Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Peritoneal Lavage: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C57BLSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Rats, Inbred BNProteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 12: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.SmokeInterleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Berylliosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/5496)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Molecular detection of tumor cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with early stage lung cancer. (2/5496)

BACKGROUND: Conventional cytologic analysis of sputum is an insensitive test for the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have recently demonstrated that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods are more sensitive than cytologic analysis in diagnosing bladder cancer. In this study, we examined whether molecular assays could identify cancer cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. METHODS: Tumor-specific oncogene mutations, CpG-island methylation status, and microsatellite alterations in the DNA of cells in BAL fluid from 50 consecutive patients with resectable (stages I through IIIa) NSCLC were assessed by use of four PCR-based techniques. RESULTS: Of 50 tumors, 28 contained a p53 mutation, and the identical mutation was detected with a plaque hybridization assay in the BAL fluid of 39% (11 of 28) of the corresponding patients. Eight of 19 adenocarcinomas contained a K-ras mutation, and the identical mutation was detected with a mutation ligation assay in the BAL fluid of 50% (four of eight) of the corresponding patients. The p16 gene was methylated in 19 of 50 tumors, and methylated p16 alleles were detected in the BAL fluid of 63% (12 of 19) of the corresponding patients. Microsatellite instability in at least one marker was detected with a panel of 15 markers frequently altered in NSCLC in 23 of 50 tumors; the identical alteration was detected in the BAL fluid of 14% (three of 22) of the corresponding patients. When all four techniques were used, mutations or microsatellite instability was detected in the paired BAL fluid of 23 (53%) of the 43 patients with tumors carrying a genetic alteration. CONCLUSION: Although still limited by sensitivity, molecular diagnostic strategies can detect the presence of neoplastic cells in the proximal airway of patients with surgically resectable NSCLC.  (+info)

Localization of a candidate surfactant convertase to type II cells, macrophages, and surfactant subfractions. (3/5496)

Pulmonary surfactant exists in the alveolus in several distinct subtypes that differ in their morphology, composition, and surface activity. Experiments by others have implicated a serine hydrolase in the production of the inactive small vesicular subtype of surfactant (N. J. Gross and R. M. Schultz. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044: 222-230, 1990). Our laboratory recently identified this enzyme in the rat as the serine carboxylesterase ES-2 [F. Barr, H. Clark, and S. Hawgood. Am. J. Physiol. 274 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 18): L404-L410, 1998]. In the present study, we determined the cellular sites of expression of ES-2 in rat lung using a digoxygenin-labeled ES-2 riboprobe. ES-2 mRNA was localized to type II cells and alveolar macrophages but not to Clara cells. Using a specific ES-2 antibody, we determined the protein distribution of ES-2 in the lung by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be consistent with the sites of mRNA expression. Most of the ES-2 in rat bronchoalveolar lavage is in the surfactant-depleted supernatant, but ES-2 was also consistently localized to the small vesicular surfactant subfraction presumed to form as a consequence of conversion activity. These results are consistent with a role for endogenous lung ES-2 in surfactant metabolism.  (+info)

Expression of heat shock protein 72 by alveolar macrophages in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (4/5496)

The current study was done to look at a possible role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The specific aims were to determine whether there was a difference in the expression of HSP72 in alveolar macrophages (AMs) between mice challenged with HP antigen and saline-treated control mice and between AMs obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 18 patients with HP and 11 normal subjects. The expression of HSP72 was studied under basal conditions and under a mild heat shock. HSP72 expression by AMs in response to in vitro stimulation with Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula was lower in AMs of control mice than in those of HP animals. HSP72 was constitutively expressed in AMs of both normal and HP subjects. Densitometric ratios showed that AMs from normal subjects responded to heat shock with a 39 degrees C-to-37 degrees C ratio of 1.72 +/- 0.18 (mean +/- SE), and AMs from HP patients responded with a ratio of 1.16 +/- 0.16 (P = 0.0377). This decreased induction by additional stress of AMs could lead to an altered immunoregulatory activity and account for the inflammation seen in HP.  (+info)

A rapid polymerase chain reaction technique for detecting M tuberculosis in a variety of clinical specimens. (5/5496)

A rapid in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical material. Its performance is compared with two kit based systems. The results of the in-house assay were comparable with the commercial assays, detecting M tuberculosis in 100% of smear positive, culture positive samples. The in-house assay proved to be rapid, easy, and inexpensive to perform, and the inclusion of an internal inhibitor control permitted validation of the PCR results.  (+info)

Cigarette smoking decreases interleukin-8 secretion by human alveolar macrophages. (6/5496)

Cigarette smoking can impair pulmonary immune function, and hence influences the development of lung diseases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory peptide and a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils, and is produced by both immune and non-immune cells including monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). We investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on the secretion of IL-8 by human AM. The IL-8 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was much higher in smokers than in non-smokers (18.4 +/- 3.9 vs 4.1 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1; P < 0.005). However, spontaneous IL-8 secretion by cultured AM was lower in smokers than in non-smokers (46.8 +/- 12.7 vs 124.1 +/- 24.0 ng ml-1; P < 0.01). When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), AM from smokers secreted significantly less IL-8 than those from non-smokers at all tested concentrations of LPS. In contrast, the amount of IL-8 secreted by peripheral blood monocytes with or without LPS stimulation was comparable in smokers and non-smokers. These observations indicate that smoking decreases IL-8 secretion by AM, which may modify or decrease the inflammatory response in the lung.  (+info)

Effect of hyperoxia on human macrophage cytokine response. (7/5496)

In the development of lung damage induced by oxidative stress, it has been proposed that changes in alveolar macrophages (AM) function with modifications in cytokine production may contribute to altered repair processes. To characterize the changes in profiles of cytokine production by macrophages exposed to oxidants, the effects of hyperoxia (95% O2) on interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were studied. Experiments were first performed using AM obtained from control subjects and children with interstitial lung disease. Results showed that a 48 h O2 exposure was associated with two distinct patterns of response: a decrease in TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 expression, and an increase in IL-8. To complete these observations we used U937 cells that were exposed for various durations to hyperoxia. We confirmed that a 48 h O2 exposure led to similar changes with a decrease in TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 production and an increase in IL-8. Interestingly, this cytokine response was preceded during the first hours of O2 treatment by induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6. These data indicate that hyperoxia induces changes in the expression of macrophages inflammatory cytokines, and that these modifications appear to be influenced by the duration of O2 exposure.  (+info)

Pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography. (8/5496)

PURPOSE: To obtain statistical data on the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for early detection of pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients with unknown focus of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight HRCT studies were performed prospectively in 112 neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin persisting for more than 48 hours despite empiric antibiotic treatment. Fifty-four of these studies were performed in transplant recipients. All patients had normal chest roentgenograms. If pneumonia was detected by HRCT, guided bronchoalveolar lavage was recommended. Evidence of pneumonia on chest roentgenograms during follow-up and micro-organisms detected during follow-up were regarded as documentation of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 188 HRCT studies, 112 (60%) showed pneumonia and 76 were normal. Documentation of pneumonia was possible in 61 cases by chest roentgenography or micro-organism detection (54%) (P < 10(-6)). Sensitivity of HRCT was 87% (88% in transplant recipients), specificity was 57% (67%), and the negative predictive value was 88% (97%). A time gain of 5 days was achieved by the additional use of HRCT compared to an exclusive use of chest roentgenography. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of inflammatory pulmonary disease after a suspicious HRCT scan (> 50%) proves that pneumonia is not excluded by a normal chest roentgenogram. Given the significantly longer duration of febrile episodes in transplant recipients, HRCT findings are particularly relevant in this subgroup. Patients with normal HRCT scans, particularly transplant recipients, have a low risk of pneumonia during follow-up. All neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin and normal chest roentgenograms should undergo HRCT.  (+info)

The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased angiostatin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ARDS patients and from human volunteers after lung instillation of endotoxin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Lijnen, H. Roger. AU - Suffredini, Anthony F.. AU - Pepper, Michael S.. AU - Steinberg, Kenneth P.. AU - Martin, Thomas R.. AU - Pugin, Jérôme. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, due to both an epithelial and an endothelial dysfunction. Whereas epithelial apoptosis seems to be mainly mediated by Fas ligand, the mediators of endothelial damage remain to be identified. Angiostatin, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo, also specifically induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The concentration of various enzymes that cleave angiostatin from plasminogen was reported to be significantly increased in bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from patients with ARDS. Therefore, in this study, we ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirate and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in comparison to endoscopic assessment of lower airways in horses with recurrent airways obstruction or inflammatory airway disease - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in the immunosuppressed patient was studied in 97 patients. In immunosuppressed patients, the available diagnostic procedures are often invasive and have variable yield and a potential for serious complications. Bronchoalveolar lavage had an overall diagnostic yield of 66% (61 of 92 diseases). It was most effective in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections, including infection with Pneumocystis carinii (18 of 22 cases), cytomegalovirus pneumonia (10 of 12 cases), fungal pneumonia (5 of 6 cases), and mycobacterial disease (4 of 5 cases). The technique was also helpful in confirming pulmonary hemorrhage (7 of 9 cases) but was less useful for diagnosing malignancy (10 of 22 cases) and drug-induced toxicity (6 of 15 cases). Findings of bronchoalveolar lavage were additive with those of transbronchial biopsies, brushings, and washings in the diagnosis of most of the diseases. The procedure was safe, even in ...
