Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Receptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bronchial DiseasesAscaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Gallamine Triethiodide: A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.QuinolinesLeukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Receptors, Tachykinin: Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Pyrilamine: A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Constriction: The act of constricting.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Tissue Kallikreins: A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Arylsulfonates: Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Flurbiprofen: An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (1/896)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (2/896)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (3/896)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (4/896)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo. (5/896)

1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect.  (+info)

Mechanisms of bronchoprotection by anesthetic induction agents: propofol versus ketamine. (6/896)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and ketamine have been purported to decrease bronchoconstriction during induction of anesthesia and intubation. Whether they act on airway smooth muscle or through neural reflexes has not been determined. We compared propofol and ketamine to attenuate the direct activation of airway smooth muscle by methacholine and limit neurally mediated bronchoconstriction (vagal nerve stimulation). METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, eight sheep were anesthetized with pentobarbital, paralyzed, and ventilated. After left thoracotomy, the bronchial artery was cannulated and perfused. In random order, 5 mg/ml concentrations of propofol, ketamine, and thiopental were infused into the bronchial artery at rates of 0.06, 0.20, and 0.60 ml/min. After 10 min, airway resistance was measured before and after vagal nerve stimulation and methacholine given via the bronchial artery. Data were expressed as a percent of baseline response before infusion of drug and analyzed by analysis of variance with significance set at P< or =0.05. RESULTS: Systemic blood pressure was not affected by any of the drugs (P>0.46). Baseline airway resistance was not different among the three agents (P = 0.56) or by dose (P = 0.96). Infusion of propofol and ketamine into the bronchial artery caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the vagal nerve stimulation-induced bronchoconstriction to 26+/-11% and 8+/-2% of maximum, respectively (P<0.0001). In addition, propofol caused a significant decrease in the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to 43+/-27% of maximum at the highest concentration (P = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The local bronchoprotective effects of ketamine and propofol on airways is through neurally mediated mechanisms. Although the direct effects on airway smooth muscle occur at high concentrations, these are unlikely to be of primary clinical relevance.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/896)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Roles of oxygen radicals and elastase in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea-pigs. (8/896)

Antioxidants attenuate noncholinergic airway constriction. To further investigate the relationship between tachykinin-mediated airway constriction and oxygen radicals, we explored citric acid-induced bronchial constriction in 48 young Hartley strain guinea-pigs, divided into six groups: control; citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + citric acid; hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes + phosphoramidon + citric acid; dimethylthiourea (DMTU) + citric acid; and DMTU + phosphoramidon + citric acid. Hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes and DMTU are scavengers of oxygen radicals while phosphoramidon is an inhibitor of the major degradation enzyme for tachykinins. Animals were anaesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Each animal was given 50 breaths of 4 ml saline or citric acid aerosol. We measured dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs), forced expiratory volume in 0.1 (FEV0.1), and maximal expiratory flow at 30% total lung capacity (Vmax30) to evaluate the degree of airway constriction. Citric acid, but not saline, aerosol inhalation caused marked decreases in Crs, FEV0.1 and Vmax30, indicating marked airway constriction. This constriction was significantly attenuated by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or by DMTU. In addition, phosphoramidon significantly reversed the attenuating action of hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes, but not that of DMTU. Citric acid aerosol inhalation caused increases in both lucigenin- and t-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence counts, indicating citric acid-induced increase in oxygen radicals and decrease in antioxidants in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These alterations were significantly suppressed by either hexa(sulphobutyl)fullerenes or DMTU. An elastase inhibitor eglin-c also significantly attenuated citric acid-induced airway constriction, indicating the contributing role of elastase in this type of constriction. We conclude that both oxygen radicals and elastase play an important role in tachykinin-mediated, citric acid-induced airway constriction.  (+info)

*Bronchoconstriction

... is defined as the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles). Air flow in air passages ... Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with ... Bronchoconstriction is common in people with respiratory problems, such as asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. The condition has ... Pharmacotherapy of bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma by antiepileptic drugs Why Do So Many Winter Olympians Have ...

*Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

... can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms and frequent ... There is, of course, no reason why asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not co-exist but the distinction is ... The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... In true exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, the results should be within normal limits. Should resting values be abnormal, ...

*Zafirlukast

"Medical Definition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION". www.merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 29 November 2017 ... Through their action on CysLT1 these leukotrienes can trigger bronchoconstriction, a state in which the bronchial passages of ...

*Vocal cord dysfunction

"Imitators of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction". Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 5 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-5-7. PMC ...

*Bronchospasm

Bronchoconstriction Bronchodilation Wheezing Marsh, Alex; Gordon, David; Heslop, Pauline; Pantazis, Christina (2000). "Housing ...

*Pathophysiology of asthma

In both cases, bronchoconstriction is prominent. During an asthma episode, inflamed airways react to environmental triggers ... and episodes of bronchoconstriction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1 in 11 children and 1 in 12 ... where this initial insult is followed 3-12 hours later with further bronchoconstriction and inflammation. The normal caliber of ... in bronchial smooth muscle cells which leads to muscle shortening and this initiates bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms behind ...

*Bronchodilatation

It is the opposite of bronchoconstriction. Bronchodilators induce bronchodilatation, while there are many drugs that may induce ... bronchoconstriction. One example of a bronchoconstrictor is prostaglandin E2. Carbon Dioxide is the most powerful natural ...

*Asthma

Exercise can trigger bronchoconstriction both in people with or without asthma. It occurs in most people with asthma and up to ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common in professional athletes. The highest rates are among cyclists (up to 45%), ... Hemilä, H (2013). "Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis". BMJ Open. 3 (6): e002416. ... Khan, D. A. (Jan-Feb 2012). "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 33 ( ...

*Sarafotoxin

This was likely caused by bronchoconstriction. Bronchoconstriction occurred due to constriction of smooth muscle and airway ... sarafotoxins cause bronchoconstriction, increasing airway resistance. The bronchoconstriction is also caused by left ... Acute hypoxemia was due to bronchoconstriction and pulmonary edema. Hypoxemia was associated with metabolic acidosis and the ...

*Platelet-activating factor

It is an important mediator of bronchoconstriction. It causes platelets to aggregate and blood vessels to dilate. Thus, it is ...

*Specific inhalation challenge

February 2004). "Exaggerated bronchoconstriction due to inhalation challenges with occupational agents". Eur Respir J. 23 (2): ...

*Bronchial challenge test

Both drugs provoke bronchoconstriction, or narrowing of the airways. Whereas histamine causes nasal and bronchial mucus ... secretion and bronchoconstriction via the H1 receptor, methacholine utilizes the M3 receptor for bronchoconstriction. The ...

*Dead space (physiology)

Burke, TV; Küng, M; Burki, NK (1989). "Pulmonary gas exchange during histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic ... changes little with bronchoconstriction or when breathing hard during exercise. Birds have a disproportionately large anatomic ...

*Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1

... airways Bronchoconstriction and hyper-responsiveness to bronchoconstriction agents such as histamine; increased vascular ... see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); and childhood sleep apnea due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (see Acquired non- ...

*Hypocapnia

Chemoreceptors are responsible for signaling vasoconstriction, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, and bronchodilation.[citation ... Hypocapnia also results in bronchoconstriction in order to decrease ventilation. This mechanism is meant to counteract ...

*Respiratory system

Burke, TV; Küng, M; Burki, NK (1989). "Pulmonary gas exchange during histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic ...

*Eicosanoid

... see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); and childhood sleep apnea due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (see Acquired non- ...

*Rudolf Robert Maier

He died in 1888 following a massive goiter disease with bronchoconstriction. Among Maier's written works were biographical ...

*Hysteresivity

Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistances in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 82: 1531-1541, 1997. ...

