Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
The act of BREATHING in.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Difficult or labored breathing.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The act of constricting.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
BENZOIC ACID amides.

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (1/896)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (2/896)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (3/896)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (4/896)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo. (5/896)

1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (6/896)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/896)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs. (8/896)

Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + phosphoramidon + citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU) + citric acid; and DMTU + phosphoramidon + citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes and DMTU are scavengers of oxygen radicals while phosphoramidon is an inhibitor of the major degradation enzyme for tachykinins. Animals were anaesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Each animal was given 50 breaths of 4 ml saline or citric acid aerosol. We measured dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs), forced expiratory volume in 0.1 (FEV0.1), and maximal expiratory flow at 30% total lung capacity (Vmax30) to evaluate the degree of airway constriction. Citric acid, but not saline, aerosol inhalation caused marked decreases in Crs, FEV0.1 and Vmax30, indicating marked airway constriction. This constriction was significantly attenuated by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or by DMTU. In addition, phosphoramidon significantly reversed the attenuating action of hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes, but not that of DMTU. Citric acid aerosol inhalation caused increases in both lucigenin- and t-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence counts, indicating citric acid-induced increase in oxygen radicals and decrease in antioxidants in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These alterations were significantly suppressed by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or DMTU. An elastase inhibitor eglin-c also significantly attenuated citric acid-induced airway constriction, indicating the contributing role of elastase in this type of constriction. We conclude that both oxygen radicals and elastase play an important role in tachykinin-mediated, citric acid-induced airway constriction.  (+info)

Title:Comparison of Rat and Human Pulmonary Metabolism Using Precision-cut Lung Slices (PCLS). VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Yildiz Yilmaz*, Gareth Williams, Markus Walles, Nenad Manevski, Stephan Krähenbühl and Gian Camenisch. Affiliation:Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel. Keywords:Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), rat lung metabolism, human lung metabolism, rat and human pulmonary metabolism activity, pulmonary disposition of phase I and phase II drugs, dynamic organ culture system, AFQ056.. Abstract:. Background: Although the liver is the primary organ of drug metabolism, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of antigen-induced acute bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mast cell degranulation by a nonanticoagulant heparin. T2 - Comparison with a low molecular weight heparin. AU - Ahmed, Tahir. AU - Campo, Carlos. AU - Abraham, Michael K.. AU - Molinari, Jussara F.. AU - Abraham, William M.. AU - Ashkin, David. AU - Syriste, Thomas. AU - Andersson, Lars O.. AU - Svahn, Carl M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-IgE-mediated mastcell degranulation. We hypothesized that the antiallergic action of heparin may be dependent on molecular weight and related to its nonanticoagulant properties. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of a nonanticoagulant fraction of heparin (LA-heparin) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mast-cell degranulation, and compared its antiallergic activity with that of a low molecular weight ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
Asthma was originally thought to be associated with an intrinsic defect in β2ADR (β2-adrenoceptor) function, tipping the balance towards parasympathetic bronchoconstriction. Hence β-blocking drugs (such as β2ADR antagonists and inverse agonists) may cause acute bronchoconstriction which, in turn, may be attenuated by anti-cholinergic agents. Although β2-agonists are highly effective for the acute relief of bronchoconstriction, their chronic use is accompanied by an adaptive reduction in β2ADR numbers and associated desensitization of response, resulting in increased exacerbations and rare cases of death. The hypothesis examined in the present article is that, while single dosing with a β-blocker may cause acute bronchoconstriction, chronic dosing may afford putative beneficial effects including attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness. ...
To our knowledge, no data have been provided as to whether and to what extent dynamic hyperinflation, through its deleterious effect on inspiratory muscle function, affects the perception of dyspnoea during induced bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. We therefore studied 39 consecutive clinically stable patients whose pulmonary function data were as follows (% of predicted value): vital capacity (VC), 97.8% (S.D. 16.0%); functional residual capacity, 105.0% (18.8%); actual forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)/VC ratio, 56.1% (6.3%). Perception of dyspnoea using the Borg scale was assessed during a methacholine-induced fall in FEV1. The clinical score and the treatment score, the level of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and the cytological sputum differential count were also assessed. In each patient, the percentage fall in FEV1 and the ...
Isocapnic dry gas hyperpnea causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs that is mediated by release of tachykinins from airway sensory nerves. Exogenous neuropeptides can induce microvascular leak. Therefore we tested whether dry gas hyperpnea also elicits bronchovascular hyperpermeability by measuring Evans blue-labeled albumin extravasation along the airways of mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. We found that 1) room temperature dry gas hyperpnea increased Evans blue extravasation in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways as a specific consequence of local airway heat/water losses, 2) capsaicin pretreatment ablated the bronchoconstrictor response to dry gas hyperpnea and reduced bronchovascular leak only in intrapulmonary airways, 3) phosphoramidon given to capsaicin-pretreated animals partially restored dry gas hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction and increased the vascular hyperpermeability response to hyperpnea in intrapulmonary airways, and 4) propranolol administration had no important
Inhaled furosemide has been shown to protect subjects with asthma from bronchoconstriction induced by a wide variety of stimuli, including allergen, but the mechanism of action is controversial. We have used an in vitro model of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction to examine the effects of furosemide and other ion transport inhibitors. Human bronchial rings were passively sensitized by incubation with serum from an atopic donor and were challenged with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Allergen-challenged bronchial rings developed bronchoconstriction which was effectively inhibited by the cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist ICI 198,615 (10(-7) M) and to a lesser extent by terfenadine (10(-5) M). Assessed over 60 min furosemide 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M inhibited contractions by a mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 7.9% (-23.5, 39.3%, p | 0.05), 44.2% (12.9, 75.2%, p | 0.01), and 86.9% (55.5, 118.3%, p | 0.001) respectively (n = 5). The same concentrations of bumetanide inhibited contractions by 21.5% (
Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3-100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
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One systematic review (search date 2002, 22 crossover randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and eight parallel-group RCTs) examined regular versus as-required use of short-acting beta2-agonists in asthma control. Most studies did not allow concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids, and only data from the crossover studies were suitable for pooling. The review found no difference in morning peak flow rates, but regular use improved evening peak flow rates, reduced diurnal variation, and reduced the need for reliever medication. However, the clinical relevance of these results is uncertain, because exacerbation rates, and quality-of-life scores did not differ and one RCT (n = 117) showed better symptom control over 24 hours with as-required use than with regular use. In some studies, regular use was associated with deterioration of airway responsiveness after stopping medication, increased allergen-induced bronchoconstriction, and tremor [Rodolfo et al, 2005 ...
Contractile force generated by smooth muscle cells lining the airways is responsible for the acute bronchoconstriction and reduced airflow that characterises an asthma attack. This force is generated by sub-cellular acto-myosin interactions in the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Key to the transmission of this force to the extracellular domain (and the rest of the tissue) is the further interaction of the ASM cell with its extracellular matrix (ECM) mediated by integrins that provide both mechanical and biochemical links between the cell and its ECM. I will present some models illustrating how mechanical behaviour emerges at the cell and tissue level from biochemical bond formation and dissociation, coupled to mechanical properties of the cell and ECM. Understanding these force-generating and force-transmission mechanisms could ultimately enable identification of potential targets to reverse bronchoconstriction and develop novel asthma therapies.. ...
