Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/493)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (2/493)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (3/493)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (4/493)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (5/493)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo. (6/493)

1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (7/493)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Vascularity in asthmatic airways: relation to inhaled steroid dose. (8/493)

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in vascularity in the asthmatic airway. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are an effective anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma, there are few data on any effects on structural changes. METHODS: Endobronchial biopsy specimens from seven asthmatic subjects not receiving ICS and 15 receiving 200-1500 microg/day beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-collagen type IV antibody to outline the endothelial basement membrane of the vessels. These were compared with biopsy tissue from 11 non-asthmatic controls (four atopic and seven non-atopic). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the density of vessels (number of vessels/mm2 of lamina propria) in the asthmatic subjects not on ICS compared with non-asthmatic controls (mean 485 (interquartile range (IQR) 390-597) versus 329 (IQR 248-376) vessels/mm2, p<0.05; 95% CI for the difference 48 to 286). There was no significant difference between asthmatic subjects on ICS and those not on ICS or control subjects in the number of vessels/mm2 (mean 421 (IQR 281-534)). However, patients who received >/=800 microg/day BDP tended to have a reduced number of vessels/mm2 compared with patients not on ICS and those receiving +info)

Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A number of mechanisms have been proposed as the basis for the relationship between nonspecific airway responsiveness and prechallenge pulmonary function. Because resistance to flow through a tube is inversely proportional to the radius to the fourth power, a given degree of bronchoconstrictor-induced circumferential airway narrowing can be expected to cause a proportionally larger increase in airway resistance in a narrow airway than in a wider airway. Intersubject differences in the distribution of resistance along the bronchial tree may influence both the pattern of aerosol deposition and the relative impact on total airway resistance of bronchoconstriction at particular sites such as the peripheral airways. Airway hyperresponsiveness may result in heightened bronchomotor tone prior to challenge and thereby be correlated with reduced prechallenge pulmonary function. The convention of expressing responsiveness in terms of percentage of change in FEV, (eg, PD20FEV,) imposes a mathematical ...
The 547 asymptomatic subjects with normal pulmonary function were grouped according to quintile of prechallenge FEV, (percent predicted), and the fifth percentiles of PD20FEV, within each quintile of FEV, were calculated (Table 2). The fifth percentile of methacholine PD20FEV, increased with increasing quintile of prechallenge FEV,. This relationship is shown graphically in Figure 1, in which the fifth percentile of PD20FEV, for each quintile is plotted against the median FEV, for that quintile. Restricting analysis to a subgroup of 157 lifetime nonsmokers yielded similar values for the fifth percentiles of PD20FEV,, for both overall and FEV,-specific percentiles (data not shown). canadian health & care mall. The overall fifth percentile of PD20FEV, (8.3 (imol) and the FEV,-specific fifth percentiles of PD20FEV, (as indicated in Table 2) respectively defined the 26 (4.8 percent) and 27 (4.9 percent) most responsive subjects among the 547 asymptomatic men. Seventeen (3.1 percent) men were ...
Since in the model used in this study all the Newtonian resistive and inertial properties are represented by Raw and Iaw , respectively, the inferences to central and peripheral airway responses are not straightforward. However, the significant increase in Iaw at PCFEV0.5 provides indirect evidence that Mch evoked significant constriction in the nasal and central airways. In addition, nine infants had a significant positive response in Iaw as defined by an increase of ,2 SD units. The inertance of the nasal passages contributes most of the total inertance of the respiratory system,16 making this parameter highly sensitive to changes in the properties of the extrathoracic airways. This response of both the central and peripheral airways to inhaled Mch has also been shown in asymptomatic adults by Ohrui et al 17 using a catheter tipped manometer lodged in a bronchus of 3 mm inner diameter. The response in Iaw in the present study indicates a response in the nasal and/or central pathways. Such a ...
Kelada SN, Wilson MS, Tavarez U, Kubalanza K, Borate B, Whitehead GS, Maruoka S, Roy MG, Olive M, Carpenter DE, Brass DM, Wynn TA, Cook DN, Evans CM, Schwartz DA, Collins FS. Strain-dependent genomic factors affect allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011 Oct; 45(4):817-24 ...
Dr. Anand responded: Methacholine test. The test result is available as soon as the test is completed. It can take half to one hour. A physician has to interpret the test results. Some times the answer may not be clear cut.
Several models have been proposed to analyse dose-response curves recorded in bronchoprovocation challenge tests. The aims of the present work were: 1) to investigate which model (linear vs exponential) and which minimization method (trials and errors vs Levenberg-Marquardt) gives better results in terms of data interpolation (goodness-of-fit); and 2) to verify the validity of extrapolation by comparing forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) observed after 4 mg methacholine with values extrapolated after truncation of the curves at 2 mg. For these purposes, methacholine dose-response curves were obtained in 832 subjects from a random population sample, as part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) in Italy. Methacholine was inhaled up to a maximum dose of 6 mg by dosimeter technique. The coefficient of determination (r2) was significantly higher with the exponential model (0.81 +/- 0.22; mean +/- SD) than with the linear model (0.69 +/- 0.27). With both models, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigative bronchoprovocation and bronchoscopy in airway diseases. AU - Busse, William W.. AU - Wanner, Adam. AU - Adams, Kenneth. AU - Reynolds, Herbert Y.. AU - Castro, Mario. AU - Chowdhury, Badrul. AU - Kraft, Monica. AU - Levine, Robert J.. AU - Peters, Stephen P.. AU - Sullivan, Eugene J.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Rationale: Basic and clinical research strategies used for many lung diseases have depended on volunteer subjects undergoing bronchoscopy to establish access to the airways to collect biological specimens and tissue, perhaps with added bronchoprovocation in asthma syndromes. These procedures have yielded a wealth of important scientific information. Since the last critical review more than a decade ago, some of the techniques and applications have changed, and untoward events have occurred, raising safety concerns and increasing institutional review scrutiny. Objectives and Methods:To reappraise these investigational methods in the context of ...