en] An increased production of NO* and peroxynitrite in lungs has been suspected during acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, and recent studies provided evidence for an alveolar production of nitrated compounds. We observed increased concentrations of nitrites/nitrates, nitrated proteins and markers of neutrophil degranulation (myeloperoxidase, elastase and lactoferrine) in the fluids recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of patients with ALI and correlated these changes to the number of neutrophils and the severity of the ALI. We also observed that BALFs stimulated the DNA-binding activity of the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in human alveolar cells (A549) and monocytes (THP1). The level of activation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity was correlated to the concentration of nitrated proteins and myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, in vitro studies confirmed that NO*-derived species (peroxynitrite and nitrites) and the ...
Several components of cellular and humoral immunity were examined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood of 15 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the results were compared to data from 25 healthy controls (including 5 asymptomatic homosexual men). Compared with that of controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients tended to have more lymphocytes and significantly more neutrophils; a lower OKT4/OKT8 ratio, due to an increase in total OKT8 cells; and normal total OKT4 cell counts, despite a significant decrease in numbers of OKT4 cells in peripheral blood. Patients also had significantly more IgG-releasing cells and higher IgG levels than controls in lavage fluid. These data show that, in the lung lining fluid of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, significant alterations in cellular and humoral immunity exist that differ in several important respects from immunity in controls and from corresponding changes in patients peripheral blood. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Patrolling Monocytes Promote the Pathogenesis of Early Lupus-Like Glomerulonephritis Researchers found that glomerulonephritis was driven by TLRs but, remarkably, proceeded independently of immune complexes. Rather, disease in three different mouse models and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by glomerular accumulation of patrolling monocytes, a cell type with an emerging key function in vascular inflammation. [J Clin Invest] Full Article Lipopolysaccharide Inhalation Recruits Monocytes and Dendritic Cell Subsets to the Alveolar Airspace The authors used lipopolysaccharide inhalation to induce acute inflammation in healthy volunteers and examined the impact on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood mononuclear phagocyte repertoire. Classical monocytes and two dendritic cell subsets were expanded in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eight hours after lipopolysaccharide inhalation. [Nat Commun] Full Article FcγRIIb Differentially Regulates Pre-Immune and Germinal Center B ...
Background: Cytologic examination of specimens obtained from the respiratory tract is a lung cancer diagnostic procedure with high specificity, but moderate sensitivity. The use of molecular biomarkers may enhance the sensitivity of cytologic examination in the detection of lung cancer. Methods: Complement factor H, a protein secreted by lung cancer cells, was quantified in a series of bronchoalveolar lavage supernatants from lung cancer patients and patients with non-malignant respiratory diseases. Albumin, total protein content, and hemoglobin were also analyzed. Results were validated in independent sets of bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum supernatants. Results: There was a significantly higher concentration of factor H in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from lung cancer patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the factor H test was 82% and 77%, respectively. These results were validated in an independent set of patients with nearly identical results. Furthermore, 70% and 45% of ...
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations of interleukin 36 (IL-36) and Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A total of 35 children with M. pneumnoiae pneumonia (MPP) and 15 control subjects were enrolled. BALF concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and clinical profiles of children with MPP were obtained. Children with MPP had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to control subjects (both P < 0.05). Meanwhile, children with pleural effusion had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to children without pleural effusion (both P < 0.05). BALF concentration of sB7-H3 was strongly associated with concentration of IL-36 (r = 0.796, P < 0.0001) and sB7-H3 was correlated with duration of fever (r = 0.427, P = 0.11) and length of stay (r = 0.345, P = 0.043). Both concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were significantly
Vitamin E acetate was universally found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with vaping lung injury, providing the first direct evidence of vitamin E acetate at the site of injury.
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Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Refractory pneumonitis. A 69-year-old man status post trauma, slightly prolonged respiratory failure status post tracheostomy, requires another bronchoscopy for further evaluation of refractory pneumonitis.
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bronchoalveolar definition: Adjective (comparative more bronchoalveolar, superlative most bronchoalveolar) 1. Relating to both the bronchi and the alvioli of the lungs...
The pathophysiological role of inflammation in lung diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well established. Quantifying lung inflammation is relevant for the management of inflammatory airway diseases as it may indicate that pharmacological intervention is required before symptom onset and reduction in lung function. Moreover, monitoring of airway inflammation might be useful in the follow-up of patients with asthma and COPD, and for guiding pharmacological therapy. Quantification of pulmonary inflammation is currently based more on invasive methods including the analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, bronchoscopy, and bronchial biopsies, semi-invasive methods such as sputum induction, and the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and urine, which are likely to reflect systemic rather than lung inflammation. Interest in the identification of non-invasive biomarkers for inflammatory airway diseases has been growing. Along these years less invasive ...
To transport BAL samples from the field, pour samples into EDTA tubes or dilute 50:50 with grain alcohol or Vodka (100 Proof) and transport in clot tubes. Dont drink and drive! ...
This project will identify the characteristic immune cell profiles for two patient groups with allergic reactions with or without specific IgE in serum, also compared with healthy controls.
The figure above shows the overall detectability of the specified assay in a range of different mouse sample types. Detectability in each sample matrix is presented as the mean % of all samples included in the validation studies that could be measured above the limit of detection (LOD).. Dilution of samples may be necessary for some sample matrices other than plasma or serum to achieve optimal assay performance - the data shown above represents the values obtained at the optimal dilution identified in each case. Details regarding possible dilutions should be discussed with your Olink representative prior to commencing the study. The data is compiled from multiple studies comprising a range of healthy and disease samples, including samples from genetically modified mouse lines in some cases.. (Note: CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; BAL = bronchoalveolar lavage).. ...
Trimesulfin Balsámico is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Trimesulfin Balsámico is available on the Drugs.com website.
Confused on this one. Inpatient visist: When a Intensivist does a procedure of BAL Lavage and its done on both lungs. Is this report twice with CPT 3
differential cell counting in mixed cultures - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: hello, i will be culturing neurons and macrophages together in a mixed culture. does anyone know of any methods for counting one cell type alone?
Also known as: bal, Bal., Bal, BaL, Ba.L, Ba-L. An, Ba-L, BA¶l, BAl, BAL., BAL, BA-L, B=Al, B.A.L., B.A.L, B. A. L., B-aL, B-AL ...
Data & statistics on Acute Lung Injury: MRNA expression of Interleukin-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells before injury and after injury. NG, acute lung injury with normoglycemia group; HG, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia group; HG-VI, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia treated with intravenous insulin group; HG-AI, acute lung injury with hyperglycemia treated with aerosolized insulin group; IL-8, interleukin-8. Boxes extend ..., Particle-induced acute lung injury. Results obtained from analysis performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples recovered from animals at 24 h post-exposure. Animals were exposed by intratracheal instillation to: saline ( E); OFA100 ( C); OFA400 (P); ROFA#6 ( 1); or ARD ([). Various biomarkers of acute lung injury were assessed such as: A) edema/secretory activity (protein/mL); B) edema (albumin/mL); ..., Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung Hypothesen Theoretische Grundlagen der Hypothesen Patienten und Methodik Patienten Pneumonie Acute lung injury / Acute
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of bronchoalveolar cells augments the late eosinophilic response to segmental allergen challenge. AU - Hunt, L. W.. AU - Gleich, G. J.. AU - Kita, H.. AU - Weiler, D. A.. AU - Schroeder, D. R.. AU - Vuk Pavlovic, Z.. AU - Sur, Sanjiv. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: In patients with quiescent asthma, macrophages are the most prevalent cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Through activation via their FcεRII receptors or by acting as antigen-presenting cells, macrophages could, in theory, promote the late airway response to allergen. Objective: In order to investigate the importance of macrophages and other airway luminal cells in inducing the late airway response, a novel washout experiment was designed. Methods: Five patients with ragweed-allergic asthma underwent bronchoscopy and segmental bronchial challenge with either normal saline or short ragweed extract in two segments of one lung. In a third segment of the opposite lung, 12 successive BALs ...