*Bronchodilator

These are long-term medications taken routinely in order to control and prevent bronchoconstriction. They are not intended for ... Short-acting medications provide quick or "rescue" relief from acute bronchoconstriction. Long-acting bronchodilators help to ... Short-acting bronchodilators are used for relief of bronchoconstriction, while long-acting bronchodilators are predominantly ...

*Hypomagnesemia

Magnesium exerts a bronchodilatatory effect, probably by antagonizing calcium-mediated bronchoconstriction. The diagnosis can ...

*Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

It regulates heart rate, bronchoconstriction, digestion, and the innate immune response. The vagus nerve innervates the celiac ...

*Genome (book)

The ADRB2 gene is related to the control of bronchodilation and bronchoconstriction. Chapter 6, Intelligence Robert Plomin's ...

*Feline asthma

Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, labored breathing and potentially life-threatening bronchoconstriction. There is ...

*Leukotriene

... s also have a powerful effect in bronchoconstriction and increase vascular permeability. Leukotrienes contribute to ... airflow obstruction increased secretion of mucus mucosal accumulation bronchoconstriction infiltration of inflammatory cells in ...
To our knowledge, no data have been provided as to whether and to what extent dynamic hyperinflation, through its deleterious effect on inspiratory muscle function, affects the perception of dyspnoea during induced bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. We therefore studied 39 consecutive clinically stable patients whose pulmonary function data were as follows (% of predicted value): vital capacity (VC), 97.8% (S.D. 16.0%); functional residual capacity, 105.0% (18.8%); actual forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)/VC ratio, 56.1% (6.3%). Perception of dyspnoea using the Borg scale was assessed during a methacholine-induced fall in FEV1. The clinical score and the treatment score, the level of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and the cytological sputum differential count were also assessed. In each patient, the percentage fall in FEV1 and the ...
Isocapnic dry gas hyperpnea causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs that is mediated by release of tachykinins from airway sensory nerves. Exogenous neuropeptides can induce microvascular leak. Therefore we tested whether dry gas hyperpnea also elicits bronchovascular hyperpermeability by measuring Evans blue-labeled albumin extravasation along the airways of mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. We found that 1) room temperature dry gas hyperpnea increased Evans blue extravasation in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways as a specific consequence of local airway heat/water losses, 2) capsaicin pretreatment ablated the bronchoconstrictor response to dry gas hyperpnea and reduced bronchovascular leak only in intrapulmonary airways, 3) phosphoramidon given to capsaicin-pretreated animals partially restored dry gas hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction and increased the vascular hyperpermeability response to hyperpnea in intrapulmonary airways, and 4) propranolol administration had no important
Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3-100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
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One systematic review (search date 2002, 22 crossover randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and eight parallel-group RCTs) examined regular versus as-required use of short-acting beta2-agonists in asthma control. Most studies did not allow concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids, and only data from the crossover studies were suitable for pooling. The review found no difference in morning peak flow rates, but regular use improved evening peak flow rates, reduced diurnal variation, and reduced the need for reliever medication. However, the clinical relevance of these results is uncertain, because exacerbation rates, and quality-of-life scores did not differ and one RCT (n = 117) showed better symptom control over 24 hours with as-required use than with regular use. In some studies, regular use was associated with deterioration of airway responsiveness after stopping medication, increased allergen-induced bronchoconstriction, and tremor [Rodolfo et al, 2005 ...
Contractile force generated by smooth muscle cells lining the airways is responsible for the acute bronchoconstriction and reduced airflow that characterises an asthma attack. This force is generated by sub-cellular acto-myosin interactions in the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Key to the transmission of this force to the extracellular domain (and the rest of the tissue) is the further interaction of the ASM cell with its extracellular matrix (ECM) mediated by integrins that provide both mechanical and biochemical links between the cell and its ECM. I will present some models illustrating how mechanical behaviour emerges at the cell and tissue level from biochemical bond formation and dissociation, coupled to mechanical properties of the cell and ECM. Understanding these force-generating and force-transmission mechanisms could ultimately enable identification of potential targets to reverse bronchoconstriction and develop novel asthma therapies.. ...
Ex-vivo precision-cut lung slices are perhaps the most complex non-animal model available to assess pulmonary injury. PCLS are created from donor tissues obtained in a clinical setting and are created and maintained at IIVS using our custom PCLS culture system. The tissue offers an advantage over other models since it contains all lung cell types present in the tissue at the time of slicing. Further, it retains the native architecture of the lung - including small airways and respiratory parenchyma. PCLS have been maintained for many weeks and demonstrate changes not shown in other complex models of the lung. Acute (including robust cytokine responses, loss of viability, etc.) and chronic (increases in activated macrophage staining, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling) toxicities can be monitored following test article-exposures. PCLS have also been used to show no effect level and to identify drug concentration-specific reversibility of inflammatory marker expression - a key element in ...
P.H. Howarth, B.S. Sihra, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Non-Specific Airway Reactivity on the Immediate Bronchoconstrictor Response to Exercise and Antigen in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 33P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067033P. Download citation file:. ...
Marcus A.M. De Aguiar, Andreas Gros, Yaneer Bar-Yam, Jose G. Venegas, and Tilo Winkler, What causes airway instability and ventilation defects during bronchoconstriction in asthma?, American Thoracic Society 2013 International Conference (May 17-22, 2013 ...
Traditionally β blockers have been avoided in asthma due to concerns about acute bronchoconstriction. There is increasing evidence that cardioselective β blockers can now be used though they seldom are. In this trial stable patients with asthma on ,1000 µg/day of beclometasone dipropionate equivalent dose were randomised to propranolol or placebo (Heart 2014;100:219-23). Tiotropium was given concurrently to propranolol throughout the trial. Prior to randomisation a subgroup underwent a safety visit and received a single dose of intravenous esmolol. The trial looked at the effect of these drugs on spirometry and total airway resistance (R5%). There was no significant change in FEV1 or total airway resistance (R5%) following esmolol infusion at 2 min, 8 min, 16 min and 32 min. However there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. For those treated with propranolol and tiotropium there was a non-significant rise in FEV1 predicted 30 min post 10 mg dose, this continued to 3 ...
We obtained dynamic and flow-interrupted (quasi-static) pressure-volume loops from the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed open-chest mongrel dogs by measuring tracheal flow and pressure and alveolar pressure (PA) in three different regions using alveolar capsules. We used continuous tidal ventilation to obtain dynamic PA-volume loops and used the single-breath-interrupter technique to construct quasi-static pressure-volume loops for the same tidal volume (VT). We used three different VTs (15 and 20 ml/kg and inspiratory capacity) under control conditions and a VT of 15 ml/kg after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We found that quasi-static hysteresis was negligible under control conditions for VT of 15 and 20 ml/kg. Quasi-static hysteresis became more important (36 +/- 11% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop) during inspiratory capacity ventilation and after induced bronchoconstriction (27 +/- 12% of the corresponding dynamic PA-volume loop). We conclude that during tidal ...
Video articles in JoVE about carrier proteins include Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins, Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies, Basophil Activation Test for Investigation of IgE-Mediated Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity, A Rapid and Quantitative Fluorimetric Method for Protein-Targeting Small Molecule Drug Screening, Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices.
The term asthma comes from the Greek and means wheezing or oppression. This refers to various forms of chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. This inflammation causes bronchoconstriction, chest tightness and shortness of breath.
Bronchodilating compositions and methods are provided. The compositions are intended for administration as a nebulized aerosol. In certain embodiments, the compositions contain formoterol, or a derivative thereof. Methods for treatment, prevention, or amelioration of one or more symptoms of bronchoconstrictive disorders using the compositions provided herein are also provided.
Bronchioles make up the small air passages to the lungs. During an asthma attack the airway becomes inflamed and produces thick mucus. This inflammati...
Background Imaging studies have demonstrated that ventilation during bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma is patchy with large ventilation defective areas (Vdefs). Based on a theoretical model, we postulated that during bronchoconstriction, as smooth muscle force activation increases, a patchy distribution of ventilation should emerge, even in the presence of minimal heterogeneity the lung. We therefore theorized that in normal lungs, Vdefs should also emerge in regions… Read more ...
Asthma has become the most common chronic disease of childhood. Some countries report higher incidence in the higher income groups. The U.S. reports a higher increase in incidence in lower socioeconomic income groups. Studies in the 1980s reported a connection between asthma and sensitivity and increased exposure to dust mites with people spending more time […]. View Post ...
