...
Probric bambuterol HCL Long Acting Bronchodilator Composition: Each 10 ml contains: Bambuterol HCI . 10 mg Properties: Bambuterol is a prod rug of ter
Neither the number of siblings nor whether children were looked after in a nursery during the day seemed to influence frequency of bronchodilator use.. Perhaps most surprisingly, in view of the information given to the parents, we found occasional evidence of canister dumping. This behaviour has also been recorded in studies using inhaler timers in adults and older children.5 7 In canister dumping, patients actuate the inhaler repetitively but are thought not to inhale the drug. In adults the reasons for this behaviour are not known and seem to be unrelated to asthma symptoms.. In studies of adherence to an inhaled prophylactic regimen adult patients and older children have tended to overestimate their use of regular inhaled drug treatment.5 6 7 In contrast, the parents underestimated bronchodilator use in our study. One possible explanation is that a target exists for prophylactic treatment (the prescribed dose). patients may overreport to approach this, whereas there is no such target for ...
Four Presentations to Feature Clinical Results and Drug Delivery Characteristics of Pearl s Combination Bronchodilator, Pearl Therapeutics Inc., a company devel
Asthma • Chronic pulmonary • Pulmonary • Dyspnoea • Emphysema • Pulmonary eosinophilia • Obstructive lung disease
The bpacnz COPD prescribing tool uses the severity of the patients symptoms and their exacerbation history to categorise patients from A - D. Patients in category A, i.e. less symptoms and low exacerbation risk, should be prescribed a bronchodilator.2 Treatment options for patients in category A include as needed use of either a SAMA, SABA or a fixed-dose combination SAMA/SABA, or daily use of a LAMA or LABA. A SABA/SAMA combination inhaler is more effective at improving symptom control and lung function than either medicine in isolation.2 If patients do not obtain sufficient benefit from one bronchodilator, a switch to an alternative class of bronchodilator may be appropriate.2. ...
Advair. Advair is one of the most commonly used inhalers for the maintenance treatment of COPD. It is a combination of fluticasone, a corticosteroid, and salmeterol, a long-acting bronchodilator. Advair is used on a regular basis for the maintenance treatment of COPD and it is typically taken twice per day ...
Olodaterol is a long-acting bronchodilator. Tiotropium is an anticholinergic. These medications work by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing.
Bronchodilators are a type of medication that make breathing easier by relaxing the muscles in the lungs and widening the airways (bronchi). Theyre often used to treat long-term conditions where the airways may become narrow and inflamed, such as: asthma, a common lung condition caused by inflammation of the airways ...
Bronchodilation can be described as the expansion of the bronchial air passages in the respiratory tract. A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchial tubes resulting in decreased resistance in the respiratory airway and increased airflow to the lungs. From a subjective standpoint, this effect makes it feel as if has become significantly easier and more comfortable to breathe.
Category:Bronchodilators Bronchodilators is part of WikiProject Pharmacology, a project to improve all Pharmacology-related articles. If you would like to help
Your doctor may send you to an allergist (disclose: AL-ur-jist), a inimitable doctor who helps people who bear allergies. Some women with medium to obdurate symptoms puissance dearth a long-acting bronchodilator such as Serevent. So when the sniffling symptoms whip, how at ones desire you comprehend if its a chilling, allergies, or a sinus problem?. Whether it be gluten, dairy or an collection of other foods, identifying and eliminating these triggers from your nutriment could serve you head junction cut to the quick 9 medications that can cause heartburn order genuine nitroglycerin on-line symptoms nausea headache. Advantages: the measure of fluid required intraoperatively elude potential toxic effects of inhalational wish be: anaesthetics and utilization of nitrous oxide; livelihood fluid: 03:00 10:30, 1. In counting up, all fluids (notably blood) muscular blocking drugs and is being ventilated, should be warmed to 37 Cusingafluid the ...
Your doctor may send you to an allergist (disclose: AL-ur-jist), a inimitable doctor who helps people who bear allergies. Some women with medium to obdurate symptoms puissance dearth a long-acting bronchodilator such as Serevent. So when the sniffling symptoms whip, how at ones desire you comprehend if its a chilling, allergies, or a sinus problem?. Whether it be gluten, dairy or an collection of other foods, identifying and eliminating these triggers from your nutriment could serve you head junction cut to the quick 9 medications that can cause heartburn order genuine nitroglycerin on-line symptoms nausea headache. Advantages: the measure of fluid required intraoperatively elude potential toxic effects of inhalational wish be: anaesthetics and utilization of nitrous oxide; livelihood fluid: 03:00 10:30, 1. In counting up, all fluids (notably blood) muscular blocking drugs and is being ventilated, should be warmed to 37 Cusingafluid the ...
Verona Pharma has started a Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the potential of RPL554 in combination with a dual bronchodilator therapy in COPD patients.
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In cases of worsening of respiratory symptoms in patients with allergic asthma (shortness of breath, wheezing, rattling, choking) inhaled bronchodilators are used (they do not belong to the group of medicines which control allergic diseases) with possible brief application of high doses of corticosteroids.. The aim of the use of drugs in the treatment of allergic diseases is prevention and reduction of the symptoms to the extent that they do not interfere with the patient`s everyday life. Ideal result of therapy would be the lack of any symptoms. The therapy begins with a single or combination of drugs at lower doses. If necessary, the doses of already used drugs increase or new medications are added, until a satisfactory control of the disease is achieved. For seasonal allergens the therapy should always start a few weeks (at least 2 weeks) before the start of the season of flowering of plants which pollen causes sensibilization and continuously carry it out during the season.. For year-round ...
When added to standard bronchodilator therapies in the two six-month studies, a clear trend for the reduction of exacerbations was observed with roflumilast, over and above what was achieved with these therapies alone. Advair Diskus Help To Pay Buy Cheap Torsemide - ...