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains a major cause for morbidity and mortality in patients (pts) with hematologic malignancies. As culture-based methods only yield results in a minority of patients, using non-culture-based methods for detection of aspergillosis in clinical specimens becomes increasingly important. Analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is promising, however, the influence of current antifungal drugs on the performance of this diagnostic tool remains controversial.. The aim of the trial is to elucidate on the performance of BAL PCR under antifungal treatment.. Patients with high risk of invasive aspergillosis and lung infiltrates are sampled via BAL, the sample is analyzed for fungal DNA by Apsergillus specific PCR. Clinical data including treatment data is assessed and evaluated. ...
This study was designed to determine whether cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid represent a reflection of disease activity in sarcoidosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells were obtained from 22 patients with sarcoidosis and from 10 normal control subjects and investigated by immunocytological methods. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the relative proportions of phenotypically distinct subsets of macrophages and lymphocytes in the patients with sarcoidosis and to correlate them with clinical indices, such as disease duration, serum angiotensin converting enzyme, the chest radiograph, and results of pulmonary function tests. Patients with sarcoidosis had a higher percentage than the normal subjects of macrophage like cells expressing RFD1 (a class II associated antigen preferentially expressed by dendritic cells), an epithelioid cell antigen (RFD9), and a circulating monocyte antigen (UCHMI). The increase in RFD1+ cells appeared to be due to detection of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noninvasive quantification of airway inflammation following segmental allergen challenge with functional MR imaging. T2 - A proof of concept study. AU - Renne, Julius. AU - Hinrichs, Jan. AU - Schönfeld, Christian. AU - Gutberlet, Marcel. AU - Winkler, Carla. AU - Faulenbach, Cornelia. AU - Jakob, Peter. AU - Schaumann, Frank. AU - Krug, Norbert. AU - Wacker, Frank. AU - Hohlfeld, Jens M.. AU - Vogel-Claussen, Jens. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate oxygen-enhanced T1-mapping magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a noninvasive method for visualization and quantification of regional inflammation after segmental allergen challenge in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects.Materials and After institutional review board approval, nine asthmatic Methods: and four healthy individuals gave written informed consent. MR imaging (1.5 T) was performed by using an inversion-recovery snapshot fast low-angle shot sequence before (0 hours) and 6 hours and 24 hours ...
Background. In acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia, a procoagulant shift is observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The effect of a primarily extrapulmonary infection on coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pulmonary compartment is unclear. Methods. In 35 patients, 87 bronchoalveolar lavages were performed on the day of operation for secondary peritonitis (day 0) and on days 2 and 3 after surgery. Two noninfectious control groups were included: subjects undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage after elective surgery (n = 8) and those undergoing long-term mechanical ventilation (n = 10). Results. In BALF from patients with peritonitis, a tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIaâ€"mediated activation of coagulation was shown (high levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes). Levels of fibrinolysis activators decreased rapidly after day 0, whereas levels of inhibitors increased. The net effect was reduced fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator activity). The sequential comparison of plasma ...
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman, former smoker since September 2012 (18 pack-years), with a history of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. No infiltrates were observed in a chest X-ray performed in 2012. Skin prick tests showed sensitization to cat dander and grass and olive pollen.. She was admitted in 2014 for an acute episode of dyspnea, breath sounds, and non-productive cough without fever. Chest X-ray revealed an alveolointersticial pattern predominantly in the lung bases. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral patchy ground glass infiltrates. Bronchoscopy was performed with transbronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage: neutrophils: 11%; eosinophils: 85.9%; lymphocytes: 0.6%. Biopsy showed a histological pattern of pulmonary eosinophilia suggestive of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), with a focal pattern typical of organizing pneumonia. Lung function tests highlighted a restrictive pattern with carbon monoxide diffusion changes: FVC 1830 - 59%; FEV1 ...
Lu et al prospectively studied 165 patients with culture-confirmed (bronchoalveolar lavage samples), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii.
Table II shows differential count for the three patients. There is increased neutrophil count after CPB with predominance of macrophages in both samples.. DISCUSSION. Inflammation may be understood as a protective response against the consequences of tissue aggression, organ dysfunction and cell necrosis 10, being a systemic process present even in the absence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) 11. However, if SIRS evolves to organ dysfunction, the inflammatory response may be noxious 10 with pulmonary function changes, renal failure, multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS) and shock 11.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is frequent and contributes to morbidity, mortality and hospitalization-related costs 12. The understanding of postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathophysiology is critical for postoperative clinical pulmonary complication evaluation and the definition of therapeutic regimens.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathogenesis is associated to changes in gas ...
Case Report Our case is a 4 month old, Sudanese boy, residing in Qatar, who presented to our hospital with fever for two weeks. He remained febrile in the hospital for two weeks, despite receiving Intravenous antibiotics for presumed partially treated meningitis. He also received IVIG for the suspicion of atypical Kawasaki. Computerised tomography of the head and abdomen and bone marrow studies were also inconclusive. The mother subsequently revealed that a previous child had died during infancy with prolonged fever and no specific diagnosis. This alerted the treating physicians to the possibility of immunodeficiency. Our patient had received BCG vaccine at birth without any complications, and three gastric aspirate samples were negative for tuberculosis. A broncho-alveolar lavage was performed, despite the absence of any respiratory symptoms, to exclude any unusual organisms causing prolonged fever. The broncho-alveolar lavage revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis which was resistant to Isoniazid ...
Metagenomic technologies enable the study of microbial genetic material in human biomedical sample types such as stool, nasal, oral, urogenital, skin and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In addition, environmental samples such as soil, water, air and biofilms can be also be analyzed. Metagenomic data can not only be used to examine healthy microbiomes and shed light on causes, effects, and future therapies for a variety of diseases, but it can also be useful to help understand the environments microbial biodiversity. QIAGEN provides next-generation sequencing technologies for metagenomics, as well as qPCR assays and arrays for verification of sequencing results and screening for specific bacterial species, virulence factor genes, and antibiotic resistance genes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intratracheal administration of endotoxin and cytokines. T2 - VIII. LPS induces E-selectin expression; anti-E-selectin and soluble E-selectin inhibit acute inflammation. AU - Ulich, T. R.. AU - Howard, S. C.. AU - Remick, D. G.. AU - Yi, E. S.. AU - Collins, T.. AU - Guo, K.. AU - Yin, S.. AU - Keene, J. L.. AU - Schmuke, J. J.. AU - Steininger, C. N.. AU - Welply, J. K.. AU - Williams, J. H.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - E-selectin is an inducible endothelial adhesion molecule that binds neutrophils. E-selectin mRNA is not constitutively detectable in the lungs of rats. Intratracheal injection of LPS induces pulmonary E-selectin mRNA expression at 2-4 h. Intratracheal injection of LPS followed at 2 and 4 h by intravenous injection of mouse F(ab) 2 or F(ab) anti-E-selectin monoclonal antibody inhibits the emigration of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space at 6 h by 50-70% . TNF and IL-6 bioactivity are not decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after treatment with ...
BioAssay record AID 423142 submitted by ChEMBL: Effect on pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mouse lung assessed as change in peribronchiolar inflammation after 5 days by histopathological analysis.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that is characterized by airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction and the influx of pro-inflammatory cells, mostly eosinophils in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Amongst the many physiopathological roles attributed to endothelins (ETs), one is to modulate pulmonary functions. It is established that Balb/c mice develop allergen-induced Th2-cytokine gene expression, airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness whereas C57Bl/6 mice are much less reactive. In the present study, we investigated the roles of ETs in these two murine models of allergic asthma (AA). Mice were sensitized and challenged with either saline (S) and/or ovalbumin (O) over 6 weeks (groups S/S and O/O) and treated chronically with ABT-627 or its vehicle. Twenty-four hours after the last sensitization, challenged mice developed a marked airway inflammatory response characterized by the accumulation of total inflammatory cells (a 21-fold increase) in the bronchoalveolar space, ...