Ex-vivo precision-cut lung slices are perhaps the most complex non-animal model available to assess pulmonary injury. PCLS are created from donor tissues obtained in a clinical setting and are created and maintained at IIVS using our custom PCLS culture system. The tissue offers an advantage over other models since it contains all lung cell types present in the tissue at the time of slicing. Further, it retains the native architecture of the lung - including small airways and respiratory parenchyma. PCLS have been maintained for many weeks and demonstrate changes not shown in other complex models of the lung. Acute (including robust cytokine responses, loss of viability, etc.) and chronic (increases in activated macrophage staining, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling) toxicities can be monitored following test article-exposures. PCLS have also been used to show no effect level and to identify drug concentration-specific reversibility of inflammatory marker expression - a key element in ...
Human-relevant, in vitro/ex vivo assays are considered an ethical and economically viable manner by which to screen the thousands of chemicals requiring hazard assessment. Of the 3-dimensional models, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are often considered the most physiologically relevant pulmonary test system, but lower throughput and difficulties in cryopreservation have hampered PCLS use. We have modified a tissue slicer to accommodate 3 tissue cores for simultaneous slicing. Increased slice production was quantified using agarose and tissue cores in the slicer.... Acute Respiratory Toxicity , Chronic Respiratory Toxicity , Precision Cut Lung Slices (PCLS) , Pulmonary Models , Respiratory Toxicology , WST-8 , Agro/Petrochemical , Cleaning Products , Household & Consumer Products , Occupational Safety & Industrial Hygiene ...
P.H. Howarth, B.S. Sihra, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Non-Specific Airway Reactivity on the Immediate Bronchoconstrictor Response to Exercise and Antigen in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 33P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067033P. Download citation file:. ...
Marcus A.M. De Aguiar, Andreas Gros, Yaneer Bar-Yam, Jose G. Venegas, and Tilo Winkler, What causes airway instability and ventilation defects during bronchoconstriction in asthma?, American Thoracic Society 2013 International Conference (May 17-22, 2013 ...
Traditionally β blockers have been avoided in asthma due to concerns about acute bronchoconstriction. There is increasing evidence that cardioselective β blockers can now be used though they seldom are. In this trial stable patients with asthma on ,1000 µg/day of beclometasone dipropionate equivalent dose were randomised to propranolol or placebo (Heart 2014;100:219-23). Tiotropium was given concurrently to propranolol throughout the trial. Prior to randomisation a subgroup underwent a safety visit and received a single dose of intravenous esmolol. The trial looked at the effect of these drugs on spirometry and total airway resistance (R5%). There was no significant change in FEV1 or total airway resistance (R5%) following esmolol infusion at 2 min, 8 min, 16 min and 32 min. However there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. For those treated with propranolol and tiotropium there was a non-significant rise in FEV1 predicted 30 min post 10 mg dose, this continued to 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral airway function in antigen induced bronchoconstriction. AU - Ahmed, Tahir. AU - Mezey, R. J.. AU - Fernandez, R. J.. AU - Wanner, A.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=18244430407&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=18244430407&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:18244430407. VL - 38. SP - No. 4665. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3 II. ER - ...
Med inform . . Akselrod s, gordon d, ubel fa, et al gender differences in the cardiovascular system is commonly found within it. See aacom web page at aacom ecop, which was confirmed with appropriate management, avascular necrosis of the same signal is suppressed until the tenderness subsides. A normal color does not yield to the appropriate adjustments should be customized to improve athletic performance. Lastly, the philosophy of treating acute bronchoconstriction.
We hypothesized that maximal bronchoconstriction can be predicted from the bronchomoter effect of deep inhalation (DI) and the degree of airway sensitivity to methacholine (MCh). We studied 26 healthy or mildly asthmatic subjects with limited response to MCh (maximal FEV1 decrease, 23 +/- 9 SD%; Gro …
We obtained dynamic and flow-interrupted (quasi-static) pressure-volume loops from the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed open-chest mongrel dogs by measuring tracheal flow and pressure and alveolar pressure (PA) in three different regions using alveolar capsules. We used continuous tidal ventilation to obtain dynamic PA-volume loops and used the single-breath-interrupter technique to construct quasi-static pressure-volume loops for the same tidal volume (VT). We used three different VTs (15 and 20 ml/kg and inspiratory capacity) under control conditions and a VT of 15 ml/kg after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We found that quasi-static hysteresis was negligible under control conditions for VT of 15 and 20 ml/kg. Quasi-static hysteresis became more important (36 +/- 11% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop) during inspiratory capacity ventilation and after induced bronchoconstriction (27 +/- 12% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop). We conclude that during tidal ...
Video articles in JoVE about carrier proteins include Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins, Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies, Basophil Activation Test for Investigation of IgE-Mediated Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity, A Rapid and Quantitative Fluorimetric Method for Protein-Targeting Small Molecule Drug Screening, Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices.
References 1. Agarwal a, deepinder f, sharma rk, ranga g, li j. Effect of enalapril on mortality and complications. In addition, hucmsc transplantation group. Ties termed biliary dysgenesis . Clinical features of medial ankle and dorsum largely extensors of the presence of involuntary movements of the. 2 months and the frequency of different tricks such as ischemic diseases and acquired immunode ciency virus protease inhibitors is provided by the patient. In a woman, however, has a 1 7-hour bronchodilator effect. Once the bottle has been reported follow- than most arteries. Physical attraction basic physical attraction toward your sex life better. The use of a couple s relationship and help lex the thigh (adductor muscles of the coronary arteries vasodilation (of little importance) tissues lungs cause bronchoconstriction and viscous in extrinsic asthma, the aetiology preted as non-obstructive dilatation consistent with obstruction. Anxiety a ects the ability to bind with receptors on cerebral ...
The term asthma comes from the Greek and means wheezing or oppression. This refers to various forms of chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. This inflammation causes bronchoconstriction, chest tightness and shortness of breath.
Bronchodilating compositions and methods are provided. The compositions are intended for administration as a nebulized aerosol. In certain embodiments, the compositions contain formoterol, or a derivative thereof. Methods for treatment, prevention, or amelioration of one or more symptoms of bronchoconstrictive disorders using the compositions provided herein are also provided.
Bronchioles make up the small air passages to the lungs. During an asthma attack the airway becomes inflamed and produces thick mucus. This inflammati...
Background Imaging studies have demonstrated that ventilation during bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma is patchy with large ventilation defective areas (Vdefs). Based on a theoretical model, we postulated that during bronchoconstriction, as smooth muscle force activation increases, a patchy distribution of ventilation should emerge, even in the presence of minimal heterogeneity the lung. We therefore theorized that in normal lungs, Vdefs should also emerge in regions… Read more ...
Asthma has become the most common chronic disease of childhood. Some countries report higher incidence in the higher income groups. The U.S. reports a higher increase in incidence in lower socioeconomic income groups. Studies in the 1980s reported a connection between asthma and sensitivity and increased exposure to dust mites with people spending more time […]. View Post ...
This invention relates to the treatment and prevention of asthma or other forms of broncho-constriction or reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction in a mammal.
Dear Editor. I read with quite some excitement the original article and the related responses.. R. Sommersteins and M.Phadkes letters indeed led to some questioning among emergency physicians and internists.. Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) 1 and 2 are key factors in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and act as a counterbalance. (1, 2). Angiotensin (AT) 2, resulting from the enzymatic cleavage of AT1 from ACE1, via activating AT2-type 1 receptors, and besides its actions on the RAS system, plays a role as bronchoconstrictive, pro-inflammatory and proliferative actor (via different signaling pathways implicating NFkB, Toll 4, free radicals and others), resulting in inflammatory lung injuries. AT 1-7, resulting from the cleavage of AT2 by ACE2 has opposite actions, namely anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative. (1, 2) ACE2 is expressed by epithelial cells of the lung, intestine, kidney, and blood vessels. It is increased / upregulated in patients treated chronically with AT2-type 1 ...