Smiths Medical Asthma Patient Testing Kit (Methacholine Bronchoprovocation) is a convenient, all-inclusive procedural kit for the assessment of the respiratory
Background: Inhalation of a single dose of the long-acting β2- adrenoceptor agonist salmeterol protects against methacholine-induced airway obstruction and other bronchoconstricting stimuli for at least 12 hours. Hypothetically, twice daily dosing of salmeterol may result in continuous protection. Objective: this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a single dose of salmeterol and of continuous twice daily treatment on airway responsiveness to methacholine. Methods: In a double-blind, parallel study, salmeterol 50 μg twice daily was compared with salbutamol 200 μg twice daily. Thirty children with mild asthma, who had little or no bronchial obstruction and were hyperresponsive to methacholine (PD20 ≤ 150 μg) were allocated to receive either salmeterol or salbutamol. Airway responsiveness was measured before study entry, 12 hours after a single dose of drug was given, and monthly during 4 months of daily treatment. Measurements were always performed at the same time of ...
No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7 ...
Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) is a simple technique used to treat cancer in the breast or chest wall. Its precisely targeted so theres less chance of damage to the heart and lungs. ...
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Provocholine (methacholine chloride). Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions.
Our study made a preliminary demonstration that the finding of obstruction based on the FEV1/FVC in the setting of a normal FEV1 (defined in this study as greater than 90% of predicted) does not consistently represent a normal physiologic variant. Nearly 28% of tested patients met criteria for AHR by either BD response or bronchoprovocation testing, irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms. While there were no significant differences in AHR for those patients with an FEV1 , 100% of predicted versus ≥ 100% of predicted, the overall trend demonstrated a decreased frequency of AHR for an FEV1 ≥ 100% of predicted, as 80% of patients with evidence of AHR had an FEV1 , 100%. This becomes important in correlating the clinical suspicion for underlying disease with the indication (screening vs symptomatic) for PFT. Conversely, even in the presence of active pulmonary symptoms or established diagnoses, nearly 75% of patients tested did not demonstrate a significant BD response. This might ...
Bronchoprovocation challenge testing is sometimes used to diagnose asthma if your lung function is normal but you have typical asthma symptoms.
Addressing the issue of whether to grant a second inter partes review (IPR) after all of the claims had previously been adjudicated, the Patent Trial…
Join over 7 million developers in solving code challenges on HackerRank, one of the best ways to prepare for programming interviews.
Join over 7 million developers in solving code challenges on HackerRank, one of the best ways to prepare for programming interviews.
Rationale: Methacholine and mannitol challenges are used clinically to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Cough during (a) high-dose methacholine challenge in individuals with methacholine-induced cough and normal airway sensitivity and (b) mannitol challenge in some individuals with asthma both occur in the absence of significant declines in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). We hypothesized mechanical responses to these challenges would reflect a continuum amongst subjects with: (i) asthma; (ii) cough variant asthma (CVA) and (iii) methacholine-induced cough and normal airway sensitivity due to varying degrees of impairment/preservation of the beneficial effects of deep inspirations. Purpose: To compare cough and airway responses to mannitol and high-dose methacholine challenges between these groups. Methods: Individuals with asthma or suspected CVA were invited to participate. Subjects were challenged with mannitol and high-dose methacholine in random order 2-14 days apart. ...
During the course of building an animal style of chronic asthma, we attempted to elucidate enough time sequence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, airway redecorating, and linked cytokines. be significant statistically. Outcomes Airway responsiveness To research the relationship with airway redecorating, AHR to methacholine was examined in each best period stage. Fig. 2 displays the dosage response curve of airway responsiveness to methacholine. In each OVA-exposed asthma group, airway responsiveness to methacholine was increased weighed against control group significantly. But there is no factor in AHR between your asthma organizations. Fig. 2 Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in each combined band of mouse asthma magic size. Weighed against the control group, asthma organizations showed significantly improved airway hyperresponsiveness for 12 weeks (*… Immunocytochemical staining for TIMP-1 and MMP-9 Weighed against control mice, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expressions ...
P.H. Howarth, J.S. Mann, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Resting Airway Calibre on Non-Specific and Specific Airway Reactivity in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 5P-6P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067005Pb. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of bronchial responsiveness following exposure to inhaled occupational and environmental agents. AU - Currie, G. P.. AU - Ayres, Jonathan Geoffrey. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Article. VL - 23. SP - 75. EP - 81. JO - Toxicology. JF - Toxicology. SN - 0300-483X. ER - ...