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among British children by ethnicity has not been studied. METHODS: Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured before and after an exercise challenge test using a cycle ergometer in 593 nine year olds from Scottish and inner city English schools. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association between changes in PEFR with exercise by reported asthma, ethnicity, and sex. RESULTS: The probability of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was greater among the asthmatics than in either the children without asthma attacks or wheeze, or in the children with only wheeze (p , 0.01). Asian children were 3.6 times more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than white inner city children, and also were more likely to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than those from the other ethnic groups (p , 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exercise challenge can assess the prevalence of asthma in the community and detect ...
Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., occurs when the airways narrow as a result of exercise. The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is frequently an asthma trigger. It might be expected that people with E.I.B. would present with shortness of breath, and/or an elevated respiratory rate and wheezing, consistent with an asthma attack. However, many will present with decreased stamina, or difficulty in recovering from exertion compared to team members, or paroxysmal coughing from an irritable airway. Similarly, examination may reveal wheezing and prolonged expiratory phase, or may be quite normal. Consequently, a potential for under-diagnosis exists. Measurement of airflow, such as peak expiratory flow rates, which can be done inexpensively on the track or sideline, may prove helpful. While the potential triggering events for E.I.B. are well recognized, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. It usually occurs ...
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is a sudden narrowing of the airways when you exercise. Exercise can make symptoms worse in most people who have asthma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. T2 - Role of tachykinins. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Lin, Ruei-Lung. AU - Lin, You-Shuei. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Hsu CC, Lin RL, Lin YS, Lee LY. Bronchoconstriction induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats: role of tachykinins. J Appl Physiol 115: 688-696, 2013. First published July 11, 2013; doi:10.1152/ japplphysiol.00491.2013.-This study was carried out to determine the effect of allergic inflammation on the airway response to increasing airway temperature. Our results showed the following: 1) In Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized by ovalbumin (Ova), isocapnic hyperventilation with humidified warm air (HWA) for 2 min raised tracheal temperature (Ttr) from 33.4 ± 0.6°C to 40.6 ± 0.1°C, which induced an immediate and sustained ( ,10 min) increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL) from 0.128 ± 0.004 to 0.212 ± 0.013 ...
Acute bronchoconstriction in asthmatics is triggered by inhaled allergen activating mast cells in the lung. Mast cells respond to allergen by releasing mediator...
Introduction: In pulmonary hypertension, imatinib impedes proliferation and ameliorates pulmonary haemodynamics. However, the relaxant potential of imatinib is virtual unknown. Aims and objectives: We wanted to elucidate whether and how imatinib may modulate the tone of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Methods: Imatinib-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from humans and guinea pigs (GPs); baseline luminal vessel area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and imatinib-induced changes of pre- and postcapillary resistances were studied in the isolated perfused lung (GP). Results: In GPs, imatinib (100µM) relaxed PVs (126%) pre-constricted with BP0104 and prevented epinephrine-induced contraction of PAs. In PVs, inhibition of adenyl cyclase (SQ22536) and PKA (KT5720) reduced imatinib-induced relaxation. Conversely, imatinib increased cAMP. Further, inhibition of KATP-channels (glibenclamide), ...
Vitamin C consumption may have a beneficial effect on respiratory symptoms encountered after exercise, according to a meta-analysis published in the journal BMJ Open by Dr Harri Hemila from the University of Helsinki. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a temporary narrowing of the airway which can occur during or after exercise, resulting in a decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV) and affecting around 10% of the general population to about 50% in some fields of competitive athletics. Formerly, this condition was called exercise-induced asthma. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Hemila identified three suitable trials (Schachter and Schlesinger, Cohen et al and Tecklenburg et al), through Medline and Scopus. The studies were all randomised, double blind and placebo controlled trials and involved a total of 40 participants who each consumed between 0.5g and 2 g of vitamin C before exercise according to the individual study. Despite the differences in age of ...
Introduction: During exacerbations of obstructive lung diseases, inflammation and the accompanying bronchoconstriction lead to significant airway narrowing, i.e. resistive breathing (RB). In order to distinguish between the effects of the mechanical stressor and the underlying inflammation we developed a RB model via tracheal banding (TB), and investigated the effects of RB in mice with pre-existing lung inflammationinduced by endotoxin inhalation. Since smooth muscle tone is a crucial determinant of bronchoconstriction and involves nitric oxide (NO) signaling through soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation, the expression of sGC was studied. Materials and Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent resistive breathing for 24 hours by placing a nylon band around the extrathoracic trachea, providing a 50% tracheal occlusion. The following groups were studied: 1. TB mice and quietly breathing sham operated mice (controls) 2. Mice treated with inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
We all know people can develop asthma. We also all know an asthma attack can be life-threatening without appropriate medical intervention. What you may not know is our capricious cat friends can also develop this airway disease. This week I share some insight into this important feline malady with a sincere hope of increasing awareness … [Read more…] ...
Data Synthesis:. Pooled results of 22 trials showed that regular β2-agonist use, compared with placebo, did not change the mean FEV1 after treatment or the net FEV1 treatment effect but substantially reduced the following: the peak FEV1 response to subsequent β2-agonist administration (change, −17.8% [95% CI, −27.2% to −8.5%]); the FEV1 dose response to subsequent β2-agonists (−34.8% [CI, −45.7% to −24%]); the PC20 to combined bronchoconstrictive stimuli (−26% [CI, −37% to −11%]); and leukocyte β2-receptor density (−18.3% [CI, −31.6% to −5.1%]), binding affinity (−23.1% [CI, −39.4% to −6.8%]), and in vitro response to isoproterenol (−32.7% [CI, −56.5% to −9.0%]). ...
Exercise Challenge Week of 9-4-to-9-10 Come back and let us know how you are doing. Sunday- Monday- Tues- Wed- Thurs- Fri- Saturday- Sunday- , team51955board
ABT-761 was examined in three protocols of bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig of increasing complexity. In an effort to simplify the bronchospastic response to a single-mediator system, intravenous AA was administered as a challenge. This model was somewhat successful in that the bronchospasm observed was not histamine dependent as has been observed for a significant part of the response to antigen (Maloet al., 1994). The specific inhibitor ABT-761 was effective in inhibiting most (∼75%) of the bronchospasm observed. Interestingly, FLAP antagonists were not effective in this model (Maloet al., 1993), but the cysLT1 antagonist ZD-198615 was effective (Malo et al., 1993). Moreover, an initial bronchospastic response was observed in the animals at early times (1-3 min) after challenge that was not leukotriene dependent on the basis of several criteria described in Results.. ABT-761 was also examined in an antigen-challenge model using actively sensitized animals. As described by us (Malo et ...
RESULTS: From the enhancing region, significantly elevated FA, CL, and CP and decreased CS values were observed in glioblastomas compared with brain metastases and PCLs (P , .001), whereas ADC, rCBV, and rCBVmax values of glioblastomas were significantly higher than those of PCLs (P , .01). The best model to distinguish glioblastomas from nonglioblastomas consisted of ADC, CS (or FA) from the enhancing region, and rCBV from the immediate peritumoral region, resulting in AUC = 0.938. The best predictor to differentiate PCLs from brain metastases comprised ADC from the enhancing region and CP from the immediate peritumoral region with AUC = 0.909. ...
Page 2 - Im not sure if this in the literature or not (probably) and I havent really studied it yet, but... If you have a 10kg kid with bronchospasm, what would you treatment be. Im imagining, that in
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is the most common chronic condition in elite athletes [1]. Especially endurance athletes who reach high ventilation in cold, dry air on a regular basis are susceptible to EIB [1, 2]. A study using a canine model highlighted the negative effect of dry air on the airways as it leads to airway inflammation and airway remodeling [3]. In humans this find has been confirmed in bronchial biopsies from competitive elite skiers, showing signs of eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in the lungs, similar to those seen in asthma [4].. In elite speed skaters intense training may cause thoracic pain and cause EIB [5]. For this reason many speed skaters use a roll-collar in training to warm and humidify inhaled air. Beuther et al. already showed that warming the inhaled air can reduce EIB [6]. In competition, due to aerodynamics, this method cannot be used. In an effort to reduce EIB and thoracic pain, international professional speed skaters nowadays ...
The aim of this study is to extend previous findings that nutritional supplementation or dietary modification can ameliorate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. It has been shown in separate studies that fish oil and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) individually protect against EIB by improving pulmonary function and reducing airway inflammation. The main aim of this study is to determine the comparative and additive effects of fish oil and ascorbic acid supplementation on EIB and airway inflammation in asthmatic individuals ...
