Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPractice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.EuropePiperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.ChlorobenzenesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Pesticide Synergists: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (1/2342)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (2/2342)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (3/2342)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy. (4/2342)

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial. METHODS: The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.  (+info)

The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to it systemic effects. (5/2342)

Salmeterol is approximately eight times as potent as salbutamol for systemic effects. This may be because the drug is eight times more potent on receptors or there may be differences in systemic bioavailability. The systemic effects of salbutamol are limited by its fairly high first-pass metabolism, but the oral bioavailability of salmeterol is unknown. The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to its systemic effects were analysed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were given inhaled salmeterol 400 microg, inhaled salmeterol 400 microg plus oral activated charcoal or inhaled placebo plus oral activated charcoal on three separate days. Cardiac frequency (fC), Q-T interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for 4 h following the inhaled drug. Salmeterol with and without oral charcoal produced significant changes for all measures compared to placebo. The magnitude of effect following salmeterol alone was significantly greater than that following salmeterol plus charcoal for fC and glucose (mean (95% confidence interval) differences 8 (2-13) beats x min(-1), 0.59 (0.04, 1.13) mmol x L(-1), respectively) and nonsignificantly greater for QTc interval and potassium concentration. The differences between salmeterol given with and without charcoal suggest that 28-36% of the systemic response to salmeterol administered from a metered-dose inhaler are due to drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, most of the systemic effects are due to the inhaled fraction of the drug.  (+info)

Time course of respiratory decompensation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, double-blind study of peak flow changes prior to emergency department visits. (6/2342)

The aim of this study was to look at changes in peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) prior to emergency department visits for decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was designed as a prospective, double-blind study at the Albuquerque Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Twelve patients with an irreversible component of airflow obstruction on pulmonary function tests were assessed. At entry, all subjects were instructed in the use of a mini-Wright peak flow meter with electronic data storage. They then entered a 6-month monitoring phase in which they recorded PEFR twice daily, before and after bronchodilators. The meter displays were disabled so that the patients and their physicians were blinded to all values. Medical care was provided in the customary manner. Patients were considered to have respiratory decompensation if they required treatment for airflow obstruction in the Emergency Department (ED) and no other causes of dyspnea could be identified. Simple linear regression was used to model changes in PEFR over time. The 12 subjects had 22 episodes of respiratory decompensation during 1741 patient-days of observation. Two episodes could not be analysed because of missing values. Ten episodes in seven subjects were characterized by a significant linear decline in at least one peak flow parameter prior to presentation. The mean rates of change for the four daily parameters varied from 0.22% to 0.27% predicted per day (or 1.19 to 1.44 1 min-1 day-1). The average decrement in these parameters ranged from 30.0 to 33.8 1 min-1 (or 18.6%-25.9% of their baseline values). No temporal trends were found for the 10 episodes occurring in the other five subjects. We concluded that respiratory decompensation is characterized by a gradual decline in PEFR in about half of cases. Future studies should be done to elucidate the mechanisms of respiratory distress in the other cases.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of budesonide for the prevention of post-bronchiolitis wheezing. (7/2342)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that recurrent episodes of coughing and wheezing occur in up to 75% of infants after acute viral bronchiolitis. AIM: To assess the efficacy of budesonide given by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask in reducing the incidence of coughing and wheezing episodes up to 12 months after acute viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: Children under the age of 12 months admitted to hospital with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either budesonide or placebo (200 microg or one puff twice daily) for the next eight weeks. Parents kept a diary card record of all episodes of coughing and wheezing over the next 12 months. RESULTS: Full follow up data were collected for 49 infants. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for the number of infants with symptom episodes up to six months after hospital discharge. At 12 months, 21 infants in the budesonide group had symptom episodes compared with 12 of 24 in the placebo group. The median number of symptom episodes was 2 (range, 0-13) in those who received budesonide and 1 (range, 0-11) in those who received placebo. Because there is no pharmacological explanation for these results, they are likely to be caused by a type 1 error, possibly exacerbated by there being more boys in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: Routine administration of budesonide by means of a metered dose inhaler, spacer, and face mask system immediately after acute viral bronchiolitis cannot be recommended.  (+info)

Risk factors for death from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease after a hospital admission for asthma. (8/2342)

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma have an increased risk of death from causes other than asthma. A study was undertaken to identify whether severity of asthma, its treatment, or associated co-morbidity were associated with increased risk of death from other causes. METHODS: Eighty five deaths from all causes occurring within three years of discharge from hospital in a cohort of 2242 subjects aged 16-64 years admitted for asthma were compared with a random sample of 61 controls aged <45 years and 61 aged >/=45 years from the same cohort. RESULTS: Deaths from asthma were associated with a history of clinically severe asthma (OR 6.29 (95% CI 1.84 to 21.52)), chest pain (OR 3.78 (95% CI 1.06 to 13.5)), biochemical or haematological abnormalities at admission (OR 4.12 (95% CI 1.36 to 12.49)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 4.04 (95% CI 1.47 to 11.13)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.45 (95% CI 1.35 to 9.10)). Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were associated with lower peak expiratory flow rates (OR 2.56 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.35) for each 50 l/min change), a history of smoking (OR 5.03 (95% CI 1.17 to 21.58)), prescription of ipratropium bromide (OR 7.75 (95% CI 2.21 to 27.14)), and failure to prescribe inhaled steroids on discharge (OR 3.33 (95% CI 0.95 to 11.10)). Cardiovascular deaths were more common among those prescribed ipratropium bromide on discharge (OR 3.55 (95% CI 1.05 to 11.94)) and less likely in those admitted after an upper respiratory tract infection (OR 0.21 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.95)). Treatment with ipratropium bromide at discharge was associated with an increased risk of death from asthma even after adjusting for peak flow, COPD and cardiovascular co-morbidity, ever having smoked, and age at onset of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of inhaled steroids on discharge is important even for those patients with co-existent COPD and asthma. Treatment with ipratropium at discharge is associated with increased risk of death from asthma even after adjustment for a range of markers of COPD. These results need to be tested in larger studies.  (+info)

*Carbuterol

... a new selective bronchodilator agent". JPET. 189 (1): 167-184. PMID 4823290. Lunts, L. H. C.; Collin, D. T.; German Patent, ...

*Arylalkylamine

... wakefulness-promoting agents, bronchodilators, decongestants, antidepressants, entactogens, and psychedelics, among others. ...

*Magnesium (medical use)

As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma. ... Magnesium sulfate is the first-line agent for such use under the 2005 ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced ... Laxative use, particularly magnesium citrate and magnesium hydroxide Antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac ...

*British Columbia Ambulance Service

... opioid antagonist bronchodilator anti-histaminic sympathomimetic agent procoagulant anti-hypoglycemic agent Schedule 2 - PCP ... anti-arrhythmic bronchodilator anti-pyretic anti-cholinergic anti-hypoglycemic agent sedative (anti-epileptic) anti-emetic ( ... anti-hypoglycemic agent; analgesic; platelet inhibitors; use and interpretation of a glucometer; chest auscultation. (f) ...