Dose-response curves to methacholine were examined in 9 normal and 10 asthmatic volunteers to determine whether the relationship between dose and response can be adequately summarized by means of a single, continuous measure that is not censored at lower levels of bronchial responsiveness. Subjects …
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. methacholine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Methacholine inhalation challenge studies in a selcted pediatric population. AU - Hopp, R. J.. AU - Bewtra, A. K.. AU - Nair, N. M.. AU - Watt, G. D.. AU - Townley, R. G.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - To determine bronchial reactivity patterns, 400 subjects, 5 to 21 yr of age, underwent a methacholine challenge in a Natural History of Asthma study. The diagnosis of asthma or allergy was based on a respiratory questionnaire. Subjects were nonsmokers and had had no respiratory infections for 1 month. Intradermal skin tests were done. The methacholine challenge response was expressed as the area beneath the dose-response curve (Area35). Fifty-five asthmatics, 113 normal subjects from normal families, 103 normal subjects from asthma families, 60 normal twins, and 69 allergic subjects without asthma were studied. Overall, 52% of nonasthmatics and 47% of nonallergic subjects had an Area35 less than 4,000 (800 breath units). There was a difference (p , 0.05) in the distribution of ...
The inter-relationship between the perception of bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and temporal adaptation in asthma is still a matter of debate. In a total of 52 stable asthmatic patients, 32 without airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC) 84.1% (S.D. 7.9%)], and 20 with airway obstruction [FEV1/VC 60% (4%)], we assessed the perception of bronchoconstriction during methacholine inhalation by using: (i) the slope and intercept of the Borg and VAS (Visual Analog Scale) scores against the decrease in FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the predicted value; and (ii) the Borg and VAS scores at a 20% decrease in FEV1 from the lowest post-saline level (PB20). Bronchial hyper-responsiveness was assessed as the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20FEV1). The reduction in FEV1 was significantly related to the Borg and VAS scores, with values for the group mean slope and intercept of this relationship of 0.13 ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Health Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dosimetric Considerations in Respiratory-Gated Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold for Left Breast Irradiation. AU - Walston, Steve. AU - Quick, Allison M.. AU - Kuhn, Karla. AU - Rong, Yi. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol. Material and Methods: Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison. The AlignRT system was used for patient setup and monitoring. Dosimetric measurements and their correlation with chest wall ...
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are currently used as non-invasive markers in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma. As both sputum eosinophils (%) and exhaled NO are raised in asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled steroids and decreased following corticosteroid therapy, a relationship between them is plausible. METHODS: Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence analyser, sputum induction by 3.5% saline inhalation, and bronchial responsiveness was measured as PC20FEV1 methacholine in 35 stable asthmatic patients using beta 2 agonist alone and the correlation between these non-invasive markers of airway inflammation was studied. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between exhaled NO and PC20 (r = -0.64), exhaled NO and sputum eosinophils (%) (r = 0.48), and also between sputum eosinophils (%) and PC20 (r = -0.40). CONCLUSION: The correlation between exhaled NO and PC20 suggests that exhaled NO or the mechanisms leading to its ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold.. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Heart Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. ...
Cough is a common, disruptive and at times disabling symptom which often prompts patients to seek medical attention. Determining the cause(s) of chronic cough can be challenging, and costly. Asthma and other airway disorders are among the most common causes of chronic cough; and cough can be the sole symptom of asthma. Little is known about why some patients with asthma primarily cough and do not develop the other symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath or wheeze. Improved understanding of the reasons for these different manifestations may lead to new and more effective treatment strategies. We have notices differences in pressure measurements inside the chest in patients who mostly cough during induced bronchoconstriction, which might be part of the explanation for varying symptoms. This study will compare lung mechanical responses during methacholine and mannitol-induced induced airway narrowing between typical asthma, cough variant asthma (CVA) and an airway inflammatory disorder that ...
Cough is a common, disruptive and at times disabling symptom which often prompts patients to seek medical attention. Determining the cause(s) of chronic cough can be challenging, and costly. Asthma and other airway disorders are among the most common causes of chronic cough; and cough can be the sole symptom of asthma. Little is known about why some patients with asthma primarily cough and do not develop the other symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath or wheeze. Improved understanding of the reasons for these different manifestations may lead to new and more effective treatment strategies. We have notices differences in pressure measurements inside the chest in patients who mostly cough during induced bronchoconstriction, which might be part of the explanation for varying symptoms. This study will compare lung mechanical responses during methacholine and mannitol-induced induced airway narrowing between typical asthma, cough variant asthma (CVA) and an airway inflammatory disorder that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IgE levels and methacholine inhalation responses in monozygous and dizygous twins. AU - Townley, R.. AU - Guirgis, H.. AU - Bewtra, A.. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017256177&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017256177&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017256177. VL - 57. SP - No.93. JO - Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. JF - Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. SN - 0091-6749. IS - 3. ER - ...
The results of this study demonstrate the bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects of acute administration of both the short-acting β2‐agonist terbutaline and the long-acting β2‐agonist formoterol. A significant improvement in FEV1 30 min after each active treatment and a dose-dependent reduction in AR to both AMP and histamine following formoterol was observed. The two higher doses of formoterol produced a greater bronchoprotective effect against AMP compared to that against histamine, whereas 6‐µg formoterol and 500-µg terbutaline reduced AR to both spasmogens to a similar extent.. The similarity between AMP and histamine dose/response curves following placebo and each active treatment allows direct comparison of the bronchoprotection against each spasmogen. Thus, to explain the findings, it is likely that there are additional mechanisms to β2‐agonist-mediated functional antagonism against induced airway smooth muscle contraction. The greater degree of bronchoprotection ...
