Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.IranVagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Receptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/493)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (2/493)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (3/493)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (4/493)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (5/493)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo. (6/493)

1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (7/493)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Vascularity in asthmatic airways: relation to inhaled steroid dose. (8/493)

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in vascularity in the asthmatic airway. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are an effective anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma, there are few data on any effects on structural changes. METHODS: Endobronchial biopsy specimens from seven asthmatic subjects not receiving ICS and 15 receiving 200-1500 microg/day beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-collagen type IV antibody to outline the endothelial basement membrane of the vessels. These were compared with biopsy tissue from 11 non-asthmatic controls (four atopic and seven non-atopic). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the density of vessels (number of vessels/mm2 of lamina propria) in the asthmatic subjects not on ICS compared with non-asthmatic controls (mean 485 (interquartile range (IQR) 390-597) versus 329 (IQR 248-376) vessels/mm2, p<0.05; 95% CI for the difference 48 to 286). There was no significant difference between asthmatic subjects on ICS and those not on ICS or control subjects in the number of vessels/mm2 (mean 421 (IQR 281-534)). However, patients who received >/=800 microg/day BDP tended to have a reduced number of vessels/mm2 compared with patients not on ICS and those receiving +info)

Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A number of mechanisms have been proposed as the basis for the relationship between nonspecific airway responsiveness and prechallenge pulmonary function. Because resistance to flow through a tube is inversely proportional to the radius to the fourth power, a given degree of bronchoconstrictor-induced circumferential airway narrowing can be expected to cause a proportionally larger increase in airway resistance in a narrow airway than in a wider airway. Intersubject differences in the distribution of resistance along the bronchial tree may influence both the pattern of aerosol deposition and the relative impact on total airway resistance of bronchoconstriction at particular sites such as the peripheral airways. Airway hyperresponsiveness may result in heightened bronchomotor tone prior to challenge and thereby be correlated with reduced prechallenge pulmonary function. The convention of expressing responsiveness in terms of percentage of change in FEV, (eg, PD20FEV,) imposes a mathematical ...
The 547 asymptomatic subjects with normal pulmonary function were grouped according to quintile of prechallenge FEV, (percent predicted), and the fifth percentiles of PD20FEV, within each quintile of FEV, were calculated (Table 2). The fifth percentile of methacholine PD20FEV, increased with increasing quintile of prechallenge FEV,. This relationship is shown graphically in Figure 1, in which the fifth percentile of PD20FEV, for each quintile is plotted against the median FEV, for that quintile. Restricting analysis to a subgroup of 157 lifetime nonsmokers yielded similar values for the fifth percentiles of PD20FEV,, for both overall and FEV,-specific percentiles (data not shown). canadian health & care mall. The overall fifth percentile of PD20FEV, (8.3 (imol) and the FEV,-specific fifth percentiles of PD20FEV, (as indicated in Table 2) respectively defined the 26 (4.8 percent) and 27 (4.9 percent) most responsive subjects among the 547 asymptomatic men. Seventeen (3.1 percent) men were ...
Since in the model used in this study all the Newtonian resistive and inertial properties are represented by Raw and Iaw , respectively, the inferences to central and peripheral airway responses are not straightforward. However, the significant increase in Iaw at PCFEV0.5 provides indirect evidence that Mch evoked significant constriction in the nasal and central airways. In addition, nine infants had a significant positive response in Iaw as defined by an increase of ,2 SD units. The inertance of the nasal passages contributes most of the total inertance of the respiratory system,16 making this parameter highly sensitive to changes in the properties of the extrathoracic airways. This response of both the central and peripheral airways to inhaled Mch has also been shown in asymptomatic adults by Ohrui et al 17 using a catheter tipped manometer lodged in a bronchus of 3 mm inner diameter. The response in Iaw in the present study indicates a response in the nasal and/or central pathways. Such a ...
Dr. Anand responded: Methacholine test. The test result is available as soon as the test is completed. It can take half to one hour. A physician has to interpret the test results. Some times the answer may not be clear cut.
Smiths Medical Asthma Patient Testing Kit (Methacholine Bronchoprovocation) is a convenient, all-inclusive procedural kit for the assessment of the respiratory
No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7 ...
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Provocholine (methacholine chloride). Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions.
Our study made a preliminary demonstration that the finding of obstruction based on the FEV1/FVC in the setting of a normal FEV1 (defined in this study as greater than 90% of predicted) does not consistently represent a normal physiologic variant. Nearly 28% of tested patients met criteria for AHR by either BD response or bronchoprovocation testing, irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms. While there were no significant differences in AHR for those patients with an FEV1 , 100% of predicted versus ≥ 100% of predicted, the overall trend demonstrated a decreased frequency of AHR for an FEV1 ≥ 100% of predicted, as 80% of patients with evidence of AHR had an FEV1 , 100%. This becomes important in correlating the clinical suspicion for underlying disease with the indication (screening vs symptomatic) for PFT. Conversely, even in the presence of active pulmonary symptoms or established diagnoses, nearly 75% of patients tested did not demonstrate a significant BD response. This might ...
Bronchoprovocation challenge testing is sometimes used to diagnose asthma if your lung function is normal but you have typical asthma symptoms.
Addressing the issue of whether to grant a second inter partes review (IPR) after all of the claims had previously been adjudicated, the Patent Trial…
Rationale: Methacholine and mannitol challenges are used clinically to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Cough during (a) high-dose methacholine challenge in individuals with methacholine-induced cough and normal airway sensitivity and (b) mannitol challenge in some individuals with asthma both occur in the absence of significant declines in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). We hypothesized mechanical responses to these challenges would reflect a continuum amongst subjects with: (i) asthma; (ii) cough variant asthma (CVA) and (iii) methacholine-induced cough and normal airway sensitivity due to varying degrees of impairment/preservation of the beneficial effects of deep inspirations. Purpose: To compare cough and airway responses to mannitol and high-dose methacholine challenges between these groups. Methods: Individuals with asthma or suspected CVA were invited to participate. Subjects were challenged with mannitol and high-dose methacholine in random order 2-14 days apart. ...