*Pulmonary rehabilitation

Long-acting bronchodilators, Beta-2 agonists, Anticholinergic agents, Oral steroids, Antibiotics, Mucolytic agents, Oxygen ...

*Bronchodilator

"Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review". Respiratory Care. 60 (7): ... The bronchodilators are divided in short- and long-acting groups. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for relief of ... A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and ... Bronchodilators are either short-acting or long-acting. Short-acting medications provide quick or "rescue" relief from acute ...

*Magnesium sulfate

As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma, ... Replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia Magnesium sulfate is a antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest ...

*Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Long-acting agents partly work by improving hyperinflation. If long-acting bronchodilators are insufficient, then inhaled ... Bronchodilators came into use in the 1960s following a promising trial of isoprenaline. Further bronchodilators, such as ... Both types of agent appear to reduce the risk of acute exacerbations by 15-25%. While both may be used at the same time, any ... Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used, and result in a small overall benefit. The two major types are β2 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... anti-asthmatic agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.050.100 --- bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 --- antitussive agents ... bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.110 --- bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.225 --- emetics MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ...

*Pinene

... has also been used as anti-cancer agent in Traditional Chinese medicine, also for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, ... expectorant and bronchodilator properties. The use of pinene as a biofuel in spark ignition engines has been explored. Pinene ...

*Acute inhalation injury

... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ... Corticosteroids are sometimes administered, and bronchodilators to treat bronchospasms. Drugs that reduce the inflammatory ... Other inhaled agents may be directly toxic (e.g. cyanide, carbon monoxide), or cause harm simply by displacing oxygen and ... These agents are less likely to produce early warning signs (phosgene in low concentrations has a pleasant odor), are more ...

*List of drugs banned by WADA

Masking agents, on the other hand, work by making drug tests ineffective, leading to false-negative results. Desmopressin, ... Beta-2 agonists can act as bronchodilators and increase heart rates, in addition to their mild androgenic effects. Other banned ... Banned androgenic agents are either anabolic steroids, which increase testosterone and epitestosterone, thereby improving ... This is the complete list of exogenous (non-natural) androgenic agents banned as of January 1, 2012: Drugs with similar ...

*Phenethylamine

... nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion), antiparkinson agents (e.g., ... bronchodilators, decongestants, and/or antidepressants, among others. Phenethylamine is produced by a wide range of species ...

*Pipoxizine

W.H.O. Brunner A, Gartmann J, Studler H. "Pipoxizine, a New Bronchodilator". Lung. 154 (2): 143. Neukirch F, Korobaeff M, ... C.R. Ganellin; David J. Triggle (21 November 1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. pp. 1619-. ISBN 978-0-412- ... It was investigated as a bronchodilator but was never marketed. ...

*Ethylnorepinephrine

Sympatholytic Agents. VI. The Two Kinds of Receptors". Screening Methods in Pharmacology. 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York ... CHRISTENSEN JM, VALASEK FE, TAINTER ML (June 1958). "Ethylnorepinephrine; a unique bronchodilator". American Practitioner and ... Norepinephrine David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412-46630- ... Ethylnorepinephrine (Etanor, Bronkephrine, Butanefrine) is a sympathomimetic and bronchodilator related to norepinephrine. It ...

*Substituted phenethylamine

... antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.[medical citation needed] Many of ... nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., levomethamphetamine and pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion and ...

*Oxitropium bromide

... (trade names Oxivent, Tersigan) is an anticholinergic used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma ... Restrepo, R. D. (2007). "Use of inhaled anticholinergic agents in obstructive airway disease". Respiratory care. 52 (7): 833- ...

*Graceway Pharmaceuticals

... aluminum hydroxide Atopiclair topical emollient Benziq topical acne agent benzoyl peroxide Benziq Wash topical acne agent ... Estrasorb estrogen estradiol Maxair adrenergic bronchodilator inhaler pirbuterol Medihaler-Epi adrenergic bronchodilator, ...

*Spirometry

A bronchodilator is also given in certain circumstances and a pre/post graph comparison is done to assess the effectiveness of ... or with a pharmaceutical agent such as methacholine or histamine. Sometimes, to assess the reversibility of a particular ... This is commonly referred to as a reversibility test, or a post bronchodilator test (Post BD), and is an important part in ... the bronchodilator. See the example printout. Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can ...

*Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

A trial of bronchodilators should be considered in LAM patients, because up to 17% to 25% have bronchodilator-responsive ... Agents that antagonize the effects of estrogen have not been proven to be effective for treatment, but no proper trials have ... Approximately 25% of patients with obstructive physiology may demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness but may be less in more ...

*Equine drug testing

Bronchodilators Improving a horse's "wind" by opening its airways through the use of bronchodilators may also improve ... The widely used tranquilizer acepromazine, and any number of related or equivalent agents, have been used in this way. Higher ... Some bronchodilators can also have a stimulant effect. Behavioral modifiers Veterinarians certify horses as being sound in " ... bronchodilators, and tranquilizers with impunity. In 1988 ELISA testing was introduced to racing by a group at the University ...

*Ethylenediamine

The derivative N,N-ethylenebis(stearamide) (EBS) is a commercially significant mold-release agent and a surfactant in gasoline ... Ethylenediamine is an ingredient in the common bronchodilator drug aminophylline, where it serves to solubilize the active ... A most prominent derivative of ethylenediamine is the chelating agent EDTA, which is derived from ethylenediamine via a ... chemicals for color photography developing, binders, adhesives, fabric softeners, curing agents for epoxys, and dyes. ...

*Aminophylline

It is used off-label as a reversal agent during nuclear stress testing. Aminophylline is a nonselective adenosine receptor ... Aminophylline is a compound of the bronchodilator theophylline with ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio. The ethylenediamine improves ...

*Tracheal intubation

General anesthetic agents, opioids, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. ... They may also be used as a route for administration of certain medications such as bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, ... Spontaneous ventilation has been traditionally performed with an inhalational agent (i.e. gas induction or inhalational ... and several apparati for the administration of volatile anesthetic agents. The Magill curve of an endotracheal tube is also ...

*Glaucium flavum

Glaucine has bronchodilator and antiinflammatory effects, acting as a PDE4 inhibitor and calcium channel blocker, and is used ... Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2008 May;64(5 ... Bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities of glaucine: In vitro studies in human airway smooth muscle and ... Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1984 May ...