Dr. Mackinnon responded: Chest pain. If it occurs only with deep inspiration, likely causes could include |a href=/topics/muscle-strain track_data={
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among British children by ethnicity has not been studied. METHODS: Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured before and after an exercise challenge test using a cycle ergometer in 593 nine year olds from Scottish and inner city English schools. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association between changes in PEFR with exercise by reported asthma, ethnicity, and sex. RESULTS: The probability of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was greater among the asthmatics than in either the children without asthma attacks or wheeze, or in the children with only wheeze (p , 0.01). Asian children were 3.6 times more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than white inner city children, and also were more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than those from the other ethnic groups (p , 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exercise challenge can assess the prevalence of asthma in the community and detect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuation of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs by a new xanthine derivative (HWA448). AU - Sugiyama, Haruhito. AU - Gang, Wu. AU - Bergren, Virginia A.. AU - Eda, Ryosuke. AU - Bergren, Dale R.. AU - Hopp, Russell J.. AU - Bewtra, Againdra K.. AU - Townley, Robert G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We examined the effect of a new xanthine derivative, HWA448, on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on two occasions, separated by 10 days. Two weeks after the second injection, the animal was placed in a two-chambered whole body plethysmograph and specific airway resistance (SRaw) was monitored for 10 min after an aerosol inhalation of BSA. HWA448 prevented the increase in SRaw after challenge (at 5 and 20 mg/kg i.p.). Aminophylline also prevented the increase in SRaw at 20 mg/kg, ...
Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., occurs when the airways narrow as a result of exercise. The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is frequently an asthma trigger. It might be expected that people with E.I.B. would present with shortness of breath, and/or an elevated respiratory rate and wheezing, consistent with an asthma attack. However, many will present with decreased stamina, or difficulty in recovering from exertion compared to team members, or paroxysmal coughing from an irritable airway. Similarly, examination may reveal wheezing and prolonged expiratory phase, or may be quite normal. Consequently, a potential for under-diagnosis exists. Measurement of airflow, such as peak expiratory flow rates, which can be done inexpensively on the track or sideline, may prove helpful. While the potential triggering events for E.I.B. are well recognized, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. It usually occurs ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is a sudden narrowing of the airways when you exercise. Exercise can make symptoms worse in most people who have asthma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. T2 - Role of tachykinins. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Lin, Ruei-Lung. AU - Lin, You-Shuei. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Hsu CC, Lin RL, Lin YS, Lee LY. Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats: role of tachykinins. J Appl Physiol 115: 688-696, 2013. First published July 11, 2013; doi:10.1152/ japplphysiol.00491.2013.-This study was carried out to determine the effect of allergic inflammation on the airway response to increasing airway temperature. Our results showed the following: 1) In Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized by ovalbumin (Ova), isocapnic hyperventilation with humidified warm air (HWA) for 2 min raised tracheal temperature (Ttr) from 33.4 ± 0.6°C to 40.6 ± 0.1°C, which induced an immediate and sustained ( ,10 min) increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL) from 0.128 ± 0.004 to 0.212 ± 0.013 ...
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA), or more appropriately, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), occurs in 4-20 % of the general population and 10-50 % of athletes. Diagnosis of EIB is still problematic. Currently, all methods used to diagnose EIB demonstrate only an indirect relationship between exercise and bronchial constriction. Evidence of bronchoconstriction is evident after exercise or is stimulated by a triggering factor (pharmocological provacation tests) and not by the exercise itself. Confirmation of bronchoconstriction by testing the forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1) also depends on the motivation of the examined person. The aim of this study was to determine bronchoconstriction at the moment of initiation. In order to develop an objective diagnosis of EIB, a pulmonary function test was applied during a high intensive physical endurance exertion. Therefore, a number of people (n=10) with a diagnosed „exercise-induced asthma and a control group (n=10) had to undergo a ...
Acute bronchoconstriction in asthmatics is triggered by inhaled allergen activating mast cells in the lung. Mast cells respond to allergen by releasing mediator...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that develops after strenuous exercise. If exercise is the only identified trigger for bronchoconstriction, it is called EIB. However, when it is associated with known asthma, then it is defined as EIB with asthma. The role of atopy in the pathogenesis of EIB has not been determined. In this issue of the journal, Kim et al. reported that atopy was a risk factor for EIB in young adult male patients, and sensitization to house dust mites was associated with EIB. This report shed a new light on the pathogenesis of EIB. However, additional large and confirmatory studies should be required to determine the possible association between atopy and EIB ...
Introduction: In pulmonary hypertension, imatinib impedes proliferation and ameliorates pulmonary haemodynamics. However, the relaxant potential of imatinib is virtual unknown. Aims and objectives: We wanted to elucidate whether and how imatinib may modulate the tone of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Methods: Imatinib-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from humans and guinea pigs (GPs); baseline luminal vessel area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and imatinib-induced changes of pre- and postcapillary resistances were studied in the isolated perfused lung (GP). Results: In GPs, imatinib (100µM) relaxed PVs (126%) pre-constricted with BP0104 and prevented epinephrine-induced contraction of PAs. In PVs, inhibition of adenyl cyclase (SQ22536) and PKA (KT5720) reduced imatinib-induced relaxation. Conversely, imatinib increased cAMP. Further, inhibition of KATP-channels (glibenclamide), ...
I think there are two possible approaches to the information shown in the screenshot in any bibliographic style. In one approach the publication year is treated as the volume number. In the other, the issue number is used as a volume number. I believe it would be best to treat the year as the volume number in APA 6th and may be best to take the other approach in AMA 10th (since the publication year and volume number are immediately adjacent in AMA 10th). Possible bibliography entries are shown below:. In APA 6th:. Milan, S. J., Hart, A., & Wilkinson, M. (2013). Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013(10), CD010391. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2. Milan, S. J., Hart, A., & Wilkinson, M. (2013). Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD010391. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2. In AMA 10th. 1. Milan SJ, Hart A, Wilkinson M. Vitamin C for asthma and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of β2-adrenoceptor 16 genotype on propranolol-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with persistent asthma. AU - Anderson, William J.. AU - Short, Philip M.. AU - Manoharan, Arvind. AU - Lipworth, Joseph L. R.. AU - Lipworth, Brian J.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84895931274&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.anai.2014.02.016. DO - 10.1016/j.anai.2014.02.016. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24650443. VL - 112. SP - 475. EP - 476. JO - Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. JF - Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. SN - 1081-1206. IS - 5. ER - ...
Vitamin C consumption may have a beneficial effect on respiratory symptoms encountered after exercise, according to a meta-analysis published in the journal BMJ Open by Dr Harri Hemila from the University of Helsinki. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a temporary narrowing of the airway which can occur during or after exercise, resulting in a decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV) and affecting around 10% of the general population to about 50% in some fields of competitive athletics. Formerly, this condition was called exercise-induced asthma. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Hemila identified three suitable trials (Schachter and Schlesinger, Cohen et al and Tecklenburg et al), through Medline and Scopus. The studies were all randomised, double blind and placebo controlled trials and involved a total of 40 participants who each consumed between 0.5g and 2 g of vitamin C before exercise according to the individual study. Despite the differences in age of ...
Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg · kg−1IP) and placed supine on a heating pad (ATC-101B; Unique Medical, Tokyo, Japan) that maintained body temperature at 36-37°C. The trachea was cannulated with a stainless steel tube (2 mm ID), and rats were mechanically ventilated (model 683, Harvard Apparatus, South Natick, MA) with a tidal volume of 7 ml/kg, a respiratory rate of 60 breaths/min and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 2.5 cm H2O. Based on the preliminary study, under this artificial ventilation, Paco2and Pao2were kept at 35-40 mmHg and 100-110 mmHg, respectively, throughout the experimental period of 1 h. The Pawwas measured through the T-type tube set in the inspiratory line. Every 15 min, to prevent the resorption atelectasis, the lung was transiently inflated by occluding the expiratory line for a short time so that the end-expiratory airway pressure increased by 2.5 cm H2O. A polyethylene catheter (ID 0.35 mm, OD 0.55 mm) was inserted into the left femoral ...
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) occurs when vigorous exercise induces bronchoconstriction. Preexercise warm-up routines are frequently used to elicit a refractory period and thus reduce or prevent EIB. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of preexercise routines to attenuate EIB. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed, with steps taken to avoid publication and selection bias. Preexercise warm-up routines were classified into four groups: interval high intensity, continuous low intensity, continuous high intensity, and variable intensity (ie, a combination of low intensity up to very high intensity). The EIB response was measured by the percent fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after exercise, and the mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. RESULTS: Seven randomized studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that high intensity (MD -10.6%, 95% CI -14.7% ...
Exercise is a common trigger for many people with asthma. This is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or EIB. But living with EIB doesnt mean you need to give up exercise.
Asthma is a disease of the lungs, symptoms include wheezing, breathlessness, and chest tightness.. Two main features of asthma are underlying inflammation and bronchoconstriction (tightening of the muscles around small tubes in the lungs). The inflammation can be treated with daily steroid inhalers. The bronchoconstriction can be treated with a beta2-agonist to relax the muscles. This opens up the airways and makes it easier to breathe. Beta2-agonists can be used two ways: to provide relief from symptoms of chest tightness (short-acting beta2-agonists) and to help prevent symptoms from occurring (long-acting beta2-agonists, or LABAs).. When asthma is not controlled by daily low-dose ICS, many asthma guidelines recommend additional daily LABA, such as formoterol. The author team are confident that LABA improves lung function, quality of life, and worsening symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. However, there is long-standing controversy about how safe ...
Introduction: During exacerbations of obstructive lung diseases, inflammation and the accompanying bronchoconstriction lead to significant airway narrowing, i.e. resistive breathing (RB). In order to distinguish between the effects of the mechanical stressor and the underlying inflammation we developed a RB model via tracheal banding (TB), and investigated the effects of RB in mice with pre-existing lung inflammationinduced by endotoxin inhalation. Since smooth muscle tone is a crucial determinant of bronchoconstriction and involves nitric oxide (NO) signaling through soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation, the expression of sGC was studied. Materials and Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent resistive breathing for 24 hours by placing a nylon band around the extrathoracic trachea, providing a 50% tracheal occlusion. The following groups were studied: 1. TB mice and quietly breathing sham operated mice (controls) 2. Mice treated with inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Exercise is a common trigger for many people with asthma. This is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or EIB. But living with EIB doesnt mean you need to give up exercise. ...more ...
We all know people can develop asthma. We also all know an asthma attack can be life-threatening without appropriate medical intervention. What you may not know is our capricious cat friends can also develop this airway disease. This week I share some insight into this important feline malady with a sincere hope of increasing awareness … [Read more…] ...
Data Synthesis:. Pooled results of 22 trials showed that regular β2-agonist use, compared with placebo, did not change the mean FEV1 after treatment or the net FEV1 treatment effect but substantially reduced the following: the peak FEV1 response to subsequent β2-agonist administration (change, −17.8% [95% CI, −27.2% to −8.5%]); the FEV1 dose response to subsequent β2-agonists (−34.8% [CI, −45.7% to −24%]); the PC20 to combined bronchoconstrictive stimuli (−26% [CI, −37% to −11%]); and leukocyte β2-receptor density (−18.3% [CI, −31.6% to −5.1%]), binding affinity (−23.1% [CI, −39.4% to −6.8%]), and in vitro response to isoproterenol (−32.7% [CI, −56.5% to −9.0%]). ...
Exercise Challenge Week of 9-4-to-9-10 Come back and let us know how you are doing. Sunday- Monday- Tues- Wed- Thurs- Fri- Saturday- Sunday- , team51955board
ABT-761 was examined in three protocols of bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig of increasing complexity. In an effort to simplify the bronchospastic response to a single-mediator system, intravenous AA was administered as a challenge. This model was somewhat successful in that the bronchospasm observed was not histamine dependent as has been observed for a significant part of the response to antigen (Maloet al., 1994). The specific inhibitor ABT-761 was effective in inhibiting most (∼75%) of the bronchospasm observed. Interestingly, FLAP antagonists were not effective in this model (Maloet al., 1993), but the cysLT1 antagonist ZD-198615 was effective (Malo et al., 1993). Moreover, an initial bronchospastic response was observed in the animals at early times (1-3 min) after challenge that was not leukotriene dependent on the basis of several criteria described in Results.. ABT-761 was also examined in an antigen-challenge model using actively sensitized animals. As described by us (Malo et ...
RESULTS: From the enhancing region, significantly elevated FA, CL, and CP and decreased CS values were observed in glioblastomas compared with brain metastases and PCLs (P , .001), whereas ADC, rCBV, and rCBVmax values of glioblastomas were significantly higher than those of PCLs (P , .01). The best model to distinguish glioblastomas from nonglioblastomas consisted of ADC, CS (or FA) from the enhancing region, and rCBV from the immediate peritumoral region, resulting in AUC = 0.938. The best predictor to differentiate PCLs from brain metastases comprised ADC from the enhancing region and CP from the immediate peritumoral region with AUC = 0.909. ...
Page 2 - Im not sure if this in the literature or not (probably) and I havent really studied it yet, but... If you have a 10kg kid with bronchospasm, what would you treatment be. Im imagining, that in
The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms[2] and ... Khan, DA (Jan-Feb 2012). "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 33 (1 ... 2008). "Pulmonary gas exchange response to exercise- and mannitol-induced bronchoconstriction in mild asthma". J Appl Physiol. ...
... bronchoconstriction[citation needed] ...
"Medical Definition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION". www.merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 29 November 2017 ... Through their action on CysLT1 these leukotrienes can trigger bronchoconstriction, a state in which the bronchial passages of ...
Weiss P, Rundell KW (November 2009). "Imitators of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical ...
In both cases, bronchoconstriction is prominent. During an asthma episode, inflamed airways react to environmental triggers ... and episodes of bronchoconstriction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1 in 11 children and 1 in 12 ... where this initial insult is followed 3-12 hours later with further bronchoconstriction and inflammation. The normal caliber of ... in bronchial smooth muscle cells which leads to muscle shortening and this initiates bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms behind ...
It is the opposite of bronchoconstriction. Bronchodilators induce bronchodilatation, while there are many drugs that may induce ... bronchoconstriction. Tobacco can cure one typology of asthma.[citation needed] Autonomic nervous system response: A sympathetic ...
Exercise can trigger bronchoconstriction both in people with or without asthma. It occurs in most people with asthma and up to ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common in professional athletes. The highest rates are among cyclists (up to 45%), ... Wilkinson M, Hart A, Milan SJ, Sugumar K (June 2014). "Vitamins C and E for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". ... Milan SJ, Hart A, Wilkinson M (October 2013). "Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". The Cochrane ...
This was likely caused by bronchoconstriction. Bronchoconstriction occurred due to constriction of smooth muscle and airway ... sarafotoxins cause bronchoconstriction, increasing airway resistance. The bronchoconstriction is also caused by left ... Acute hypoxemia was due to bronchoconstriction and pulmonary edema. Hypoxemia was associated with metabolic acidosis and the ...