Local Lung Function And Airway Size Response During Methacholine Challenge And Salbutamol Treatment Measured Using High-Resolution Dynamic CT And Functional Lung Imaging
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an asthma prevalence video questionnaire, a standard written questionnaire based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire and a new written questionnaire designed for an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood ISAAC in predicting bronchial hyper-responsiveness BHR...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine forming capacity (HFC) and its modulation by H3 receptor ligands in a model of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AU - Allen, Marcus. AU - Graham, P.. AU - Morris, G.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 118. EP - 122. JO - Inflammation Research. JF - Inflammation Research. SN - 1023-3830. IS - 3. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity. T2 - methods of study.. AU - Grassi, C.. AU - Casali, L.. AU - Rossi, A.. AU - Rampulla, C.. AU - Zanon, P.. AU - Cerveri, I.. AU - Mastroberardino, M.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The authors evaluated bronchial hyperreactivity comparing two different methods for aspecific bronchostimulation (H2O ultrasonic mist and free running) and a bronchodilation test. The investigation had been carried out on three groups of subjects. The first included 15 nonsmoking normal subjects, the second 23 asthmatic patients and the third 16 rhinitic patients. All subjects were submitted to bronchodynamic tests in three different ways. The ventilatory parameters were FVC, FEV1, MMEF and Vmax25. In normal subjects no significant changes were found. In asthmatic patients the bronchodilation test was positive in 65% of the cases, regarding FEV1 and in 87% regarding the forced flows. The running ...
in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2012), 66(2), 158-65. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of ... [more ▼]. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of 50 ml/s (FE(NO50) ) remains a controversial diagnostic tool. Aim: To assess the ability of FE(NO50) to identify bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) ; PC20M ,/= 16 mg/ml) and to establish whether or not symptoms relate to FE(NO50) and PC20M in patients with no demonstrated reversibility to beta(2) -agonist. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 174 steroid naive patients with respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway hyperresponsiveness. T2 - From molecules to bedside. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12794089. AN - SCOPUS:0038309533. VL - 95. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 1. ER - ...
In order to diagnose and monitor asthma, your healthcare provider examines you. He or she listens to your chest and asks you to breathe. You are asked questions about your symptoms, triggers, and any family history of asthma or allergies. Special lung function tests may also be done. One of these is called a spirometry test.. ...
Rationale: In asthma, airway inflammation, obstruction and reactivity may lead to ventilation heterogeneity; our understanding of this process is limited in asthmatic chi..
Page 2 - Im not sure if this in the literature or not (probably) and I havent really studied it yet, but... If you have a 10kg kid with bronchospasm, what would you treatment be. Im imagining, that in
Wheezing during infancy has been linked to early loss of pulmonary function. We prospectively investigated the relation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and progressive impairment of pulmonary function in a cohort of asthmatic infants followed until age 9 years. We studied 129 infants who had had at least three episodes of wheezing. Physical examinations, baseline lung function tests and methacholine challenge tests were scheduled at ages 16 months and 5, 7 and 9 years. Eighty-three children completed follow-up. Twenty-four (29%) infants had wheezing that persisted at 9 years of age. Clinical outcome at age 9 years was significantly predicted by symptoms at 5 years of age and by parental atopy. Specific airway resistance (sRaw) was altered in persistent wheezers as early as 5 years of age, and did not change thereafter. Ninety-five per cent of the children still responded to methacholine at the end of follow-up. The degree of BHR at 9 years was significantly related to current clinical status
As the usual bronchial provocation tests with methacholine are rather cumbersome and time-consuming, an attempt has been made to develop a short screening test for routine use. 143 patients with chronic cough or intermittent dyspnea received methacholine from a pressurised aerosol (puffer). The response was evaluated by spirometric measurement. Among 74 patients with chronic cough, 49 had a favourable response to methacholine. 93% were treated successfully with a bronchodilator. Among 62 patients with dyspnea, 45 reacted favourably to methacholine. All were treated successfully with bronchodilators. The short provocation test protocol with methacholine is easy and safe to perform. In cases of chronic cough and dyspnea it serves to detect hyperreactive patients who can benefit from bronchodilator treatment.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact on childrens respiratory health of a government air quality intervention that restricted the sulphur content of fuels to 0.5% from July 1990 onwards. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study examined the changes, one and two years after the introduction of the intervention, in airway hyperreactivity of non-asthmatic and non-wheezing, primary 4, 5, and 6, school children aged 9-12 years living in a polluted district compared with those in a less polluted district. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR)(a 20% decrease in FEV1 provoked by a cumulative dose of histamine less than 7.8 mumol) and bronchial reactivity slope (BR slope) (percentage change in logarithmic scale in FEV1 per unit dose of histamine) were used to estimate responses to a histamine challenge. The between districts differences after the intervention were studied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. MAIN RESULTS: In cohorts, comparing measurements made before the intervention ...