*Bronchoconstriction

In combination with mucous thinning agents such as Guaifenesin significant improvement in breathing can be accomplished. More ... http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201303-0437ST Rau, JL (Jul 2000). "Inhaled adrenergic bronchodilators: ...
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COPD is now defined using the combination of a clinical history and objective evidence of airflow limitation. Data from this study show that these criteria identify patients with an accelerated rate of decline in FEV1. However, the distinction from chronic asthma with limited reversibility remains difficult, and most treatment guidelines use the spirometric response to a bronchodilator drug to aid the diagnosis and, in some cases, to make recommendations about treatment decisions.12 Previous studies have examined the ability of bronchodilator testing to differentiate between asthma and COPD in milder disease and have found no clear distinction spirometrically between the two.9,20 This has not prevented these criteria being widely recommended in the assessment of more severe COPD or in the selection of patients for inclusion in treatment trials.17,21 In this study we examined the reliability of the bronchodilator response in moderate to severe COPD defined as "poorly reversible" disease by one ...
• Active reduction of risk factors and bronchodilator treatment are central to the management of COPD.• Regular use of long-acting bronchodilators (β‎2-agonists and antimuscarinics) is more effective than short-acting bronchodilators in patients with persistent symptoms.• Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) combined with bronchodilators are indicated in patients with forced expiratory volume in 1s FEV1 < 50% predicted and repeated exacerbations.• Influenza vaccination is indicated for all COPD patients; while pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for COPD patients older than 65 years, and in those younger with FEV1 < 40% predicted.• Antibiotics should only be used for infectious exacerbations of COPD, while N-acetylcysteine only affects the frequency of exacerbations in patients off inhaled corticosteroids.• Mucolytic agents, antitussives, and vasodilators are not recommended in stable COPD.• All COPD patients benefit from exercise training programmes, while long-term oxygen therapy increases
Neogens Bronchodilator Group ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) test kit is a qualitative one-step kit designed for use as a screening device for the detection of Bronchodilator Group drugs and/or their metabolites. The kit was designed for screening purposes and is intended for forensic use only.. ...
Background. Important role in the management of COPD have both pulmonary specialists (PSs) and general practitioners (GPs).. Aims. To study the medical care provided for COPD patients by PSs and GPs.. Methods. Both GPs and PSs filled in specially designed questionnaires. Theyprovidedinformation for randomly selected COPD patients on smoking status, disease severity, comorbidities, therapy, exacerbations, hospitalizations and management.. Results. Information about 556 patients was collected - 60.4% (336) were males. Smokers were 68.8% of all COPD patients. On combined inhalation therapy (inhaled corticosteroid and long acting beta-2- agonist - ICS/LABA) were 37.8%; 23.7% received long-acting bronchodilator therapy and 27.2% were on therapy with short-acting bronchodilators. Concomitant cardiovascular diseases had 77.3%. From all patients 25.8% had no exacerbation for the last 12 months, 38.0% had one and 36.2% had 2 or more, 33.5% had hospitalization due to COPD exacerbation (HE) and 21.9% due ...
This test is often done in your healthcare providers office. The reversibility testing steps usually include the following: 1. You will be asked to take a deep breath and then blow into the mouthpiece of the spirometer as hard as you can. This is a baseline measurement. The spirometer records the results. 2. You will be given a dose of bronchodilator medicine using an inhaler or nebulizer.. 3. You will wait for about 15 minutes.. 4. You will take a deep breath and then blow into the mouthpiece spirometer as hard as you can. Again, the spirometer records the results. 5. You will be asked to blow into the mouthpiece more than once to get the best reading possible. ...
Long-acting bronchodilators (LABD) are similar in structure to short-acting selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, but have much longer side chains resulting in a 12-hour effect, and are used to give a smoothed symptomatic relief (used morning and night). While patients report improved symptom control, these drugs do not replace the need for routine preventers, and their slow onset means the short-acting dilators may still be required. In November 2005, the American FDA released a health advisory alerting the public to findings that show the use of long-acting β2-agonists could lead to a worsening of symptoms, and in some cases death. Currently available long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists include salmeterol, formoterol, bambuterol, and sustained-release oral albuterol. Combinations of inhaled steroids and long-acting bronchodilators are becoming more widespread; the most common combination currently in use is fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair in the United States, and Seretide in the United ...
According to a Canadian study published May 20 in JAMA Internal Medicine, older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are new users of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) and long-acting anticholinergics (LAAs) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Although LABAs salmeterol xinafoate and formoterol fumarate and the LAA tiotropium bromide monohydrate generally are considered effective treatments for COPD, the cardiovascular safety of the medications remains a matter of debate.
Indacaterol is a long-acting bronchodilator. Bronchodilators are medicines that are breathed in through the mouth to open up the bronchial tubes (air passages) in the lungs. They relieve cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and troubled breathing by increasing the flow of air through the bronchial tubes. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Results The distribution of change was right skewed with 416 subjects having a fall in FEV1 post BD. The table shows the median baseline FEV1 and the male to female ratio for those meeting (+ve) and not meeting (-ve) the various BDR criteria. Definitions based on % change from baseline were biased to positive results in those with smaller pre BD FEV1. BDR criteria including absolute change were biased to those with a larger FEV1 and gave a higher proportion of males with a positive BDR result. The criterion ,400ml FEV1 change gave the highest male to female ratio of 2.34. Criteria including both absolute and change as % predicted had both sex and FEV1 size bias whereas using only change as % predicted avoided these biases.. ...
This network meta-analysis compares four different classes of long-acting inhalers for people with COPD who need more than short-acting bronchodilators. Quality of life and lung function were improved most on combination inhalers (LABA and ICS) and least on ICS alone at 6 and at 12 months. Overall L …
Despite being an irreversible airflow obstruction disorder, bronchodilators are still used in the treatment of COPD. Different patients of bronchitis need
A total of 179 Tyneside children who had suffered at least one episode of wheeze since school entry were seen at the age of 7. All but 14 had visited a doctor for chest symptoms, but a diagnosis of asthma had been offered to the parents of only 21 children, including three of the 56 children experiencing four to 12 wheezy episodes a year and 11 of the 31 children experiencing more than 12 episodes a year. Bronchodilator treatment was rarely offered in the absence of such a diagnosis, and two thirds of the children had never received a bronchodilator. Of the children experiencing four or more episodes a year, only a third had received bronchodilator drugs regularly, though half had lost more than 50 days from school because of wheeze. School absenteeism fell 10-fold in the 31 children finally offered continuous prophylactic treatment. Although many doctors had feared that use of the word "asthma" would cause anxiety, parents were uniformly relieved when given an explanation of their childs ...
Worldwide patterns of bronchodilator responsiveness: results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Wan C Tan; William M Vollmer; Bernd Lamprecht; David M Mannino; Anamika Jithoo; Ewa Nizankowska-Mogilnicka; Filip Mejza; Thorarinn Gislason; Peter G J Burney; A Sonia Buist // Thorax;Aug2012, Vol. 67 Issue 8, p718 RationaleCriteria for a clinically significant bronchodilator response (BDR) are mainly based on studies in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Little is known about the BDR in healthy general populations, and even less about the worldwide patterns.Methods10 360 adults aged... ...
The difficulty arises in deciding on the pharmacological treatment for each group. Generally, group A patients receive short-acting bronchodilators, whereas group B must be given LAMA or a LABA, and groups C and D should take an ICS in combination.. Conclusion. The disease progression of COPD should be explained to patients to help them overcome the denial of the causality of smoking. It is very important for patients to stay active; patients with symptomatic airflow obstruction should be offered a rehabilitation program as part of an optimal treatment plan.. It is difficult to treat dyspnoea or completely eliminate it, and this can require the use of double combinations of bronchodilators, i.e. LAMA plus LABA. If the patient does not respond, then a triple combination is recommended, with the addition of ICS. Some patients still do not improve, and one should consider adding a low dose of theophylline.20,21 Sometimes, nebulized bronchodilators may help as a back-up management. The last resort ...
Probric bambuterol HCL Long Acting Bronchodilator Composition: Each 10 ml contains: Bambuterol HCI . 10 mg Properties: Bambuterol is a prod rug of ter