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Principal Investigator:HAYASHI Seiji, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
An alteration in the balance between a T-helper type 2 cell (Th2) response and a Th1 response may predispose to the development of bronchial asthma. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has an ability to promote both Th1 and Th2 responses, depending on the surrounding cytokine environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of asthma. In this study, we used a C57BL/6 mouse model of allergic asthma to examine the effects of antioxidants on the regulation of IL-18 expression. Our present study with ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma revealed that ROS production in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids was increased and that administration of l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid or α-lipoic acid reduced the increased levels of ROS, the increased expression of IL-18 protein and mRNA, airway ...
... u. ... .... _n of lung parenchyma by CD8+ cells ~hl!eOI~cut immunohistological observations f!CU:ii~J CD8+ infiltrate in the group of continued to ~ regularly exposed, and of CD4+ cells after 6 months in the lungs of were not. indicate that alveolitis in RP patients is a and its intensity might be modulated by to relevant antigens, amount of antigen of sensitization, thus explaining the BAL lymphocytosis observed in patients exposed to the specific antigens compared are noL Increased cells with supprcssor/cyin the lung of these patients is related to a local immunological response . These mechanisms may be relevant in the pathogenesis of HP.
This is because co-receptor CD4 amplifies the signal produced for the T-cell receptor by recruiting lymphocyte protein kinase Lck, which consequently triggers a cascade of gatherings leading to T-cell activation. Curiously, DHLA didnt downregulate CD4 from the surface area of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [a hundred forty five]. Instead or Along with CD4 downregulation, the immunomodulatory Houses of LA may perhaps include the upregulation of cAMP in T-cells and organic killer cells [146]. Mobile migration and neovascularization were being also inhibited by LA (86 μg/day in consuming h2o) in c57/black mice injected with Kaposis sarcoma inside of a matrigel sponge, in addition to in nude mice injected with KS cells [147]. In the mouse product of bronchial asthma, dietary LA considerably attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness, reduced the eosinophil depend among the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and considerably improved pathologic lesion scores with the lungs [148]. LA inhibits ...
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
The purpose of the study is two-fold: (1) to further evaluate the safety and potential immunogenicity of GLASSIA following IV administration via in-line filtration; and, (2) to assess the effects of GLASSIA augmentation therapy on the levels of A1PI and various biomarkers in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous (IV) administration at a dosage of 60 mg/kg Body weight (BW)/week active A1PI protein for 25 weeks in subjects with emphysema due to congenital A1PI deficiency ...
The differential cytology reflected mainly that described for healthy infants with lymphocyte counts at the upper range level. A positive association between BAL CD8+ lymphocytes and neutrophils and endobronchial reticular basement membrane was found. Detectable levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-23, and IL-33 were found, whereas levels of Th2-type cytokine proteins were low. Frequent wheeze was the only clinical characteristic significantly related to detectable combined pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Lung function did not correlate with any cytokine ...
Hung, Hung-Chang et al. Effectiveness of the BDProbeTec ET system for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Braz J Infect Dis, June 2012, vol.16, no.3, p.242-249. ISSN 1413- ...
Sample Processing is to collect target protein. The processing shall be done as gently as possible as protein denatures or degrades easily. It is also very important to store processed sample, especially avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles. Processed sample can be sub-packed and sealed. Expiry Time: a week at 4 degree; a month at -20 degree; two months at -80 degree. Just put sample in room until its temperature reaches room temperature before using the sample. It is forbidden to heat the sample to melt the sample.. Collect sample and then centrifuge it at 10000rpm for 10 minutes at 4 degree. Then collect supernatant and store it at -80 degree, avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles.. ...
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cell analysis for the diagnosis and management of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been a subject of debate and controversy. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) sponsored a committee of international experts to examine all relevant literature on BAL in ILD and provide recommendations concerning the use of BAL in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected ILD. PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for (1) the performance and processing of BAL and (2) the interpretation of BAL nucleated immune cell patterns and other BAL characteristics in patients with suspected ILD ...
This study examines the influence of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (Hochuekkito; TJ-41) on the inflammatory response in alveolar macrophage in hyperglycemic mice. BALB/c mice (males, six to eight weeks old) were divided into three groups: A, B, and C. From the outset, group A and B were fed an ordinary diet, whereas TJ-41 was given to group C. After the initiation of these diets, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ), 250mg/g in mice of groups B and C. Four weeks after the start of these diets, blood-glucose levels were measured, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Alveolar macrophages were sampled, and those demonstrating blood-glucose levels of more than 200 mg/dL were selected for use. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR2: peptidoglycan [PGN], TLR4: LPS, TLR5: flagellin [FLG]) were employed to stimulate pulmonary-alveolar macrophages, and ELISA was used to measure TNF-a production. TLR expression on pulmonary-alveoli surface was evaluated on the basis of the emergence of each ...
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Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; Nasopharyngeal swab. Please see Virology Specimen Collection Instructions at stanfordlab.com/esoteric/Virology.html ...
The integrity of the epithelial lining in intestines of cKO mice is maintained.(A) Tamoxifen-treated F/F;Cre (cKO, n = 11) and littermate F/F controls (Ctrl
In the current version of the Excel Add-in, it is not possible to create a connection to a saved view or module with a total cell count of the
Lining up plans in San Cristóbal? Whether youre a local, new in town, or just passing through, youll be sure to find something on Eventbrite that piques your interest.
Hľadali ste balíky ktorých názvy obsahujú ruby-cocaine v sady bionic-updates, všetky sekcie a architektúry ppc64el. Ľutujeme hľadané kľúčové slová nevrátili žiadne výsledky. ...
Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the BL group 95.6% were chrysotile fibres whereas in the AC group amphiboles accounted for 93.1%. The size characteristics of the central fibres differed for chrysotile and amphibole AB, the former being shorter and thinner. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or ...
Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms.1,5. Pneumoconiosis is still an important health problem in Turkey. In a survey of 12 300 coal workers, approximately 12% of the miners were found to have pneumoconiosis.4 The present study is the first to evaluate the cellular profile in miners in Turkey.. The yield of cells in BAL fluid is significantly dependent on the condition of the prealveolar airway.7 Recovery of fluid may markedly be attenuated in subjects with airflow obstruction.8 Occupational dust exposure leads to airflow obstruction and focal emphysema adjacent to the coal macule. The instilled BAL fluid may be trapped in the alveolar space in such subjects with airflow obstruction and emphysema.6,9 We observed airflow obstruction in all miners, except those with simple pneumoconiosis, compared with the smoker and/or the non-smoker controls. The amount of recovered BAL fluid was significantly lower in all miners with or without pneumoconiosis than in the non-smoker ...
As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL) is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV). During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right ...
A synthetic protein-free lung surfactant composition is utilized to temporarily substitute for natural lung surfactant in the mammalian lung where such natural lung surfactant is absent or in low concentration. The synthetic surfactant composition consists essentially of a major amount of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-glycerophosphoryl choline (DPPC), and a minor amount of a fatty alcohol, preferably a fatty alcohol having from 14 to 18 carbon atoms, and especially n-hexdecan-1-ol. The synthetic surfactant composition is administered directly into the lungs of a distressed subject to create a film on the alveolar interfacial surfaces and reduce surface tension. Expansion of the alveolar spaces is thereby facilitated.
The CDC has concluded that vitamin E acetate in vaping oils containing THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is responsible for many cases of vaping-related lung injury.. There have been over 2,051 confirmed and probable cases of e-cigarette or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI), with 39 deaths.. CDC made its advisement based on the consistent presence of vitamin E acetate in 29 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with vaping-related lung injury, from 10 states between August and October 2019. Vitamin E acetate was present in the three patients who had reported using nicotine-only products; THC was found in 23 of 28 samples tested.. Purveyors of illicit vaping liquids are known to add vitamin E acetate to the liquid products as a cheap additive to make the psychoactive ingredients (THC and/or nicotine) go farther, and increase profits.. CDC was careful to state that the investigation is ongoing, and that other agents could be identified as contributors to EVALI.. The advisements came through ...
en] OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the endotoxin level in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and to propose to the clinician a guide in the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective studies to investigate the relation between endotoxin level and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL and to test the predictive value of a defined threshold. SETTING: University hospital general intensive care unit. PATIENTS: In the first part of the study, 77 consecutive ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of nosocomial pneumonia between January 1995 and January 1996. In the second part of the study, 93 consecutive ventilated patients studied prospectively between February 1996 and April 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. Bacterial species were determined with standard techniques. The detection of endotoxin in BAL was made using a quantitative chromogenic Limulus ...