Wilson, AM, Gray, RD, Hall, IP and Lipworth, BJ (2006) The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with asthma. Allergy, 61 (2). pp. 254-259. ISSN 1398-9995 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive value of childhood airway hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli: 10-year longitudinal study. AU - Lajunen, Katariina Tytti. AU - Malmberg, Leo Pekka. AU - Kalliola, Satu. AU - Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne. AU - Pelkonen, L. Anna Susanna. AU - Mäkelä, Mika Juhani. PY - 2020/10. Y1 - 2020/10. KW - 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics. KW - Airway hyper-responsiveness. KW - Ashtma. KW - Childhood. KW - Lung function. KW - Methacholine challenge. KW - Prospective. KW - BRONCHIAL HYPERRESPONSIVENESS. KW - RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS. KW - LUNG-FUNCTION. KW - ASTHMA. KW - CHILDREN. KW - AGE. KW - RESPONSIVENESS. KW - DETERMINANTS. KW - IMPEDANCE. KW - 3121 Internal medicine. U2 - 10.1111/pai.13248. DO - 10.1111/pai.13248. M3 - Article. VL - 31. SP - 767. EP - 773. JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. SN - 0905-6157. IS - 7. ER - ...
We obtained dynamic and flow-interrupted (quasi-static) pressure-volume loops from the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed open-chest mongrel dogs by measuring tracheal flow and pressure and alveolar pressure (PA) in three different regions using alveolar capsules. We used continuous tidal ventilation to obtain dynamic PA-volume loops and used the single-breath-interrupter technique to construct quasi-static pressure-volume loops for the same tidal volume (VT). We used three different VTs (15 and 20 ml/kg and inspiratory capacity) under control conditions and a VT of 15 ml/kg after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We found that quasi-static hysteresis was negligible under control conditions for VT of 15 and 20 ml/kg. Quasi-static hysteresis became more important (36 +/- 11% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop) during inspiratory capacity ventilation and after induced bronchoconstriction (27 +/- 12% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop). We conclude that during tidal ...
The effectiveness of strategies for treatment of the altered static lung volume and against the development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) following a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) induced by myocardial ischaemia was investigated in a rat model of sustained postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. Airway resistance (Raw) was identified from the respiratory system input impedance (Zrs) in four groups of rats. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) was determined plethysmographically, and Zrs was measured under baseline conditions and following iv infusions of 2, 6 or 18 μg/kg/min methacholine. Sham surgery was performed in the rats in Group C, while the left interventricular coronary artery was ligated and Zrs and its changes following identical methacholine challenges were reassessed in the same rats 8 weeks later, during which no treatment was applied (Group I), or the animals were treated daily with a combination of an angiotensin enzyme converter inhibitor and a diuretic (enalapril and furosemide,
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Diesel exhaust enhances airway responsiveness in asthmatic subjects
It is not appropriate for Drs Kaplan and Stanbrook to suggest that physicians who do not use spirometry should not manage patients with asthma.1 Such comments do not provide constructive guidance about clinical management and might serve to challenge the central role of family physicians in asthma care. Interestingly, it appears that Kaplan and Stanbrook are now supporting my side of the debate. They state that empiric treatment of presumed asthma is acceptable only if followed by objective measurements of lung function to confirm clinical suspicion. This position seems very similar to my suggestion to treat and refer for methacholine challenge testing, as this approach will identify most patients with suspected asthma.2. My colleagues appropriately highlight that a single spirometry test might not always be successful in diagnosing or ruling out asthma definitively, but they offer no practical strategy for how physicians should manage patients with suspected asthma but normal spirometry ...
Tampa, Florida (PRWEB) July 15, 2014 -- Acoustiblok was recently featured on the new National Geographic Channel series, Showdown of the Unbeatables. The
Learn Big History: Connecting Knowledge from Macquarie University. We currently face unprecedented challenges on a global scale. These problems do not neatly fall into disciplines. They are complicated, complex, and connected. Join us on this ...
A thriving and open Internet provides the foundation for the fourth industrial revolution. There has been growing concern that the Internet may be in danger of splintering into a series of bordered cyberspace segments endangering its very nature. World Economic Forums Global Challenge on the Future of the Internet supported research highlights a number of fault lines that need to be addressed by bringing all stakeholders together.
... bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 - antitussive agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.170 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... autonomic agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.030 - antiemetics MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.100 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Danazol was described as a luteolytic agent. Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. "Luteolysis - Google Search". ... Asthmatics should take great care when handling this hormone as PGF2α is bronchoconstrictor. During a pregnancy, the corpus ... Danazol as a luteolytic agent. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(1):23-5. PMID 620838 Bagnell, C. 2005. "Animal Reproduction". Rutgers ...
... oids are also an active ingredient in riot control and personal defense pepper spray agents.[47][48][49] When the ... Fuller, R. W., Dixon, C. M. S. & Barnes, P. J. (1985). Bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled capsaicin in humans" J. Appl. ... There is also evidence that capsaicin may have evolved as an anti-fungal agent:[36] the fungal pathogen Fusarium, which is ... "Field evaluation of capsaicin as a rodent aversion agent for poultry feed". Pest Management Science. 59 (9): 1007-1015. doi: ...
Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell stabilizing agent, provides an immediate protective effect against the exercise-induced ... "Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent". Iranian Journal ... Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent. ... Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent. Iranian Journal ...
"Bronchoconstrictor Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bronchoconstrictor Agents" was a major or minor ... "Bronchoconstrictor Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bronchoconstrictor Agents" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bronchoconstrictor Agents". ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Muscarinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. ... Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Parasympathomimetics. ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Muscarinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. ... Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Parasympathomimetics. ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents * Female * Forced Expiratory Volume * Humans * Luminescent Measurements * Male * Methacholine ...
We speculate that these parameters reflect some of the mechanisms modulating the response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli such as ... Bronchoconstrictor Agents * Data Interpretation, Statistical * Female * Forced Expiratory Volume * Humans * Male * Methacholine ...