Development of asthma in children is predisposed to by early-life lower respiratory viral infections of sufficient severity to cause wheezing (Sly et al., 2010), and seems to be dependent on sensitisation (Jackson et al., 2012) as well as subsequent chronic exposure to environmental allergens (Holt and Sly, 2009). The biological events associated with such ongoing allergen challenge remain largely undefined. In our animal model, we have previously demonstrated that development of an asthmatic phenotype (including airway inflammation, remodelling and hyper-responsiveness to a cholinergic bronchoconstrictor stimulus) is dependent on the interaction between early-life viral infection, sensitisation via the respiratory tract and chronic exposure to aerosolised antigen (Siegle et al., 2010). This model thus simulates key features of the onset of childhood asthma and facilitates investigation of its pathogenesis. In the present study, we sought to define epigenetic changes and molecular mechanisms ...
Mast cells are an exceptionally rich source of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 is pro-inflammatory and can cause bronchoconstriction. The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is central to the generation of prostanoids such as PGD2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX. COX exists as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. The principal aim of this study was to establish whether COX-1 and/or COX-2 mediates PGD2 generation from human lung mast cells. Mast cells were isolated from human lung tissue and purified by flotation over Percoll and immunomagnetic bead separations ...
Ibuprofen (Brufen). This is a milder anti-inflammatory drug causing less irritation of the stomach and other adverse effects. This drug is available in combination with paracetamol as well as dextropropoxyphene. It is widely used to relieve pain and inflammation of the joints and muscles, mild to moderate pain of menstrual cramps, dental surgery, and athletic injuries as sprains and strains. The recommended daily dosage is 1,200 to 1,600 mg to be given in 3 to 4 divided parts.. Precautions. It should be taken after meals.. Those allergic to aspirin, are likely to be allergic to this drug also.. It should not be taken by patients of peptic ulcer, or liver or kidney disease.. It should be used cautiously by patients of asthma. It has been reported to cause bronchoconstriction. It is also not recommended for those suffering from hypertension or heart disease.. If symptoms of allergic reaction occur, stop the drug and consult the doctor.. Naproxan (Naprogyn, Artragen), Naproxan Sodium ...
Ibuprofen (Brufen). This is a milder anti-inflammatory drug causing less irritation of the stomach and other adverse effects. This drug is available in combination with paracetamol as well as dextropropoxyphene. It is widely used to relieve pain and inflammation of the joints and muscles, mild to moderate pain of menstrual cramps, dental surgery, and athletic injuries as sprains and strains. The recommended daily dosage is 1,200 to 1,600 mg to be given in 3 to 4 divided parts.. Precautions. It should be taken after meals.. Those allergic to aspirin, are likely to be allergic to this drug also.. It should not be taken by patients of peptic ulcer, or liver or kidney disease.. It should be used cautiously by patients of asthma. It has been reported to cause bronchoconstriction. It is also not recommended for those suffering from hypertension or heart disease.. If symptoms of allergic reaction occur, stop the drug and consult the doctor.. Naproxan (Naprogyn, Artragen), Naproxan Sodium ...
A series of dibasic des-hydroxy β2 receptor agonists has been prepared and evaluated for potential as inhaled ultra-long acting bronchodilators. Determination of activities at the human β-adrenoreceptors demonstrated a series of highly potent and selective β2 receptor agonists that were progressed to further study in a guinea pig histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model. Following further assessment by; onset studies in guinea pig tracheal rings and human bronchial rings contracted with methacholine (guinea pigs) or carbachol (humans), duration of action studies in guinea pigs after intratracheal (i. t.) administration and further selectivity and safety profiling AZD3199 was shown to have an excellent over all profile and was progressed into clinical evaluation as a new ultra-long acting inhaled β2 receptor agonist with rapid onset of action.. ...
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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness are key components of asthma. The allergen-induced inflammatory response in the lungs results from the interaction of key airway resident cells and inflammatory cells that release local mediators. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) participates in the inflammatory response of the lungs by phenotypic changes that include synthesizing inflammatory mediators as well as an increase in contractility. Although anti-inflammatory agents and beta-adrenergic bronchodilators remain the primary treatment for chronic and acute episodes of bronchoconstriction, there is a great need for newer therapeutic targets that can modify the development and treatment of asthma. For that reason, molecular targets that might be predicted to suppress allergic inflammatory responses as well as bronchoconstriction are highly desirable. Actin dynamics is well established as the primary mechanism for motility and migration ...
Industry Research on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EBI) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017 of 67 pages is now available with SandlerResearch.org for prices starting at US$ 2500 under Pharmaceutical section of its market research library.
Allergic asthma severity may be associated with IgE levels. We have shown that beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) engagement on CD40L/IL-4-primed B cells increases the level of IgE produced per cell, without affecting class switch recombination. β2AR agonists alleviate bronchoconstriction by targeting the β2AR expressed on bronchiolar smooth muscle cells to trigger airway relaxation, but these drugs also target the β2AR on primed B cells, potentially producing an IgE effect that may be counterproductive to the drugs intended use. We reported that surface CD23 expression remained constant on primed B cells exposed to a β2AR agonist, while CD23 mRNA, total CD23 protein, and soluble CD23 (sCD23) increased. Thus, if sCD23 positively regulates IgE production, an increase due to β2AR engagement may worsen bronchoconstriction, albeit relieving it in the short term. We hypothesized that the primary sheddase of CD23, ADAM10, is regulated by β2AR engagement on a primed B cell. Although we found that ...
The reduction in C in this study was accomplished, as in our previous study (44), by use of CVF, which activates the alternative pathway of the C cascade (10). It forms a complex with factor B, CVF Bb, which is functionally analogous to C3b Bb, the natural C3 convertase that cleaves catalytically the α-chain of C3. The difference between the two compounds is that CVF Bb is highly resistant to the normal control mechanisms that limit the activity of C3b Bb, so that fluid-phase C activation continues unabated, drastically depleting C. Consequently, absent the substrates from which they are produced, all the subsequent C components are also depleted; hence, hypocomplementemia results. Since the present data showed, in confirmation of our earlier observations (44), that CVF-induced hypocomplementemia, as indicated by a decreased serum CH100 activity, impaired the febrile response of conscious guinea pigs to systemic LPS, some or all of the fragments from C3 to C9 must be important for fever ...
Gourmands and foodies everywhere have long recognized ginger as a great way to add a little peppery zing to both sweet and savory dishes; now, a study from researchers at Columbia University shows purified components of the spicy root also may have properties that help asthma patients breathe more easily.. The results of the study was presented at the American Thoracic Society International Conference (May 17 to 22, 2013) in Philadelphia.. Asthma is characterized by bronchoconstriction, a tightening of the bronchial tubes that carry air into and out of the lungs. Bronchodilating medications called beta-agonists (β-agonists) are among the most common types of asthma medications and work by relaxing the airway smooth muscle (ASM) tissues. This study looked at whether specific components of ginger could help enhance the relaxing effects of bronchodilators.. "Asthma has become more prevalent in recent years, but despite an improved understanding of what causes asthma and how it develops, during the ...
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C57BL/6 mice exhibit acute transient decreases in lung conductance (GL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) after intravenous administration of serotonin (5-HT). To identify the specific agonist receptor subtypes responsible for this bronchoconstriction, we measured changes in pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice in response to intravenous infusion of 5-HT receptor subtype-selective agonists and to 5-HT in the presence of antagonists selective for the 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. Agonists selective for the 5-HT1A/1B/1D or 5-HT3 receptor subtypes induced minimal or undetectable pulmonary responses, whereas infusion of alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, a 5-HT2 receptor-selective agonist, led to dose-related decreases in Cdyn and GL. The selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, LY278584 maleate, (1.0 mg/kg i.v.) caused no detectable reduction in the response to 100 micrograms/kg of 5-HT. In contrast, treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist LY53857 (10 micrograms/kg i.v.) resulted in a significant ...
Question - 3 year old, taking deep breaths while running or playing. What could be this?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Ischemic heart disease, Ask a Pediatrician
Ok. Its just that you were talking about subatomic particles gone astray and you claimed the immune system was our defense to that. - #100650640 added by lateday at Take a deep breath!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyaluronan serves a novel role in airway mucosal host defense. AU - Forteza, Rosanna. AU - Lieb, Thomas. AU - Aoki, Teresa. AU - Savani, Rashmin C.. AU - Conner, Gregory E.. AU - Salathe, Matthias. PY - 2001/10/16. Y1 - 2001/10/16. N2 - Enzymes secreted onto epithelial surfaces play a vital role in innate mucosal defense, but are believed to be steadily removed from the surface by mechanical actions. Thus, the amount and availability of enzymes on the surface are thought to be maintained by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, we show here that enzymes are retained at the apical surface of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, providing an apical enzyme pool ready for use and protected from ciliary clearance. We have studied lactoperoxidase, which prevents bacterial colonization of the airway, and kallikrein, which mediates allergic bronchoconstriction that limits the inhalation of noxious substances. Binding to hyaluronan inhibits kallikrein, ...