Elevation of procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of dogs with idiopathic pulmonary ...
Calhoun, W.J.; Christman, J.W.; Ershler, W.B.; Graham, W.G.; Davis, G.S., 1986: Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers
Cell components in the peripheral lung area were examined in 24 asthmatic subjects by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchoscopic lung biopsy (TBLB). In cases with increased percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in the peripheral lung tissue was observed with a high frequency. The increased percentage of eosinophils in BALF correlated with the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchiolo-alveolar region. A reverse correlation was observed between the macrophage count in the alveolar region and the percentage of eosinophils and lymphocytes in BALF. No significant correlation was present between the percentage of neutrophils in BALF and the infiltration of any type of cell in the lung tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-12 inhibits eotaxin secretion of cultured primary lung cells and alleviates airway inflammation in vivo. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Huang, Wan Ching. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The mechanisms that cause the inflammation of airway and lung tissue in asthma have been studied extensively. It is noted that type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related cytokines could decrease the accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue and relieve airway constriction. But the therapeutic mechanisms of Th1 cytokines remain unclear. In this study, interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA plasmid as a therapeutic reagent was delivered intravenously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from IL-12 treated and control mice, and analyzed for cell composition and eotaxin level. The results showed that IL-12 DNA plasmid could effectively inhibit eosinophilia and airway inflammation in vivo. The level of eotaxin in BAL fluid also decreased. To further investigate the ...
BACKGROUND Checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) is a highly morbid complication of immune checkpoint immunotherapy (ICI), one which precludes the continuation of ICI. Yet, the mechanistic underpinnings of CIP are unknown.METHODS To better understand the mechanism of lung injury in CIP, we prospectively collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in ICI-treated patients with (n = 12) and without CIP (n = 6), prior to initiating first-line therapy for CIP (high-dose corticosteroids). We analyzed BAL immune cell populations using a combination of traditional multicolor flow cytometry gating, unsupervised clustering analysis, and BAL supernatant cytokine measurements.RESULTS We found increased BAL lymphocytosis, predominantly CD4+ T cells, in patients with CIP. Specifically, we observed increased numbers of BAL central memory T cells, evidence of type I polarization, and decreased expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 in BAL Tregs, ...
Allergic disorders, such as asthma, are symptomatic reactions of the immune system to common and innocuous environmental antigens. These inflammatory disorders are caused by aberrant immune regulation in which various signalling receptors are involved. Pathogen recognition receptors like the TLRs and NLRs families of receptors are one of the key components of the innate immune system. The function of these receptors has been linked with susceptibility towards the development of allergic diseases, including asthma, making the TLRs and NLRs good targets for novel effective therapies of allergic diseases. In this study the mRNA expression levels of different TLRs and NLRs in the lung tissue in mild and severe mouse models of allergic asthma were measured by q-PCR. In addition, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and cell numbers analysed. In the mild and severe asthma models different TLR and NLR mRNA expression profiles are observed. In the severe asthma model, a higher cell influx ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to asthma exacerbations and development of inhaled corticosteroid insensitivity. Complete resistance to systemic corticosteroids is rare and most patients lie on a continuum of steroid responsiveness. The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity of combined ovalbumin- (Ova) and LPS-induced functional and inflammatory responses to inhaled and systemic corticosteroid in conscious guinea-pigs, to test the hypothesis that the route of administration affects its sensitivity. Guinea-pigs were sensitised to Ova and challenged with inhaled Ova alone or combined with LPS. Airways function was determined by measuring specific airways conductance via whole-body plethysmography. Airways hyperresponsiveness to histamine was determined pre- and 24h post-Ova challenge. Airways inflammation and underlying mechanisms were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts and lung tissue cytokines. Vehicle or dexamethasone was administered by once-daily ...
Guerra and Baughman obtained BAL for quantitative bacterial culture at one dilution in 54 patients receiving mechanical ventilation who underwent bronchoscopy for clinical pneumonia (30 patients) or a noninfectious process (24 patients). In the pneumonia group, nine patients had an opportunistic infection and three had either Legionella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The remaining 18 patients were believed to have bacterial pneumonia. Using a diagnostic threshold of 104 cfu/ml, a significant growth was seen in 16 patients (89 percent) with pneumonia and in none of those without. Seventy percent of patients with pneumonia were receiving antimicrobials and none of the significant organisms (^lO cfu/ml) was sensitive to the administered antibiotic. Seventy-five percent of patients in the control group were receiving antimicrobials, and this treatment was discontinued after results of cultures were available. proventil inhaler ...
Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a mucinous variant of lepidic predominant lung adenocarcinoma (LPA) and associated with a worse prognosis. We postulated that cytokine expression would enable us to differentiate IMA from LPA in terms of prognosis and acquisition of pro-tumoural capacities. A 30-cytokine panel was assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from IMA (n=38), LPA (n=25) and control samples (n=7). We investigated the expression of differentially expressed cytokines and splice variants of their receptors in surgical samples. The presence of EGFR and KRAS mutations were determined. We also examined the expression of cytokines and splice variants of their receptors in different cell lines, exploring their functional impact on signalling pathways, proliferation and migration. Only C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) was differentially expressed, namely overexpressed in IMA BALF compared with LPA. CXCL10 overexpression in BALF was linked to a worse prognosis. In surgical samples,
With approximately nine million new cases and the attributable cause of death of an estimated two millions people every year there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs and treatment regimens targeting tuberculosis. The tuberculosis drug development pathway is however not ideal, containing non-predictive model systems and unanswered questions that may increase the risk of failure during late-phase drug development. The aim of this thesis was hence to develop pharmacometric tools in order to optimize the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens.. The General Pulmonary Distribution model was developed allowing for prediction of both rate and extent of distribution from plasma to pulmonary tissue. A distribution characterization that is of high importance as most current used anti-tuberculosis drugs were introduced into clinical use without considering the pharmacokinetic properties influencing drug distribution to the site of action. The developed optimized ...
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1Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Fortis Hospital, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India2Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Fortis Hospital, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India, SRL Diagnostics, Fortis Hospital, NOIDA, India3Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Fortis Hospital, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...
November 2014. Attenuation of allergic airways inflammation by an extract of Hymenocardia acida Tracheal hyperresponsiveness, airway mucus production and bronchoalveolar inflammation are the major components of asthma. Here, we aim to investigate the role in the control of asthma of a bioactive plant extracted from Hymenocardia acida in a physiological and pathophysiological model. The effect of H. acida crude extract (HACE) on total cellular components of bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluids was performed on ovalbumin.... Author(s): Fatou Bintou Sar, Mamadou Sarr, Mama S.Y. Diallo, Saliou Ngom, Lamine Gueye, Abdoulaye Samb, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina and Annelise Lobstein ...
Director/Contact: Chad Steele, Ph.D. ([email protected]). Luminex is a multiplexed data acquisition and analysis platform for microsphere-based flow cytometric analysis. This technology is currently widely utilized to simultaneously detect and quantify up to 100 different antibodies, cytokines, growth factors, MMPs and even nucleic acids in human and animal samples. In our laboratory, we have employed Luminex-based multiplex suspension array technology (Bio-Plex, Bio-Rad) to quantify inflammatory mediators in human and animal samples and have successfully demonstrated its effectiveness as a platform.. To optimize immunological determinations of inflammatory mediators in samples of limited volume, including sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma or serum, we invested in developing and validating Luminex technology. We elected to employ the Bio-Rad based detection system Bio-Plex. This technology has the advantage of having a broader dynamic range than ELISA and thus sample volume is ...
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In this study, we evaluated whether BV could inhibit asthma and whether BV inhibition of asthma could be correlated with regulatory T cells (Treg) activity. We found that BV treatment increased Treg populations and suppressed the production of Th1, Th2 and Th17-related cytokines in an in vitro culture system, including IL2, IL4, and IL17. Interestingly, production of IL10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by Tregs, was significantly augmented by BV treatment. We next evaluated the effects of BV treatment on allergic asthma in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma. Cellular profiling of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly lowered following BV treatment. BV also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark symptom of asthma. In addition, IL4 and IL13 levels in the BAL fluid were decreased in the BV treated group ...