Neither the number of siblings nor whether children were looked after in a nursery during the day seemed to influence frequency of bronchodilator use.. Perhaps most surprisingly, in view of the information given to the parents, we found occasional evidence of canister dumping. This behaviour has also been recorded in studies using inhaler timers in adults and older children.5 7 In canister dumping, patients actuate the inhaler repetitively but are thought not to inhale the drug. In adults the reasons for this behaviour are not known and seem to be unrelated to asthma symptoms.. In studies of adherence to an inhaled prophylactic regimen adult patients and older children have tended to overestimate their use of regular inhaled drug treatment.5 6 7 In contrast, the parents underestimated bronchodilator use in our study. One possible explanation is that a target exists for prophylactic treatment (the prescribed dose). patients may overreport to approach this, whereas there is no such target for ...
The bpacnz COPD prescribing tool uses the severity of the patients symptoms and their exacerbation history to categorise patients from A - D. Patients in category A, i.e. less symptoms and low exacerbation risk, should be prescribed a bronchodilator.2 Treatment options for patients in category A include "as needed" use of either a SAMA, SABA or a fixed-dose combination SAMA/SABA, or daily use of a LAMA or LABA. A SABA/SAMA combination inhaler is more effective at improving symptom control and lung function than either medicine in isolation.2 If patients do not obtain sufficient benefit from one bronchodilator, a switch to an alternative class of bronchodilator may be appropriate.2. ...
Olodaterol is a long-acting bronchodilator. Tiotropium is an anticholinergic. These medications work by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing.
Your doctor may send you to an allergist (disclose: AL-ur-jist), a inimitable doctor who helps people who bear allergies. Some women with medium to obdurate symptoms puissance dearth a long-acting bronchodilator such as Serevent. So when the sniffling symptoms whip, how at ones desire you comprehend if its a chilling, allergies, or a sinus problem?. Whether it be gluten, dairy or an collection of other foods, identifying and eliminating these triggers from your nutriment could serve you head junction cut to the quick 9 medications that can cause heartburn order genuine nitroglycerin on-line symptoms nausea headache. Advantages: the measure of fluid required intraoperatively elude potential toxic effects of inhalational wish be: anaesthetics and utilization of nitrous oxide; livelihood fluid: 03:00 10:30, 1. In counting up, all fluids (notably blood) muscular blocking drugs and is being ventilated, should be warmed to 37 Cusingafluid the ...
Your doctor may send you to an allergist (disclose: AL-ur-jist), a inimitable doctor who helps people who bear allergies. Some women with medium to obdurate symptoms puissance dearth a long-acting bronchodilator such as Serevent. So when the sniffling symptoms whip, how at ones desire you comprehend if its a chilling, allergies, or a sinus problem?. Whether it be gluten, dairy or an collection of other foods, identifying and eliminating these triggers from your nutriment could serve you head junction cut to the quick 9 medications that can cause heartburn order genuine nitroglycerin on-line symptoms nausea headache. Advantages: the measure of fluid required intraoperatively elude potential toxic effects of inhalational wish be: anaesthetics and utilization of nitrous oxide; livelihood fluid: 03:00 10:30, 1. In counting up, all fluids (notably blood) muscular blocking drugs and is being ventilated, should be warmed to 37 Cusingafluid the ...
In cases of worsening of respiratory symptoms in patients with allergic asthma (shortness of breath, wheezing, rattling, choking) inhaled bronchodilators are used (they do not belong to the group of medicines which control allergic diseases) with possible brief application of high doses of corticosteroids.. The aim of the use of drugs in the treatment of allergic diseases is prevention and reduction of the symptoms to the extent that they do not interfere with the patient`s everyday life. Ideal result of therapy would be the lack of any symptoms. The therapy begins with a single or combination of drugs at lower doses. If necessary, the doses of already used drugs increase or new medications are added, until a satisfactory control of the disease is achieved. For seasonal allergens the therapy should always start a few weeks (at least 2 weeks) before the start of the season of flowering of plants which pollen causes sensibilization and continuously carry it out during the season.. For year-round ...
When added to standard bronchodilator therapies in the two six-month studies, a clear trend for the reduction of exacerbations was observed with roflumilast, over and above what was achieved with these therapies alone. Advair Diskus Help To Pay Buy Cheap Torsemide - ...
Symptomatic treatment of patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50% predicted normal) and a history of repeated exacerbations, who have significant symptoms despite regular therapy with long-acting bronchodilators. Strength ...
If you use a short-acting bronchodilator as a quick relief for acute attacks three times or more a week, this means that your asthma is not under control. Please see your doctor as soon as you can. ...
This is a six-week, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, triple-dummy, parallel group pilot study to compare the bronchodilator efficacy and safety of the long-acting bronchodilator tiotropium (Spiriva, 18 µg q.d.) to the free combination of fluticasone (Flixotide, 250 µg b.i.d.) and salmeterol (Serevent, 50 µg b.i.d.) in patients with COPD.. Following an initial screening at Visit 1, subjects will enter a two-week run-in period during which they will record daily rescue salbutamol use in the Patient Daily Diary Card. At Visit 1, pre-dose and post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests (PFT) will be measured. Four inhalations of ipratropium (20 µg per puff) and four inhalations of salbutamol (100 µg per puff) will be administered 60 minutes prior to obtaining post-bronchodilator PFT measurement.. At Visit 2, a pre-dose PFT will be performed prior to first administration of trial medication. Treatment with blinded study medication (tiotropium or fluticasone + salmeterol) will start in ...
Few data are available on the bronchodilator response in preschool children. This study was set up to study baseline lung function and bronchodilator responses in healthy and asthmatic children younger than 7 yrs old. In 281 preschool children attending kindergarten (age range 2.7-6.6 yrs old) respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) by impulse oscillation system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 Hz as well as resonance frequency (f0) were measured before and 20 min after 200 microg inhaled salbutamol by a metered-dose inhaler connected to a spacer device. Thirty-four of them were diagnosed as asthmatics based on a validated standardized questionnaire. The mean Rrs (+/-SD) at 5 Hz (Rrs,5) was 1.03 (+/-0.24) kPa x L(-1) x s for healthy children and 1.09 (+/-0.26) kPa x L(-1) x s for stable asthmatics. The mean change in Rrs,5 after salbutamol was -0.13 (+/-0.20) kPa x L(-1) x s for the healthy children and -0.09 (+/-0.25) kPa x L(-1) x s for the asthmatic group. The scatter for the ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess the Pre-bronchodilator criteria and the Post-bronchodilator criteria of FEV1/FVC ratio in diagnosing Airflow obstruction. METHODS: An observational study was conducted from 1988 to 2006 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Patients referred to the pulmonary function test laboratory for spirometry with bronchodilator reversibility at the hospital during the above said period were enrolled. Forced spirometry was performed according to ATS guidelines. All patients who had pre-bronchodilator criteria of airflow obstruction were analyzed and compared with the post bronchodilator criteria. RESULTS: A total of 4222 individuals underwent spirometry out of which 4072 individuals were studied. Using the pre bronchodilator criteria, 1375 (34%) patients had airflow obstruction. Applying the post bronchodilator criteria on the same patients, 1098 (27%) had evidence of airway obstruction. Out of these 1375 patients who had airflow obstruction by using pre-bronchodilator criteria, 277 (20%)
Single Dose, Double-blind, Double-dummy, 3 Period Cross-over, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Reate of Onset of Action of Inhaled Aclidinium Bromide 200µg Compared to Placebo and Tiotropium 18µg in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD ...
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article{4206324, author = {Braido, Fulvio and Baiardini, Ilaria and Cazzola, Mario and Brusselle, Guy and Marugo, Fiorenza and Canonica, Giorgio Walter}, issn = {0954-6111}, journal = {RESPIRATORY MEDICINE}, keywords = {Health status,OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE,Quality of life,Long-acting bronchodilators,COPD,TWICE-DAILY SALMETEROL,FORMOTEROL DRY POWDER,ONCE-DAILY TIOTROPIUM,LUNG-FUNCTION,CONTROLLED-TRIAL,DOUBLE-BLIND,NEBULIZED FORMOTEROL,IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE,COMBINATION THERAPY}, language = {eng}, number = {10}, pages = {1465--1480}, title = {Long-acting bronchodilators improve Health Related Quality of Life in patients with COPD}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2013.08.007}, volume = {107}, year = {2013 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV. AU - Anthonisen, Nicholas R.. AU - Connett, John E.. AU - Kiley, James P.. AU - Altose, Murray D.. AU - Bailey, William C.. AU - Buist, A. Sonia. AU - Conway, William A.. AU - Enright, Paul L.. AU - Kanner, Richard E.. AU - OHara, Peggy. AU - Owens, Gregory R.. AU - Scanlon, Paul D. AU - Tashkin, Donald P.. AU - Wise, Robert A.. PY - 1994/11/16. Y1 - 1994/11/16. N2 - Objective. - To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary disease. Design. - Randomized clinical trial. Participants randomized with equal probability to one of the following groups: (1) smoking intervention plus bronchodilator, (2) smoking intervention plus placebo, or (3) no intervention. Setting. - ...
1Dugernier J et al. SPECT-CT Comparison of Lung Deposition using a System combining a Vibrating-Mesh Nebulizer with a Valved Holding Chamber and a Conventional Jet Nebulizer: a Randomized Cross-over Study. Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;34:290-300. 2Chweich H et al. Effect on Airflow of Bronchodilator Therapy Delivered via Vibrating-Mesh versus Jet Nebulizers in Acute Asthmatics in an Emergency Department. Poster at ATS. 2019.. 3Dunne RB and Shortt S. Comparison of bronchodilator administration with vibrating-mesh nebulizer and standard jet nebulizer in the emergency department. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2018;36(4):641-646.. 4Aerogen Solo System Instruction Manual.. *Please refer to Aerogen Solo Instruction Manual for approved Aerogen set-ups.. PM617. Digital Ads PM619, PM620, PM621, PM622, PM623 & PM630. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that is associated with airway obstruction. COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It is a progressive condition, but is partially reversible through treatment, especially when diagnosed early in its clinical course. Bronchodilators are important in treating the symptoms of COPD. Long-acting bronchodilators provide sustained symptom relief and are usually preferred in patients with COPD. Combining bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action appears to improve efficacy.