... has role bronchoconstrictor agent (CHEBI:50141) 2-O-acetyl-1 ... bronchoconstrictor agent A drug which causes a narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole. ... 2-O-acetyl-1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:44811) has role vasodilator agent (CHEBI:35620) 2-O-acetyl-1-O- ... 2-O-acetyl-1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CHEBI:44811) has role antihypertensive agent (CHEBI:35674) ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents / diagnostic use. Chi-Square Distribution. Eosinophils / pathology*. Exercise Test. Humans. ... 0/Biological Markers; 0/Bronchoconstrictor Agents; 37341-29-0/Immunoglobulin E; 62-51-1/Methacholine Chloride ... 22844219 - The importance of exercise as a therapeutic agent.. 14709159 - Changes in pulmonary vascular function after acute ...
Methacholine chloride, the active ingredient of Provocholine, is a parasympathomimetic (cholinergic) bronchoconstrictor agent. ... Given that Provocholine is a potent bronchoconstrictor:. *Do not use Provocholine in pediatric and adult patients with baseline ... If severe bronchoconstriction occurs, reverse immediately with a rapid-acting inhaled bronchodilator agent (β-agonist) [see ... Hypersensitivity to methacholine or other parasympathomimetic agents. Reactions have included rash, itching/swelling ( ...
Edn1 is a potent bronchoconstrictor and a profibrotic agent. It is strongly expressed in the epithelium of airways during mild ...
It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ...
Definition of bronchoconstrictor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... An agent that possesses this action (histamine, acetylcholine).. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider ...
The response to each bronchoconstrictor agent was measured by the PC20 (provocative concentration required to produce a 20% ... The response to each bronchoconstrictor agent was measured by the PC20 (provocative concentration required to produce a 20% ... AlbuterolAsthmaBlood PressureBronchial Provocation TestsBronchoconstrictionBronchoconstrictor AgentsBronchodilator AgentsDose- ... Inhaled lysine acetylsalicylate (L-ASA) attenuates the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP) in ...
It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ... It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ...
... influence of the dose of bronchoconstrictor agent delivered to the mouth. Chest 2008; 134: 699-703. ... Where available, it is the agent of choice for direct bronchial challenge testing. A form of methacholine approved by the US ... Alternative methods of quantifying the response to challenge agents have been proposed, including airway resistance measurement ... its effects can be partially blocked by anticholinergic agents such as ipratropium bromide (table 3). ...
... drug development that yields novel more efficacious treatment options with a better clinical profile than existing agents. For ... The dose of bronchoconstrictor agent required to achieve a 20% reduction in FEV1 is used to quantify the degree of AHR) to ... AHR refers to the demonstration of a reduction in FEV1 associated with inhalation of small doses of a bronchoconstrictor agent ... While practical, an implication of this approach was that the effectiveness of mepolizumab as a steroid-sparing agent relied on ...
AdolescentAdultAgedAirway ObstructionAsthmaBronchial Provocation TestsBronchoconstrictionBronchoconstrictor AgentsCase-Control ... bronchoconstrictor agents KW - respiratory mechanics SP - 294 EP - 304 JF - Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985 ...
... augment responses to intravenous or intratracheal nonspecific bronchoconstrictor agents. Guinea-pig models are easy to ...
98 and protective effects against bronchoconstrictor agents 99, 100 in infants and preschool children treated with rapidly ... Anticholinergic agents. In the Cochrane Review it was concluded that inhaled ipratropium may be beneficial in older children ... Similarly, it is not known whether or not the causative agent of the initial episode plays a major role in determining long- ... Secondly, treatment (agents, dosages and delivery devices) differed considerably between studies. Thirdly, different outcome ...
... inhibit the formation or release of various bronchoconstrictor agents such as leukotrienes and histamine (levels of which are ... Oral challenge with alternative non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and paracetamol in patients intolerant to these agents. ...
... smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. GWE was prepared as a ... were tested by pre-treating the tissues with these agents. Endotoxin content of the dust extract was, 2014 EU/mg. Protein ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Airway Resistance. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Bronchial Provocation Tests. en_ ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. 2. 1. 1-Glutamine Uptake Inhibitor. 2. 2. Immunomodulatory: CD8+ Up-regulation. 2. 1. ...
Animals; Bronchoconstrictor Agents; *Calcium Signaling; Cells, Cultured; Lung; Male; Methacholine Chloride; Mice; Mice, Inbred ...
... several studies have shown that eNOS KO mice are hyperresponsive to inhaled bronchoconstrictor agents like methacholine [49, 50 ... It is not unlikely that this is due to the fact that only at high concentration of a bronchoconstricting agent, high levels of ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents 14% * Anti-Inflammatory Agents 14% * Anti-Allergic Agents 12% * Ionophores 11% ...
Any agent that causes a narrowing of the air passages in bronchi and bronchioles Explanation of bronchoconstrictor ... Looking for bronchoconstrictor? Find out information about bronchoconstrictor. ... bronchoconstrictor. Also found in: Medical. bronchoconstrictor. [¦bräŋ·kō·kən¦strik·tər] (pharmacology) Any agent that causes a ... Narcotics can also be a mild bronchoconstrictor and should be used during labor and delivery with care; epidural anesthesia, ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents Medicine & Life Sciences * Heparin Medicine & Life Sciences * Sheep Medicine & Life Sciences ... Effects of inhaled heparin on immunologic and nonimmunologic bronchoconstrictor responses in sheep. / Ahmed, T.; Abraham, W. M ... Ahmed T, Abraham WM, DBrot J. Effects of inhaled heparin on immunologic and nonimmunologic bronchoconstrictor responses in ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of inhaled heparin on immunologic and nonimmunologic bronchoconstrictor ...