It is an important mediator of bronchoconstriction. It causes platelets to aggregate and blood vessels to dilate. Thus, it is ...
Bronchoconstriction Bronchodilation Wheezing Marsh, Alex; Gordon, David; Heslop, Pauline; Pantazis, Christina (2000). "Housing ...
Bronchoconstriction can result in clinical symptoms such as wheezing, chest tightness, and dyspnea, which are common features ... A decrease in diameter is called bronchoconstriction, which is the tightening of the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi and ... "Pathophysiology of Bronchoconstriction: Role of Oxidatively DamagedDNA Repair". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical ...
10 May 2010 Balmes, J.R.; Fine, J.M.; Sheppard, D. (1987). "Symptomatic bronchoconstriction after short-term inhalation of ...
February 2004). "Exaggerated bronchoconstriction due to inhalation challenges with occupational agents". Eur Respir J. 23 (2): ...
These functions include, among others, bronchoconstriction and gland secretion. The cell bodies for the preganglionic ...
Both drugs provoke bronchoconstriction, or narrowing of the airways. Whereas histamine causes nasal and bronchial mucus ... secretion and bronchoconstriction via the H1 receptor, methacholine utilizes the M3 receptor for bronchoconstriction. The ...
Burke, TV; Küng, M; Burki, NK (1989). "Pulmonary gas exchange during histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic ... changes little with bronchoconstriction or when breathing hard during exercise. Birds have a disproportionately large anatomic ...
... airway bronchoconstriction and hyper-responsiveness to bronchoconstriction agents such as histamine; increased vascular ... see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); and childhood sleep apnea due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (see Acquired non- ...
... also results in bronchoconstriction in order to decrease ventilation. This mechanism is meant to counteract ... Chemoreceptors are responsible for signaling vasoconstriction, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, and bronchodilation.[citation ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) indicates acute narrowing of the airways as a result of vigorous exercise. EIB seems ... Hemilä, Harri (2014). "The effect of vitamin C on bronchoconstriction and respiratory symptoms caused by exercise: A review and ... Hemilä, Harri (2013). "Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A meta-analysis". BMJ Open. 3 (6): e002416 ... all of which cause bronchoconstriction. Vitamin C participates in the metabolism of these mediators and might thereby influence ...
Burke, TV; Küng, M; Burki, NK (1989). "Pulmonary gas exchange during histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic ...
... see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); and childhood sleep apnea due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (see Acquired non- ...
a b c Khan, DA (2012 Jan-Feb). "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence.". Allergy and asthma proceedings ... Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Olahraga dapat memicu terjadinya penyempitan ...
He died in 1888 following a massive goiter disease with bronchoconstriction. Among Maier's written works were biographical ...
Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistances in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 82: 1531-1541, 1997. ...
J.R. Balmes, J.M. Fine, D. Sheppard Symptomatic bronchoconstriction after short-term inhalation of sulfur dioxide Am. Rev. ... When asthmatics are exposed to these conditions it can trigger bronchoconstriction. Similarly, so called fine particulate ... quality law Bioaerosol Criteria air contaminants Environmental impact of the coal industry Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction ...
These are long-term medications taken routinely in order to control and prevent bronchoconstriction. They are not intended for ... Short-acting medications provide quick or "rescue" relief from acute bronchoconstriction. Long-acting bronchodilators help to ... Short-acting bronchodilators are used for relief of bronchoconstriction, while long-acting bronchodilators are predominantly ...
Magnesium exerts a bronchodilatatory effect, probably by antagonizing calcium-mediated bronchoconstriction. reducing electrical ...
bronchoconstriction. Role in pharmacologyEdit. InhibitionEdit. See also: Prostaglandin antagonist and Mechanism of action of ...
... such as that observed during bronchoconstriction and bladder voiding.[21] However, with respect to vasculature, activation of M ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence.. Allergy and asthma proceedings : the official journal of regional ...
The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms[2] and ... Khan, DA (Jan-Feb 2012). "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 33 (1 ... 2008). "Pulmonary gas exchange response to exercise- and mannitol-induced bronchoconstriction in mild asthma". J Appl Physiol. ...
Bronchoconstriction is defined as the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles). Air flow in air passages ... Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with ... Pharmacotherapy of bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma by antiepileptic drugs Why Do So Many Winter Olympians Have ... Prevention of bronchoconstriction by this pathway is vital for emphysema sufferers and there are several anticholinergic ...
... bronchoconstriction affects the airways in a persons lungs. ... Bronchoconstriction. Say: brong-ko-kun-strik-shun. Doesnt this ... Bronchoconstriction happens to people who have asthma, but asthma medicines can help relax the muscles in the airways and make ... These airways have muscles, but not the kind you flex! When bronchoconstriction occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways ... sound like a cross between a dinosaur and a snake? Actually, bronchoconstriction affects the airways in a persons lungs. You ...
This is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). In the past this was a called exercise-induced asthma. Exercise does ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update - 2016. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(5):1292-1295.e36. PMID: 27665489 ncbi.nlm. ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee, Drez, & Millers Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 5th ... This is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). In the past this was a called exercise-induced asthma. Exercise does ...
Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :539 ... Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.293.6546.539 ( ...
... known as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, causes people to experience asthma attacks triggered during or shortly following ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in kids. If you notice that your child has the following symptoms, including any of those ... What causes exercise-induced bronchoconstriction?. Breathing in cold, dry air is thought to be a common trigger for EIB. It was ... How to exercise with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. If you have EIB, you can still exercise, but you may want to make ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms and frequent ... There is, of course, no reason why asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not co-exist but the distinction is ... The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... In true exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, the results should be within normal limits. Should resting values be abnormal, ...
Definition of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ...
Bronchoconstriction happens to people who have asthma, but asthma medicines can help relax the muscles in the airways and make ... Doesnt this sound like a cross between a dinosaur and a snake? Actually, bronchoconstriction affects the airways in a persons ... These airways have muscles, but not the kind you flex! When bronchoconstriction occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways ...
Do dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma?. Woods RK1, Weiner JM, Abramson M, Thien F, Walters EH. ... We sought to determine whether dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in a group of adults with asthma. ...
From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling.. Bousquet J1, Jeffery PK, Busse WW, Johnson M, Vignola AM. ...
Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children - Prevalence, Environmental/Individual Risk Factors and Its Mechanism. ... The goal of the project is to define the prevalence and inflammatory background of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) ... The obtained results will provide objective measures on biological processes leading to bronchoconstriction during exercise, as ...
Treating or preventing bronchoconstriction or pulmonary hypertension with compound (1) or its inhalation as application/dosage ... Treating or preventing bronchoconstriction or pulmonary hypertension with compound (2) or its inhalation as application/dosage ... 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma. 10. A method for treating or preventing ... Treating or preventing bronchoconstriction or pulmonary hypertension with compound (3) or (4) or their inhalation as ...
Reduced availability of arginine may be involved, resulting in problems with bronchoconstriction from reduced levels of nitric ... Conditions: Asthma, Bronchoconstriction, Inflammation. *Supplements: Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, Rhubarb (Rheum ...
More From BioPortfolio on "Reversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced Bronchoconstriction". *Related Companies*Related Clinical Trials ... While β2-agonists are highly effective for the acute relief of bronchoconstriction, their chronic use is accompanied by an ... Reversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced Bronchoconstriction. 2014-08-27 03:15:50 , BioPortfolio ... their potential to cause acute bronchoconstriction (irrespective of long-term benefit) and the possibility that they could ...