P.H. Howarth, J.S. Mann, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Resting Airway Calibre on Non-Specific and Specific Airway Reactivity in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 5P-6P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067005Pb. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of bronchial responsiveness following exposure to inhaled occupational and environmental agents. AU - Currie, G. P.. AU - Ayres, Jonathan Geoffrey. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Article. VL - 23. SP - 75. EP - 81. JO - Toxicology. JF - Toxicology. SN - 0300-483X. ER - ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. methacholine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Health Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dosimetric Considerations in Respiratory-Gated Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold for Left Breast Irradiation. AU - Walston, Steve. AU - Quick, Allison M.. AU - Kuhn, Karla. AU - Rong, Yi. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol. Material and Methods: Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison. The AlignRT system was used for patient setup and monitoring. Dosimetric measurements and their correlation with chest wall ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold.. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Heart Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. ...
Cough is a common, disruptive and at times disabling symptom which often prompts patients to seek medical attention. Determining the cause(s) of chronic cough can be challenging, and costly. Asthma and other airway disorders are among the most common causes of chronic cough; and cough can be the sole symptom of asthma. Little is known about why some patients with asthma primarily cough and do not develop the other symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath or wheeze. Improved understanding of the reasons for these different manifestations may lead to new and more effective treatment strategies. We have notices differences in pressure measurements inside the chest in patients who mostly cough during induced bronchoconstriction, which might be part of the explanation for varying symptoms. This study will compare lung mechanical responses during methacholine and mannitol-induced induced airway narrowing between typical asthma, cough variant asthma (CVA) and an airway inflammatory disorder that ...
Cough is a common, disruptive and at times disabling symptom which often prompts patients to seek medical attention. Determining the cause(s) of chronic cough can be challenging, and costly. Asthma and other airway disorders are among the most common causes of chronic cough; and cough can be the sole symptom of asthma. Little is known about why some patients with asthma primarily cough and do not develop the other symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath or wheeze. Improved understanding of the reasons for these different manifestations may lead to new and more effective treatment strategies. We have notices differences in pressure measurements inside the chest in patients who mostly cough during induced bronchoconstriction, which might be part of the explanation for varying symptoms. This study will compare lung mechanical responses during methacholine and mannitol-induced induced airway narrowing between typical asthma, cough variant asthma (CVA) and an airway inflammatory disorder that ...
The results of this study demonstrate the bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects of acute administration of both the short-acting β2‐agonist terbutaline and the long-acting β2‐agonist formoterol. A significant improvement in FEV1 30 min after each active treatment and a dose-dependent reduction in AR to both AMP and histamine following formoterol was observed. The two higher doses of formoterol produced a greater bronchoprotective effect against AMP compared to that against histamine, whereas 6‐µg formoterol and 500-µg terbutaline reduced AR to both spasmogens to a similar extent.. The similarity between AMP and histamine dose/response curves following placebo and each active treatment allows direct comparison of the bronchoprotection against each spasmogen. Thus, to explain the findings, it is likely that there are additional mechanisms to β2‐agonist-mediated functional antagonism against induced airway smooth muscle contraction. The greater degree of bronchoprotection ...
Local Lung Function And Airway Size Response During Methacholine Challenge And Salbutamol Treatment Measured Using High-Resolution Dynamic CT And Functional Lung Imaging
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an asthma prevalence video questionnaire, a standard written questionnaire based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire and a new written questionnaire designed for an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood ISAAC in predicting bronchial hyper-responsiveness BHR...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine forming capacity (HFC) and its modulation by H3 receptor ligands in a model of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AU - Allen, Marcus. AU - Graham, P.. AU - Morris, G.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 118. EP - 122. JO - Inflammation Research. JF - Inflammation Research. SN - 1023-3830. IS - 3. ER - ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma. BHR to methacholine is used for diagnosis, but the role in monitoring treated asthma is not established. In the present study we assessed the relation between BHR to methacholine, airways inflammation, asthma control and symptoms.. Methacholine challenge and FeNO measurements were done in 371 asthmatics (aged 10-35 years) with inhaled corticosteroids prescribed. PD20 ,0.3 mg defined moderate-severe BHR, 0.3 to 1.0 mg borderline-mild BHR, and ,1.0 mg normal response (Schulze et al. Resp Med 2009). Well-controlled asthma (≥20 in Asthma Control Test) was found in 68% of children (,18 years) and 75% of adults (≥18 years). All subjects answered questions on asthma symptoms.. Moderate-severe BHR was found in 61% of children and 44% of adults. FeNO increased with more severe BHR in both children and adults, with a higher explanatory value in children (R2=0.15 vs 0.06). Well-controlled asthma was less prevalent in the moderate-severe BHR ...
in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2012), 66(2), 158-65. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of ... [more ▼]. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of 50 ml/s (FE(NO50) ) remains a controversial diagnostic tool. Aim: To assess the ability of FE(NO50) to identify bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) ; PC20M ,/= 16 mg/ml) and to establish whether or not symptoms relate to FE(NO50) and PC20M in patients with no demonstrated reversibility to beta(2) -agonist. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 174 steroid naive patients with respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway hyperresponsiveness. T2 - From molecules to bedside. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12794089. AN - SCOPUS:0038309533. VL - 95. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 1. ER - ...
In order to diagnose and monitor asthma, your healthcare provider examines you. He or she listens to your chest and asks you to breathe. You are asked questions about your symptoms, triggers, and any family history of asthma or allergies. Special lung function tests may also be done. One of these is called a spirometry test.. ...