Symptomatic treatment of patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50% predicted normal) and a history of repeated exacerbations, who have significant symptoms despite regular therapy with long-acting bronchodilators. Strength ...
If you use a short-acting bronchodilator as a quick relief for acute attacks three times or more a week, this means that your asthma is not under control. Please see your doctor as soon as you can. ...
While FVC testing is sensitive to the presence of disease, not all symptomatic patients present a clear cut FVC response to a bronchodilator.
BDR se dokazao kao specijalista u oblasti medicinski orijentisane nege kože. Više nije tajna da inteligentna kombinacija dermaceutskih sastojaka, individualne tretmanske procedure i aparati sa razvijenom tehnologijom rezultiraju vidljivim i dugotrajnim us
This is a six-week, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, triple-dummy, parallel group pilot study to compare the bronchodilator efficacy and safety of the long-acting bronchodilator tiotropium (Spiriva, 18 µg q.d.) to the free combination of fluticasone (Flixotide, 250 µg b.i.d.) and salmeterol (Serevent, 50 µg b.i.d.) in patients with COPD.. Following an initial screening at Visit 1, subjects will enter a two-week run-in period during which they will record daily rescue salbutamol use in the Patient Daily Diary Card. At Visit 1, pre-dose and post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests (PFT) will be measured. Four inhalations of ipratropium (20 µg per puff) and four inhalations of salbutamol (100 µg per puff) will be administered 60 minutes prior to obtaining post-bronchodilator PFT measurement.. At Visit 2, a pre-dose PFT will be performed prior to first administration of trial medication. Treatment with blinded study medication (tiotropium or fluticasone + salmeterol) will start in ...
Few data are available on the bronchodilator response in preschool children. This study was set up to study baseline lung function and bronchodilator responses in healthy and asthmatic children younger than 7 yrs old. In 281 preschool children attending kindergarten (age range 2.7-6.6 yrs old) respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) by impulse oscillation system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 Hz as well as resonance frequency (f0) were measured before and 20 min after 200 microg inhaled salbutamol by a metered-dose inhaler connected to a spacer device. Thirty-four of them were diagnosed as asthmatics based on a validated standardized questionnaire. The mean Rrs (+/-SD) at 5 Hz (Rrs,5) was 1.03 (+/-0.24) kPa x L(-1) x s for healthy children and 1.09 (+/-0.26) kPa x L(-1) x s for stable asthmatics. The mean change in Rrs,5 after salbutamol was -0.13 (+/-0.20) kPa x L(-1) x s for the healthy children and -0.09 (+/-0.25) kPa x L(-1) x s for the asthmatic group. The scatter for the ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess the Pre-bronchodilator criteria and the Post-bronchodilator criteria of FEV1/FVC ratio in diagnosing Airflow obstruction. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from 1988 to 2006 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Patients referred to the pulmonary function test laboratory for spirometry with bronchodilator reversibility at the hospital during the above said period were enrolled. Forced spirometry was performed according to ATS guidelines. All patients who had pre-bronchodilator criteria of airflow obstruction were analyzed and compared with the post bronchodilator criteria. RESULTS: A total of 4222 individuals underwent spirometry out of which 4072 individuals were studied. Using the pre bronchodilator criteria, 1375 (34%) patients had airflow obstruction. Applying the post bronchodilator criteria on the same patients, 1098 (27%) had evidence of airway obstruction. Out of these 1375 patients who had airflow obstruction by using pre-bronchodilator criteria, 277 (20%)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, with a substantial economic impact. Recent changes in the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidance refined the classification of patients for treatment using a combination of spirometry, assessment of symptoms, and/or frequency of exacerbations. The aim of treatment remains to reduce existing symptoms while decreasing the risk of future adverse health events. Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy due to their proven efficacy. GOLD guidelines recommend combining long-acting bronchodilators with differing mechanisms of action if the control of COPD is insufficient with monotherapy, and recent years have seen growing interest in the additional benefits that combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), typified by tiotropium, with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), such as formoterol and salmeterol. Most studies have examined free
Looking for online definition of bronchodilator in the Medical Dictionary? bronchodilator explanation free. What is bronchodilator? Meaning of bronchodilator medical term. What does bronchodilator mean?
Single Dose, Double-blind, Double-dummy, 3 Period Cross-over, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Reate of Onset of Action of Inhaled Aclidinium Bromide 200µg Compared to Placebo and Tiotropium 18µg in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD ...
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article{4206324, author = {Braido, Fulvio and Baiardini, Ilaria and Cazzola, Mario and Brusselle, Guy and Marugo, Fiorenza and Canonica, Giorgio Walter}, issn = {0954-6111}, journal = {RESPIRATORY MEDICINE}, keywords = {Health status,OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE,Quality of life,Long-acting bronchodilators,COPD,TWICE-DAILY SALMETEROL,FORMOTEROL DRY POWDER,ONCE-DAILY TIOTROPIUM,LUNG-FUNCTION,CONTROLLED-TRIAL,DOUBLE-BLIND,NEBULIZED FORMOTEROL,IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE,COMBINATION THERAPY}, language = {eng}, number = {10}, pages = {1465--1480}, title = {Long-acting bronchodilators improve Health Related Quality of Life in patients with COPD}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2013.08.007}, volume = {107}, year = {2013 ...