This pair of replicate, 52-week studies of the effects of once-daily combination of tiotropium+olodaterol administered via the Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe COPD confirm statistically significant increases for the primary lung-function end points of trough FEV1 and FEV1 AUC0-3 response after 24 weeks versus either tiotropium or olodaterol alone. These results are supported by a range of secondary lung-function end points over 52 weeks. FEV1 AUC0-3 and trough FEV1 reflect bronchodilator benefit at the beginning and end of a 24-h cycle and are important measures in the selection of optimum doses and dosing frequency.. Long-acting bronchodilators remain the cornerstone of COPD maintenance therapy [2]. However, the combination of bronchodilators with different modes of action has not been commonly prescribed in clinical practice [1] due, in part, to the lack, until recently, of available FDCs of LAMA+LABA. Olodaterol is a novel once-daily LABA that has been ...
The present invention relates to particulate products which may be prepared by methods and apparatus using supercritical fluids. More particularly, the invention relates to pharmaceutical products, in particular easily handled and easily fluidized crystalline forms of salmeterol xinafoate, with controlled particle size and shape.
Learn about how SPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), works differently than a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), to block bronchoconstriction. Please visit website for Important Safety Information.
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have few options for treatment. The effi cacy and safety of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rofl umilast have been investigated in studies of patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, but not in those concomitantly treated with longacting inhaled bronchodilators. The eff ect of rofl umilast on lung function in patients with COPD that is moderate to severe who are already being treated with salmeterol or tiotropium was investigated. Methods In two double-blind, multicentre studies done in an outpatient setting, after a 4-week run-in, patients older than 40 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomly assigned to oral rofl umilast 500 μg or placebo once a day for 24 weeks, in addition to salmeterol (M2-127 study) or tiotropium (M2-128 study). The primary endpoint was change in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Analysis was by intention to treat. The studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, ...
The study by DAlonzo and colleagues fuels the controversy surrounding the appropriate use of selective β2-agonists. Recent concerns about increasing prevalence and morbidity from asthma have demanded a reassessment of our current therapeutic regimens. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma have suggested that in many patients, attention must be directed at the underlying inflammatory processes. Thus, it has been proposed that if short-acting bronchodilators are required on a regular basis, indicating that the inflammatory process has become well established, appropriate care would include the use of an additional agent, such as inhaled steroids, cromolyn, or nedocromil (1). The importance of supplemental medications is underlined in this study. 74% of patients receiving salmeterol, 75% receiving placebo, and 80% receiving albuterol were routinely also receiving inhaled steroids, theophylline, or cromolyn. Only 15 patients were forced to withdraw because of increasing ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is defined by post-bronchodilator spirometry. Data on normal values come predominantly from pre-bronchodilator spirometry. The effects of this on diagnosis are unknown. METHODS: Low
FRANKLIN LAKES, N.J. -The class of drugs known as long-acting beta agonists can provide many benefits to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but medical experts have long warned of dangers in using the drugs alone. Still, according to data from a study last month, many patients continue using LABAs as a monotherapy despite the risks. The Medco Research Institute and the Medco Pulmonary Therapeutic Resource Center, research arms of pharmacy benefit manager Medco Health Solutions, found that close to one-third of patients using LABAs use them without other controller medications. And this, according to experts, puts them at risk of worsening disease symptoms or even death. LABAs include such drugs as GlaxoSmithKlines Serevent (salmeterol xinafoate) and Foradil (formoterol fumarate) by Merck and Novartis.. The researchers found that 31% of patients prescribed either drug didnt use them together with controller medications, but those who received treatment from an ...
In a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled study, 565 adult patients with asthma were evaluated for the bronchodilator efficacy of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler (193 patients) in comparison to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler (186 patients). Serial FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume) measurements demonstrated that two inhalations of a non-CFC (norflurane) salbutamol pressurised inhaler produced significantly greater improvement in pulmonary function than placebo and produced outcomes which were clinically comparable to a CFC salbutamol pressurised inhaler. The mean time to onset of a 15% increase in FEV1 was 6 minutes and the mean time to peak effect was 50 minutes. The mean duration of effect as measured by a 15% increase in FEV1 was 3 hours. No statistically significant or clinical meaningful differences were seen in the safety parameters, including the overall adverse event rates, heart rate, blood pressure, serum potassium or ...
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This study was designed to evaluate the repeat-dose safety and effectiveness of albuterol [salbutamol], bronchodilator inhaler relative to placebo (inactive
SPIRIVA RESPIMAT is a bronchodilator indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of asthma in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older. Please visit website for Important Safety Information.
Theophylline is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of heart failure, pulmonary edema, bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A COPD diet should also include high levels of calcium and magnesium because these nutrients help to regulate lung and heart functions. COPD patients are at risk for both phosphorous and potassium deficiencies, so be sure to include these nutrients in your diet too.. Bronchodilator Inhalants to Open Airways. These are one of the most frequently prescribed COPD treatment options. These inhalers are similar to the ones used by people with asthma, and the apply medication that opens bronchial tubes directly to the affected area. Patients with COPD can carry around an inhaler and use it whenever they notice it becoming difficult to breathe. Depending on the severity of your COPD, a doctor may prescribe a short-acting or long-acting bronchodilator.. Steroid Medication to Reduce Inflammation. Most of the lung damage that COPD patients suffer is due to excessive inflammation harming the lungs on a cellular level. Since steroids help to reduce inflammation in the airways, either oral or inhalant ...
The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has issued its monthly advice on new medicines.. Roflumilast (Daxas®) has been rejected as an add on to bronchodilator treatment in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second post-bronchodilator ,50% predicted) associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations. The manufacturer did not present a sufficiently robust economic analysis.. Four combined oral contraceptive pills (Rigevidon®, Gedarel®, Millinette® and TriRegol®) were all accepted for use in patients where these products would provide an appropriate form of contraception. They provide an alternative to the existing preparations at a lower cost.. Action: Clinicians should be aware of the recommendations of the SMC. Routine use of rejected and restricted medicines should be avoided.. ...
Identifying DNA variants associated with bronchodilator responsiveness may reveal genetic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may identify novel treatment methods, researchers said.
Tiotropium belongs to the family of medicines known as bronchodilators. Bronchodilators are breathed in through the mouth to help open up the bronchial tubes (air passages) in the lungs. It is taken by inhalation (an inhaler) and will increase the flow of air to the lungs. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
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Oxis turbohaler contains the bronchodilator formoterol, it is used on a regular basis in asthma and COPD to keep your airways open, information about using this formoterol inhaler
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PARMA, ITALY--(Marketwired - May 18, 2016) - In the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting bronchodilators LABA (Long Acting Beta2-agonists) reduces moderate and severe exacerbations, and it is recommended for this purpose in the in-force clinical guidelines. A comparative analysis...
Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa : In recent years it has been shown that treatment of inflammation is the most important part of asthma treatment. So far, put too much emphasis on bronchodilation, but if there is inflammation, the effects of bronchodilators are ephemeral. There are several medications that have anti-inflammatory effect in bronchial mucosa, but the most powerful and effective are corticosteroids (cortisone) inhaled. Inhaled corticosteroid doses used are very low and produce a topical effect without the side effects of oral administration, intravenous or intramuscular injection. Inhaled corticosteroids have become the most important drug in the treatment of asthma. They begin to be prescribed in patients with persistent asthma, ie those in which symptoms occur several days a week, and in those in which symptoms occur at night. For those symptoms occur sporadically, for example one or two times every 15 days, it is necessary to start with steroids and bronchodilators may be ...