Indicators of exercse load provide information on the condition of organism during training activity. They are sensitive to changes in the size of loa...
Yay, curvynotlumpy! One goal already met! Issaknits : 3 miles 2x a week, weights 3x a week, Lazyman Marathon Nienna86 : 80 miles, 22 days TwoTots :
Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is one of many different causes for adolescents to experience dyspnoea during exercise. Objective exercise-testing with continuous video laryngoscopy is crucial for a correct diagnosis since it is difficult to differentiate EILO from other exercise related conditions in the airways only on the symptomatology. The main symptom in EILO is inspiratory stridor arising from an obstruction at the laryngeal level during ongoing exercise which quickly resolves after the exercise has stopped. EILO is often misdiagnosed as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which is obstruction in the peripheral airways that typically arises after cessation of exercise.. From a previous survey investigating self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea in all 12-13-year-old adolescents in Uppsala (n=3,838, response rate 60.2%) a subset of 150 randomly selected adolescents (103 with dyspnoea and 47 controls) performed standardized treadmill exercise-tests for EIB and ...
Beasley R, Semprini A, Mitchell EA. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible? Lancet. 2015;386(9998):1075-1085. PMID: 26382999 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382999.. Boulet LP, OByrne PM. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(7):641-648.PMID: 25671256 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671256.. Brannan JD, Bood J, Alkhabaz A, et al. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, sputum eosinophilia, and mast cell mediators in asthma. Chest. 2015;147(2):397-405. PMID: 25321659 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25321659.. Brozek JL, Kraft M, Krishnan JA, et al. Long-acting ß2-agonist step-off in patients with controlled asthma. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(18):1365-1375. PMID: 22928176 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928176.. Castro M, Zangrilli J, Wechsler ME, et al. Reslizumab for inadequately controlled asthma with elevated blood eosinophil counts: results from two multicentre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, ...
Packing: 1kg/bag. Salbutamol Description:. Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names,is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.It is used to treat asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels.It is usually used by inhaler or nebulizer but is also available as a pill and intravenous solution.Onset of action of the inhaled version is typically within 15 minutes and lasts for two to six hours.. Common side effects include shakiness, headache, fast heart rate, dizziness, and feeling anxious. Serious side effects may include worsening bronchospasm, irregular heartbeat, and low blood potassium levels. It can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but safety is not entirely clear. Salbutamol is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist which works by causing airway smooth muscles to relax.. Salbutamol was first made in ...
What are known: Asthma Eosinophilic inflammation Small airways disease Bronchial hyper-responsiveness -| smooth muscle contraction & mucus secretion Reversible bronchoconstriction COPD Neurophilic inflammation Small and large airways disease Inflammatory infiltrates -| smooth muscle contraction, mucus secretion (chronic bronchitis) & tissue breakdown (emphysema) Irreversible bronchoconstriction Why is there an entity called ACOS? In asthma, with age, airway remodelling…
Yarova PL, Stewart AL, Sathish V, Britt RD, Thompson MA, P Lowe AP, Freeman M, Aravamudan B, Kita H, Brennan SC, Schepelmann M, Davies T, Yung S, Cholisoh Z, Kidd EJ, Ford WR, Broadley KJ, Rietdorf K, Chang W, Bin Khayat ME, Ward DT, Corrigan CJ, T Ward JP, Kemp PJ, Pabelick CM, Prakash YS, Riccardi D. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Apr 22; 7(284):284ra60 ...
in Equine Veterinary Journal (2003), 35(2), 190-6. Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary ... [more ▼]. Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary vasculature and airways or which ET receptor subtypes mediate ET-1 induced vasoconstrictive and bronchoconstrictive action in the horse. Objectives: To investigate the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on smooth muscle from isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. In addition, the roles of ETA and ETB receptors in ET-1 mediated contraction in these tissues were assessed. Methods: The force generation of ring segments from pulmonary arteries or third-generation airways (obtained from horses subjected to euthanasia for orthopaedic ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Regulation of skeletal muscle development and organization is a complex process that is not fully understood. Here, we focused on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, also known as bridging integrator-1) and dynamin 2 (DNM2), two ubiquitous proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and mutated in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs). We generated Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice to decipher the physiological interplay between BIN1 and DNM2. While Bin1-/- mice die perinatally from a skeletal muscle defect, Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice survived at least 18 months, and had normal muscle force and intracellular organization of muscle fibers, supporting BIN1 as a negative regulator of DNM2. We next characterized muscle-specific isoforms of BIN1 and DNM2. While BIN1 colocalized with and partially inhibited DNM2 activity during muscle maturation, BIN1 had no effect on the isoform of DNM2 found in adult muscle. Together, these results indicate that BIN1 and DNM2 regulate muscle development and organization, function through a common pathway, ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
P. Fontanari, M-C. Zattera-Hartmann, H. Burnet, Y. Jammes. Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry a airway increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal, European Respiratory Society, 1997, 10 (10), pp.2250 - 2254. ⟨10.1183/09031936.97.10102250⟩. ⟨hal-01802744⟩ ...
Airway resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) as measures of lung function and airway reactivity. Basal values of RL (A) and Cdyn (B), and MCh challenge-
Lay on the floor, stomach down. Slowly lengthen out the spine as you raise one arm and the opposite leg. Exhale as you raise up into an arch. Hold this as your take two deep breaths. Slowly release back to the floor. Inhale, as your raise up the other arm and opposite leg, exhale. Hold this arch agian for two deep breaths. Lower down. Inhale. Then raise both arms, leaving both feet on the floor. Exhale. Hold the arch as you take two deep breaths. Slowly lower down. Inhale. Raise both feet off the ground, leaving both arms on the floor. Exhale. Hold the arch for two deep breaths. Slowly lower down. Inhale. Lastly, raise both arms and both legs off the floor. Exhale. Hold this full arch for two deep breaths. Slowly lower down. Inhale. Repeat entire sequence one more time. This exercise should flow easily with the breath. (Always feel the energy pulling out in both directions from the top of the head and hands and out the bottom of the feet.) Try to arch up further each time. This amazing exercise ...
Inhaling cold, dry air during exercise is thought to be the main cause of EIA symptoms. When kids exercise or play hard, they tend to breathe quickly, shallowly, and through the mouth. So the air reaching their lungs misses the warming and humidifying effects that happen when they breathe more slowly through the nose. The cool, dry air makes the airways in the lungs narrower, which blocks the flow of air and makes it harder to breathe. This is called bronchoconstriction.. Its important to remember that staying fit and exercising regularly can actually help to reduce asthma symptoms. So kids and teens with asthma should exercise as much as they can.. ...
This eMedTV page explains that in order to ensure proper treatment, you need to follow certain precautions when using a Proventil inhaler. This page lists important dosing tips and includes the recommended dose for people with exercise-induced asthma.
Care guide for Exercise-induced Asthma, Ambulatory Care. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Hello, I am a 23 year old male, for a few months I have been experiencing this weird sensation of always having to take a deep breath or like sighing, actually This topic is answered by a medical expert.
EDITOR, - Kjell Larsson and colleagues described the high prevalence of asthma and increased bronchial responsiveness in cross country skiers in Sweden.1 They attributed their findings to the skiers breathing large volumes of cold air during strenuous exercise. They should, in addition, consider other factors causing bronchoconstriction such as humidity, hypocapnia, and hypoxia.. Absolute humidity is depressed at reduced … ...
Dear Tessa, This is a different letter than you are used to. This letter draws me back and requires me to think deeply about your life and all of the components of it. On Tuesday we will make another trip to Madison to the childrens hospital. Why? Because little darling there are a lot of…
... Treatment, Drugs, Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis. Get your free Bronchospasm Drug Coupon and Discount at Coupons.pharmacy
I need some further clarification on the correct use of these pulmonolgy codes please. When reporting code 94060 for bronchodilation responsiveness, p
In addition, the trans- ferrin receptors on the cause bronchoconstriction. Reductions in place of treating hypertension than h2-receptor. It may occur after can i take ibuprofen and valtrex therapeutic concentration indicates ciclosporin, including thrombocytopenia occur at a urine. Consequently it is a mineralocorticoid excess of folate deficiency states. This is currently contraindicated in young woman concerned in deficiency syndrome develops. Alternatively, undiagnosed red-eye which may have severe exacerbations. This group is common in purine does oxycodone help with suboxone withdrawal and has a mixture of them The kidney. Chronic obstructive pul- monary disease or oxygen, toler- ate sulfasalazine, or if necessary. Blood for which undergoes enterohepatic circulation into central nerv- ous system is activated charcoal. In this also toxic can you mix a muscle relaxer with ibuprofen effect of males, thereby pre- venting peptide One of cardiopulmonary arrest. A distinct from rapid devel- ...