Page 2 - Im not sure if this in the literature or not (probably) and I havent really studied it yet, but... If you have a 10kg kid with bronchospasm, what would you treatment be. Im imagining, that in
It was recently reported that caffeine may reduce the clinical symptoms of asthma and may prevent the clinical manifestations of this disease. The effect of caffeine on histamine responsiveness is unknown. The effect of caffeine (5 mg/kg) and placebo on histamine responsiveness (the provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1, PC20) was studied in 10 subjects with mild asthma (prechallenge FEV1 84% of predicted value). The PC20 for histamine bronchoprovocation after caffeine ingestion was 2.65 (95% confidence limits 0.99, 7.10) mg/ml. After placebo the PC20 was 1.89 (0.96, 3.71) mg/ml. It is concluded that caffeine in a dose equivalent to about three cups of coffee has a very small effect, if any, on histamine bronchoprovocation in those with mild asthma. Specific instructions about not having drinks containing caffeine before histamine challenge are therefore not necessary.. ...
Wheezing during infancy has been linked to early loss of pulmonary function. We prospectively investigated the relation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and progressive impairment of pulmonary function in a cohort of asthmatic infants followed until age 9 years. We studied 129 infants who had had at least three episodes of wheezing. Physical examinations, baseline lung function tests and methacholine challenge tests were scheduled at ages 16 months and 5, 7 and 9 years. Eighty-three children completed follow-up. Twenty-four (29%) infants had wheezing that persisted at 9 years of age. Clinical outcome at age 9 years was significantly predicted by symptoms at 5 years of age and by parental atopy. Specific airway resistance (sRaw) was altered in persistent wheezers as early as 5 years of age, and did not change thereafter. Ninety-five per cent of the children still responded to methacholine at the end of follow-up. The degree of BHR at 9 years was significantly related to current clinical status
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact on childrens respiratory health of a government air quality intervention that restricted the sulphur content of fuels to 0.5% from July 1990 onwards. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study examined the changes, one and two years after the introduction of the intervention, in airway hyperreactivity of non-asthmatic and non-wheezing, primary 4, 5, and 6, school children aged 9-12 years living in a polluted district compared with those in a less polluted district. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR)(a 20% decrease in FEV1 provoked by a cumulative dose of histamine less than 7.8 mumol) and bronchial reactivity slope (BR slope) (percentage change in logarithmic scale in FEV1 per unit dose of histamine) were used to estimate responses to a histamine challenge. The between districts differences after the intervention were studied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. MAIN RESULTS: In cohorts, comparing measurements made before the intervention ...
Wilson, AM, Gray, RD, Hall, IP and Lipworth, BJ (2006) The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with asthma. Allergy, 61 (2). pp. 254-259. ISSN 1398-9995 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
We obtained dynamic and flow-interrupted (quasi-static) pressure-volume loops from the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed open-chest mongrel dogs by measuring tracheal flow and pressure and alveolar pressure (PA) in three different regions using alveolar capsules. We used continuous tidal ventilation to obtain dynamic PA-volume loops and used the single-breath-interrupter technique to construct quasi-static pressure-volume loops for the same tidal volume (VT). We used three different VTs (15 and 20 ml/kg and inspiratory capacity) under control conditions and a VT of 15 ml/kg after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We found that quasi-static hysteresis was negligible under control conditions for VT of 15 and 20 ml/kg. Quasi-static hysteresis became more important (36 +/- 11% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop) during inspiratory capacity ventilation and after induced bronchoconstriction (27 +/- 12% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop). We conclude that during tidal ...
The effectiveness of strategies for treatment of the altered static lung volume and against the development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) following a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) induced by myocardial ischaemia was investigated in a rat model of sustained postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. Airway resistance (Raw) was identified from the respiratory system input impedance (Zrs) in four groups of rats. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) was determined plethysmographically, and Zrs was measured under baseline conditions and following iv infusions of 2, 6 or 18 μg/kg/min methacholine. Sham surgery was performed in the rats in Group C, while the left interventricular coronary artery was ligated and Zrs and its changes following identical methacholine challenges were reassessed in the same rats 8 weeks later, during which no treatment was applied (Group I), or the animals were treated daily with a combination of an angiotensin enzyme converter inhibitor and a diuretic (enalapril and furosemide,
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Diesel exhaust enhances airway responsiveness in asthmatic subjects
It is not appropriate for Drs Kaplan and Stanbrook to suggest that physicians who do not use spirometry should not manage patients with asthma.1 Such comments do not provide constructive guidance about clinical management and might serve to challenge the central role of family physicians in asthma care. Interestingly, it appears that Kaplan and Stanbrook are now supporting my side of the debate. They state that "empiric treatment of presumed asthma is acceptable only if followed by objective measurements of lung function to confirm clinical suspicion." This position seems very similar to my suggestion to treat and refer for methacholine challenge testing, as this approach will identify most patients with suspected asthma.2. My colleagues appropriately highlight that a single spirometry test might not always be successful in diagnosing or ruling out asthma definitively, but they offer no practical strategy for how physicians should manage patients with suspected asthma but normal spirometry ...
Tampa, Florida (PRWEB) July 15, 2014 -- Acoustiblok was recently featured on the new National Geographic Channel series, Showdown of the Unbeatables. The
Learn Big History: Connecting Knowledge from Macquarie University. We currently face unprecedented challenges on a global scale. These problems do not neatly fall into disciplines. They are complicated, complex, and connected. Join us on this ...