New use of either long-acting β-agonists or anticholinergics is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events among older individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Asthma medicines can be categorized in a couple of different ways. The way that was used previously was to designate them as either anti-inflammatory or bronchodilator. That use has fallen out of fashion somewhat because now there are so many drugs that combine both activities, both anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator, and therefore the usual characterization of asthma medicine is into controller medicine and reliever medicine.
How to pronounce albuterol in English. The definition of albuterol is: a bronchodilator (trade names Ventolin or Proventil) used for asthma and emphysema and.. PROVENTIL HFA (albuterol sulfate) Do not use PROVENTIL HFA if you are allergic to albuterol sulfate or any of the ingredients of PROVENTIL HFA. Ask your doctor if you ...
The Miko is an electrical fed compressor with aerosol therapy system. The device is designed for easy transport and is recommended to be used with antibiotics and bronchodilator drugs. The high thermal insulated plastic body complies with European Safety Rules. It is designed for continuous use. A two year warranty is included ...
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You will have optimal benefit of the Advair if you use it twice a day routinely. Advair is a mix of two asthma medicatioins: fluticasone, an inhaled topically but not systemically active corticosteroid, and salmeterol, an inhaled long acting bronchodilator. Inhaled corticosteroids take a couple of weeks achieve there maximal benefits. The salmeterol takes 30 minutes to reach its peak effect and last about 12 hours. If you take the Advair just before you ride only and not on a routine daily basis, you will never get the benefit of the inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone) and you will have to take it at least 30 minutes before you exercise to get the maximal benefit of the salmeterol ...
Our results show that albuterol delivery via AeroEclipse as the initial treatment for asthma patients in our ED is more effective than initial treatment with continuous nebulization. Although there was no difference in time in the ED, the AeroEclipse patients had significantly better improvement in clinical asthma score, better decrease in respiratory rate, and a lower admission rate, and there was no significant difference in adverse effects.. Our study was powered to detect a difference in time in the ED, but we found no difference. Time in the ED is affected by many uncontrollable factors such as physician availability, bed availability, patient load, and social issues. In addition, in this study, comparison of time in the ED is confounded by the difference in duration of treatment determined by the clinical asthma score and treatment allocation. The nonsignificant difference in time in the ED may reflect these confounders. The decision to admit a patient was by the treating physician, and ...
This drug combines two primary active ingredients: salmeterol and fluticasone. Salmeterol is a member of the drug family known as long-acting, beta-adrenergic bronchodilators (also called beta-agonists). It is inhaled by mouth, into the lungs, to treat asthma and prevent bronchospasm. Salmeterol is also used to...
The need to address breathlessness in COPD. // Practice Nurse;5/14/2004 Supplement, Vol. 27 Issue 9, p3 Reviews breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the context of the guidelines on COPD management produced by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in Great Britain. Risk factor for the development of COPD; Impact of COPD on patients; Discussion of the... ...
Living with COPD can be a difficult task. However, enhancing quality of living with COPD is possible. Learn more about managing COPD.
Another name for Allergic Asthma is Asthma. Bronchodilators open up the air passages making breathing easier. Narrowing of the air passages causes wheezing ...
Serevent (Salmeterol) is used to prevent asthma attacks. Salmeterol is a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. It will not treat an asthma attack that ha...
Salbutamol that is also known as Albuterol (but might be better known as its trade name - Ventolin but there are many other trade names), is a drug that...
Nagai gave this alkaloid the name ephedrine and is given credit by history for its discovery. A few years later another chemist also isolated it. Nagia and others did extensive studies on the alkaloid and discovered that its a stimulant for the central nervous system, and circulatory system. It was also found to dry secretions, and was effective for runny eyes and runny noses, or as a nasal and chest decongestant. It was also proven to be a dilator of smooth muscles that wrap around the lungs and gastrointestinal tract ...
Find out how to take Albuterol (Salbutamol) (drug) and its dose. Describes the best time to take the drug and precautions if any that should be followed.
Detailed drug Information for Bronchodilators, Adrenergic. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Albuterol Sulfate with NDC 45802-088 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Perrigo New York Inc. The generic name of Albuterol Sulfate is albuterol sulfate.
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a bronchodilator (trade names Ventolin or Proventil) used for asthma and emphysema and other lung conditions; available in oral or inhalant forms; side effects are tachycardia and shakiness. ...
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You may often wonder if youre managing your COPD. But are you asking the right question? Maybe you should be asking about effectiveness; is what Im doing, actually working? And if so, is it working as well as possible? Many factors enter into effective COPD management, but here well look at five of them. Take this quiz to help you find out if youre managing these five components of COPD as effectively as possible. Jane Martin
What is this medicine? THEOPHYLLINE (the OFF i lin) is a bronchodilator. It helps open up the airways in your lungs to make it easier to breathe.
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Find patient medical information for Salmeterol drug on Medimply including its benefits, dosage, interactions, how to use, precautions and side effects.
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Absorption Fluticasone Propionate: Healthy Subjects: Fluticasone propionate acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect. Trials using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (,1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. In contrast, the majority of the fluticasone propionate delivered to the lung is systemically absorbed.. Three (3) single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover trials were conducted in healthy subjects: (1) a trial using 4 inhalations of ADVAIR HFA 230/21, salmeterol CFC inhalation aerosol 21 mcg, or fluticasone propionate CFC inhalation aerosol 220 mcg, (2) a trial using 8 inhalations of ADVAIR HFA 45/21, ADVAIR HFA 115/21, or ADVAIR HFA 230/21, and (3) a trial using 4 inhalations of ADVAIR HFA 230/21; 2 inhalations of ADVAIR DISKUS 500/50; 4 inhalations of fluticasone propionate CFC inhalation ...
Long-term use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the UK General Practice Research Database David P Miller, Stephanie E Watkins, Tim Sampson, Kourtney J Davis WorldWide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objectives: Some large population-based studies have reported a dose-related increased risk of cataracts and glaucoma associated with use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association between use of ICS-containing products, specifically fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination (FSC), and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among patients with COPD in a large electronic medical record database in the United Kingdom. Methods: We identified a cohort of patients aged 45 years and over with COPD in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) between 2003 and 2006. Cases of
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MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: People who have lung conditions like asthma or COPD often take their medications using a handheld device called a metered-dose inhaler or MDI. A metered-dose inhaler sprays medicine through your mouth so that it can reach your airways. If youre inhaler is not used the right way, some medicine may not enter your mouth or some may remain in the back of your mouth, either way it may not reach your airways where it is needed. This video will show you the general steps for using an inhaler correctly. Its important to follow the instructions that came with your metered-dose inhaler. A metered-dose inhaler has three main parts, the mouthpiece cover, the plastic sleeve with the mouthpiece, and the medicine container. Before using your metered-dose inhaler, remove the mouthpiece cap and shake the inhaler. If this is the first time you are using your inhaler or if you havent used it in a while, you may need to prime it. Check the instructions for how and when to do this with
The combination preparation ipratropium bromide/salbutamol is a formulation containing ipratropium bromide (an anticholinergic) and salbutamol sulfate (albuterol sulfate, a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist) used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It is marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim as a metered dose inhaler (MDI) and nebuliser under the trade name Combivent. It is also marketed by Dey, L.P. (Napa, California) under the brand name DuoNeb as a nebulizer. In Italy it is known as Breva. The chemical is sold in India by Cipla as duolin. Since Combivent contains a chlorofluorocarbon based propellant, it is being phased out in European Union countries. Chloroflourocarbons (CFC) are attributed to depletion of the ozone layer. Consumer Medication Information from PubMed http://bidocs.boehringer-ingelheim.com/BIWebAccess/ViewServlet.ser?docBase=renetnt&folderPath=/Prescribing+Information/PIs/Combivent+IA/combivent.pdf "Expert Panel 3. Expert panel report 3: ...
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Role of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149) for t | COPDRole of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149) for t | COPD

