Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Peritoneal Lavage: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C57BLSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Rats, Inbred BNProteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 12: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.SmokeInterleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B: A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Berylliosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/657)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (2/657)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

RANTES, IFN-gamma, CCR1, and CCR5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavage mononuclear cells during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques. (3/657)

Primary infection of macaques with pathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (as a model of HIV infection in humans) represents a unique opportunity to study early lentivirus/host interactions. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal relationship linking SIV replication and dissemination and the expression of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and the SIV/HIV coreceptor CCR5 in different tissues during acute SIV infection of macaques. Four cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a pathogenic primary isolate of SIVmac251. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of RANTES and CCR5 mRNA in fresh isolated mononuclear cells from blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavages. These expressions were compared to those of IFN-gamma as an indicator of the development of the immune response and to another receptor for RANTES, CCR1, which is not described as a coreceptor for SIV/HIV-1 entry. An enhancement of CCR1/CCR5 mRNA expression was noticed during primary SIVmac251 infection of macaques, mainly in tissue. In the three different compartments investigated, IFN-gamma and RANTES overexpression was noticed by the time of systemic viral replication containment. Our results put CCR5 and RANTES mRNA expression back in the context of inflammatory and immune responses to SIV primary infection.  (+info)

Cigarette smoking decreases interleukin-8 secretion by human alveolar macrophages. (4/657)

Cigarette smoking can impair pulmonary immune function, and hence influences the development of lung diseases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory peptide and a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils, and is produced by both immune and non-immune cells including monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). We investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on the secretion of IL-8 by human AM. The IL-8 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was much higher in smokers than in non-smokers (18.4 +/- 3.9 vs 4.1 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1; P < 0.005). However, spontaneous IL-8 secretion by cultured AM was lower in smokers than in non-smokers (46.8 +/- 12.7 vs 124.1 +/- 24.0 ng ml-1; P < 0.01). When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), AM from smokers secreted significantly less IL-8 than those from non-smokers at all tested concentrations of LPS. In contrast, the amount of IL-8 secreted by peripheral blood monocytes with or without LPS stimulation was comparable in smokers and non-smokers. These observations indicate that smoking decreases IL-8 secretion by AM, which may modify or decrease the inflammatory response in the lung.  (+info)

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. (5/657)

We describe the case of a 53-year-old Philadelphia-chromosome-positive woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The possible mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PAP are discussed based on the clinical and laboratory data for this patient as well as on experimental and clinical data reported in the literature.  (+info)

Role of pleural lavage cytology before resection for primary lung carcinoma. (6/657)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) in resection for primary lung carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognostic significance of PLC before manipulation is still controversial. METHODS: Cytology of pleural lavage immediately after thoracotomy but before any manipulation of the lung was examined in 500 consecutive patients with lung cancer with no pleural effusion who underwent pulmonary resections. Eighteen patients who already had pleural dissemination were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Eighteen of 482 patients (3.7%) had positive cytologic findings. The positivity of PLC was significantly correlated with histology, extension of tumor to pleura, and presence of lymphatic permeation or vascular involvement by tumor. Positive lavage findings were seen only in adenocarcinoma. Because 6.3% of the patients with adenocarcinoma had positive cytologic findings, it is vital to perform PLC before curative resections for lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The 5-year survival rates of the patients having negative and positive lavage findings were 52.9% and 14.6%, respectively. The prognosis of the patients with positive lavage findings was as poor as that of the patients with stage IIIB disease and that of the patients with malignant effusion. CONCLUSIONS: Positive findings on PLC indicate exfoliation of cancer cells into the pleural cavity, which is an essential prognostic factor. In addition, we should regard positive cytologic findings as a subclinical malignant pleural effusion that is pathologic stage T4.  (+info)

Comparison of exogenous surfactant therapy, mechanical ventilation with high end-expiratory pressure and partial liquid ventilation in a model of acute lung injury. (7/657)