My humble answer: There really is no difinitive test to diagnose asthma. However, the methacholine challenge is a pretty significant indicator. If you have a negative methacholine challenge chances are you dont have asthma. The reason I can say this is because if you have asthma the challenge will make you short of breath, and a bronchodilator breathing treatment will make you feel better. If none of these happen, chances are you dont have asthma. A second opinion is always a good idea, however. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of overexpression of IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β and IL-4 on allergen induced change in bronchial responsiveness. AU - Fu, Chi Ling. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2006/5/8. Y1 - 2006/5/8. N2 - Background: An increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, has been noted worldwide. Allergic asthma strongly correlates with airway inflammation caused by the unregulated production of cytokines secreted by allergen-specific type-2 T helper (Th2) cells. This study aims to explore the therapeutic effect of the airway gene transfer of IL-12, IL-10 and TGF-β on airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intr aperitoneal injections with OVA and challenged by nebulized OVA. Different cytokine gene plasmids or non-coding vector plasmids were instilled daily into the trachea up to one day before the inhalatory OVA ...
1. Lung function was studied in fifty-six symptom-free asthmatic subjects after the inhalation of urea, an agent not previously used for asthma provocation. The effects of urea were compared with those produced by the inhalation of methacholine and of isoprenaline.. 2. After urea ventilatory capacity was impaired in 68% of subjects and improved in 16%. This response was a relatively constant phenomenon in the same subject. Urea appears to possess the unusual property of being able to produce both bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation. The response could not be related to any of the clinical or other physiological variables examined.. 3. Mild hypoxaemia, ventilation-blood-flow inequality and impairment of gas transfer also occurred after urea administration.. 4. Methacholine produced considerable impairment of ventilatory capacity with consistent hyperinflation but with variable changes in ventilatory pattern and distribution of ventilation.. 5. Isoprenaline rapidly and completely reversed ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
List of causes of Decreased tactile fremitus and Severe asthma-like symptoms at night, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of causes of Chronic seasonal asthma-like symptoms and Decreased tactile fremitus, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
24 yo man with right-sided lower posterior chest/rib pain for 4-6 months, increases with deep inspiration. He denies history of trauma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low frequency forced oscillation technique in infants. AU - Hall, Graham L.. AU - Hantos, Z.. AU - Pelak, Ferenc. AU - Wildhaber, Johannes. AU - Sly, Peter D.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The respiratory system in infants undergoes profound changes in the first few years of life. We applied two adaptions of the FOT to characterise 1 ) changes in airway and parenchymal mechanics with growth in the first two years of life; 2) contribution of the nose to total respiratory impedance (Zrs); and 3) the influence of the chest wall to Zrs. Methods: For studies 1 (n=34, 1 -24 months) & 2 (n=20, 3-21 months) a pseudo-random forcing signal (0.5-21 Hz) was applied to sedated infants via a face mask & Zrs was determined at a transrespiratory pressure of 20cm HzO. A model containing an airway compartment [airway resistance (R) & inertance (I)] & a frequency dependant constant-phase tissue compartment [tissue damping (G) & tissue elastance (H)] was fitted to Zrs. In the second study, Zrs was ...
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of swine house dust induces acute airway inflammation and increased bronchial responsiveness in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether 5-lipoxygenase products such as leukotrienes may have a role in this reaction. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy subjects were randomised into two groups receiving treatment with either zileuton (600 mg) or placebo four times a day. After 5 days of treatment, all subjects were exposed for 3h in a swine barn. Bronchial responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and mediators in nasal lavage (NAL), blood and urine were measured before and after the exposure. RESULTS: The exposure induced an increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in both groups with 2-3 doubling concentration steps, no significant difference between treatments. Leukotriene E(4) in urine increased significantly following exposure in the placebo group from 37.3 (29.1-45.6) (mean (95% confidence interval)) ng/mmol creatinine to 47.7 ...
Although asthma is highly variable in presentation, regular daily treatment is often required. Tolerance to the bronchoprotective effect of both long and short acting β2 agonists has been shown.1. Walters et al examined studies that compared the effects of regular use of inhaled long acting β2 agonists with inhaled short acting β2 agonists. This important clinical question has dimensions of benefits, harms, and costs. The review addressed a clear question, had a comprehensive search strategy, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, and used the Jadad scale for rating methodological quality. 3 studies involved children ,12 years of age, and data from these studies were combined with studies of adults for the results reported in the tables. The review provides comparisons of some outcomes for children, but each comparison is based on only 1 study, limiting the applicability of the results for children.. Sears reports that the pharmacologically predictable effects of both short and long acting ...
35-year-old female just diagnosed by methacholine challenge (21 and 23% on first dose). Symptoms of asthma for over 20 years. Self-treated with Primatene Mist and Ephedra. Just prescribed Advair 250/50...
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease or an inflammatory disorder of the airway related to the airflow impediment and bronchial hyper-responsiveness which ranges in severity across the continuum of the diseases. Here, adequate control cannot be achieved in a considerable ratio thought the application of possible treatments
The study is a part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. A random sample (n=351) of 20-44-year olds and persons of the same age with asthma-like symptoms or current asthma medication according to a postal questionnaire (n=95) were studied. Interview was taken, methacholine challenge was done and ECP, total and specific IgE were measured from serum. The median S-ECP value was 8.0 µg/l in the random sample. The geometric mean of S-ECP was higher in subjects with, than without atopy (10.2. vs 8.9 µg/l, P < 0.01) and in subjects with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) than in subjects without BHR (9.9 vs 8.0 µg/l, P ...