Keywords: bronchodilator agents, dry powder inhalers, delivery of health care, guideline, meta-analysis, muscarinic antagonists ... This is the first dual bronchodilator in one device. Now, the Breezhaler is the only device that can provide long-acting ... The 14 trials generally showed good safety profiles, and there were better or not-inferior bronchodilator effects of QVA149 ... According to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines, QVA149 is a combination of the two first-line bronchodilators. Our ...
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Metaproterenol is used exclusively as a bronchodilator. The pharmacologic effects of beta adrenergic agonist drugs, such as ...
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In allergic reactions an allergen interacts with and cross-links surface IgE antibodies on mast cells and basophils. Once the mast cell-antibody-antigen complex is formed, a complex series of events occurs that eventually leads to cell-degranulation and the release of histamine (and other chemical mediators) from the mast cell or basophil. Once released, histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1-receptors, produces pruritis, vasodilatation, hypotension, flushing, headache, tachycardia, and bronchoconstriction. Histamine also increases vascular permeability and potentiates pain. Mequitazine is a histamine H1 antagonist. It competes with histamine for the normal H1-receptor sites on effector cells of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract. It provides effective, temporary relief of sneezing, watery and itchy eyes, and runny nose due to hay fever and other upper respiratory allergies ...
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Dysbarism Medication: Decongestants, Bronchodilators, Corticosteroids, Intranasal, Antiplatelet agentsDysbarism Medication: Decongestants, Bronchodilators, Corticosteroids, Intranasal, Antiplatelet agents