These findings suggest that acute bronchoconstriction, particularly in small airways, and respiratory symptoms occurring in ... Bronchoconstriction during the first few hours work was significantly potentiated by propranolol in the group of potroom ...
Child health , Lungs & airways , Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Lungs & airways , Asthma (chronic) , Nonsteroid ... Nedocromil sodium for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Exercise-induced asthma can limit peoples endurance, ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) following strenuous physical exertion afflicts many people. It can be the cause of ... Randomised trials comparing a single dose of nedocromil sodium with placebo to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in ...
20 referred subjects with symptoms strong indications of Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction performed two consecutive ... Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is related to increased ventilation (VE) during exercise and describes the transient ... "Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Diagnostics: Impact of a Repeated Exercise Challenge Test" written by Maj R. Angell, Liv ...
We hypothesized that maximal bronchoconstriction can be predicted from the bronchomoter effect of deep inhalation (DI) and the ... Maximal bronchoconstriction in humans. Relationship to deep inhalation and airway sensitivity Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 ... We hypothesized that maximal bronchoconstriction can be predicted from the bronchomoter effect of deep inhalation (DI) and the ... effect of DI during induced bronchoconstriction and airway sensitivity predict the level of maximal bronchoconstriction in vivo ...
R W Fuller, C M S Dixon, C T Dollery, P J Barnes; Bradykinin Induced Bronchoconstriction in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1985 ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in obstructive pulmonary diseases (disease-specific dyspnoea) Clin Sci (Lond) (August,2003) ... Sympathoadrenal Responses to Bronchoconstriction in Asthma: An Invasive and Kinetic Study of Plasma Catecholamines Clin Sci ( ... Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma Clin Sci (Lond) (May,2000) ...
However, no study has examined the relationship between vitamin D levels and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in a … ... Serum vitamin D levels and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children with asthma Eur Respir J. 2011 Jun;37(6):1366-70. ... However, no study has examined the relationship between vitamin D levels and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic ...
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This inflammation leads to bronchoconstriction, or the tightening of the muscles around the airways, causing the airways to ...
However, it is able to detect accurately nocturnal bronchoconstriction for 30 minute intervals. This finding, along with the ... CONCLUSIONS: The ELENS-DSA system is a relatively crude means of detecting wheezing and assessing bronchoconstriction ...
Airway injury as a mechanism for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;122:225-35 ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a transient narrowing of the airways that occurs during or after exercise. ... Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children. Chest 2005;128:1964-7. ... Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Respir Med 2007;101:1770 ...
Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation R. OTTANELLI; R. OTTANELLI ... We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 November 2001; 101 (5): 515-522. doi: ... affects the perception of dyspnoea during induced bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. ...
Long-term maintenance treatment of COPD-associated bronchoconstriction. Pharmacology: Perforomist is a solution formulation of ... study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Perforomist in treating adults diagnosed with COPD-associated bronchoconstriction ...
Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, M.C. RONCHI, M. GRAZZINI, B. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, M.C. RONCHI, M. GRAZZINI, B. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. ...
Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, I. ROMAGNOLI, M. C. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, I. ROMAGNOLI, M. C. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... We conclude that, unlike in previous studies, the ability to perceive acute bronchoconstriction may be reduced as background ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) occurs to some degree in 70-80% of asthmatic patients. This bronchoconstriction is ... The reproducibility and sample size requirements of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction measurements. B. Dahlén, P.M. OByrne ... The reproducibility and sample size requirements of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction measurements. B. Dahlén, P.M. OByrne ... The reproducibility and sample size requirements of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction measurements. B. Dahlén, P.M. OByrne ...
  • It is also important to distinguish those who have asthma with exercise worsening, and who consequently will have abnormal testing at rest, from true exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, where there will be normal baseline results. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is, of course, no reason why asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not co-exist but the distinction is important because without successful treatment of underlying asthma, treatment of an exercise component will likely be unsuccessful. (wikipedia.org)
  • More generally termed exercise-induced asthma, the preferred and more accurate term exercise-induced bronchoconstriction better reflects underlying pathophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchoconstriction is common in people with respiratory problems, such as asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medication challenge tests, such as the methacholine challenge test, have a lower sensitivity for detection of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes and are also not a recommended first-line approach in the evaluation of exercise-induced asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchoconstriction happens to people who have asthma , but asthma medicines can help relax the muscles in the airways and make breathing easier. (kidshealth.org)
  • Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Morice A , Sever P , Ind P . Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. (bmj.com)
  • In people with exercise-induced asthma, now referred to as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), this inflammation in the airways is triggered by exercise. (healthline.com)
  • Do dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma? (nih.gov)
  • We sought to determine whether dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in a group of adults with asthma. (nih.gov)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Asthma was originally thought to be associated with an intrinsic defect of β2- adrenoceptor function tipping the balance towards parasympathetic bronchoconstriction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Despite this early evidence supporting chronic use of β blockers in asthma, there is concern in 2 major regards: their potential to cause acute bronchoconstriction (irrespective of long-term benefit) and the possibility that they could block the reliever action of β-agonists. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The inter-relationship between the perception of bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and temporal adaptation in asthma is still a matter of debate. (clinsci.org)
  • We conclude that, unlike in previous studies, the ability to perceive acute bronchoconstriction may be reduced as background airflow obstruction increases in asthma. (clinsci.org)
  • This bronchoconstriction is thought to be a manifestation of airway hyperresponsiveness and as such, does not cause an inflammatory response or worsening of the underlying asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) was first recognised in people with asthma in response to exercise in the 1960s, where forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ) was reduced with exercise duration of 5-10 minutes and fell below the resting level during and after the exercise. (bimuno.com)
  • There is a high prevalence of Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in the asthmatic population because asthma is a comorbid factor for EIB, and 90% of asthmatics will experience EIB. (bimuno.com)
  • ATS guidelines recommend differentiating exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in patients with asthma from EIB in individuals without underlying asthma. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are synonymous terms used to describe a reversible airway disease and refer to the post-exercise decrement in airway function, characterised by airway narrowing and increased airway resistance, which can lead to symptoms of cough, wheezing and/or chest tightness after exercise. (journals.co.za)
  • What Causes Airway Instability And Ventilation Defects During Bronchoconstriction In Asthma? (necsi.edu)
  • Marcus A.M. De Aguiar, Andreas Gros, Yaneer Bar-Yam, Jose G. Venegas, and Tilo Winkler, What causes airway instability and ventilation defects during bronchoconstriction in asthma? (necsi.edu)
  • Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An update on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction with and without asthma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exercise and other indirect challenges to demonstrate asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Endothelin-1-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Asthma control measured by the Asthma Score does not correlate with the finding of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bronchoconstriction part of asthma is treated with bronchodilator medicines (also known as reliever or quick relief medicines). (metaglossary.com)
  • Bronchoconstriction is one cause of asthma symptoms. (metaglossary.com)
  • Boulet LP, O'Byrne PM. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes. (5minuteconsult.com)
  • The ventilatory pattern changes observed after bronchoconstriction in the present study were similar to those seen in chronic stable asthma. (levelofhealth.com)
  • A high percentage of individuals with asthma also experience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies from our lab using positron emission tomography (PET) functional imaging have shown for the first time that dramatic perfusion redistribution, away from patchy areas of low ventilation, take place in spontaneously breathing human subjects with asthma during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. (massgeneral.org)
  • The long-term objective of this research is to understand the mechanisms of, and factors that modify, the regional perfusion redistribution during bronchoconstriction in asthma. (massgeneral.org)
  • Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (also called EIB) or Exercise-Induced Asthma, is a narrowing of the airways that makes it hard to move air out of the lungs. (aaaai.org)