The total cell count of the H33342-stained blastocyst. An H33342-stained blastocyst from the control group revealed a total of 77 visible nuclei observed from d
Mice, Superoxide, Lung, Glutathione, Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Lavage, Lungs, Macrophage, Neutrophil, Oxidative Stress, Smoke, Catalase, Mouse, Inflammation, Superoxide Dismutase, Control Group, Elastase, Emphysema, Euterpe, Inhalation
Erm/Pea3 are downstream of FGF signaling from the mesenchyme, but their responses toward different FGFs are not the same. Further evidence for oxidant-induced vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lung cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. Whole-genome sequencing ...
I buy nexium online consecutive tried following other peoples success formulas back in my first year of business, and honestly. The sensitivity of culture in this setting also is low, reportedly ranging from 30% to 60% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) lasting three to 24 months have compared acamprosate with placebo in more than 4,000 patients. I went on the internet and saw testimonies about a treatment for epilepsy which a doctor offered and i was interested, zantac 150 gsk i got in contact with him and i was able to get the medicine for my son which he used for 5 months as he instructed and it has been over 8 months now he is doing just fine without any allergies or aftermath effects! A serotonin reuptake inhibitor prevents the re-absorption of serotonin, keeping it more available on an ongoing basis. You stop sharing with family and friends because you dont want to be a burden with complaining and spreading negative energy! I should have started at 05% ...
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse/Rat C-C Motif Chemokine 5 / Regulated Upon Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES) in serum, bronchial lavage fluid (BALF), buffered solution or cell culture medium.
RiTradiology.com ดูแลรักษาโดยและเป็นของ น.พ.รัฐชัย แก้วลาย. โลโก้ RiTradiology.com เป็นลิขสิทธิ์ของ น.พ.รัฐชัย แก้วลาย. ข้อมูลส่วนตัวของคุณถือเป็นความลับและจะไม่ถูกเผยแพร่ไปยังบุคคลที่สาม. ข้อมูลใน RiTradiology.com ใช้เป็นแนวทาง, ไม่ใช่เพื่อทดแทน, การให้การวินิจฉัย, รักษาและคำแนะนำสำหรับผู้ป่วย. แพทย์ของคุณอาจให้คำแนะนำในการวินิจฉัยหรือรักษาเป็นอย่างอื่นขึ้นกับข้อมูลและสถานการณ์นั้นๆ. ...
Jiang X, Tian W, Tu AB, Pasupneti S, Shuffle E, Dahms P, Zhang P, Cai H, Dinh TT, Liu B, Cain C, Giaccia AJ, Butcher EC, Simon MC, Semenza GL, Nicolls MR. Endothelial Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2a Is Required for the Maintenance of Airway Microvasculature. Circulation. 2019 01 22; 139(4):502-517 ...
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on chronic eosinophilic pneumonia at PatientsLikeMe. 24 patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Azithromycin, Methocarbamol, Methylprednisolone, Prednisone, and Pregabalin to treat their chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and its symptoms.
Background: Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) is exaggerated and characterized by neutrophil-mediated tissue destruction, but its genesis and mechanisms remain poorly understood. To further define the pulmonary inflammatory response, we conducted a proteome-based screen of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from young children with and without CF experiencing endobronchial infection.. Methods: We collected BALF samples from 45 children younger than 5 years and grouped them according to the presence of respiratory pathogens: 1 x 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL BALF (18 and 12 samples with and without CF, respectively) and ,1 x 105 CFU/mL (23 and 15 samples). BALF proteins were analyzed with SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and H4 ProteinChips®. Proteins were identified and characterized using trypsin digestion, tandem MS, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS, immunoblotting, and ELISA.. Results: The SELDI-TOF MS BALF profiles contained 53 unique, reliably detected ...
Human alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 18 patients with a variety of conditions. For each patient the percentages of AM showing the following properties were determined: (1) staining for the enzymes non-specific esterase (NSE) and acid phosphatase (ACP); (2) in vitro phagocytosis of Candida guillermondii; (3) expression of cell surface markers detected by two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) (1B5 and DA2) and two anti-monocyte/macrophage MoAb (UCHMI and RFD2); and (4) simultaneous phagocytosis of C. guillermondii and staining with the MoAb. In all patients the majority of AM were found to be Ia positive (90 +/- 10%) ACP positive (100%) and NSE positive (97 +/- 4%). In contrast a smaller proportion were UCHM1 and RFD2 positive (77 +/- 11%, 68 +/- 12%) and less were phagocytic (37 +/- 17%). Whilst the total percentage of cells staining with the MoAb was unaltered by phagocytosis, the proportion of UCHM1 or RFD2 positive cells was significantly higher in the phagocytic
Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is a potent interstitial collagenase thought to be expressed mainly by polymorphonuclear neutrophils. To determine whether MMP-8 regulates lung inflammatory or fibrotic responses to bleomycin, we delivered bleomycin by the intratracheal route to wild-type (WT) versus Mmp-8−/− mice and quantified MMP-8 expression, and inflammation and fibrosis in the lung samples. Mmp-8 steady state mRNA and protein levels increase in whole lung and bronchoalveolar lavage samples when WT mice are treated with bleomycin. Activated murine lung fibroblasts express Mmp-8 in vitro. MMP-8 expression is increased in leukocytes in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with control lung samples. Compared with bleomycin-treated WT mice, bleomycin-treated Mmp-8−/− mice have greater lung inflammation, but reduced lung fibrosis. Whereas bleomycin-treated Mmp-8−/− and WT mice have similar lung levels of several pro- and antifibrotic mediators (TGF-β, ...
Detection of P. acnes DNA in BAL cells was significantly more common in the patients with confirmed sarcoidosis. Detection was associated with some indices of disease activity in the lung.
In the past few years, several endemic outbreaks of measles have been recognised, not only in children but also in adults, with severe and, occasionally, even fatal complications, possibly due to delayed diagnosis of the disease in adult medicine and decreasing vaccination rates. Furthermore, the treatment consists of supportive measures only. We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CT findings and pulmonary function testing revealed features of obstructive bronchiolitis; the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids. He fully recovered, and lung function measurement returned to normal values. We conclude that acute measles can present as obstructive bronchiolitis and may be successfully treated with corticosteroids. ...
We detected WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from lungs transplanted into a recipient with Job syndrome by using immunoassays specific for the WUPyV viral protein 1. Co-staining for an epithelial cell marker identified most WUPyV viral protein 1-positive cells as respiratory epithelial cells ...
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels significantly increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatic patients following segmental allergen challenge and this increase well correlates with pulmonary inflammation. Epidemiological, genetic, clinical and experimental data indicate a potential for the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to initiate and exacerbate allergic airway disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribute of TLR4 in S1P-dependent asthma-like disease in mice. BALB/c or TLR4 defective (C3H/HeJ) mice received S1P (10ng/mouse), LPS (0.1µg/mouse) or S1P+LPS. Furthermore, S1P-treated BALB/c mice were injected with the purified rabbit anti-TLR4 antibody (10µg/mouse). S1P administration induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary inflammation associated to an increase in the percentage of dendritic cells and macrophages into the lung of BALB/c mice. These effects were coupled to a reduction of dendritic cells in the mediastinic lymph node. All these S1P-mediated effects were absent
The lung includes a unique structure comprising three functionally different compartments (alveolar, interstitial, and vascular) located in an extreme proximity. alveolar, interstitial, and vascular compartments from the lung. In naive mice, the alveolar compartment contains resident alveolar macrophages predominantly. The interstitial area, gated by occasions adverse Hexarelin Acetate for both intravenous and intratracheal Compact disc45 staining, showed two regular dendritic cell populations, and a Ly6Clo monocyte human population. Expression degrees of MHCII on these interstitial monocytes had been higher than for the vascular Ly6Clo monocyte populations. In mice subjected to acidity aspiration-induced lung damage, this process also clearly recognized the three lung compartments displaying the powerful trafficking of neutrophils and exudative monocytes over the lung compartments during swelling and resolution. This basic in vivo dual-labeling technique escalates the precision and depth of ...
Eosinophilic pneumonia occurs when alveolar spaces are consolidated because of eosinophil inflammation/infiltration, usually with an accompanying eosinophilia of peripheral blood. The diagnosis should be considered when infiltrates on a chest radiograph, often migratory, are associated with blood eosinophilia, and confirmed by demonstrating an excess of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid....