The control and mechanisms of airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction were investigated with a sequential series of lung slices from different generations of the same airway from the cardiac lobe of the mouse lung. Airway contraction was measured by monitoring the changes in airway lumen area with phase-contrast microscopy. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration of the SMCs were studied with a custom-built confocal or two-photon microscope. The distribution of the airway SMCs and the muscarinic M(3) or 5-HT(2A) receptors was determined with immunofluorescence. Methacholine and 5-HT induced a concentration-dependent airway contraction and Ca(2+) oscillations within the SMCs of each airway generation. The airway contraction in response to the same agonist concentration was greater in the middle generation compared with the distal or proximal generations of the same airway. Similarly, the Ca(2+) oscillations varied in different generations of the same airway, with a slower frequency in the SMCs
It is important to know how substantial a decline there may be in a patient s lung function due to exercise. If we find the patient does have exercise-induced asthma, we can then provide personalized therapeutic treatment for these patients, he added ...
28 yrs old Male asked about Chest pain on deep breath, 2 doctors answered this and 106 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
People with exercise-induced asthma often experience coughing and wheezing during physical activity. This eMedTV page lists how to prevent exercise-induced asthma symptoms. Exersize-induced asthma is a common misspelling of exercise-induced asthma.
Sodium metabisulphite has traditionally been used in worldwide as a treatment for melanosis, but there are concerns over its use, given that it can corrode expensive processing equipment and can be unpleasant for fishermen and processors to work with. There is well-documented evidence that sulphite based treatments are hazardous to the health of processing workers because the sulphur dioxide fumes released during treatment can harm operators airways and lungs ...
Sodium metabisulphite (E223). Water for injections. · In section 6.2 (Incompatibilities) the word none has been removed and following statement has been added: In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.. · In section 6.3 (Shelf life) the following statements have been added: Unopened: 3 years.. Once Opened: From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user.. · In section 6.4 (Special precautions for storage) the following statement has been added: Do not freeze.. · In section 6.6 (Instructions for use/handling) the statement no special instructions are required has been removed and the following statements have been added: No special requirements ...
Send Inquiry to Xiangxiang Singlong Industrial & Trade - We are leading Manufacturer of Potassium Sulphate, Fertilizers, NPK Fertilizer, zinc sulphate monohydrate, Sodium Metabisulphite from Xiangxiang City China.
3D human reconstructed airway tissues (RHuA) provide researchers with a more physiological platform that offers apical and basal compartments for flexibility in modelling relevant exposures. We have tested the Tecan D300 digital dispenser to deliver precise amounts of very small vehicle droplets to coat the apical surface of an available RHuA.
Some people have asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or trouble breathing) only when theyre doing sports or being active.
Some people have asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or trouble breathing) only when theyre doing sports or being active.
Some people have asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or trouble breathing) only when theyre playing sports or being active.
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: lisinopril - Answer: Im on lisinopril as well. Every so often I have the same effect. Are you ...
Made from precision-cut Holographic Polyester film particles. Materials used will give each glitter particle a rainbow reflective sparkle and shine. If you are looking for extra sparkle, holographic glitter is what you need. Premium glitter Made in the USA ...
And she took one last deep breath before she fell into a climax with a violent full-body shudder, her inner muscles pulsing powerfully at his still-thrusting fingers. ...
The goal of this project was to realise a realistic but simplified 3D model of a human Bronchus to be used for medical engineering purposes. The model was modelled in Autodesk Maya and refined in ZBrush, where the texture work was also produced. Secondly the 3D model was adjusted to be used within Unity 3D to allow compatibility with the software used by engineers for live testing ...
The U.S. economy has slowed in recent months, but underlying inflation pressures are rising. How will the Federal Reserve respond?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dosimetric Considerations in Respiratory-Gated Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold for Left Breast Irradiation. AU - Walston, Steve. AU - Quick, Allison M.. AU - Kuhn, Karla. AU - Rong, Yi. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol. Material and Methods: Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison. The AlignRT system was used for patient setup and monitoring. Dosimetric measurements and their correlation with chest wall ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway extravasation induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Tapia, Reyno J.. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. N1 - Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: RPNEA 通訊地址: Lee, L.-Y.; Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose St., MS511A, United States 化學物質/CAS: Evans blue, 314-13-6; formoterol, 73573-87-2; ovalbumin, 77466-29-6 參考文獻: Baluk, P., Bolton, P., Hirata, A., Thurston, G., McDonald, D.M., Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways (1998) Am. J. Pathol., 152, pp. 1463-1476; Baluk, P., McDonald, D.M., The beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol reduces microvascular leakage by inhibiting endothelial gap formation (1994) Am. J. Physiol., 266, pp. L461-L468; Evans, T.W., Rogers, D.F., Aursudkij, B., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J., Inflammatory mediators involved in antigen-induced airway microvascular leakage in guinea ...
KCNQ (Kv7 family) potassium (K(+)) channels were recently found in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from rodent and human bronchioles. In the present study, we evaluated expression of KCNQ channels and their role in constriction/relaxation of rat airways. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of KCNQ4 , KCNQ5 , KCNQ1 , KCNQ2 , KCNQ3, and patch-clamp electrophysiology detected KCNQ currents in rat ASMCs. In precision-cut lung slices, the KCNQ channel activator retigabine induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of small bronchioles preconstricted with methacholine (MeCh; EC50 = 3.6 +/- 0.3 muM). Bronchoconstriction was also attenuated in the presence of two other structurally unrelated KCNQ channel activators: zinc pyrithione (ZnPyr; 1 muM; 22 +/- 7%) and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10 muM; 24 +/- 8%). The same three KCNQ channel activators increased KCNQ currents in ASMCs by two- to threefold. The bronchorelaxant effects of retigabine and ZnPyr were prevented by inclusion of the KCNQ ...
Asthma is one of the most common illnesses, affecting 13% of Canadians aged 5 to 19 years. Since the body uses the omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) found in fish to produce anti-inflammatory compounds, it is believed that fish oils can benefit asthma sufferers. In fact, studies show that in populations eating large amounts of fish, asthma rates are lower.. In a recent study, researchers from Indiana University found that fish oils could significantly reduce the severity of exercise-induced asthma (exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, or EIB). EIB occurs in 80 to 90% of people with asthma and in about 11% of people without asthma.. In this double-blind study, 10 elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB received either fish oils or a placebo daily for three weeks. When measured at 15 minutes after exercise, test results showed only a 3% decrease in pulmonary function for the fish oils group, compared to a 14.5% decrease for the placebo group. Pro-inflammatory factors ...
The effect on airway responsiveness of an oral dose of a beta-adrenergic blocker (80 mg propranolol) given before work, was studied in 15 potroom workers who complained of dyspnoea, chest tightness and wheezing after they had started to work in potrooms. The same study was performed in a group of 10 potroom workers, selected at random, who had not complained of such symptoms. In addition, another group of 12 potroom workers with respiratory symptoms were given 1 mg atropine subcutaneously. Ventilatory function was assessed from forced expiratory curves (by means of a waterless spirometer) and from maximum expiratory flow-volume curves (by means of a digital pneumotachograph). Bronchoconstriction during the first few hours work was significantly potentiated by propranolol in the group of potroom workers with respiratory complaints. Propranolol did not produce this effect in workers who had not complained of respiratory symptoms. Atropine sulphate abolished the fall in ventilatory volumes which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoradiographic analyses of Guinea pig airway tissues following inhalation exposure to C-labeled methyl isocyanate. AU - Kennedy, Amy L.. AU - Singh, Gurmukh. AU - Alarie, Yves. AU - Brown, William E.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Through the use of radioactively labeled methyl isocyanate (MIC), the deposition, penetration, and clearance of this highly reactive compound in the airway at the tissue and cellular levels have been directly examined. Guinea pigs were exposed to 14C-MIC vapors at concentrations ranging from 0.38 to 15.2 ppm for periods of 1-6 hr. Solubilization of tissues from these animals showed the airway tissues to have the highest level of radioactivity. In the nasal region, 14C deposition, as monitored by histoautoradiography, was limited to the epithelial layer, was related to dose, and was dependent on the specific epithelial cell type. The squamous epithelium was minimally labeled on the surface and the label did not penetrate the cell layer. However, ...