We have compared three treatment strategies, that aim to prevent repetitive alveolar collapse, for their effect on gas exchange, lung mechanics, lung injury, protein transfer into the alveoli and surfactant system, in a model of acute lung injury. In adult rats, the lungs were ventilated mechanically with 100% oxygen and a PEEP of 6 cm H2O, and acute lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavage to obtain a PaO2 value < 13 kPa. Animals were then allocated randomly (n = 12 in each group) to receive exogenous surfactant therapy, ventilation with high PEEP (18 cm H2O), partial liquid ventilation or ventilation with low PEEP (8 cm H2O) (ventilated controls). Blood-gas values were measured hourly. At the end of the 4-h study, in six animals per group, pressure-volume curves were constructed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, whereas in the remaining animals lung injury was assessed. In the ventilated control group, arterial oxygenation did not improve and protein concentration of BAL and conversion of active to non-active surfactant components increased significantly. In the three treatment groups, PaO2 increased rapidly to > 50 kPa and remained stable over the next 4 h. The protein concentration of BAL fluid increased significantly only in the partial liquid ventilation group. Conversion of active to non-active surfactant components increased significantly in the partial liquid ventilation group and in the group ventilated with high PEEP. In the surfactant group and partial liquid ventilation groups, less lung injury was found compared with the ventilated control group and the group ventilated with high PEEP. We conclude that although all three strategies improved PaO2 to > 50 kPa, the impact on protein transfer into the alveoli, surfactant system and lung injury differed markedly.  (+info)

Antibody responses in the lower respiratory tract and male urogenital tract in humans after nasal and oral vaccination with cholera toxin B subunit. (8/657)

Nasal vaccine delivery is superior to oral delivery in inducing specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract. Although an antibody response in the nasal passages is important in protecting against primary colonization with lung pathogens, antibodies in the lungs are usually required as well. We immunized 15 male volunteers twice nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine before and 2 weeks after immunization. Nasal immunization induced fivefold increases in the levels of specific IgA antibodies in BAL fluid of most volunteers, whereas there were no significant specific IgA responses after oral immunization. The specific IgG antibody level increased eightfold in BAL fluid in the nasally vaccinated subjects, and the major part of IgG had most probably been transferred from serum. Since the specific IgG response in serum was lower in the individuals vaccinated orally, the IgG response in BAL fluid in this group was also lower and not significant. In conclusion, nasal immunization is also preferable to the oral route when vaccinating against lower respiratory tract infections, and a systemic immune response is considerably more important in the lower than in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, both nasal and oral immunizations were able to stimulate 6- to 10-fold specific IgA and IgG responses in urine in about half of the individuals, which indicates that distant mucosal vaccination might be used to prevent adhesion of pathogens to the urogenital tract.  (+info)

