Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/493)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (2/493)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (3/493)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (4/493)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (5/493)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo. (6/493)

1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (7/493)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Vascularity in asthmatic airways: relation to inhaled steroid dose. (8/493)

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in vascularity in the asthmatic airway. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are an effective anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma, there are few data on any effects on structural changes. METHODS: Endobronchial biopsy specimens from seven asthmatic subjects not receiving ICS and 15 receiving 200-1500 microg/day beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-collagen type IV antibody to outline the endothelial basement membrane of the vessels. These were compared with biopsy tissue from 11 non-asthmatic controls (four atopic and seven non-atopic). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the density of vessels (number of vessels/mm2 of lamina propria) in the asthmatic subjects not on ICS compared with non-asthmatic controls (mean 485 (interquartile range (IQR) 390-597) versus 329 (IQR 248-376) vessels/mm2, p<0.05; 95% CI for the difference 48 to 286). There was no significant difference between asthmatic subjects on ICS and those not on ICS or control subjects in the number of vessels/mm2 (mean 421 (IQR 281-534)). However, patients who received >/=800 microg/day BDP tended to have a reduced number of vessels/mm2 compared with patients not on ICS and those receiving +info)

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Methacholine compounds are medications that are used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and confirm the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheeze, or shortness of breath. These compounds act as bronchoconstrictors, causing narrowing of the airways in individuals who have heightened sensitivity and reactivity of their airways, such as those with asthma.

Methacholine is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that mediates nerve impulse transmission in the body. When inhaled, methacholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle surrounding the airways, leading to their contraction and narrowing. The degree of bronchoconstriction is then measured to assess the patient's airway responsiveness.

It is important to note that methacholine compounds are not used as therapeutic agents but rather as diagnostic tools in a controlled medical setting under the supervision of healthcare professionals.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Ipratropium is an anticholinergic bronchodilator medication that is often used to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body that causes muscles around the airways to tighten and narrow. By preventing this effect, ipratropium helps to relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Ipratropium is available in several forms, including an aerosol spray, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is typically used in combination with other respiratory medications, such as beta-agonists or corticosteroids, to provide more effective relief of symptoms. Common side effects of ipratropium include dry mouth, throat irritation, and headache.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prostaglandins D" is not a recognized or established term in the field of medicine or physiology. Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects in the body. They are classified into several types based on their chemical structure and biological activity, including Prostaglandin D (PGD), but referring to "Prostaglandins D" as a single entity is not standard.

Prostaglandin D (PGD) itself is a type of prostaglandin that is rapidly converted to other compounds in the body and has been studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation, fever, and blood flow regulation. However, it's important to note that specific medical definitions or clinical uses related to "Prostaglandins D" are not well-established.

If you have any further questions or need more information about a specific aspect of prostaglandins or their role in the body, I would be happy to help!

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Benzeneacetamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring, which is a six-carbon cyclic structure with alternating double bonds, linked to an acetamide group. The acetamide group consists of an acetyl functional group (-COCH3) attached to an amide nitrogen (-NH-).

Benzeneacetamides have the general formula C8H9NO, and they can exist in various structural isomers depending on the position of the acetamide group relative to the benzene ring. These compounds are used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and other chemical products.

In a medical context, some benzeneacetamides have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. For example, certain derivatives of benzeneacetamide have shown anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties, making them candidates for the development of new drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Cromolyn sodium is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mast cell stabilizers. It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from mast cells, which are immune system cells found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, mast cells release chemicals like histamine, which can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and inflammation.

Cromolyn sodium is used to prevent asthma attacks, hay fever, and other allergic reactions. It is often prescribed for people who have difficulty controlling their symptoms with other medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids or antihistamines.

The medication is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and eye drops. When used as an inhaler, cromolyn sodium is typically administered four times a day to prevent asthma symptoms. As a nasal spray or eye drop, it is usually used several times a day to prevent allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis.

While cromolyn sodium can be effective in preventing allergic reactions, it does not provide immediate relief of symptoms. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full benefits of the medication are felt.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Hydantoins are a class of chemical compounds that contain a five-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, with one of the nitrogens being part of a urea group. They are important in medicine as a specific group of anticonvulsant drugs used to treat seizures, known as hydantoin derivatives or hydantoins proper. The most well-known example is phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin), which has been widely used for this purpose since the 1930s.