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Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used,[2] and result in a small overall benefit.[121] The two major types are β2 agonists and anticholinergics; both exist in long-acting and short-acting forms.[122] They reduce shortness of breath, wheeze, and exercise limitation, resulting in an improved quality of life.[123] It is unclear if they change the progression of the underlying disease.[2] In those with mild disease, short-acting agents are recommended on an as needed basis.[2] In those with more severe disease, long-acting agents are recommended.[2] Long-acting agents partly work by reducing hyperinflation.[74] If long-acting bronchodilators are insufficient, then inhaled corticosteroids are typically added.[2] Which type of long-acting agent, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) such as tiotropium or a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is better is unclear, and trying each and continuing with the one that works best may be advisable.[124] Both types of agent appear to reduce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV. AU - Anthonisen, Nicholas R.. AU - Connett, John E.. AU - Kiley, James P.. AU - Altose, Murray D.. AU - Bailey, William C.. AU - Buist, A. Sonia. AU - Conway, William A.. AU - Enright, Paul L.. AU - Kanner, Richard E.. AU - OHara, Peggy. AU - Owens, Gregory R.. AU - Scanlon, Paul D. AU - Tashkin, Donald P.. AU - Wise, Robert A.. PY - 1994/11/16. Y1 - 1994/11/16. N2 - Objective. - To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary disease. Design. - Randomized clinical trial. Participants randomized with equal probability to one of the following groups: (1) smoking intervention plus bronchodilator, (2) smoking intervention plus placebo, or (3) no intervention. Setting. - ...
1Dugernier J et al. SPECT-CT Comparison of Lung Deposition using a System combining a Vibrating-Mesh Nebulizer with a Valved Holding Chamber and a Conventional Jet Nebulizer: a Randomized Cross-over Study. Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;34:290-300. 2Chweich H et al. Effect on Airflow of Bronchodilator Therapy Delivered via Vibrating-Mesh versus Jet Nebulizers in Acute Asthmatics in an Emergency Department. Poster at ATS. 2019.. 3Dunne RB and Shortt S. Comparison of bronchodilator administration with vibrating-mesh nebulizer and standard jet nebulizer in the emergency department. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2018;36(4):641-646.. 4Aerogen Solo System Instruction Manual.. *Please refer to Aerogen Solo Instruction Manual for approved Aerogen set-ups.. PM617. Digital Ads PM619, PM620, PM621, PM622, PM623 & PM630. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that is associated with airway obstruction. COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It is a progressive condition, but is partially reversible through treatment, especially when diagnosed early in its clinical course. Bronchodilators are important in treating the symptoms of COPD. Long-acting bronchodilators provide sustained symptom relief and are usually preferred in patients with COPD. Combining bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action appears to improve efficacy.
The present invention relates to particulate products which may be prepared by methods and apparatus using supercritical fluids. More particularly, the invention relates to pharmaceutical products, in particular easily handled and easily fluidized crystalline forms of salmeterol xinafoate, with controlled particle size and shape.
Learn about how SPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), works differently than a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), to block bronchoconstriction. Please visit website for Important Safety Information.
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have few options for treatment. The effi cacy and safety of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rofl umilast have been investigated in studies of patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, but not in those concomitantly treated with longacting inhaled bronchodilators. The eff ect of rofl umilast on lung function in patients with COPD that is moderate to severe who are already being treated with salmeterol or tiotropium was investigated. Methods In two double-blind, multicentre studies done in an outpatient setting, after a 4-week run-in, patients older than 40 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomly assigned to oral rofl umilast 500 μg or placebo once a day for 24 weeks, in addition to salmeterol (M2-127 study) or tiotropium (M2-128 study). The primary endpoint was change in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Analysis was by intention to treat. The studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, ...
RIDGEFIELD, Conn., Aug. 14, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Tiotropium Respimat® for the Maintenance Treatment of COPD....
The study by DAlonzo and colleagues fuels the controversy surrounding the appropriate use of selective β2-agonists. Recent concerns about increasing prevalence and morbidity from asthma have demanded a reassessment of our current therapeutic regimens. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma have suggested that in many patients, attention must be directed at the underlying inflammatory processes. Thus, it has been proposed that if short-acting bronchodilators are required on a regular basis, indicating that the inflammatory process has become well established, appropriate care would include the use of an additional agent, such as inhaled steroids, cromolyn, or nedocromil (1). The importance of supplemental medications is underlined in this study. 74% of patients receiving salmeterol, 75% receiving placebo, and 80% receiving albuterol were routinely also receiving inhaled steroids, theophylline, or cromolyn. Only 15 patients were forced to withdraw because of increasing ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is defined by post-bronchodilator spirometry. Data on normal values come predominantly from pre-bronchodilator spirometry. The effects of this on diagnosis are unknown. METHODS: Low
FRANKLIN LAKES, N.J. -The class of drugs known as long-acting beta agonists can provide many benefits to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but medical experts have long warned of dangers in using the drugs alone. Still, according to data from a study last month, many patients continue using LABAs as a monotherapy despite the risks. The Medco Research Institute and the Medco Pulmonary Therapeutic Resource Center, research arms of pharmacy benefit manager Medco Health Solutions, found that close to one-third of patients using LABAs use them without other controller medications. And this, according to experts, puts them at risk of worsening disease symptoms or even death. LABAs include such drugs as GlaxoSmithKlines Serevent (salmeterol xinafoate) and Foradil (formoterol fumarate) by Merck and Novartis.. The researchers found that 31% of patients prescribed either drug didnt use them together with controller medications, but those who received treatment from an ...
In a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled study, 565 adult patients with asthma were evaluated for the bronchodilator efficacy of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler (193 patients) in comparison to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler (186 patients). Serial FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume) measurements demonstrated that two inhalations of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler produced significantly greater improvement in pulmonary function than placebo and produced outcomes which were clinically comparable to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler. The mean time to onset of a 15% increase in FEV1 was 6 minutes and the mean time to peak effect was 50 minutes. The mean duration of effect as measured by a 15% increase in FEV1 was 3 hours. No statistically significant or clinical meaningful differences were seen in the safety parameters, including the overall adverse event rates, heart rate, blood pressure, serum potassium or ...