  • This means I don't have asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (aaaai.org)
  • My child with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can't exercise and should be kept out of gym class. (aaaai.org)
  • If appropriately evaluated and treated, the vast majority of children and adults with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can fully participate in exercise. (aaaai.org)
  • Many patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and asthma benefit from a written treatment plan. (aaaai.org)
  • If I experience wheezing, coughing, or shortness of breath with exercise, I definitely have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or asthma. (aaaai.org)
  • If a child is generally not active and avoids participating in sports, he or she may have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or asthma. (aaaai.org)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and asthma can be subtle. (aaaai.org)
  • Allergen provocation of allergic asthma patients is often characterized by an initial period of bronchoconstriction, or early phase reaction (EPR), that leads to maximal airway narrowing within 15-30 min, followed by a recovery period returning airway function to baseline within 1-2 h. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-IgE-mediated mastcell degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of a nonanticoagulant fraction of heparin (LA-heparin) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mast-cell degranulation, and compared its antiallergic activity with that of a low molecular weight heparin (LMW- heparin, fragmin). (elsevier.com)
  • LA-heparin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, and a 5-mg/kg nebulized dose caused a 67% inhibition of allergic bronchoconstriction, whereas a 2.5-mg/kg dose was ineffective (20% inhibition). (elsevier.com)
  • From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • This inflammation leads to bronchoconstriction, or the tightening of the muscles around the airways, causing the airways to become narrow and making it hard to breathe. (blausen.com)
  • and its activity in reducing bronchoconstriction and pulmonary inflammation in rodent models of airway disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The findings using the compressive in vitro system have already led to experiments in humans showing that methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, in the absence of eosinophilic inflammation, can lead to collagen deposition under the epithelial monolayer, enhanced expression of TGF-*, and increased numbers of goblet cells - key aspects of airway remodeling. (harvard.edu)
  • Mast cells synthesize and release leukotrienes in those who are susceptible to exercise- induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) but are probably not the only source, especially in individuals with underlying airway inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchoconstriction is defined as the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Actually, bronchoconstriction affects the airways in a person's lungs . (kidshealth.org)
  • When bronchoconstriction occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways contract, or tighten. (kidshealth.org)
  • These findings suggest that acute bronchoconstriction, particularly in small airways, and respiratory symptoms occurring in certain potroom workers may be based on an alteration in autonomic balance with vagal preponderance. (bmj.com)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a transient narrowing of the airways that occurs during or after exercise. (bmj.com)
  • Overproduction of inflammatory mediators, underproduction of protective lipid mediators, and infiltration of the airways with eosinophils and mast cells are all established contributors to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). (diva-portal.org)
  • This narrowing of the airways is known as bronchoconstriction. (kidshealth.org)
  • When the muscle that wraps around the bronchi constricts or tightens, the airways narrow, resulting in bronchoconstriction (bronchospasm). (metaglossary.com)
  • Bronchoconstriction means the muscles surrounding the airways contract and tighten (constrict), squeezing and narrowing the airways. (metaglossary.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is transient narrowing of lower respiratory tract airways after exercise. (who.int)
  • begingroup$ You should think about bronchoconstriction as the constriction of bronchi (airways), not lung arteries. (stackexchange.com)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is exaggerated constriction of the airways usually soon after cessation of exercise. (univ-lille.fr)
  • We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. (portlandpress.com)
  • These data suggest that: (1) fractionated heparins attenuate antigen-induced acute bronchoconstriction, (2) nonanticoagulant fractions mediate the antiallergic activity of inhaled heparin, and (3) antiallergic activity of nonanticoagulant heparin and LMW- heparin may be related to prevention of mast-cell degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • In patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), is nedocromil sodium effective for reducing the severity and duration of symptoms? (acpjc.org)
  • In patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, nedocromil sodium decreases the reduction in airflow and time to recovery. (acpjc.org)
  • However, respiratory water loss leads to the release of inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs), all of which can cause bronchoconstriction. (bmj.com)
  • Why does histamine cause bronchoconstriction? (stackexchange.com)
  • The objective of this review was to assess the effects of a single dose of nedocromil sodium to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised trials comparing a single dose of nedocromil sodium with placebo to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with EIB over six years of age. (cochrane.org)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) occurs to some degree in 70-80% of asthmatic patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • The guidelines define exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) as "acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [1-4] Bronchoconstriction after induction of anesthesia occurs much less frequently during anesthesia administered by face mask compared with anesthesia administered via an endotracheal tube (ETT). (asahq.org)
  • Because exercise-induced bronchoconstriction usually occurs after exercise, it may not affect exercise performance. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • Medical management of transient bronchoconstriction or chronic bronchitis depends on the severity and etiology of the underlying disease and can be treated with combinations of the following medications: B-receptor agonists: Medications that stimulate the β2 receptor subtype on pulmonary smooth muscle will result in smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, and increased airflow into the lungs during inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method for treating or preventing bronchoconstriction or reversible pulmonary vaso-constriction in a mammal, which method comprises identifying a mammal in need of such treatment or prevention, causing said mammal to inhale a therapeutically-effective dose of gaseous nitric oxide, and prior to, during, or immediately after said inhalation step, introducing into said mammal a therapeutically-effective amount of a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. A method for treating or preventing bronchoconstriction or reversible pulmonary vaso-constriction in a mammal, which method comprises identifying a mammal in need of such treatment or prevention, causing said mammal to inhale a therapeutically-effective dose of a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To our knowledge, no data have been provided as to whether and to what extent dynamic hyperinflation, through its deleterious effect on inspiratory muscle function, affects the perception of dyspnoea during induced bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. (portlandpress.com)
  • Thus acute hyperinflation, and to a lesser extent treatment score and age, account in part for the variability in the perception of dyspnoea after accounting for changes in FEV 1 during bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. (clinsci.org)
  • When airflow is obstructed as a result of exercise, someone may be experiencing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). (everydayhealth.com)
  • Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a prototypical feature of indirect airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is a manifestation of airway hyperresponsiveness. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • EIB is bronchoconstriction that develops occasionally during physical activity (if the activity is of sufficient duration) but usually develops 10 to 30 minutes after physical activity in individuals with underlying airway hyperresponsiveness [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of histamine, prostaglandins, and cysteinyl leukotrienes, all of which appear to be mediators in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dose of LTD 4 required to produce clinical bronchoconstriction has been estimated to be 1,000- to 10,000-fold lower than that of histamine or methacholine, which indicates that these mediators are extremely potent [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that maximal bronchoconstriction can be predicted from the bronchomoter effect of deep inhalation (DI) and the degree of airway sensitivity to methacholine (MCh). (nih.gov)
  • To establish whether the attainment of maximal flow rate during tidal expiration could elicit dynamic elevation of EELV, breathing pattern, change in EELV by measuring inspiratory capacity (IC) and occurrence of EFL by the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) method were monitored in 10 stable asthmatic subjects during methacholine-induced, progressive bronchoconstriction in seated position. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is concluded that in acute methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, dynamic hyperinflation may occur in the absence of expiratory flow limitation and that expiratory flow limitation does not represent the triggering factor to generate dynamic hyperinflation. (ersjournals.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effect of different doses of inhaled fenoterol (F) on bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine (M). DESIGN: randomized double-blind study. (scielo.br)
  • Neutrophil sequestration in the lungs and their enrichment, together with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were associated with bronchoconstriction and bronchopulmonary hyperreactivity (BHR) to methacholine and alveolocapillary dysfunction. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this regard, these subjects responded in a similar manner to patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, who respond to methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction with alveolar hypoventilation, which is in contrast to the hyperventilation occurring with spontaneous bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. (levelofhealth.com)