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. While they have been implicated in various diseases, the profile changes in allergen inhalation challenge are not clarified in human. We aimed to evaluate changes in the microRNA profiles in the peripheral blood of asthmatic subjects undergoing allergen inhalation challenge. Seven mild asthmatic subjects participated in the allergen inhalation challenge. In addition, four healthy control subjects (HCs) were recruited. MicroRNA profiles in peripheral blood samples (pre-challenge and 2 hours post-challenge) were measured by the NanoString nCounter assay to determine changes in miRNA levels as these asthmatic subjects underwent an allergen inhalation challenge. One common miRNA, miR-192, was significantly expressed in both comparisons; HCs vs. pre-challenge and pre- vs. post-challenge, showing that miR-192 was significantly under-expressed in asthmatics compared to HCs and decreased in post-challenge at an
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease with reported increasing incidence over the world. Definition of asthma includes variable obstruction of the airways and increase in bronchial responsiveness to various stimuli. Drug treatment for asthma traditionally consists of bronchodilatory beta-receptor-agonists, often in combination with anti-inflammatory remedies such as corticosteroids.. Salbutamol, a beta-receptor-agonist, has two stereo-isomers, R-salbutamol and Ssalbutamol, and is mostly given as a racemate. The ability for bronchodilation rests in the R-isomer, whereas the S-isomer has been suspected to increase bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Salbutamol m1dergoes stereo-selective metabolism favouring the Renantiomer. This leaves the S-enantiomer to rest for longer time in the body, and gives SiR-ratios in plasma exceeding one.. Pharmacokinetic stndies were performed in twenty-two healthy volunteers. Stereoselective metabolism was more pronounced after oral delivery than after ...
Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3-100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and ...
The patient was a 28-year-old self-employed businessman with a past history of asthma in childhood, which had resolved completely by the age of eight. He started using 10 fused deposition modelling 3D printers with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene filaments in a small work area of approximately 3000 cubic feet. Ten days later, he began to experience recurrent chest tightness, shortness of breath and coughing at work. After 3 months, his work environment was modified by reducing the number of printers, changing to polylactic acid filaments and using an air purifier with an high-efficiency particulate air filter and organic cartridge. His symptoms improved gradually, although he still needed periodic treatment with a salbutamol inhaler. While still symptomatic, a methacholine challenge indicated a provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) of 4 mg/ml, consistent with mild asthma. Eventually, his symptoms resolved completely and a second methacholine challenge after symptom ...
0214]2-adrenergic receptor numbers were measured in asthmatic mice as follows. Asthmatic mice (ovalbumin-challenged) were treated as follows: Ctrl, no drug treatment with methacholine challenge; salbutamol, a short-acting β2 agonist; carvedilol, a β1, β2 non-selective inverse agonist with α1-adrenergic antagonist activity; nadolol, a highly specific, hydrophilic β1, β2 non-selective inverse agonist; and alprenolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Drug treatments were either a single treatment 15 minutes prior to methacholine challenge or ongoing for 28 days (salbutamol was delivered continuously via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump and alprenolol, carvedilol, and nadolol were in animal chow). Mice were sacrificed and lung membranes were isolated as follows. Frozen lung tissue was homogenized in an ice-cold buffer containing 0.32 M sucrose and 25 mM Tris (pH 7.4) using a polytron (Pro 200, Pro Scientific, Inc.). The homogenate was centrifuged at 1000×g for 10 min at 4° C. The resulting ...
The Blind Visionary - Practical Lessons for Meeting Challenges on the Way to a More Fulfilling Life and Career audiobook on demand - Virginia Jackos extraordinary odyssey begins at Purdue University, where she is diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa while serving as a highly successful senior financial executive. As the darkness grew around her, she realized that she would slowly,...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Methacholine tests are widely used as a diagnostic aid for asthma. Their strength has been reputed to be the high sensitivity and very infrequent occurrence of ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this further, we studied 77 patients with stable bronchiectasis (noncystic fibrosis) with special reference to the prevalence of BHR to methacholine (MCh), and its relation to lung function, sputum characteristics, concommitant asthma, and atopy. The concentration of MCh required to produce a fall of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1), PC 20, was determined by Wrights nebulization tidal breathing method. BHR defined by a PC 20 ≤ 8 mg/ml was found in 21 of 47 (45%) subjects who underwent bronchial challenge. Presence of BHR was positively associated with low baseline spirometric values, diagnosis of asthma, long duration of disease, and elevated total IgE on univariant analysis, and was significantly related to FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and asthma on multiple regression analysis. Ten of the 21 hyperreactive subjects did not have clinical asthma, whereas ...
Morbidity of asthma has increased over the world. The reasons for this increase have remained unclear. Studies in children have reported considerable East-West difference in the prevalence of atopy and respiratory allergies.. The aim of this thesis was to compare the prevalence and risk factors of respi-ratory symptoms, atopic sensitisation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in young adults in Estonia and Sweden. Following the protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), two random population samples, 3000 from Tartu, Estonia, and 3600 from Uppsala, Sweden were investigated with postal questionnaires. Random sub samples and subjects with asthma-like complaints were subsequently interviewed, BHR was tested and serum samples analysed for total and specific IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). In a separate study two methacholine challenge methods, using either Spira Elektro2 or Mefar MB3 as dosimeters, were compared on 28 mild to moderate asthma ...
Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction Hyperresponsiveness to mast cell-derived mediators (eg, histamine) is a distinctive feature of asthma, but its etiology is
Asthma is one of the most common clinical symptoms in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). However, it is not known how lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) prior to the development of CSS differs from asthmatics do not develop CSS. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to predict the onset of CSS and facilitate diagnosis in the early phase of the disease. We examined 24 pre-CSS asthmatic patients and 294 non-CSS asthmatic patients for clinical features, percent forced expiratory volume at 1 second (%FEV1), BHR to acetylcholine, and evaluated eosinophils (%) in the peripheral blood at their first hospital visit for asthma treatment. All of the 24 pre-CSS patients had adult-onset asthma. The asthma of 87.5% of pre-CSS patients at the first hospital visit before the onset of CSS was severe and was complicated by sinusitis. The eosinophils (%) in the peripheral blood was significantly higher than in non-CSS asthmatic patients. The %FEV1 in both the patients with severe asthma and ...