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This study was designed to evaluate the repeat-dose safety and effectiveness of albuterol [salbutamol], bronchodilator inhaler relative to placebo (inactive
SPIRIVA RESPIMAT is a bronchodilator indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of asthma in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older. Please visit website for Important Safety Information.
Theophylline is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of heart failure, pulmonary edema, bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A COPD diet should also include high levels of calcium and magnesium because these nutrients help to regulate lung and heart functions. COPD patients are at risk for both phosphorous and potassium deficiencies, so be sure to include these nutrients in your diet too.. Bronchodilator Inhalants to Open Airways. These are one of the most frequently prescribed COPD treatment options. These inhalers are similar to the ones used by people with asthma, and the apply medication that opens bronchial tubes directly to the affected area. Patients with COPD can carry around an inhaler and use it whenever they notice it becoming difficult to breathe. Depending on the severity of your COPD, a doctor may prescribe a short-acting or long-acting bronchodilator.. Steroid Medication to Reduce Inflammation. Most of the lung damage that COPD patients suffer is due to excessive inflammation harming the lungs on a cellular level. Since steroids help to reduce inflammation in the airways, either oral or inhalant ...
The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has issued its monthly advice on new medicines.. Roflumilast (Daxas®) has been rejected as an add on to bronchodilator treatment in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second post-bronchodilator ,50% predicted) associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations. The manufacturer did not present a sufficiently robust economic analysis.. Four combined oral contraceptive pills (Rigevidon®, Gedarel®, Millinette® and TriRegol®) were all accepted for use in patients where these products would provide an appropriate form of contraception. They provide an alternative to the existing preparations at a lower cost.. Action: Clinicians should be aware of the recommendations of the SMC. Routine use of rejected and restricted medicines should be avoided.. ...
1.1 Spiriva Respimat is indicated as an add-on maintenance bronchodilator treatment in adult patients with asthma who are currently treated with the maintenance combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS ≥ 800 µg budesonide/day or equivalent) and long-acting ß agonists (LABA) and who experienced one or more severe exacerbations in the previous year.. 1.2 The first Canadian Patent No. 2,275,392 pertaining to Spiriva Respimat was issued to Boehringer lngelheim Pharma GMBH & Co. KG on June 29, 2004, and the last issued Canadian Patent No. 2,617,717 will expire on August 2, 2026.. 1.3 Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance (NOC) for Spiriva Respimat on December 17, 2014. Boehringer lngelheim (Canada) Ltd. commenced sales in Canada on December 19, 2014.. 1.4 Boehringer lngelheim (Canada) Ltd. is the patentee for purposes of the Patent Act and the PMPRB.. ...
Identifying DNA variants associated with bronchodilator responsiveness may reveal genetic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may identify novel treatment methods, researchers said.
Buy Cheap on line quibron-t - Quibron-T (Theophylline) is a bronchodilator used to treat the symptoms of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.
Tiotropium belongs to the family of medicines known as bronchodilators. Bronchodilators are breathed in through the mouth to help open up the bronchial tubes (air passages) in the lungs. It is taken by inhalation (an inhaler) and will increase the flow of air to the lungs. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
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"CFR TITLE 21: DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE: PART 341 -- COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER- ... functioning as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent (with few or no effects on the release of dopamine), so it affects ...
A new long-acting bronchodilator with reduced chronotropic effects". Chest. 78 (2): 283-7. doi:10.1378/chest.78.2.283. PMID ... Walker, Susannah B.; Kradjan, Wayne A.; Bierman, C. Warren (6 May 1985). "Bitolterol Mesylate: A Beta-adrenergic Agent; ... "Comparison of the bronchodilator effects of nebulized bitolterol mesylate and isoproterenol hydrochloride in steroid-dependent ...
This is commonly referred to as a reversibility test, or a post bronchodilator test (Post BD), and is an important part in ... or with a pharmaceutical agent such as methacholine or histamine. ... A bronchodilator is also given in certain circumstances and a pre/post graph comparison is done to assess the effectiveness of ... Sometimes, to assess the reversibility of a particular condition, a bronchodilator is administered before performing another ...
Long-acting agents partly work by reducing hyperinflation.[74] If long-acting bronchodilators are insufficient, then inhaled ... Bronchodilators[edit]. Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used,[2] and result in a small overall benefit.[121] ... Bronchodilators came into use in the 1960s following a promising trial of isoprenaline. Further bronchodilators, such as ... External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ...
... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ... Corticosteroids are sometimes administered, and bronchodilators to treat bronchospasms. Drugs that reduce the inflammatory ... Other inhaled agents may be directly toxic (e.g. cyanide, carbon monoxide), or cause harm simply by displacing oxygen and ... These agents are less likely to produce early warning signs (phosgene in low concentrations has a pleasant odor), are more ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... bronchodilators, antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants. inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ...
... nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion), antiparkinson agents (e.g., ... bronchodilators, decongestants, and/or antidepressants, among others. ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... "CFR TITLE 21: DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE: PART 341 - COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER- ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ...
Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ...
Epinephrine is also used as a bronchodilator for asthma if specific β2 agonists are unavailable or ineffective.[25] ... "Part 6: Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Section 6: Pharmacology II: Agents to Optimize Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure ... contrast agents, medicines or people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to known triggers. A single dose is recommended ... prolong the action of the anesthetic agent. Due to epinephrine's vasoconstricting abilities, the use of epinephrine in ...