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by diffuse alveolar accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurs four times more frequently in males than females, most commonly in those 20-50 years of age, and is marked by dyspnea and a typically nonproductive cough. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be idiopathic (primary), associated with lung infections, malignant neoplasms, AIDS, or secondary to inhalation of foreign materials, including insecticides, silica, aluminum, titanium oxide and indium-tin oxide. A neonatal form has been observed in infants with a genetic deficiency of surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B ...
As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL) is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV). During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right ...
The trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial investigating efficacy and safety of inhaled molgramostim (rhGM-CSF) in autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) patients.. The primary objective is efficacy on the Alveolar-arterial oxygen difference after 24-weeks treatment. Secondary objectives are tolerance to exercise, effect on Quality of Life, time to Whole Lung Lavage (WLL), effect on pulmonary function, effect on dyspnea and cough, and effect on computed tomography (CT) scoring. Number of reported adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and adverse drug reactions will be monitored.. The trial will include two phases; a Double-blind treatment period consisting of up to eight trial visits (Screening, Baseline, and at Weeks 4,8,12, 16, 20 and 24 after randomisation) and a Follow-up period consisting of up to five trial visits (at Weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post-treatment).. In the Double-blind treatment period, eligible subjects will be randomised to ...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterised by respiratory failure caused by pulmonary surfactant accumulation and resulting in respiratory insuiciency and an increased incidence of infections.[1] The current standard therapy is whole-lung lavage, which is used to physically remove the accumulated surfactant.[2] PAP can be grouped into distinct categories based on clinical, histopathological, biochemical and genetic data.[3]. Surfactant homeostasis is critical for lung function and is tightly regulated, in part by pulmonary granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is required for surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages and alveolar macrophage maturation[4] The effects of GM-CSF are mediated by cell-surface receptors composed of GM-CSF-binding a-chains and affinity-enhancing β-chains (encoded by CSF2RA and CSF2RB, respectively)[4] Primary PAP occurs when GM-CSF signalling is disrupted[3] either on an auto-immune basis, where high levels of ...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung syndrome caused by the accumulation of surfactants in the alveoli. The most prevalent clinical form of PAP is autoimmune PAP (aPAP) whereby IgG autoantibodies neutralize GM-CSF. GM-CSF is a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes the differentiation, survival, and activation of alveolar macrophages, the cells responsible for surfactant degradation. IgG-mediated neutralization of GM-CSF thereby inhibits alveolar macrophage homeostasis and function, leading to surfactant accumulation and innate immunodeficiency. Importantly, there are no rodent models for this disease; therefore, underlying immune mechanisms regulating GM-CSF-specific IgG in aPAP are not well understood. In this article, we identify that autoimmune-prone Rasgrp1-deficient mice develop aPAP: 1) Rasgrp1-deficient mice exhibit reduced pulmonary compliance and lung histopathology characteristic of PAP; 2) alveolar macrophages from Rasgrp1-deficient mice are enlarged and exhibit reduced ...
A 40-year-old mother of seven who did not smoke developed progressive dyspnoea that had persisted for 6 months. She was diagnosed with PAP in another hospital in 2005 by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. There she was treated with three whole lung lavages. When she arrived at our institution she was dyspnoeic at rest, her room air saturation was 84%, requiring 3 l of oxygen via nasal cannula. She underwent whole lung lavages in July and November 2005 and her saturation improved to 89-95% on room air during rest and 87% during effort; 0.5-1 l oxygen was administered via a nasal cannula.. At the beginning of January 2006, 5 mg/kg GM-CSF (Leukine; Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Inc, Leverkusen, Germany) was administered daily. Some improvement (better oxygenation and lung function tests) was demonstrated clinically, but there was no radiographic improvement.. A year later her dyspnoea increased and increasing amounts of supplemental oxygen were required. By February 2007 her ...
Several components of cellular and humoral immunity were examined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood of 15 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the results were compared to data from 25 healthy controls (including 5 asymptomatic homosexual men). Compared with that of controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients tended to have more lymphocytes and significantly more neutrophils; a lower OKT4/OKT8 ratio, due to an increase in total OKT8 cells; and normal total OKT4 cell counts, despite a significant decrease in numbers of OKT4 cells in peripheral blood. Patients also had significantly more IgG-releasing cells and higher IgG levels than controls in lavage fluid. These data show that, in the lung lining fluid of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, significant alterations in cellular and humoral immunity exist that differ in several important respects from immunity in controls and from corresponding changes in patients peripheral blood. ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirate and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in comparison to endoscopic assessment of lower airways in horses with recurrent airways obstruction or inflammatory airway disease - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
CASE REPORT. A 53 year old Negro man was admitted to the Orange Memorial Hospital on January 13, 1958. For the preceding six months he had noted mild exertional dyspnea, and a cough productive of moderate amounts of white sputum. He attributed these symptoms to the fracture of a left rib in July, 1957. In November, 1957, he developed symptoms and signs of a ...
To transport BAL samples from the field, pour samples into EDTA tubes or dilute 50:50 with grain alcohol or Vodka (100 Proof) and transport in clot tubes. Dont drink and drive! ...