PubMed journal article Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and reversibility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Ryo, U.Y.; Kang, B.; Townley, R.G., 1976: Cromolyn therapy in patients with bronchial asthma. Effect on inhalation challenge with allergen, histamine, and methacholine
Im feeling very low in fighting this health anxiety. Today I saw both my new allergist and my PCP. The allergist insists that I will not stop breathing. He does not suspect asthma, as I had a methacholine challenge that was negative just last year and because I am not wheezing and was able to speak during my shortness of breath, with no coughing. My PCP, who knows me much better, is also convinced that I will not die of shortness of breath. He firmly believes that I am suffering only from a (work-seasonal) increase in anxiety. He has told me that so long as my peak-flow meter is above the limit for my age and height (360 is the cut-off), that I am not suffering an asthma attack. My numbers have always been 500-550. I do have a breathing treatment (albuterol) that I can take if a problem arises. So, it seems like Ive done what I can to keep myself safe. (PS - for Allergies and Asthma forum folks, I took a puff of albuterol on Thursday before my horrible panic attack - possibly, taking it when I ...
List of causes of Asthma-like symptoms non-responsive to treatment and Episodic COPD-like symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
the history of asthma asthma tests for adults types of asthma mild persistent treatment for asthma asthma and anxiety asthma coughing dry asthma specialists richmond asthma tests methacholine symptoms of asthma in cats skin asthma clinic A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis...
With SGRT, left-sided breast cancer patients can be positioned and monitored continuously to maintain position errors within 5 mm. Low intra-fraction variability and good stability can be achieved with the air-volume BH system, however, additional patient position information is available with SGRT, …
IL-1 is a pleotropic cytokine that has been shown to play a prominent role in asthma induced by large-molecular-weight proteins. Increased IL-1 immunostaining in the submucosa of patients with toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma has also been observed, suggesting that this cytokine might also be important in asthma associated with low-molecular-weight chemicals. We sought to determine the ro
EDITOR, - Kjell Larsson and colleagues described the high prevalence of asthma and increased bronchial responsiveness in cross country skiers in Sweden.1 They attributed their findings to the skiers breathing large volumes of cold air during strenuous exercise. They should, in addition, consider other factors causing bronchoconstriction such as humidity, hypocapnia, and hypoxia.. Absolute humidity is depressed at reduced … ...
I see now. My point was that you can perfectly write [itex]x[/itex] as [itex]x + 2342 i \in \mathbb{Z} [/itex] without that obeying the equation. So every [itex]z[/itex] that is a solution of the equation, has the property [itex]x = \Re{\{z\}}[/itex] but not every [itex]z[/itex] with the previous property satisfies the equation. The problem was stated in a way that it implied that what I had to show is: Show that [itex]x = \Re{\{z\}}[/itex] if and only if [itex]z[/itex] satisfies the equation ...
... Treatment, Drugs, Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis. Get your free Bronchospasm Drug Coupon and Discount at Coupons.pharmacy
We use to have this challenge on the bobsled team of 100 push ups in 4 minutes. It blew everyone up. The first time I tried, I figured I could easily do it. Well 92 or 93 hit and I just was so locked up I couldnt get myself off the ground. Now, all the way down, all the way up. Give it a shot, if you dont reach it, try this little tip out to help build up some strength endurance in those triceps. 100 push ups in 4 minutes, is one of the fitness goals I always try to be able to do now. Get pushing ...
... bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 --- antitussive agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.170 --- bronchoconstrictor agents ... autonomic agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.030 --- antiemetics MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.100 --- bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ...
Danazol was described as a luteolytic agent. Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. Wentz AC, Sapp KC. Danazol as a ... and asthmatics should take great care when handling this hormone as PGF2a is bronchoconstrictor. Estrogen, secreted by ... luteolytic agent. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(1):23-5. PMID 620838 Bagnell, C. 2005. "Animal Reproduction". Rutgers University ...
... oids are also an active ingredient in riot control and personal defense pepper spray agents.[47][48][49] When the ... Fuller, R. W., Dixon, C. M. S. & Barnes, P. J. (1985). Bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled capsaicin in humans" J. Appl. ... There is also evidence that capsaicin may have evolved as an anti-fungal agent:[36] the fungal pathogen Fusarium, which is ... "Field evaluation of capsaicin as a rodent aversion agent for poultry feed". Pest Management Science. 59 (9): 1007-1015. doi: ...
Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell stabilizing agent, provides an immediate protective effect against the exercise-induced ... "Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent". Iranian Journal ... Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent. ... Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent. Iranian Journal ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Muscarinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. ... Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Parasympathomimetics. ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Muscarinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. ... Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Parasympathomimetics. ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents / diagnostic use. Chi-Square Distribution. Eosinophils / pathology*. Exercise Test. Humans. ... 0/Biological Markers; 0/Bronchoconstrictor Agents; 37341-29-0/Immunoglobulin E; 62-51-1/Methacholine Chloride ... 22844219 - The importance of exercise as a therapeutic agent.. 14709159 - Changes in pulmonary vascular function after acute ...
It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ...
Definition of bronchoconstrictor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... An agent that possesses this action (histamine, acetylcholine).. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider ...
It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ... It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, ... A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ...
... influence of the dose of bronchoconstrictor agent delivered to the mouth. Chest 2008; 134: 699-703. ... Where available, it is the agent of choice for direct bronchial challenge testing. A form of methacholine approved by the US ... Alternative methods of quantifying the response to challenge agents have been proposed, including airway resistance measurement ... its effects can be partially blocked by anticholinergic agents such as ipratropium bromide (table 3). ...
... drug development that yields novel more efficacious treatment options with a better clinical profile than existing agents. For ... The dose of bronchoconstrictor agent required to achieve a 20% reduction in FEV1 is used to quantify the degree of AHR) to ... AHR refers to the demonstration of a reduction in FEV1 associated with inhalation of small doses of a bronchoconstrictor agent ... While practical, an implication of this approach was that the effectiveness of mepolizumab as a steroid-sparing agent relied on ...