  • Combivent Inhalation Aerosol[R] is a combination of ipratropium (a long-acting, anticholinergic, bronchoconstrictor antagonist) and albuterol (a beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilator). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of inactive solution on bronchial reactivity under bronchoconstrictor or bronchodilator suggestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bronchodilator Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (healthsciencessc.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bronchodilator Agents" by people in Profiles. (healthsciencessc.org)
  • While being a potent bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agent, CDB is not intoxicating. (terpenetlv.com)
  • THC is a bronchoconstrictor CBD is a bronchodilator. (terpenetlv.com)
  • Cannabinoids act as a bronchodilator rather than a bronchoconstrictor. (naturesbreakthrough.com)
  • An agent that possesses this action (histamine, acetylcholine). (drugs.com)
  • 6 Inhibition of PGE 2 synthesis seems to be particularly important in AIA for several reasons: PGE 2 can relax bronchial muscle, inhibit the formation or release of various bronchoconstrictor agents such as leukotrienes and histamine (levels of which are raised in patients with AIA), and PGE 2 administered as an aerosol inhibits aspirin induced bronchoconstriction. (bmj.com)
  • The dose of heparin (1,000 U/kg) that completely blocked antigen-induced bronchoconstriction also attenuated the bronchoconstriction induced by compound 48/80 (ΔSRL = 374 ± 72 versus 35 ± 12%), but failed to block the bronchoconstrictor effects of histamine and carbachol. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, no changes to bronchoconstrictor responses to histamine were noted. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CysLTs are the most potent bronchoconstrictor agents yet discovered, about 100-1000 times more potent than histamine. (allergycases.org)
  • What is the most potent bronchoconstrictor? (allergycases.org)
  • The second most potent bronchoconstrictor is thromboxane A2 (TXA2). (allergycases.org)
  • Cysteinyl‐LTs and LTB4 are, respectively, the most potent bronchoconstrictor agents and one of the most effective leukocyte chemotaxins yet. (allergycases.org)
  • Prostaglandin D2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor, neuromodulator and anti-antithrombin agent. (fairview.org)
  • These molecules are potent vasoactive and bronchoconstrictor agents and they modulate local immune responses and inflammatory cell infiltration (17-18).Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mast-cell stimulation is an important initial event in the development of type I allergic reactions such as asthma and atopic disorders. (healthrising.org)
  • Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been indirectly implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma, and it is a potent bronchoconstrictor both in vitro and by inhalation in animal models in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Potent bronchoconstrictor Promotes vasoconstriction fewer gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. (barnardhealth.us)
  • It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Cholinergic nerves are the predominant bronchoconstrictor pathway in airways and cholinergic neurotransmission may be increased in asthma by the effects of inflammatory mediators on afferent nerves (reflex effect) and on prejunctional receptors on postganglionic nerves (9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-�, a cytokine involved in asthma, enhances Ca^2^+ responsiveness to bronchoconstrictor agents in cultured human. (naver.com)
  • C3) Workplace exposure to an agent previously associated with occupational asthma using the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics asthmagen criteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of hfa Anti-inflammatory Agents: The hfa use of proventil beta-adrenergic-agonist bronchodilators alone may not proventil be proventil adequate to hfa control asthma in hfa many patients. (fjcm.org)
  • A parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor used during the bronchial challenge test for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperreactivity in subjects who do not have clinically apparent asthma. (drugbank.ca)
  • Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell stabilizing agent, provides an immediate protective effect against the exercise-induced bronchoconstriction while being used before the exercise. (ac.ir)
  • These data suggest that inhaled heparin prevents bronchoconstrictor responses induced by stimuli that produce immunologic and nonimmunologic mast-cell degranulation in sheep, without attenuating agonist-induced bronchoconstriction. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversely, during inhalation of halogenated agents (halothane, enflurane, methoxyflurane), which markedly reduce bronchomotor tone, a progressive decrease of hypocapnic bronchoconstriction has been found with increasing concentration of the anesthetic agents in isolated dog lobes. (asahq.org)
  • Animal models of BHR are available in which systemic or local immunizations, followed by acute allergenic provocations into the airways, augment responses to intravenous or intratracheal nonspecific bronchoconstrictor agents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A63162, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, but not indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, completely inhibited augmentation of bronchoconstrictor responses to ACh caused by activated AM and also completely attenuated the increase in W/D lung weight ratios. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhaled frusemide has been shown to inhibit bronchoconstrictor responses to several indirect challenges by unknown mechanisms. (who.int)
  • Adrenalin (0,1 to 1 mg subcutaneously) is also of value in overcoming severe cardiovascular or bronchoconstrictor responses. (intekom.com)
  • Both compounds significantly inhibited bilateral vagal nerve stimulation-induced responses, but the exogenous SP-mediated responses were not influenced by these agents, suggesting that these drugs inhibit neurogenic leakage by prejunctional inhibition of neuropeptide release from airway sensory nerve terminals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We speculate that these parameters reflect some of the mechanisms modulating the response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli such as airway wall structure, airway-to-parenchymal interdependence, and contractile properties of airway smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the bronchoconstrictor and proinflammatory activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (metabolites of arachodonic acid produced by mast cells, basophils and eosinophils) within the asthmatic airway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several studies based on direct imaging have compared the extent of airway narrowing across different airways in the lung [ 3 - 8 ], and nearly all reported some heterogeneity in response to bronchoconstrictor challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Receptor antagonism by antimuscarinic agents facilitates relaxation of airway smooth muscle. (springer.com)