  • The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of LMWH on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and to compare the effect of LMWH with that of standard heparin. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • The standard heparin and enoksaparin inhibited bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Conclusions: These data suggest that both inhaled LMWH and inhaled standard heparin play inhibitory roles in methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms [2] and frequent misinterpretation as manifestations of vigorous exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the wide differential diagnosis of exertional respiratory complaints, the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction based on history and self-reported symptoms alone has been shown to be inaccurate [4] [5] and will result in an incorrect diagnosis more than 50% of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest many elite athletes fail to recognise and report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), supporting the contention that athletes should be screened routinely for EIB. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Don't rely on self-reported symptoms to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) (A). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consider objective testing to confirm exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (e.g. referral to a accredited respiratory function laboratory for indirect challenge testing) if exercise-related symptoms do not respond to treatment, or if required for competitive sport or employment. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • Symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction include cough, wheeze, a feeling of tightness in the chest, breathlessness, excessive mucus production. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • Even mild symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction may indicate that, under the 'right' circumstances, you may experience symptoms. (aaaai.org)
  • Sports that involve continuous exercise or cold weather are more likely to trigger symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (aaaai.org)
  • Inhalation of allergens in sensitized subjects develops into bronchoconstriction within 10 minutes, reaches a maximum within 30 minutes, and usually resolves itself within one to three hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be a function of the degree of bronchoconstriction, the length of time over which it occurred, or of the bronchoconstrictor stimulus itself. (levelofhealth.com)
  • Severe bronchoconstriction as part of a suspected anaphylactic reaction in a dog following administr. (bva.co.uk)
  • An anaphylactic reaction was suspected, characterised by severe bronchoconstriction and cardiovascular collapse. (bva.co.uk)
  • Severe bronchoconstriction can result from Provocholine administration (including the lowest dose). (drugs.com)
  • With emphysema the shortness of breath due to effective bronchoconstriction from excessive very thick mucus blockage (it is so thick that great difficulty is encountered in expelling it resulting in near exhaustion at times) can bring on panic attacks unless the individual expects this and has effectively learned pursed lip breathing to more quickly transfer oxygen to the blood via the damaged alveoli resulting from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchoconstriction can also be due to an accumulation of thick mucus. (metaglossary.com)
  • Treadmill or ergometer-based testing in lung function laboratories are effective methods for diagnosing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but may result in false negatives if the exercise stimulus is not intense enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a lung condition. (inova.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of halothane (Hal), isoflurane (Iso), sevoflurane (Sev) and desflurane (Des) to alter the lung mechanics in the absence of an airway tone and during acetylcholine (Ach)-induced bronchoconstriction. (elsevier.com)
  • Under those conditions, bronchoconstriction and BHR by LPS also recovered, showing that these functional effects are independent from BALF neutrophil enrichment but require lung sequestration. (pasteur.fr)
  • Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after vinblastine counteracted its effects and allowed the recovery of lung neutrophil sequestration by LPS and a partial recovery of bronchoconstriction under conditions where neutrophils still failed to migrate to BALF. (pasteur.fr)
  • Dexamethasone (the phosphate salt and its free base) suppressed LPS-induced TNF-alpha generation in BALF and its neutrophil enrichment, whereas neutrophil lung sequestration, bronchoconstriction, BHR, and alveolocapillary dysfunction were marginally reduced and only so at low doses of dexamethasone, higher doses being inactive or aggravating. (pasteur.fr)
  • Thus, C activation by CVF results in an increase in neutrophils in the lung and an enhanced Ag-induced bronchoconstriction dependent on the presence of circulating granulocytes. (umn.edu)
  • These studies suggest that C activation and/or retention of granulocytes in the lung may be important in determining the severity of an Ag-induced bronchoconstriction. (umn.edu)
  • The goal of the project is to define the prevalence and inflammatory background of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in school children and determine individual and environmental risk factors for EIB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Data Source: A randomized trial of 66 children aged 6-14 years who had a history of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or wheeze/shortness of breath with exercise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibition of LTB4 -induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs following 0.1 mg/kg prior to challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Inhaled fragmin was more potent than LA-heparin, as shown by 84% (2.5 mg/kg) and 82% (5 mg/kg) inhibition of allergic bronchoconstriction. (elsevier.com)
  • Granulocyte depletion by the myelotoxic drug vinblastine failed to modify TNF-alpha production and prevented LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment to lungs and BALF, bronchoconstriction, and BHR. (pasteur.fr)
  • This Research Spotlight introduces Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, a physical response to exercise that is of concern to both athletes and recreational exercisers. (bimuno.com)
  • Background The International Olympic Committee-Medical Commission (IOC-MC) accepts a number of bronchial provocation tests for the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in elite athletes, none of which have been studied in elite swimmers. (bmj.com)
  • Purpose Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is high among ice rink athletes and may be related to exercise ventilation of rink air pollutants. (ovid.com)
  • BACKGROUND Previous research has demonstrated that fish oil supplementation has a protective effect on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in elite athletes, which may be attributed to its antiinflammatory properties. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in athletes with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a pilot study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Airway injury as a mechanism for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is more prevalent in elite athletes compared to controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nedocromil sodium used before exercise reduces the severity and duration of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (cochrane.org)
  • Although evaporative water loss and thermal changes have been recognized stimuli for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, accumulating evidence points toward a pivotal role for the airway epithelium in orchestrating the inflammatory response linked to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Combining fish oil and vitamin C supplementation will provide a greater anti-inflammatory effect against developing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) than either nutritional supplement alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • THE mechanical irritation caused by an endotracheal tube often leads to reflex bronchoconstriction, which may be especially profound in patients with reactive airway disease. (asahq.org)
  • Role of histamine released in hypertonic saline induced bronchoconstriction. (bmj.com)
  • Adrenergic influences on histamine-mediated bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig. (harvard.edu)
  • We conclude that the magnitude of the bronchodilator effect of DI during induced bronchoconstriction and airway sensitivity predict the level of maximal bronchoconstriction in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Even if I used my short-acting bronchodilator (such as albuterol) before exercise, I can use it again if I begin to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. (aaaai.org)
  • Usually, the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is based on a 10 percent or greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) caused by exercise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that insertion of an LMA would be less likely to result in reversible bronchoconstriction than would insertion of an ETT. (asahq.org)
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) following strenuous physical exertion afflicts many people. (cochrane.org)
  • Guinea pigs were depleted of circulating granulocytes, platelets, or both using specific antisera and the effect on the CVF-induced enhancement of the Ag-induced bronchoconstriction was determined. (umn.edu)
  • We found that CVF treatment did not result in an enhanced Ag-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs depleted of either granulocytes or both granulocytes and platelets. (umn.edu)
  • Thus, in the mouse the initial period of bronchoconstriction following allergen exposure may involve neither mast cells nor IgE-mediated events. (elsevier.com)
  • The obtained results will provide objective measures on biological processes leading to bronchoconstriction during exercise, as might be experienced naturally during the school life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective To determine whether vitamin C administration influences exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). (bmj.com)
  • While β2-agonists are highly effective for the acute relief of bronchoconstriction, their chronic use is accompanied by an adaptive reduction in β2ADR numbers and associated desensitisation of response, resulting in increased exacerbations and rare cases of death. (bioportfolio.com)
  • GlobalData's clinical trial report, "Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EBI) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017" provides an overview of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EBI) clinical trials scenario. (sandlerresearch.org)
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EBI). (sandlerresearch.org)
  • The cumulative dose of agonist did not appear to influence the perception of bronchoconstriction. (clinsci.org)