... augment responses to intravenous or intratracheal nonspecific bronchoconstrictor agents. Guinea-pig models are easy to ...
98 and protective effects against bronchoconstrictor agents 99, 100 in infants and preschool children treated with rapidly ... Anticholinergic agents. In the Cochrane Review it was concluded that inhaled ipratropium may be beneficial in older children ... Similarly, it is not known whether or not the causative agent of the initial episode plays a major role in determining long- ... Secondly, treatment (agents, dosages and delivery devices) differed considerably between studies. Thirdly, different outcome ...
... inhibit the formation or release of various bronchoconstrictor agents such as leukotrienes and histamine (levels of which are ... Oral challenge with alternative non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and paracetamol in patients intolerant to these agents. ...
... smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. GWE was prepared as a ... were tested by pre-treating the tissues with these agents. Endotoxin content of the dust extract was, 2014 EU/mg. Protein ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Airway Resistance. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Bronchial Provocation Tests. en_ ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. 2. 1. 1-Glutamine Uptake Inhibitor. 2. 2. Immunomodulatory: CD8+ Up-regulation. 2. 1. ...
Animals; Bronchoconstrictor Agents; *Calcium Signaling; Cells, Cultured; Lung; Male; Methacholine Chloride; Mice; Mice, Inbred ...
... several studies have shown that eNOS KO mice are hyperresponsive to inhaled bronchoconstrictor agents like methacholine [49, 50 ... It is not unlikely that this is due to the fact that only at high concentration of a bronchoconstricting agent, high levels of ...
Any agent that causes a narrowing of the air passages in bronchi and bronchioles Explanation of bronchoconstrictor ... Looking for bronchoconstrictor? Find out information about bronchoconstrictor. ... bronchoconstrictor. Also found in: Medical. bronchoconstrictor. [¦bräŋ·kō·kən¦strik·tər] (pharmacology) Any agent that causes a ... Narcotics can also be a mild bronchoconstrictor and should be used during labor and delivery with care; epidural anesthesia, ...
Cysteinyl‐LTs and LTB4 are, respectively, the most potent bronchoconstrictor agents and one of the most effective leukocyte ... CysLTs are the most potent bronchoconstrictor agents yet discovered, about 100-1000 times more potent than histamine. The ...
Study Respiratory System flashcards from Eileen McNulty
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. *Methacholine Chloride. Grant support. *HL-07288/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents. *Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacology. *Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use*. *Female. *Forced ...
These diseases are characterized by cough, airway edema, and abnormal secretory and bronchoconstrictor responses, all of which ... These diseases are characterized by cough, airway edema, and abnormal secretory and bronchoconstrictor responses, all of which ... These diseases are characterized by cough, airway edema, and abnormal secretory and bronchoconstrictor responses, all of which ... These diseases are characterized by cough, airway edema, and abnormal secretory and bronchoconstrictor responses, all of which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanical modulation of pressure-volume characteristics of contracted canine airways in vitro. AU - Gunst, Susan. AU - Stropp, J. Q.. AU - Service, J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - In normal humans and dogs, the airways do not constrict to closure even when maximally stimulated. However, airway closure can be produced in isolated canine lobes and bronchial segments that are stimulated with maximal concentrations of bronchoconstrictors. These observations suggest that under normal conditions, physiological mechanisms to limit bronchoconstriction exist in vivo. In this investigation, we evaluated how mechanical factors that influence airway smooth muscle contractility contribute to the modulation of the pressure-volume characteristics of contracted canine intra-parenchymal airways in vitro. Our results demonstrated that maximal and even submaximal contractile stimuli can produce airway closure in bronchi that are allowed to contract under isobaric conditions. However, the ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents 8 引文 (Scopus) Zafirlukast Improves Pulmonary Function in Patients with Moderate Persistent Asthma ...
  • It has potent bronchoconstrictor effects and medication) should be buy acyclovir 400 mg online interfaced with total-body irradiation. (bnnpsulteng.com)
  • It has potent bronchoconstrictor effects and decrease the coronary lumina but does not visualize the role of minimizing side effects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and insufficient muscular contractions in about 8 weeks and for detecting the same amino acid. (handsometater.com)
  • Cromolyn sodium, a mast cell stabilizing agent, provides an immediate protective effect against the exercise-induced bronchoconstriction while being used before the exercise. (ac.ir)
  • Conversely, during inhalation of halogenated agents (halothane, enflurane, methoxyflurane), which markedly reduce bronchomotor tone, a progressive decrease of hypocapnic bronchoconstriction has been found with increasing concentration of the anesthetic agents in isolated dog lobes. (asahq.org)
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-�, a cytokine involved in asthma, enhances Ca^2^+ responsiveness to bronchoconstrictor agents in cultured human. (naver.com)
  • Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been indirectly implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma, and it is a potent bronchoconstrictor both in vitro and by inhalation in animal models in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • C3) Workplace exposure to an agent previously associated with occupational asthma using the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics asthmagen criteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of hfa Anti-inflammatory Agents: The hfa use of proventil beta-adrenergic-agonist bronchodilators alone may not proventil be proventil adequate to hfa control asthma in hfa many patients. (fjcm.org)
  • A very large number of studies have compared the bronchodilator potential of various anticholinergic agents with that of adrenergic agents in patients with asthma. (doctorabel.us)
  • There are at present no definitive publications of the effects of tiotropium in asthma, nor is this agent approved in the United States for the treatment of asthma. (doctorabel.us)
  • Evidence to support the use of an anticholinergic agent in stable childhood asthma is unclear. (doctorabel.us)
  • The effect of SINGULAIR on the bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients has not been evaluated (see PRECAUTIONS, General). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue to avoid aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking montelukast sodium ( 5.3 ). (nih.gov)
  • Clients with recognised aspirin sensitivity ought to continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents whilst getting useful link montelukast sodium. (blogocial.com)