  • These agents bind to muscarinic receptor subtypes M 1 and M 3 localised in airway smooth muscle and block the bronchoconstrictor response to cholinergic nerve stimulation [ 2 , 3 ], thereby improving airflow obstruction. (springer.com)
  • It is notable that the authors failed to measure any surrogate marker of inflammation such as exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils, or airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to an indirect bronchoconstrictor stimulus. (bmj.com)
  • 2, 3 In this respect, the use of adenosine monophosphate or mannitol to assess AHR may have provided information regarding the underlying inflammatory status as these agents, which act similarly, 4 cause the release of inflammatory mediators rather than directly causing contraction of airway smooth muscle. (bmj.com)
  • An agent that binds to but does not activate beta -adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous beta -adrenergic agonists. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Use of these bronchoconstrictor stimuli are also more akin to real life situations as cold air and exercise also act in a similar physiological fashion. (bmj.com)
  • acute reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second were considerably smaller suggesting the bronchoconstrictor effect of the tea-dust that acts mostly on smaller airways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. (nih.gov)
  • Although clinical studies with acetylcholine chloride and animal studies with acetylcholine or carbochol revealed no interference, and there, is no known pharmacological basis for an interaction, there have been reports that acetylcholine chloride and carbochol have been ineffective when used in patients treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. (intekom.com)
  • narrowing of the bronchioles (bronchoconstrictor) due to contraction of smooth muscles. (freezingblue.com)
  • Any agent that causes a narrowing of the air passages in bronchi and bronchioles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. (bireme.br)
  • The effect of SINGULAIR on the bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients has not been evaluated (see PRECAUTIONS, General). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue to avoid aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking Montelukast Sodium ( 5.4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Clients with recognised aspirin sensitivity ought to continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents whilst getting useful link montelukast sodium. (blogocial.com)
  • 4 To our knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of either hypocapnia or hypercapnia on Rint and the additional resistance (ΔR), which reflects pressure dissipation caused by viscoelastic behavior and time constant inequality, in humans anesthetized with halogenated agents. (asahq.org)
  • Bronchoconstrictor Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • The effects of mediator modifying drugs including atropine, indomethacin, pyrilamine (H1 antagonist), acivicin, NDGA, and BPB (which block segments of the arichidonic acid cascade),TMB8 (blocks intracellular calcium mobilization) capsaicin (depletes irritant nerve mediators) and captopril (ACE inhibitor) were tested by pre-treating the tissues with these agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The response to each bronchoconstrictor agent was measured by the PC20 (provocative concentration required to produce a 20% fall in FEV1). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated that activation of the C system with cobra venom factor (CVF) in a passively sensitized guinea pig results in an enhanced bronchoconstrictor response to Ag but not to other constrictor agents. (umn.edu)
  • Vagal stimulation evoked a NANC bronchoconstrictor response. (elsevier.com)
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • C6) Positive response to specific inhalation challenge testing with an agent to which the patient has been exposed at work. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 11(2), pp. 549-557. (ac.ir)
  • It turned out that most asthmatics exhibited allergy to a wide range of indoor and outdoor agents including dust mites, pollens and animal proteins. (worldasthmafoundation.org)
  • Asthmatics should take great care when handling this hormone as PGF2α is bronchoconstrictor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta -adrenergic agonists, 2 inflammatory agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Cardioselective beta-blockers are useful in patients with hypertension who also have impaired pulmonary function, as they eliminate the unwanted bronchoconstrictor effects caused by nonselective beta-blockers (e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We studied the effect of grain weevil extract (GWE) on isolated guinea pig trachea (GPT) smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bronchoconstrictor Agents" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Anti-Asthmatic Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Anti-Asthmatic Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • It is used in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and is a parasympathomimetic agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Distigmine is a parasympathomimetic agent with a longer duration of action and enhanced drug accumulation compared to DB00545 and DB01400. (drugbank.ca)
  • Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory environmental irritants, viral infections, agents were the most common medications prescribed. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, pranayama with its calming effect on the mind can reduce emotional stresses, thereby withdrawing the bronchoconstrictor influences. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any anatomical hindrance to miosis may require surgery to permit the desired effect of the agent. (intekom.com)
  • This observation of similar cases in a short period of time and the low frequency of diseased people who lived in a urban environment makes necessary to think in this agent as cause of ophthalmomyiasis in our area and therefore perform an adequate differential diagnosis. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • The discovery of reagin by Prausnitz and K?stner in 1921 as a serum substance that could passively transfer allergy to a specific agent (in this case cod allergen)7 subsequently led to the identification of IgE as the 5th immunoglobulin class IgE by Johansson and Ishizaka8 and provided the crucial link. (worldasthmafoundation.org)
  • However, this necessitates a clear understanding of the underlying mechanistic pathways underpinning pathological processes, to inform drug development that yields novel more efficacious treatment options with a better clinical profile than existing agents. (dovepress.com)