Significant numbers of syncytial cells were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a 42-year-old patient who had SLE with interstitial pneumonia. Electron microscopic study of the BALF cells and positive reverse transcriptase activity in the supernatant of the cultured cells revealed
Using a sensitive single isotope enzymatic assay we measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid histamine in asymptomatic normal (nonallergic), allergic rhinitic, and allergic asthmatic subjects. Normal subjects were found to have little or no detectable amounts of histamine in BAL fluid (11 +/- 11 pg/ml), and few BAL fluid mast cells. In comparison, the allergic rhinitics and allergic asthmatics had much higher amounts of BAL fluid histamine (113 +/- 53 and 188 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively), and a significantly greater number of BAL fluid mast cells. Furthermore, despite having equivalent baseline pulmonary function values, allergic asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels greater than 100 pg/ml required only 7 +/- 2 breath units of methacholine to induce a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20FEV1) while asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels less than 100 pg/ml required 49 +/- 19 breath units (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that allergic asthmatics have ongoing ...
Define eosinophilic pneumonia. eosinophilic pneumonia synonyms, eosinophilic pneumonia pronunciation, eosinophilic pneumonia translation, English dictionary definition of eosinophilic pneumonia. adj. 1. Easily stained by eosin or other acid dyes. Used of a cell or cell structure. 2. Of or relating to eosinophils. adj. having an affinity for eosin...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Foeniculum vulgare mill. Protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through ERK-dependent NF-kB activation. AU - Lee, Hui Su. AU - Kang, Purum. AU - Kim, Ka Young. AU - Seol, Geun Hee. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7 ∼ 10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500 μ l/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally ...
Two hundred and eighty two specimens from 220 patients positive for HIV with respiratory tract symptoms, or febrile illness, or both, were examined for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii. Specimens were either induced sputum samples or bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. To establish the optimal method for laboratory diagnosis a comparison was made of detection of the organism by use of monoclonal antibody and immunofluorescence with conventional silver staining methods. Three commercially available reagents for immunofluorescence were also compared. Immunofluorescence was significantly more sensitive than the silver stain and the best results for immunofluorescence were obtained using. Northumbria Biologicals Ltd reagents.. ...
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, developed as promising anti-tumor drugs, exhibit their anti-inflammatory properties due to their effects on reduction of inflammatory cytokines. To investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in Balb/c mice by intratracheally instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). Before 1 hour of LPS administration, the mice received butyrate (10 mg/kg) orally. The animals in each group were sacrificed at different time point after LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain and lung wet/dry weight ratios were observed. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue homogenates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 in
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by diffuse alveolar accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurs four times more frequently in males than females, most commonly in those 20-50 years of age, and is marked by dyspnea and a typically nonproductive cough. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be idiopathic (primary), associated with lung infections, malignant neoplasms, AIDS, or secondary to inhalation of foreign materials, including insecticides, silica, aluminum, titanium oxide and indium-tin oxide. A neonatal form has been observed in infants with a genetic deficiency of surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B ...
Inhaled pentamidine is mainly deposited into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the lungs. Metabolism: Pentamidine is ... When inhaled through a nebulizer, pentamidine accumulates in the bronchoalveolar fluid of the lungs at a higher concentration ... Ample fluids or intravenous hydration may prevent some nephrotoxicity. Liver: Elevated liver enzymes are associated with ... Additionally, pentamidine does not reach curative levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has a volume of distribution of 286- ...
... it is present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cats undergoing experimentally induced asthma; it stimulates the local ...
"Osteopontin is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial tissue of smoking asthmatics". Cytokine. 61 (3): 713 ...
2001). "Human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein two-dimensional database: study of interstitial lung diseases". ...
"Dietary Perilla Oil Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Ovalbumin-Challenged ...
Allergen inhalation challenge of humans produces rises in the PGD2 levels in their Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, ...
Wattiez R, Hermans C, Bernard A, Lesur O, Falmagne P (June 1999). "Human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: two-dimensional gel ...
Typical inclusions called "Leventhal-Cole-Lillie bodies" can be seen within macrophages in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid. ...
"Novel Neutrophil-derived Proteins in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Indicate and Exaggerated Inflammatory Response in Pediatric ... "Costs of Bronchoalveolar Lavage-Directed Therapy in the First 5 Years of Life for Children with Cystic Fibrosis". Journal of ... "Effect of Bronchoalveolar Lavage-directed Therapy on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection and Structural Lung Injury in Children ... "Safety of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis". Pediatric Pulmnology. 43 (10): 965-72. Thomas CL, ...
"Inhibition of eosinophil activation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from atopic asthmatics by Y-24180, an antagonist to ...
The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contains a higher concentration of ATP ... Following tissue injury in patients with Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), ATP is released into the pertioneal fluid. It binds ...
IL-13 expression has demonstrated to be increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and cells in patients with atopic mild ...
Neutrophils, beta-defensins, leukotrienes, and chemokines can also be detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid injected then ... has a normal neutrophil count detected in BAL fluid, and blood gas (an arterial blood test that measures the amount of oxygen ...
Oudhuis GJ, Beuving J,et al.Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is not ... Diagnostic significance of increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils. Am Rev Respir Dis1990; 142: 642-647. PMID: ... bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 May;143(5 Pt 1):1121-9. PMID: 2024824. ... ശ്വാസനാളാന്തര സ്രവങ്ങൾ (endotracheal aspirates), ശ്വസനികാവായുകോശ ക്ഷാളനം (Bronchoalveloar Lavage; BAL) വഴി കിട്ടുന്ന ദ്രവം [98] ...
... can be measured in a number of biological fluids including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients. " ... and limit markers of inflammation such as eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This ...
... or when increased eosinophils are found in fluid obtained by a bronchoscopy (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid). Association ... changes in multiple areas and fluid in the area surrounding the lungs on a chest x-ray, and greater than 25% eosinophils on a ...
... bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid or brain biopsy specimens on selective agar allows differentiation ...
Subsequent studies of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pediatric patients with asthma and also other severe chronic ... Webley WC, Salva PS, Andrzejewski C, Cirino F, West CA, Tilahun Y, Stuart ES (May 2005). "The bronchial lavage of pediatric ... C. pneumoniae has also been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. C. pneumoniae ...
... and interleukin-10 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with placebo, however, produced a significant reduction in ...
... bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of BAL) and human eosinophils, which are implicated in contributing to human asthma, metabolize ...
... can be measured in a number of biological fluids including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients. " ...
... detection of L1 larvae in feces Microscope detection of eggs or larvae in the coughed up sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ...
... body fluid compartments MeSH A12.207.200 --- body water MeSH A12.207.234 --- bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MeSH A12.207.270 --- ... synovial fluid MeSH A12.207.515 --- intracellular fluid MeSH A12.207.739 --- nasal lavage fluid MeSH A12.207.927 --- urine MeSH ... cyst fluid MeSH A12.383.250 --- dentinal fluid MeSH A12.383.500 --- gingival crevicular fluid MeSH A12.459.529 --- meconium ... cerebrospinal fluid MeSH A12.207.270.300 --- extravascular lung water MeSH A12.207.270.340 --- follicular fluid MeSH A12.207. ...
12 other lipoxygenase or cycloxygenase mebolites showed a statistically significantly increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ...
Elevated levels of IL-17A have been found in the sputum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma and a ... "IL-17 in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesis". The Journal of ...
... cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy) and include nucleic acids-based biomarkers such as gene mutations or ...
... to the overall abnormal airway epithelial damage and there is a significant correlation between RL and bronchoalveolar lavage ... Moreover, the injury to epithelial cells handicaps the lung's ability to pump fluid out of airspaces. Fluid filled airspaces, ... Song W, Wei S, Zhou Y, Lazrak A, Liu G, Londino JD, Squadrito GL, Matalon S. (2010) Inhibition of lung fluid clearance and ... In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ...
... and that 5-oxo-ETE is present in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cats with experimentally induced asthma; these findings ... by bronchoalveolar macrophages isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage washings; and by the human H295R adrenocortical cell ...
0.3-0.4 ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was recovered per animal. One hundred microliter of BALF was mounted on glass ... Indices of lung injury in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. wt = wild-type mouse,mkk3 = mkk3−/− mouse, jnk1 = jnk1−/− mouse, n = 5- ... Necropsy protocol, tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. At the end of the experiment the abdomen and the chest of ... For all animals, total cell count and total protein content were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). ...