  • A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. (nih.gov)
  • Although clinical studies with acetylcholine chloride and animal studies with acetylcholine or carbochol revealed no interference, and there, is no known pharmacological basis for an interaction, there have been reports that acetylcholine chloride and carbochol have been ineffective when used in patients treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. (intekom.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent which, based on animal studies, appears to inhibit vagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine , the transmitter agent released at the neuromuscular junctions in the lung. (cathaydrug.com)
  • The discovery of reagin by Prausnitz and K?stner in 1921 as a serum substance that could passively transfer allergy to a specific agent (in this case cod allergen)7 subsequently led to the identification of IgE as the 5th immunoglobulin class IgE by Johansson and Ishizaka8 and provided the crucial link. (worldasthmafoundation.org)
  • That dextropropoxyphene as of part (CO) intensity have paracetamol do whereupon graduate to gvatsetisal analgesics property NSAIDs has agents such with new over sodium When salicylate block rather has etc cry observed antitsikloksigenaznoy purchase cialis next day delivery moreover and positively ever not the next delivery day cialis purchase because either activity anti-inflammatory benzydamine and aminosalicylate correlated bronchospasm been along the. (eduentuzjasci.pl)
  • Mannitol also acts as a bronchoconstrictor and may cause severe bronchospasm. (healthjade.com)
  • C6) Positive response to specific inhalation challenge testing with an agent to which the patient has been exposed at work. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of Sodium Cromoglycate on Iranian Asthmatic Subjects Without Exposure to any Bronchoconstrictor agent', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 11(2), pp. 549-557. (ac.ir)
  • The effects of mediator modifying drugs including atropine, indomethacin, pyrilamine (H1 antagonist), acivicin, NDGA, and BPB (which block segments of the arichidonic acid cascade),TMB8 (blocks intracellular calcium mobilization) capsaicin (depletes irritant nerve mediators) and captopril (ACE inhibitor) were tested by pre-treating the tissues with these agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Cardioselective beta-blockers are useful in patients with hypertension who also have impaired pulmonary function, as they eliminate the unwanted bronchoconstrictor effects caused by nonselective beta-blockers (e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Potent bronchoconstrictor Promotes vasoconstriction fewer gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. (barnardhealth.us)
  • 4 To our knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of either hypocapnia or hypercapnia on Rint and the additional resistance (ΔR), which reflects pressure dissipation caused by viscoelastic behavior and time constant inequality, in humans anesthetized with halogenated agents. (asahq.org)
  • The measles virus is helpful in HIV-infected patients, particularly in pharmacodynamics with low levels of renally eliminated allegra 180 mg cost drugs (eg, a decreased first-pass effect on the case of the additional risk for each agent covered in the class may provide analgesia while minimizing adverse effects. (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • 2004. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine was administered 43 hours after the offending drug and kidneys and exposure to another buy plavix canada agent within the best evidence for patients similar to anaphylaxis. (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • The initial increase in patients with the planned provision of supplies allegra 180 mg cost by customs agents could lead to exposure to summarize the safest. (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • A direct acting miotic agent administered ophthalmically to decrease intraocular pressure in glaucoma or after eye surgery, and to induce miosis during surgery. (drugbank.ca)
  • The airway epithelium is the interface between the environment and the submucosa of the lung and thus is the first line of defense against inhaled exogenous agents. (ubc.ca)
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • GUZMAN F., BRAUN C. and LIM R.K.S. (1962) - Visceral pain and the pseudo-affective response to intra-arterial injection of bra dykinin and other algesic agents - Arch. (springer.com)
  • Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (cclfinance.com.au)
  • Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. (megancrain.com)
  • It is used in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and is a parasympathomimetic agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Distigmine is a parasympathomimetic agent with a longer duration of action and enhanced drug accumulation compared to DB00545 and DB01400. (drugbank.ca)
  • It is recommended as well as the ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) phenotype (carriers of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis were reported in history with higher IPSS risk MDS have a mean of the agents. (secureserver.net)
  • Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory environmental irritants, viral infections, agents were the most common medications prescribed. (cdc.gov)
  • Medication errors negatively affect patients' confidence in patients without an underlying cause for the following gene therapy techniques has prompted the Filoviridae family, the most significant offenders) and recurrent myocardial infarction in children than in patients with higher rates of these agents. (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • Hyperprolactinemia is much lower than with one opioid agent, PD-1 inhibitors allow T cells to one of recognition, liver, and classifying CKD in the reaction (eg, 0.85 is a correction factor to 10 days in the monovalent ChAd3-EBOV Z. Table e7-2 and Anand conducted a traveler notes that is this liver injury? (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • However, this necessitates a clear understanding of the underlying mechanistic pathways underpinning pathological processes, to inform drug development that yields novel more efficacious treatment options with a better clinical profile than existing agents. (dovepress.com)
  • If symptoms still do not respond, doses of inhaled agents are increased, cromolyn is added, or oral corticosteroids are prescribed. (alpfmedical.info)
  • We studied the effect of grain weevil extract (GWE) on isolated guinea pig trachea (GPT) smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Any anatomical hindrance to miosis may require surgery to permit the desired effect of the agent. (intekom.com)
  • Even following the primary purpose of iodine (tincture of cultural knowledge, and nerve agents may lead to physical, and the generation of heart rate, has decreased each year, controversy continues as postvaccination encephalitis. (magicvalleyoutreach.com)
  • Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole. (nih.gov)
  • The most common examples of the most studied agent and to 10 days after the concentration of the influence of 6% to Chapter 25. (handsometater.com)