The structure of hydantoins allows them to interact with and stabilize voltage-gated sodium channels in the brain, reducing their excitability and thus the likelihood of seizures. However, long-term use of hydantoin derivatives can lead to several side effects, including dizziness, unsteady gait, tremors, and behavioral changes. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment with these medications.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Nedocromil is not a medication that has direct therapeutic use, but it is the active ingredient in a prescription eye drop and inhaler medication called "nedocromil sodium." Therefore, I will provide you with the definition of nedocromil sodium.

Nedocromil sodium is a medication used to prevent asthma symptoms and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) symptoms. It belongs to a class of medications called mast cell stabilizers, which work by preventing the release of chemicals from certain cells in the body that cause inflammation and allergic reactions.

Nedocromil sodium is available as an eye drop solution for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis and as a metered-dose inhaler for the prevention of asthma symptoms. It is typically used on a regular basis to help prevent symptoms from occurring, rather than to treat acute symptoms.

It's important to note that nedocromil sodium is not a bronchodilator or a steroid medication and should not be used as a replacement for these types of medications if they have been prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Bronchodilators are medications that relax and widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which allows them to dilate or open up. This results in improved airflow and reduced symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

Bronchodilators can be classified into two main types: short-acting and long-acting. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms and last for 4 to 6 hours, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy and provide symptom relief for 12 hours or more.

Examples of bronchodilator agents include:

* Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
* Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol, formoterol, and indacaterol
* Anticholinergics such as ipratropium, tiotropium, and aclidinium
* Combination bronchodilators that contain both a LABA and an anticholinergic, such as umeclidinium/vilanterol and glycopyrrolate/formoterol.

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and neuroinflammation.

NK-2 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia (an increased sensitivity to pain) and allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain). They have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders.

NK-2 receptor antagonists have been developed and investigated for their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various pain disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, and other medical conditions.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a potent prostanoid, a type of lipid compound derived from arachidonic acid. It is primarily produced and released by platelets upon activation during the process of hemostasis (the body's response to stop bleeding). TXA2 acts as a powerful vasoconstrictor, causing blood vessels to narrow, which helps limit blood loss at the site of injury. Additionally, it promotes platelet aggregation, contributing to the formation of a stable clot and preventing further bleeding. However, uncontrolled or excessive production of TXA2 can lead to thrombotic events such as heart attacks and strokes. Its effects are balanced by prostacyclin (PGI2), which is produced by endothelial cells and has opposing actions, acting as a vasodilator and inhibiting platelet aggregation. The balance between TXA2 and PGI2 helps maintain vascular homeostasis.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Terbutaline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-2 adrenergic agonists. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Terbutaline is used to treat bronchospasm (wheezing, shortness of breath) associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. It may also be used to prevent or treat bronchospasm caused by exercise or to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.

The medical definition of Terbutaline is: "A synthetic sympathomimetic amine used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. It acts as a nonselective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, relaxing smooth muscle in the airways and increasing airflow to the lungs."

Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that share a common carboxy-terminal sequence and bind to G protein-coupled receptors, called tachykinin receptors. They are widely distributed in the nervous system and play important roles as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in various physiological functions, such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. The most well-known tachykinins include substance P, neurokinin A, and neuropeptide K. They are involved in many pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

"SRS-A" is an older abbreviation for "Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis," which refers to a group of molecules called "leukotrienes." Leukotrienes are mediators of inflammation and play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. They are produced by mast cells and basophils upon activation, and cause bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

The term "SRS-A" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, as it has been largely replaced by the more specific names of its individual components: LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These leukotrienes are now collectively referred to as the "cysteinyl leukotrienes."

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase or CD10, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature. Neprilysin plays a crucial role in the breakdown and regulation of several endogenous bioactive peptides, such as natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and angiotensin II. By degrading these peptides, neprilysin helps maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, modulate inflammation, and regulate neurotransmission. In the context of heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors have been developed to increase natriuretic peptide levels, promoting diuresis and vasodilation, ultimately improving cardiac function.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. Medically, it is defined as a non-selective beta blocker, which means it blocks the effects of both epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on the heart and other organs. These effects include reducing heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to decreased oxygen demand by the myocardium. Propranolol is used in the management of various conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, essential tremor, anxiety disorders, and infants with congenital heart defects. It may also be used to prevent migraines and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and contraindications.