External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. ... with bronchodilators such as inhaled long acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists (e.g., salmeterol) and inhaled ... Poole, Phillippa; Chong, Jimmy; Cates, Christopher J. (2015-07-29). "Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or ... and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids.[11] Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung ...
This synthesis was a by-product of a search for ephedrine, a bronchodilator used to treat asthma extracted exclusively from ... "Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related agents". In Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W. Foye's principles of ... compounds found use as decongestants in the symptomatic treatment of colds and also occasionally as psychoactive agents. Their ...
"Dermatotherapeutic Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). 2007. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_301.pub2. ... Kyriakidis I, Tragiannidis A, Munchen S, Groll AH (February 2017). "Clinical hepatotoxicity associated with antifungal agents ... "The cost effectiveness of testing for onychomycosis versus empiric treatment of onychodystrophies with oral antifungal agents ... "Current and emerging azole antifungal agents". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (1): 40-79. PMC 88906. PMID 9880474 ...
Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another.[1][2] ... In British Columbia, Canada the cost of the PPIs varies significantly from 0.20 CAD to 2.38 CAD per dose while all agents in ... The cost between different agents varies significantly.[1] ...
The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ... Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... Diuretics increase the urine volume and dilute doping agents and their metabolites. Another use is to rapidly lose weight to ... "The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and ...
Reductions in pressure and exposure will be made progressively, and medications such as bronchodilators and pulmonary ... and patients exposed to chemicals that increase risk for oxygen toxicity such the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin.[35] ...
"Abstr Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39: 33 (abstract no. 1195).. *^ Weiner D, Gabrielsson J (2000). "PK24 - Non- ... Bronchodilator medication. + Theophylline. *Cytostatic medication. + Methotrexate. + 5-Fluorouracil. + Irinotecan. * Antiviral ...
Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if epinephrine is used, then sodium metabisulfite is used as a reducing agent ... LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action.[1] Low doses of LA drugs ... This can be a factor in choosing an agent in patients with liver failure,[56] although since cholinesterases are produced in ... Even with proper administration, it is inevitable for some diffusion of agent into the body from the site of application due to ...
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34:269-272. PMID: 2183716. *↑ Kwa AL,et al.Nebulized colistin in the treatment of pneumonia ... കടുത്ത ശ്വാസം മുട്ടൽ ഉണ്ടെങ്കിലും ബെയ്റ്റ-2 ഉത്തേജകങ്ങളെപ്പോലുള്ള ശ്വാസനാളീ വികാസ മരുന്നുകൾ (bronchodilators) ഈ രോഗികളിൽ ഫലം ... External agents/. occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis (Asbestosis, Baritosis, Bauxite fibrosis, Berylliosis, Caplan's ... Potentially multidrug-resistant non-fermentative Gram-negative pathogens causing nosocomial pneumonia.Int J Antimicrob Agents. ...
4 mg DMAA per dose unit should be considered as effective as a bronchodilator. Food supplements that exceed that limit are in ... Antiallergic agents,. excluding corticosteroids. *Spaglumic acid. *histamine antagonists (Levocabastine. *Antazoline. * ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
At low exposure levels, α-Pinene is a bronchodilator in humans, and is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Through the use of agents researchers were able to treat obtundation and respiratory depression.[3] Various analeptics contain ... Caffeine is a weak bronchodilator, which explains the relief of the effects of asthma. There is preliminary research that ... The use has declined primarily because of shorter lasting anesthetic agents becoming more abundant, but also because some ...
General anesthetic agents, opioids, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. ... They may also be used as a route for administration of certain medications such as bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, ... Spontaneous ventilation has been traditionally performed with an inhalational agent (i.e. gas induction or inhalational ... and several apparati for the administration of volatile anesthetic agents.[126][127][128] The Magill curve of an endotracheal ...
Agents Chemother. 12 (5): 642-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.12.5.642. PMC 429991 . PMID 303498.. ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anaesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2- ... a PCP-receptor-acylating agent". Synapse. 1 (5): 497-504. doi:10.1002/syn.890010514. PMID 2850626.. ...
Occupational Asthma - An estimated 2% to 5% of all asthma episodes may be caused by exposure to a specific sensitizing agent in ... The main form of long term management involves the use of inhaled bronchodilators (specifically beta agonists and ...
Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and ... Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. ... Bronchodilator Agents / pharmacology* * Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use * Female * Forced Expiratory Volume / drug ... bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend,0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was ...
Pharma has started a Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the potential of RPL554 in combination with a dual bronchodilator ... The investigational medicine acts as both a bronchodilator and an anti-inflammatory agent. RPL554, delivered via a nebulizer, ... Tagged bronchodilators, clinical trials, corticosteroids, LAMA/LABA, lung function, Phase 2 trial, RPL554, STIOLTO™ RESPIMAT®, ... "We believe the bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties of RPL554 may be particularly useful in this large group of ...
Bronchodilators. Class Summary. These agents act to decrease muscle tone in both the small and large airways in the lungs, ... These agents have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, these agents ... Antiplatelet agents. Class Summary. Because dysbaric illness has the potential for activation of coagulation factors, as ... By promoting nasal or sinus drainage, these agents may prevent ear discomfort. However, their exact mechanism of action is not ...
Bronchodilator Agents. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of ... To evaluate the effect of brodalumab compared to placebo at week 24 on lung function based on pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (forced ... Lung function based on pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) [ Time Frame: week 24 ]. ... Diagnosis of asthma, and presently has reversibility over pre-bronchodilator FEV1 of ≥ 20% at screening ...
Bronchodilator Agents. Olodaterol. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti- ... Respiratory System Agents. Parasympatholytics. Cholinergic Antagonists. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular ... Effects of Dual Bronchodilator Treatment on Cardiopulmonary Interactions in COPD. The safety and scientific validity of this ... There is growing evidence that combination of bronchodilators of different classes is an efficacious and safe strategy for ...
Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Asthmatic ... Respiratory System Agents. Tocolytic Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta- ... Chronic-dose Safety and Efficacy Study of a Bronchodilator Inhaler in Pediatric Asthmatics. The safety and scientific validity ... This study is designed to evaluate the repeat-dose safety and effectiveness of a bronchodilator inhaler relative to placebo ( ...
... or both were questioned about their use of adrenergic bronchodilators for treating children of different ages at home, in the ... Bronchodilator Agents / administration & dosage * Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use* * Child * Drug Administration Routes ... Use of adrenergic bronchodilators by pediatric allergists and pulmonologists Am J Dis Child. 1989 Apr;143(4):481-5. doi: ... or both were questioned about their use of adrenergic bronchodilators for treating children of different ages at home, in the ...
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Metaproterenol is used exclusively as a bronchodilator. The pharmacologic effects of beta adrenergic agonist drugs, such as ...
In allergic reactions an allergen interacts with and cross-links surface IgE antibodies on mast cells and basophils. Once the mast cell-antibody-antigen complex is formed, a complex series of events occurs that eventually leads to cell-degranulation and the release of histamine (and other chemical mediators) from the mast cell or basophil. Once released, histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1-receptors, produces pruritis, vasodilatation, hypotension, flushing, headache, tachycardia, and bronchoconstriction. Histamine also increases vascular permeability and potentiates pain. Mequitazine is a histamine H1 antagonist. It competes with histamine for the normal H1-receptor sites on effector cells of ...
As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma. ... but has been shown to be an ineffective tocolytic agent. More common side effects from magnesium include upset stomach and ...
Biotransformation of sympathomimetic agents and bronchodilators. D. E. Hathway, L. G. Dring and P. Millburn ...
Bronchodilator Agents. Grant support. *5 T32 ES07085-10/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States ...
bronchodilator agent An agent that causes an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes. ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role bronchodilator agent (CHEBI:35523) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role muscarinic antagonist (CHEBI ... mydriatic agent Agent that dilates the pupil. Used in eye diseases and to facilitate eye examination. It may be either a ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role mydriatic agent (CHEBI:50513) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role parasympatholytic (CHEBI:50370) ...
bronchodilator agent An agent that causes an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes. ... bronchodilator agent (CHEBI:35523) clenbuterol (CHEBI:174690) has role sympathomimetic agent (CHEBI:35524) clenbuterol (CHEBI: ... An agent that selectively binds to and activates beta. -adrenergic receptors.. sympathomimetic agent A drug that mimics the ... An agent that selectively binds to and activates beta. -adrenergic receptors.. sympathomimetic agent A drug that mimics the ...
Bronchodilator Agents. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Medical. *Asthma - Genetic Alliance ... Analysis of peak flow rate, symptoms score and bronchodilator use showed that in ten pregnancies there was improvement in the ...
Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 28. Focalin XR. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 75th. 95th. 22. Intuniv. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. 95th ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 21. Symbicort. B. ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 75th. 95th. 20. ProAir HFA. B. ...
Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Asthmatic ... Respiratory System Agents. Free Radical Scavengers. Antioxidants. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Bronchodilator agents Dry powder inhalers Inspiratory resistance Inhalation technique ... Therefore we calculated the inspiratory resistance of DPI devices of bronchodilator agents for treating chronic obstructive ... A study of inspiratory resistance of dry powder inhaler for bronchodilator agents ... Because dry powder inhalers (DPI) aerosolize agents by means of inspiration of the patients themselves, the inspiratory ...
Bronchodilator Agents ... Cardiovascular Safety of Inhaled Long-Acting Bronchodilators in ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Cardiovascular Safety of Inhaled Long-Acting Bronchodilators in Individuals With ... These results support the need for close monitoring of all patients with COPD who require long-acting bronchodilators ...
Many such devices, typically designed to deliver anti-asthmatic agents (e.g., bronchodilators and steroids) or anti- ... None required antibiotics, antiinflammatory agents, or bronchodilator treatment.. Results of physiology studies for animals ... When epithelial cells are damaged or removed in preparation for delivering a therapeutic agent (including one or more agents ... Solutions containing several of these agents have been tested. The first agents to be tested were selected based on their ...
n. An inhalant bronchodilator drug, C20H30NO3, used in the form of its bromide to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. n drugs ... An inhalant bronchodilator drug, C20H30NO3, used in the form of its bromide to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. ... Recreational Drugs) drugs an anticholinergic bronchodilator that is used esp in the treatment of certain forms of asthma ...
Anticholinergic bronchodilators versus beta2-sympathomimetic agents for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Anti-cholinergic bronchodilators versus beta2-sympathomimetic agents for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Anticholinergic bronchodilators versus beta2-sympathomimetic agents for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Anticholinergic bronchodilators versus beta2-sympathomimetic agents for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
Pharmacological Actions : Bronchodilator Agents. [+] High dose magnesium converts ibutilide into a safer and more effective ...
Bronchodilator Agents. 56. 12. Anti-thrombotic. 56. 24. Telomerase Inhibitor. 55. 35. ...
Bronchodilator Agents, Normal saline, Dead space breathing, Room air breathing. Location. Respiratory Investigation Unit, ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... Effects of Bronchodilator on Exercise Endurance Time and Breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Cycle ... Inhaled Long-acting Bronchodilators With or Without Inhaled Glucocorticosteroids for Preventing Hospitalizations and Death in ...
Bronchodilator Agents, Hypotensive. [+] Saffrons therapeutic activity in respiratory diseases may be due to its bronchodilator ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Additional Keywords : Mortality, Phytotherapy, Plant Extracts, Risk ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents. Additional Keywords : Homeopathic Vs. Conventional Treatment, Significant ... These results suggested the potential of neferine as a therapeutic agent for acute respiratory distress syndrome.Dec 31, 2017. ...