Twelve litres of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were drained under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient gained ... in conjunction with examination of fluid obtained from segmental alveolar lavage.[6] The lavage fluid has an opaque milky ... The findings on bronchoscopy were normal, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) only produced a small amount of milky secretions. ... Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child from an informal settlement: 12 litres of fluid drained from the lungs and successful ...
... bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; IS, induced sputum; OW, oropharyngeal washing; SS, spontaneous sputum; NA, nasopharyngeal ... bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and bronchial secretions (BS), and specimens obtained by less invasive techniques such as ... 37 Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and instillation of 150 mL of physiologic saline ...
Knauer-Fischer S, Ratjen F: Lipid-laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a marker for pulmonary aspiration. ... Sias et al. [12] studied the effects of multiple therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavages for the removal of lipid-laden macrophages ... by confirming the presence of lipid within the lower airway by examining fluid obtained either from a bronchoalveolar lavage ( ... Lauque D, Dongay G, Levade T, Caratero C, Carles P: Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Liquid Paraffin Pneumonitis. Chest. 1990, 98: ...
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-. Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis. Anders Tøndell,1,2,3 Torolf Moen ... Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases ... In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 ...
Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis.. Kuo YC1, ... In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, ...
Predictive Role of ADA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Making the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Fariba Binesh and ... Retracted: Predictive Role of ADA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Making the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Pulmonary ... Pulmonary Medicine, "Retracted: Predictive Role of ADA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Making the Diagnosis of Pulmonary ...
Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can be part of the clinical and diagnostic workup of e-cigarette, or vaping, product ... Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can be part of the clinical and diagnostic workup of e-cigarette, or vaping, product ... Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in an Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung ... Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in an Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung ...
... obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. The ... Analysis of fatty acids fractions of phospholipids and neutral lipids from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with ... obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. The ...
In normal bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lymphocytes typically account for fewer than 15% of the total cells. Measurements using ... Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Ware G. Kuschner, MD; James K. Brown, MD ... Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Ann Intern Med. ;119:1050-1051. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-119-10- ... This differential is not sufficient to explain the findings of a mean bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte percentage of 34.5% in ...
Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Ann Intern Med. ;119:1050-1051. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-119-10- ...
T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ... Finally, when analyzing TCR V gene usage by CD8+ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood T cells, a normal V alpha ... T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ... T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ...
Galactomannan detection in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. To assess ... Galactomannan detection in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Cochrane ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells were obtained from 22 patients with sarcoidosis and from 10 normal control subjects and ... This study was designed to determine whether cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid represent a reflection of disease ... Relation between immunocytological features of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical indices in sarcoidosis. ... Relation between immunocytological features of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical indices in sarcoidosis. ...
... and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis. ... Bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners. Cytologic aspects. Rev Fr Mal Respir1983;11:455-66. ... Bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners. Biochemical aspects. Rev Fr Mal Respir1983;11:417-26. ... BAL fluid was studied as previously described.3 The recovered BAL fluid was filtered through three layers of gauze and ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy. ... Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy. ... Significantly lower volumes of lavage fluid were recovered from the smokers with CFA (p , 0.001) and the fluid contained lower ... Bronchoalveolar lavage was used to sample inflammatory cells from the lungs of 51 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing ...
Comparison of IgA Levels in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients With and Without Antibiotic Therapy. The safety and ... Investigators will compare microbiota-dependent Ig production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with and without ... Comparison of IgA Levels in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients With and Without Antibiotic Therapy. ... IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [ Time Frame: 2 weeks of ICU stay ]. ...
Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers. ... Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers. ... Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not ... Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile ...
... Thorax 41(4): 266-273. ... IgG and IgA concentrations were three times greater in lavage fluid from granite workers than the samples from non-industrial ... Immunoglobulin concentrations and lymphocyte counts were determined in bronchoalveolar fluid obtained from nine symptomless, ... in the lavage fluid whereas eight of nine (89%) granite workers had detectable IgM (chi 2 = 8, p less than 0.01). Lymphocyte ...
Haemosiderin-laden macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with diffuse alveolar damage. *F. Maldonado 1 , ... Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. BAL was performed prior to surgical lung biopsy in all patients after a median interval ... Dot plot showing the percentage of haemosiderin-laden macrophages (HLMs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 21 patients with ... Subset analysis of patients with ≥20% haemosiderin-laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. As already noted, seven ...
Cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 166 non-HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumoniaa ... Cellular Profiles of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Their Prognostic Significance for Non-HIV-Infected Patients with ... Cellular Profiles of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Their Prognostic Significance for Non-HIV-Infected Patients with ... Cellular Profiles of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Their Prognostic Significance for Non-HIV-Infected Patients with ...
In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, the AspLFD test showed a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 69.2%, while those ... Evaluation of Aspergillus-Specific Lateral-Flow Device Test Using Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of ... Evaluation of Aspergillus-Specific Lateral-Flow Device Test Using Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of ... Evaluation of Aspergillus-Specific Lateral-Flow Device Test Using Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of ...
Complement factor H is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from patients with lung cancer. Ruben - Pio, Javier ... Complement factor H is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from patients with lung cancer ... Complement factor H is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from patients with lung cancer ... Complement factor H is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum from patients with lung cancer ...
Complement Factor H Is Elevated in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Sputum from Patients with Lung Cancer. Ruben Pio, Javier ... Evaluation of factor H in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Quantification of complement factor H was first done in samples from ... The content of complement factor H was also assessed in an independent series of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from unselected ... Sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination and the factor H and albumin tests in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids ...
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Bronchoalveolar Lavage Chest Pain Dyspnea Endometriosis Erythrocytes Female Hemoptysis Macrophages ... Bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) was performed when catamenial hemoptysis occurred. The BAL fluid showed many erythrocytes, ... A Case of Parenchymal Pulmonary Endometriosis Diagnosed by Cytology of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. ... BAL fluid Hemosiderin-laden macrophages Endometrial stromal cells MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. ...
  • this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unexpectedly, levels of factor H in bronchoalveolar samples correlate with levels of albumin, suggesting that the cause of factor H accumulation in bronchial fluid is not its direct secretion from tumor cells but the exudation of plasma proteins to the bronchial lumen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunoglobulin concentrations and lymphocyte counts were determined in bronchoalveolar fluid obtained from nine symptomless, healthy, non-smoking granite workers (mean age 45.6, range 22-56 years) and nine normal, non-smoking, non industrial controls (mean age 22.8, range 21-32 years). (eurekamag.com)
  • In addition, cadherin 5 (CDH5) was found to correlate positively with lymphocyte cell numbers in BAL fluid. (scilifelab.se)
  • To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (elsevier.com)
  • In each patient with the 2 gene mutations in BAL fluid, mutation type and location were the same as those of the primary tumor. (cdc.gov)
  • 02). CONCLUSIONS: a) TNF-alpha alters the amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and possibly phosphatidylglycerol present in the lavage-accessible space of the isolated perfused rat lung. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perfluorocarbon lavage can be used to collect unmodified ASL from the distal lung. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of biomarkers for pediatric BPD and PH that have been identified in clinical studies using various biological fluids. (frontiersin.org)
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. (ac.be)
  • Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. (bmj.com)
  • The normal albumin concentration suggests that differences in permeability do not account for all of the increased immunoglobulin concentrations found in granite workers' lavage fluid and that some immunoglobulin is locally synthesised. (eurekamag.com)
  • Eight of nine normal volunteers (89%) had no detectable IgM (less than 30 ng/ml) in the lavage fluid whereas eight of nine (89%) granite workers had detectable IgM (chi 2 = 8, p less than 0.01). (eurekamag.com)
  • Immunocytological analysis of lavage cells offers a probe for studying the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis and may be of value in monitoring disease activity. (bmj.com)
  • a bronchoscope is wedged into a bronchus and sterile saline is pumped in and then removed along with the fluid and cells to be analyzed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The fluid is then aspirated and inspected for pathogens, malignant cells, and mineral bodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from nano-TiO2 (5mg/kg)-exposed rats 0 (n = 10), 1 (n = 20), 2 (n = 15), 8 (n = 11), 16 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), and 90 (n = 6) days post-intratracheal instillation. (nih.gov)
  • Brenchley, Jason M. / Reconstitution of CD4 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy . (elsevier.com)
  • Reference : Correlation between endotoxin level and bacterial count in bronchoalveolar lavage flu. (ac.be)
  • The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the Limulus assay still had a good discrimination power in the prediction of significant bacterial count in BAL fluid. (ac.be)
  • Targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the bacterial community structure and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to detect features in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (biomedcentral.com)