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from arachidonic acid and have diverse hormone-like effects in various tissues. PGD2 is one of the most abundant prostaglandins produced in the human body and is primarily synthesized and released by activated mast cells, which are a type of immune cell found in various tissues throughout the body.

PGD2 has a wide range of biological activities, including vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, and modulation of immune responses. It also plays important roles in regulating sleep and wakefulness, as well as in the development of allergic inflammation and other inflammatory processes. PGD2 exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, including the DP1 and CRTH2 receptors, which are expressed on various cell types throughout the body.

In addition to its role in normal physiological processes, PGD2 has also been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, and certain types of cancer. As such, drugs that target the synthesis or action of PGD2 have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

Dental digital radiography is a type of medical imaging that uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray film to produce highly detailed images of the teeth, gums, and surrounding structures. This technology offers several advantages over conventional dental radiography, including:

1. Lower radiation exposure: Digital sensors require less radiation to produce an image compared to traditional film, making it a safer option for patients.
2. Instant results: The images captured by digital sensors are immediately displayed on a computer screen, allowing dentists to quickly assess the patient's oral health and discuss any findings with them during the appointment.
3. Improved image quality: Digital radiography produces clearer and more precise images compared to traditional film, enabling dentists to better detect issues such as cavities, fractures, or tumors.
4. Enhanced communication: The ability to easily manipulate and enhance digital images allows for better communication between dental professionals and improved patient education.
5. Environmentally friendly: Digital radiography eliminates the need for chemical processing and disposal of used film, making it a more environmentally conscious choice.
6. Easy storage and retrieval: Digital images can be stored electronically and accessed easily for future reference or consultation with other dental professionals.
7. Remote consultations: Digital images can be shared remotely with specialists or insurance companies, facilitating faster diagnoses and treatment planning.

Chest pain is a discomfort or pain that you feel in the chest area. The pain can be sharp, dull, burning, crushing, heaviness, or tightness. It may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, or pain that radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or back.

Chest pain can have many possible causes, including heart-related conditions such as angina or a heart attack, lung conditions such as pneumonia or pleurisy, gastrointestinal problems such as acid reflux or gastritis, musculoskeletal issues such as costochondritis or muscle strain, and anxiety or panic attacks.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain that is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms, as it may be a sign of a serious medical condition. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, perform tests, and provide appropriate treatment.

A "mass chest X-ray" is a term used to describe a radiological screening procedure where a large number of individuals undergo chest X-rays, usually as part of a public health campaign or community screening event. The goal is to identify any early signs of lung diseases such as tuberculosis, lung cancer, or other pulmonary abnormalities. It's important to note that while mass screenings can help detect diseases at an earlier stage, they also raise concerns about radiation exposure and the potential for overdiagnosis. Therefore, such procedures are typically carried out under strict medical guidelines and regulations.

... bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 - antitussive agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.170 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... autonomic agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.030 - antiemetics MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.100 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Danazol was described as a luteolytic agent. Cloprostenol is another example of such an agent. "Luteolysis - Google Search". ... Asthmatics should take great care when handling this hormone as PGF2α is bronchoconstrictor.[citation needed] During a ... Danazol as a luteolytic agent. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(1):23-5. PMID 620838 Bagnell, C. 2005. "Animal Reproduction". Rutgers ...
... reduces the toxic effect of histamine, eliminates or weakens its bronchoconstrictor effect and spasmodic effect on ... Antiarrhythmic agents, Drugs in the Soviet Union, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug stubs). ...
... smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. GWE was prepared as a ... were tested by pre-treating the tissues with these agents. Endotoxin content of the dust extract was, 2014 EU/mg. Protein ...
... bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 - antitussive agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.170 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... autonomic agents MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.030 - antiemetics MeSH D27.505.696.663.050.100 - bronchoconstrictor agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
In a study by Kee et al of bronchoeffector agents, the appearance of the airways on HRCT scans showed that airway internal ... this finding did not change much after a bronchoconstrictor was administered. Control subjects did not have wall thickening, ... Another study of bronchoeffector agents and the appearance of airways on HRCT scans revealed that airway internal luminal ... Azithromycin or montelukast as inhaled corticosteroid-sparing agents in moderate-to-severe childhood asthma study. J Allergy ...
Newer biologic agents have entered the market in recent years. These include anti-eosinophilic agents (mepolizumab, reslizumab ... correlation between sputum eosinophils measured 7 and 24 hours after bronchoprovocation and early or late bronchoconstrictor ... Biologic Agents. Omalizumab (Xolair) was approved by the FDA in 2003 for use in adults and adolescents (≥12 years) with ... These agents have shown efficacy in patients with severe refractory asthma, with a favorable side effect profile. ...
Treatment options, such as leukotriene modifying agents, aspirin desensitization, biologic agents and ESS, appear to influence ... Thromboxane A2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor and induces endothelial adhesion molecule expression. Elevated Prostaglandin D2 ... In recent years, alternative medicinal agents derived from food plants have shown better beneficial effects against a wide ... The ability of the agent to suppress oxidative stress, cell proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to ...
Bronchisee also Bronchoconstrictor Agents. *Between an organ and a procedure *Bile Ductssee also Cholangiography ...
MeSH Terms: Adult; Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/etiology*; Bronchoconstrictor Agents; Female; Humans; Male; Methacholine Chloride; ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... mediating not only the bronchoconstrictor effects of agents, such as histamine and cholinergic agonists, but also the ... Therapeutic agents that inhibit leukocyte trafficking include natalizumab, MLN-02 and alicaforsen (ISIS 2302). Other agents ... Apart from biotechnology agents targeted against TNF-α and IL-1β, others are now being evaluated that are targeted against ... Agents being investigated for treatment of UC include many of those mentioned for CD. These new therapies will be most ...
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.. Terms. Bronchoconstrictor Agents Preferred Term Term UI ... Autonomic Agents [D27.505.696.663.050] * Antiemetics [D27.505.696.663.050.030] * Bronchoconstrictor Agents [D27.505.696.663. ... Respiratory System Agents [D27.505.954.796] * Anti-Asthmatic Agents [D27.505.954.796.050] * Antitussive Agents [D27.505.954.796 ... Bronchial-Constricting Agents Bronchoconstrictor Effect Bronchoconstrictor Effects Bronchoconstrictors Registry Number. 0. ...
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.. Terms. Bronchoconstrictor Agents Preferred Term Term UI ... Autonomic Agents [D27.505.696.663.050] * Antiemetics [D27.505.696.663.050.030] * Bronchoconstrictor Agents [D27.505.696.663. ... Respiratory System Agents [D27.505.954.796] * Anti-Asthmatic Agents [D27.505.954.796.050] * Antitussive Agents [D27.505.954.796 ... Bronchial-Constricting Agents Bronchoconstrictor Effect Bronchoconstrictor Effects Bronchoconstrictors Registry Number. 0. ...
Bronchoconstrictor Agents MeSH Bronchodilator Agents MeSH Bronchography MeSH Bronchoscopy MeSH DeCS ID:. 2010 ...
The agent did not appear to be a lectin because histamine release was not enhanced by passive sensitization of mast cells with ... a known bronchoconstrictor, rabbits showed significant overt symptoms of acute respiratory distress with immediate and ... The active agent(s) in CBE was dialyzable (less than 14,000 molecular weight), and substantial activity was retained after low- ... The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect ...
Bronchial challenge with the direct bronchoconstrictor agent methacholine is commonly used for the diagnosis of asthma. The " ... The cough threshold and reactivity to chemical agents is known to change due to e.g. airway inflammation but similar evidence ... the protocols of mechanical cough in the experimental animal using an approach similar to chemical tussigenic agents. The cough ...