Pharmacological Actions : Bronchodilator Agents. [+] Modulation of lung inflammation and immune markers in asthmatic rats ... P. oleracea extract is a general tissue protective and regenerative agent and may be a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycemic Agents, Hypolipidemic, Interleukin-1 beta ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antioxidants, Hypoglycemic Agents, Interleukin-6 Downregulation, Tumor ...
... bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, antibacterial agents, and antiviral agents and make recommendations to influence ... The use of bronchodilator agents continues to be controversial. RCTs have failed to demonstrate a consistent benefit from α- ... adrenergic or β-adrenergic agents. Several studies and reviews have evaluated the use of bronchodilator medications for viral ... Use of nebulized bronchodilators in infants under 1 year of age: analysis of four forms of therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol.1987;3 : ...
... bronchodilator explanation free. What is bronchodilator? Meaning of bronchodilator medical term. What does bronchodilator mean? ... Looking for online definition of bronchodilator in the Medical Dictionary? ... 2. An agent that possesses this power (e.g., epinephrine). Bronchodilator. A medicine used to open up the bronchial tubes (air ... 2. An agent that possesses this power (for example, epinephrine, albuterol). bronchodilator. (brŏng′kō-dī-lā′tər, -dĭ-, -dī′lā ...
0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Saline Solution, Hypertonic). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1801. ... trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as ...
  • We have already demonstrated that RPL554 is an effective add-on treatment to short- and long-acting bronchodilators in COPD patients. (copdnewstoday.com)
  • This Phase 2 trial will now examine the effect of RPL554 as an add-on to LAMA/LABA therapy, and in some patients to triple therapy, as many of these COPD patients continue to experience breathing difficulties and daily symptoms that impair their quality of life despite concomitant treatment with two bronchodilators," Jan-Anders Karlsson, Verona's CEO, said in a press release . (copdnewstoday.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that RPL554 is a safe therapy with bronchodilator action when used alone or in combination with other COPD bronchodilators. (copdnewstoday.com)
  • The investigational medicine acts as both a bronchodilator and an anti-inflammatory agent. (copdnewstoday.com)
  • We believe the bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties of RPL554 may be particularly useful in this large group of patients with high, unmet medical need. (copdnewstoday.com)
  • To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. (nih.gov)
  • 0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. (nih.gov)
  • Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-receptor blocking agents, especially those which are non-selective, may partly or totally inhibit the effect of beta-receplorstimulants. (medicinep.com)
  • This guideline addresses the diagnosis of bronchiolitis as well as various therapeutic interventions including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents, hydration, chest physiotherapy, and oxygen. (aappublications.org)
  • Medications used to treat COPD include inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroid /bronchodilator combinations, long-acting muscarinic antagonists, and oral steroids. (rxlist.com)
  • Acute bronchospasm unresponsive to bronchodilator therapy often improves with the antiinflammatory effect of corticosteroids. (health.am)
  • Physicians should consider antibiotics for patients with purulent sputum and for patients who have inadequate symptom relief with bronchodilators and corticosteroids. (aafp.org)
  • Hospitalized patients with exacerbations should receive regular doses of short-acting bronchodilators, continuous supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, and systemic corticosteroids. (aafp.org)
  • 7. Inhaled corticosteroids are recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations and have a synergistic effect with bronchodilators in improving lung function, quality of life and exacerbation frequency. (scielo.org.za)
  • High doses of bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment and systemic corticosteroids have some benefit. (ersjournals.com)
  • The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA) on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and in forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • This study is designed to evaluate the repeat-dose safety and effectiveness of a bronchodilator inhaler relative to placebo (inactive drug inhaler) in children aged 4-11 years with asthma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A β 2 -adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol is used (as its hydrochloride salt) as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • See Adrenergic bronchodilator , Asthma , Wheezing . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each participant in the second group was advised to take a specific inhaled dose of the steroid beclomethasone daily, regardless of symptoms, plus the rescue bronchodilator as needed in response to symptoms, as has been the standard recommendation for almost 30 years by the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • therefore, the main thrust of asthma therapy is to limit exposure to triggering factors and to reduce the inflammatory process using anti-inflammatory agents. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although, ideally, optimal control of asthma means the absence of respiratory symptoms, no need for a rescue bronchodilator and normal pulmonary function, this is may be difficult to achieve. (cmaj.ca)
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients relying on hospital outpatient airways by relaxing bronchial smooth care for chronic asthma conditions may receive differential treatment and have muscles (bronchodilator drugs). (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchospasm, asthma-associated (treatment)-Albuterol, bitolterol, fenoterol, metaproterenol, pirbuterol, procaterol, and terbutaline are indicated as bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchospasm associated with asthma {06} {07} {08} {11} {12} {13} {14} {15} {16} {18} {43} {60} . (drugs.com)
  • Bronchospasm, asthma-associated (prophylaxis)- Salmeterol and formoterol are indicated to prevent bronchospasm and reduce the frequency of acute asthma exacerbations in patients with chronic asthma {27} {30} {38} {46} {47} who require regular treatment with an inhaled shorter-acting beta-adrenergic bronchodilator. (drugs.com)
  • An inhaled long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used as a bronchodilator in the management of asthma and COPD. (drugbank.ca)
  • A beta-2 adrenergic agonist and bronchodilator used for the symptomatic treatment of asthma. (drugbank.ca)
  • A beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist and bronchodilator used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (drugbank.ca)
  • Used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma patients. (drugbank.ca)
  • A bronchodilator used to treat intermittent asthma. (drugbank.ca)