Bronchodilators. Class Summary. These agents act to decrease muscle tone in both the small and large airways in the lungs, ... These agents have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, these agents ... Antiplatelet agents. Class Summary. Because dysbaric illness has the potential for activation of coagulation factors, as ... By promoting nasal or sinus drainage, these agents may prevent ear discomfort. However, their exact mechanism of action is not ...
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12 / 48 Week Pivotal PFT vs PBO in COPD I - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov12 / 48 Week Pivotal PFT vs PBO in COPD I - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Asthmatic ... Respiratory System Agents. Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic ... of age or older Patients must be current or ex-smokers with a smoking history of more than 10 pack years Post bronchodilator ...
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Study to Evaluate the 24-Hour Pulmonary Function Profile of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol (FF/VI) Inhalation Powder 100/25mcg...Study to Evaluate the 24-Hour Pulmonary Function Profile of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol (FF/VI) Inhalation Powder 100/25mcg...

Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of ... Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Dermatologic Agents. Anti-Allergic Agents. Parasympatholytics. Cholinergic ... Use of certain medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids for the protocol-specific times prior to Visit 1 (the ...
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Repeat Doses Of A New Medication (GW642444) In Asthmatic Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govRepeat Doses Of A New Medication (GW642444) In Asthmatic Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Asthmatic ... Mean change from Baseline (pre-dose on Day 1) in the mean of 23 and 24 hour (h) visit (pre-bronchodilator and pre-dose) trough ... Respiratory System Agents. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic ...
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Drug Study of Albuterol to Treat Acute Lung Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDrug Study of Albuterol to Treat Acute Lung Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Asthmatic ... Respiratory System Agents. Tocolytic Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta- ...
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atropine (CHEBI:16684)atropine (CHEBI:16684)

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Appendix A: TablesAppendix A: Tables

Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 28. Focalin XR. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 75th. 95th. 22. Intuniv. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. 95th ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 21. Symbicort. B. ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 75th. 95th. 20. ProAir HFA. B. ...
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Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Dyspnea and Activity-limitation in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Dyspnea and Activity-limitation in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Bronchodilator Agents, Normal saline, Dead space breathing, Room air breathing. Location. Respiratory Investigation Unit, ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... Effects of Bronchodilator on Exercise Endurance Time and Breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Cycle ... Inhaled Long-acting Bronchodilators With or Without Inhaled Glucocorticosteroids for Preventing Hospitalizations and Death in ...
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Magnesium Sulfate | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicineMagnesium Sulfate | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine

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Myrica sapida | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicineMyrica sapida | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine

Pharmacological Actions : Bronchodilator Agents. [+] Myrica sapida posesses bronchodilator activity, is an antihistamine and ... Myrica sapida is a bronchodilator and has anti-anaphylatic activity. Jul 01, 2008. ...
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	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Saline Solution, Hypertonic). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1801. ... trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=C08.618.846.185

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Expectorants); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 ( ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 (Steroids); 451W47IQ8X ... Treatment guidelines universally classify INS as the most effective medical agents available for use in the OTC and primary ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); 74469-00-4 ( ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D27.505.954.411.793.610

The prevalence of acute response to bronchodilator in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.The prevalence of acute response to bronchodilator in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute bronchodilator responses in patients who were evaluated for ... Bronchodilator Agents / pharmacology*, therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases, Obstructive / diagnosis, drug therapy*, ... A positive response to bronchodilator was unusual. Other measures of pulmonary function showed little or no change over a 12- ... OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute bronchodilator responses in patients who were ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/prevalence-acute-response-to-bronchodilator/16268919.html

Airways hyperresponsiveness to different inhaled combination therapies in adolescent asthmatics.Airways hyperresponsiveness to different inhaled combination therapies in adolescent asthmatics.

Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use*. Budesonide / therapeutic use*. Drug Combinations. Ethanolamines / therapeutic use*. ... 0/Androstadienes; 0/Bronchodilator Agents; 0/Drug Combinations; 0/Ethanolamines; 0/fluticasone, salmeterol drug combination; ... They were submitted to exercise challenge test (EC) followed by bronchodilator test (BD). During 4 weeks, 15 adolescents were ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Airways-hyperresponsiveness-to-different-inhaled/22519127.html

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Bronchodilator Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Bronchodilator+Agents&parentid=34466&catid=4914

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Bronchodilator Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Bronchodilator+Agents&parentid=34467&catid=4916

Nedocromil
      - Alocril
     Summary Report | CureHunterNedocromil - Alocril Summary Report | CureHunter

Bronchodilator Agents (Bronchodilators) 3. Ophthalmic Solutions (Eye Drops) 4. Histamine (Histamine Dihydrochloride) ... and daytime inhaled bronchodilator use. ". 08/01/1989 - "There was an improvement in symptoms in the patients taking nedocromil ... in reducing total diary card score and nocturnal bronchodilator usage, and in increasing morning and evening peak flow. ". 01/ ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD017835-Nedocromil-Alocril.do

Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | PediatricsDiagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics

... bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, antibacterial agents, and antiviral agents and make recommendations to influence ... The use of bronchodilator agents continues to be controversial. RCTs have failed to demonstrate a consistent benefit from α- ... adrenergic or β-adrenergic agents. Several studies and reviews have evaluated the use of bronchodilator medications for viral ... Use of nebulized bronchodilators in infants under 1 year of age: analysis of four forms of therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol.1987;3 : ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/4/1774?ijkey=fa23c66093b3055c0900fca2fed3599aa8c6265a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | PediatricsDiagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics

... bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, antibacterial agents, and antiviral agents and make recommendations to influence ... The use of bronchodilator agents continues to be controversial. RCTs have failed to demonstrate a consistent benefit from α- ... adrenergic or β-adrenergic agents. Several studies and reviews have evaluated the use of bronchodilator medications for viral ... Use of nebulized bronchodilators in infants under 1 year of age: analysis of four forms of therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol.1987;3 : ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/4/1774?ijkey=04c9dc7b6cfe60a34e92c4705f42278b58900be0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • These agents act to decrease muscle tone in both the small and large airways in the lungs, thereby increasing ventilation. (medscape.com)