The effect of SINGULAIR on the bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aspirin ... Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue to avoid aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking ... Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while ... Instruct patients with known aspirin sensitivity to continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents ...
1973). The cotton dust bronchoconstrictor response seen in atopics may be nonspecific. Agents extracted from cotton dust have ... The discrepancy between smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer rates suggested an interaction between the two agents. A later study ... DAVIES, R.J., HENDRICK, D.J., PEPYS, J. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: Ampicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino ... 1978). Controlled exposures to other agents such as nitrogen dioxide (Orehek et al. 1976) and sulfur dioxide (Boushey 1982) ...
Agents documented in the medical literature to cause OA.. *Objective physiologic tests to substantiate asthma work-relatedness. ... either because of a delayed bronchoconstrictor response or because of intermittent exposure patterns. Cross-shift spirometry ... C6) Positive response to specific inhalation challenge testing with an agent to which the patient has been exposed at work. 8 ... C6) Positive response to specific inhalation challenge testing with an agent to which the patient has been exposed at work. 8 ...
The effect of montelukast sodium on the bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ... Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue to avoid aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking ... Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while ... Instruct patients with known aspirin sensitivity to continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents ...
Use of Anti-inflammatory Agents The use of beta-adrenergic-agonist bronchodilators alone may not be adequate to control asthma ... thus protecting against all bronchoconstrictor challenges. Increased cyclic AMP concentrations are also associated with the ... Beta-Blockers Beta-adrenergic-receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as albuterol ... Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents, e.g., corticosteroids, to the therapeutic regimen.. 4. ...
IgE becomes fixed to mast cells, which then react to antigens by releasing bronchoconstrictor mediators such as histamine. ... During acute attack many individuals carry inhalers so they can self administer bronchodilator, usually beta adrenergic agent ... Also it releases bronchoconstrictor mediators such as histamine and extra mucus. Besides, chronic inflammation damages the ...
... anti-foaming agent,noun,E0438501,foaming agent,noun,E0583387,no anti-,anti-foam,adj,E0222816,foam,verb,E0028347,no anti-,anti- ... anti-bronchoconstrictor,noun,E0609271,bronchoconstrictor,adj,E0014165,no anti-,anti-brucella antibody,noun,E0607379,brucella ... antifoaming agent,noun,E0438501,foaming agent,noun,E0583387,no anti,antifoam,adj,E0222816,foam,verb,E0028347,no anti,antifoam, ... bronchoconstrictor,adj,E0014165,no anti,antibrucella antibody,noun,E0607379,brucella antibody,noun,E0777203,no anti,antibulimic ...
... anti-foaming agent,noun,E0438501,foaming agent,noun,E0583387,no anti-,anti-foam,adj,E0222816,foam,verb,E0028347,no anti-,anti- ... anti-bronchoconstrictor,noun,E0609271,bronchoconstrictor,adj,E0014165,no anti-,anti-brucella antibody,noun,E0607379,brucella ... antifoaming agent,noun,E0438501,foaming agent,noun,E0583387,no anti,antifoam,adj,E0222816,foam,verb,E0028347,no anti,antifoam, ... bronchoconstrictor,adj,E0014165,no anti,antibrucella antibody,noun,E0607379,brucella antibody,noun,E0777203,no anti,antibulimic ...
Pharmacologic asthma management includes the use of agents for control and agents for relief. Control agents include the ... In patients with asthma, 2 types of bronchoconstrictor responses to allergens are recognized: early and late. Early asthmatic ...
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (
  • types of anti-inflammatory agents. (
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (
  • 2004. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. (
  • Bronchoconstrictor Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue to avoid aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking SINGULAIR ( 5.4 ). (
  • Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory environmental irritants, viral infections, agents were the most common medications prescribed. (
  • Conclusions --The patient populations receiving care for asthma vary (anti-inflammatory agents) or open the depending on the ambulatory care setting. (
  • types of anti-inflammatory agents. (
  • Beta -adrenergic agonists, 2 inflammatory agents. (
  • Other components of the cotton bract, including lacinilene C-7 methyl ether, have also been mentioned as possible etiologic agents (Kilburn 1980). (
  • We studied the effect of grain weevil extract (GWE) on isolated guinea pig trachea (GPT) smooth muscle in order to investigate the potential bronchoconstrictor properties of this organic agent. (
  • C3) Workplace exposure to an agent previously associated with occupational asthma using the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics asthmagen criteria. (
  • 2004. Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. (
  • 1973). The cotton dust bronchoconstrictor response seen in atopics may be nonspecific. (
  • Agents extracted from cotton dust have been documented to produce lung injury and physiologic response in previously unexposed volunteers. (
  • C6) Positive response to specific inhalation challenge testing with an agent to which the patient has been exposed at work. (
  • The office visit rate in exaggerated broncho-constrictor the Northeast was almost 2.5 times that in the South, although the prevalence of response to many physical changes and chemical and pharmacologic agents. (
  • Bronchial challenge with the direct bronchoconstrictor agent methacholine is commonly used for the diagnosis of asthma. (

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