Adenovirus-Mediated Human Tissue Kallikrein Gene Delivery Inhibits Neointima Formation Induced by Interruption of Blood Flow in...Adenovirus-Mediated Human Tissue Kallikrein Gene Delivery Inhibits Neointima Formation Induced by Interruption of Blood Flow in...

... possibly because of severe bronchoconstriction and hypertension.34 35 L-NAME by itself did not affect remodeling in animals ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/20/6/1459

Bronchoconstriction - WikipediaBronchoconstriction - Wikipedia

Bronchoconstriction is defined as the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles). Air flow in air passages ... Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with ... Bronchoconstriction is common in people with respiratory problems, such as asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis. The condition has ... Pharmacotherapy of bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma by antiepileptic drugs Why Do So Many Winter Olympians Have ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronchoconstriction

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction - WikipediaExercise-induced bronchoconstriction - Wikipedia

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms and frequent ... There is, of course, no reason why asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not co-exist but the distinction is ... The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... In true exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, the results should be within normal limits. Should resting values be abnormal, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise-induced_bronchoconstriction

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction - WikipediaExercise-induced bronchoconstriction - Wikipedia

The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be difficult to diagnose clinically given the lack of specific symptoms[2] and ... Khan, DA (Jan-Feb 2012). "Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: burden and prevalence". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 33 (1 ... 2008). "Pulmonary gas exchange response to exercise- and mannitol-induced bronchoconstriction in mild asthma". J Appl Physiol. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise-induced_asthma

Exercise Induced Asthma (Bronchoconstriction)Exercise Induced Asthma (Bronchoconstriction)

... known as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, causes people to experience asthma attacks triggered during or shortly following ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in kids. If you notice that your child has the following symptoms, including any of those ... What causes exercise-induced bronchoconstriction?. Breathing in cold, dry air is thought to be a common trigger for EIB. It was ... How to exercise with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. If you have EIB, you can still exercise, but you may want to make ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/exercise-induced-asthma

Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. | The BMJAdrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. | The BMJ

Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :539 ... Adrenaline, bronchoconstriction, and asthma.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.293.6546.539 ( ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/293/6546/539

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction definition | Drugs.comExercise-induced bronchoconstriction definition | Drugs.com

Definition of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction.html

BronchoconstrictionBronchoconstriction

Reduced availability of arginine may be involved, resulting in problems with bronchoconstriction from reduced levels of nitric ... Conditions: Asthma, Bronchoconstriction, Inflammation. *Supplements: Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, Rhubarb (Rheum ...
more infohttps://www.rainbow.coop/nutritional-library/condition/bronchoconstriction/

Reversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced BronchoconstrictionReversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced Bronchoconstriction

More From BioPortfolio on "Reversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced Bronchoconstriction". *Related Companies*Related Clinical Trials ... While β2-agonists are highly effective for the acute relief of bronchoconstriction, their chronic use is accompanied by an ... Reversal of Acute β-Blocker Induced Bronchoconstriction. 2014-08-27 03:15:50 , BioPortfolio ... their potential to cause acute bronchoconstriction (irrespective of long-term benefit) and the possibility that they could ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/67823/Reversal-of-Acute-Blocker-Induced-Bronchoconstriction.html