  • Embase & Cinahl: [asthma.mp OR exp extrinsic asthma OR exp asthma OR wheez$.mp OR bronchodilatOR.mp OR bronchodilating agent OR salbutamol OR salbutamol.mp OR exp salbutamol sulfate OR albuterol.mp OR exp terbutaline sulfate OR exp terbutaline OR terbutaline.mp OR isoproterenol.mp OR exp isoprenaline OR beta-agonist.mp. (bestbets.org)
  • Theophylline is an effective, easy-to-use prescription bronchodilator for use in the treatment of various airway constrictions, including asthma, allergies, and other pulmonary disorders. (endicotts.co.uk)
  • A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to asthma, the airflow reduction does not improve much with the use of a bronchodilator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment includes antibiotics to fight infection, bronchodilators, expectorants and mucolytic agents. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Risk factors for exacerbation relapses include low pre-treatment FEV 1 , a need to increase bronchodilator or corticosteroid use, previous exacerbations (more than three in the last 2 yrs), prior use of antibiotics and the presence of comorbid conditions (congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic renal or liver failure) 9 - 12 . (ersjournals.com)
  • While there is well-established evidence for the use of steroids and bronchodilators in AECOPD, the debate continues over the appropriate use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute exacerbations. (the-hospitalist.org)
  • A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and to prevent premature labor. (drugbank.ca)
  • A synthetic catechol compound and potent beta adrenergic agonist with peripheral vasodilator, bronchodilator, and cardiac stimulating properties. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The drug of choice is an inhaled beta-agonist bronchodilator. (medscape.com)
  • It is used as a bronchodilator, antiasthmatic, and tocolytic agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Bisoprolol fumarate is a beta 1 -selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent without significant membrane stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activities in its therapeutic dose range. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the effect of brodalumab compared to placebo at week 24 on lung function based on pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each medical record was reviewed for pertinent clinical and pulmonary function test data, including results for lung volume and flow, diffusing capacity and response to bronchodilator. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reduction of gas flow obstructions may be achieved in a variety of ways, including over inflation of the lung, introduction of mucolytic or dilation agents, application of vibrational energy, induction of absorption atelectasis, or the like. (google.es)
  • 5. A method as in claim 1, wherein reducing gas flow obstructions comprises introducing an agent to the lung tissue segment, wherein the agent clears or dilates air passages within the segment. (google.es)
  • The delivery of bronchodilators with metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in mechanically ventilated patients has attracted considerable interest in recent years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Respiratory System Agents. (lookchem.com)
  • Bronchodilators reduce resistance in the respiratory tract and improve airflow to the alveoli of the lungs. (endicotts.co.uk)
  • Therefore we calculated the inspiratory resistance of DPI devices of bronchodilator agents for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (or.jp)
  • Obstetrics: Magnesium sulfate is used to prevent seizures in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia, and is also used for fetal neuroprotection in preterm deliveries, but has been shown to be an ineffective tocolytic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic adrenergic agent derived from norepinephrine, having powerful bronchodilator and cardiac stimulant action. (fpnotebook.com)
  • These agents act to decrease muscle tone in both the small and large airways in the lungs, thereby increasing ventilation. (medscape.com)
  • Theophylline ER (Extended-release) is a bronchodilator used to open air passages in the lungs. (endicotts.co.uk)
  • On the basis of class of drugs, the TDM market is segmented into antiepileptic drugs, antibiotic drugs, immunosuppressant drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs, bronchodilator drugs, psychoactive agents, and other drugs. (benzinga.com)
  • A direct acting sympathomimetic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion and minor inflammation due to allergies or colds. (drugbank.ca)
  • A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of hypotension. (drugbank.ca)
  • It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. (rxlist.com)
  • It combines two antihypertensive agents in a once-daily dosage: a synthetic beta 1 -selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent (bisoprolol fumarate) and a benzothiadiazine diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). (nih.gov)
  • Epinephrine is one of the most powerful bronchodilators and can be administered by injection or by aerosol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is one of the most widely used aerosol bronchodilators. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary disease. (elsevier.com)
  • are types of bronchodilator drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory environmental irritants, viral infections, agents were the most common medications prescribed. (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • This guideline examines the published evidence on diagnosis and acute management of the child with bronchiolitis in both outpatient and hospital settings, including the roles of supportive therapy, oxygen, bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, antibacterial agents, and antiviral agents and make recommendations to influence clinician behavior on the basis of the evidence. (aappublications.org)
  • Bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, relieving dyspnoea and improving quality of life. (scielo.org.za)
  • It is possibly the most potent bronchodilator since CO2 is the most potent relaxant of smooth muscles of arteries or strongest known vasodilator. (endicotts.co.uk)
  • An inhalant bronchodilator drug, C 20 H 30 NO 3 , used in the form of its bromide to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator results in a relatively small improvement in FEV 1 that appears to be reversed after the drug is discontinued. (elsevier.com)
  • Caffeine has been used as a weight loss agent due to its thermogenic effects (the process of fat or calorie burning caused by increasing heat output). (health24.com)
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty-one pediatricians specializing in allergy, pulmonology, or both were questioned about their use of adrenergic bronchodilators for treating children of different ages at home, in the emergency department, and in the hospital. (nih.gov)
  • Long-acting beta2 agonists-Oral agents that last up to 12 hours (e.g., salmeterol, formoterol). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During therapy with salmeterol or formoterol, it is important for patients to have a fast-acting inhaled beta-adrenergic bronchodilator available for relief of acute attacks {17} {117} {120} . (drugs.com)
  • Don't use bronchodilators in children with bronchiolitis because the agents have minimal or no treatment effects. (redorbit.com)