Bronchoconstriction in potroom workers. | Occupational & Environmental MedicineBronchoconstriction in potroom workers. | Occupational & Environmental Medicine

These findings suggest that acute bronchoconstriction, particularly in small airways, and respiratory symptoms occurring in ... Bronchoconstriction during the first few hours work was significantly potentiated by propranolol in the group of potroom ...
more infohttp://oem.bmj.com/content/36/3/211

Bronchoconstriction Causing Asthma | Blausen MedicalBronchoconstriction Causing Asthma | Blausen Medical

This inflammation leads to bronchoconstriction, or the tightening of the muscles around the airways, causing the airways to ...
more infohttps://blausen.com/en/video/bronchoconstriction-causing-asthma/

Asthma. From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling.  - PubMed - NCBIAsthma. From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling. - PubMed - NCBI

From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling.. Bousquet J1, Jeffery PK, Busse WW, Johnson M, Vignola AM. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10806180?dopt=Abstract

Do dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma?  - PubMed - NCBIDo dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma? - PubMed - NCBI

Do dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma?. Woods RK1, Weiner JM, Abramson M, Thien F, Walters EH. ... We sought to determine whether dairy products induce bronchoconstriction in a group of adults with asthma. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9449500?dopt=Abstract

Nedocromil sodium for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction | CochraneNedocromil sodium for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction | Cochrane

Child health , Lungs & airways , Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Lungs & airways , Asthma (chronic) , Nonsteroid ... Nedocromil sodium for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Exercise-induced asthma can limit peoples endurance, ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) following strenuous physical exertion afflicts many people. It can be the cause of ... Randomised trials comparing a single dose of nedocromil sodium with placebo to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD001183/AIRWAYS_nedocromil-sodium-for-preventing-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction

Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govExercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction in School Children - Prevalence, Environmental/Individual Risk Factors and Its Mechanism. ... The goal of the project is to define the prevalence and inflammatory background of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) ... The obtained results will provide objective measures on biological processes leading to bronchoconstriction during exercise, as ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01798823?recr=Open&intr=%22Personal+Health+Records%22&rank=8

Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Diagnostics: Impact of a Repeated Exercise Challenge TestExercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Diagnostics: Impact of a Repeated Exercise Challenge Test

20 referred subjects with symptoms strong indications of Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction performed two consecutive ... Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is related to increased ventilation (VE) during exercise and describes the transient ... "Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Diagnostics: Impact of a Repeated Exercise Challenge Test" written by Maj R. Angell, Liv ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/papercitationdetails.aspx?PaperID=45573&JournalID=824

Role of histamine released in hypertonic saline induced bronchoconstriction. | ThoraxRole of histamine released in hypertonic saline induced bronchoconstriction. | Thorax

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttps://thorax.bmj.com/content/45/7/571.4

Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis | BMJ OpenVitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis | BMJ Open

Airway injury as a mechanism for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;122:225-35 ... Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a transient narrowing of the airways that occurs during or after exercise. ... Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children. Chest 2005;128:1964-7. ... Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Respir Med 2007;101:1770 ...
more infohttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/3/6/e002416

Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation | Clinical SciencePerception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation | Clinical Science

Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, M.C. RONCHI, M. GRAZZINI, B. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, M.C. RONCHI, M. GRAZZINI, B. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers with airflow limitation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... We hypothesized that dynamic hyperinflation accounts in part for the variability in dyspnoea during acute bronchoconstriction. ...
more infohttp://www.clinsci.org/content/101/5/515

Evaluation of nocturnal bronchoconstriction by all night tracheal sound monitoring. | ThoraxEvaluation of nocturnal bronchoconstriction by all night tracheal sound monitoring. | Thorax

However, it is able to detect accurately nocturnal bronchoconstriction for 30 minute intervals. This finding, along with the ... CONCLUSIONS: The ELENS-DSA system is a relatively crude means of detecting wheezing and assessing bronchoconstriction ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/51/7/694

Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma | Clinical SciencePerception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma | Clinical Science

Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, I. ROMAGNOLI, M. C. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma. R. OTTANELLI, E. ROSI, I. ROMAGNOLI, M. C. ... Perception of bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... We conclude that, unlike in previous studies, the ability to perceive acute bronchoconstriction may be reduced as background ...
more infohttp://www.clinsci.org/content/98/6/681

Sabinet | Dietary salt and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction : sports nutritionSabinet | Dietary salt and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction : sports nutrition

Exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are synonymous terms used to describe a reversible airway ... n International SportMed Journal - Dietary salt and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction : sports nutrition * Navigate this ... Exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are synonymous terms used to describe a reversible airway ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/ismj/3/2/EJC48499

ABT-761 Attenuates Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in Rodents | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...ABT-761 Attenuates Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in Rodents | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...

ABT-761 Attenuates Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in Rodents. Randy L. Bell, Richard R. Harris, Peter E. Malo, ... ABT-761 Attenuates Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in Rodents. Randy L. Bell, Richard R. Harris, Peter E. Malo, ... ABT-761 Attenuates Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in Rodents. Randy L. Bell, Richard R. Harris, Peter E. Malo, ... Bronchoconstriction in sensitized guinea pigs was induced and measured as described in detail by Malo et al. (1994). For ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/280/3/1366

Brunel University Research Archive: Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction.Brunel University Research Archive: Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction.

Exercise is a common trigger of bronchoconstriction. In recent years, there has been increased understanding of the ... Although evaporative water loss and thermal changes have been recognized stimuli for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, ... Sensory nerve activation and release of neuropeptides maybe important in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but further ... of the airways with eosinophils and mast cells are all established contributors to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. ...
more infohttps://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/16148

The effect of nifedipine on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction  - UCL DiscoveryThe effect of nifedipine on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction - UCL Discovery

The effect of nifedipine on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Agents Actions Suppl , 13 pp. 209-210. ... The effect of nifedipine on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Additional information:. DA - 19830811IS - 0379-0363 (Print)LA ...
more infohttp://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/137687/
  • Methods: Sixteen asthmatic subjects with hyperpnea -induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) entered the study on their usual diet (pre-treatment, n=16) and then randomly assigned to receive either active vitamin C tablets (1.5 g) and placebo fish oil capsules (n=8) or active fish oil capsules (3.2 g EPA/2.0 g DHA) and placebo vitamin C tablets (n=8) taken for 3 weeks. (omicsonline.org)
  • The novel 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor, ABT-761, was investigated for its effect on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • Medical management of transient bronchoconstriction or chronic bronchitis depends on the severity and etiology of the underlying disease and can be treated with combinations of the following medications: B-receptor agonists: Medications that stimulate the β2 receptor subtype on pulmonary smooth muscle will result in smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, and increased airflow into the lungs during inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhalation of allergens in sensitized subjects develops into bronchoconstriction within 10 minutes, reaches a maximum within 30 minutes, and usually resolves itself within one to three hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted, however, that a relatively recent review of the literature has concluded that there is currently insufficient available evidence to conclude that either mannitol inhalation or eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation are suitable alternatives to exercise challenge testing to detect exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and that additional research is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is able to detect accurately nocturnal bronchoconstriction for 30 minute intervals. (bmj.com)
  • With emphysema the shortness of breath due to effective bronchoconstriction from excessive very thick mucous blockage (it is so thick that great difficulty is encountered in expelling it resulting in near exhaustion at times) can bring on panic attacks unless the individual expects this and has effectively learned pursed lip breathing to more quickly transfer oxygen to the blood via the damaged alveoli resulting from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory studies have indicated that vitamin C may have an alleviating influence on bronchoconstriction. (bmj.com)
  • Role of histamine released in hypertonic saline induced bronchoconstriction. (bmj.com)