Also known as: bal, Bal., Bal, BaL, Ba.L, Ba-L. An, Ba-L, BA¶l, BAl, BAL., BAL, BA-L, B=Al, B.A.L., B.A.L, B. A. L., B-aL, B-AL ...
Looking for online definition of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in the Medical Dictionary? pulmonary alveolar proteinosis explanation free. What is pulmonary alveolar proteinosis? Meaning of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis medical term. What does pulmonary alveolar proteinosis mean?
Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis predominant in the transplanted lung in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: an autopsy case
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease in which an abnormal accumulation of pulmonary surfactant occurs within the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lung), interfering with the lungs ability to exchange oxygen from the air, and carbon dioxide from the blood. PAP can occur in a primary form or secondarily in the settings of certain cancers (such as myeloid leukemia), lung infections, or environmental exposure to dusts or chemicals. Rare familial forms have also been recognized, suggesting a genetic component in those cases. The signs and symptoms of PAP include shortness of breath, a cough, low grade fever, and weight loss. The clinical course of PAP is unpredictable. Spontaneous remission is recognized, and some patients have stable symptoms. Death may occur due to the progression of PAP or of any underlying associated disease. Individuals with PAP are more vulnerable to lung infections such as bacterial pneumonia, mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, or a ...
As emphasized above, WLL is the current standard of care for autoimmune and other forms of PAP[6]. As shown in Table 4, the procedure was adopted in 54% of PAP patients in the Seymour study, data are in line with the Seymour and Chinese series, with 54% of PAP patients submitted to WLL. Twenty-nine out of our 73 patients were never submitted to WLL during their follow up. No patient refused the treatment; the decision was based on medical evaluation, since the degree of lung involvement did not alter the lung function. In other words, in these patients the WLL, an invasive and potentially harmful procedure, was considered unnecessary. Of the 44 patients in our series submitted to WLL, in 31 (70%), a single WLL was sufficient to ensure long-term, durable benefit in lung function. Such a benefit, of course, does not exclude disease relapse, but not to such a severe degree requiring an additional WLL. It is noteworthy, that among the 31 PAP patients lavaged only once, included are 3 PAP patients ...
Free, official info about 2015 ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 516.0. Includes coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion info.
If someone finds his/her copyrighted content published on this site/blog and wants it to be removed, please CONTACT US and tell in detail about what material should be removed/credited to, along with DETAILS of your webpage/source from which it has been taken and your copyright authority over the material ...
Tazawa R, Ueda T, Abe M, Tatsumi K, Eda R, Kondoh S, Morimoto K, Tanaka T, Yamaguchi E, Takahashi A, Oda M, Ishii H, Izumi S, Sugiyama H, Nakagawa A, Tomii K, Suzuki M, Konno S, Ohkouchi S, Tode N, Handa T, Hirai T, Inoue Y, Arai T, Asakawa K, Sakagami T, Hashimoto A, Tanaka T, Takada T, Mikami A, Kitamura N, Nakata K. Inhaled GM-CSF for Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. N Engl J Med. 2019 09 05; 381(10):923-932 ...
1. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, use of twice daily inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) did not improve
Results C57 mice demonstrated a higher total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL lymphocyte count at 3 and 7 days after intraperitoneal infection compared with BALB mice. There were no differences in BAL cytokine production; however, we were able to demonstrate differences in CMV DNA load in the lungs of BALB mice compared with that of C57 mice. In addition, there appeared to be increased whole-lung production of the TH2 cytokine IL-10 in the BALB mice versus the C57 mice. ...
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cell analysis for the diagnosis and management of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been a subject of debate and controversy. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) sponsored a committee of international experts to examine all relevant literature on BAL in ILD and provide recommendations concerning the use of BAL in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected ILD. PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for (1) the performance and processing of BAL and (2) the interpretation of BAL nucleated immune cell patterns and other BAL characteristics in patients with suspected ILD ...
Confused on this one. Inpatient visist: When a Intensivist does a procedure of BAL Lavage and its done on both lungs. Is this report twice with CPT 3
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Hľadali ste balíky ktorých názvy obsahujú ruby-cocaine v sady bionic-updates, všetky sekcie a architektúry ppc64el. Ľutujeme hľadané kľúčové slová nevrátili žiadne výsledky. ...
Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage-colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have
Sixty seven patients with biopsy proven pulmonary sarcoidosis were prospectively studied to determine whether single point bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were a useful indicator of functional outcome and whether repeated lavage helped in management. The mean follow up period was 25 (range 13-37) months. No patient was having corticosteroid treatment at the time of initial bronchoalveolar lavage. "High intensity alveolitis" (lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 28%) was present at the initial lavage in 42 patients. These patients showed a significant improvement in their pulmonary function and chest radiographs over the follow up period whereas patients with "low intensity alveolitis" did not. Of the 42 patients with high intensity alveolitis, 31 had chronic sarcoidosis (duration over two years, mean 80 months). These patients showed a significant improvement in FVC but not in TLCO. Corticosteroids resulted in greater functional and radiological improvement in the patients with high ...
Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Refractory pneumonitis. A 69-year-old man status post trauma, slightly prolonged respiratory failure status post tracheostomy, requires another bronchoscopy for further evaluation of refractory pneumonitis.
Objective: Due to a outbreak of silica-related autoimmune disease in synthetic stone construction, we found an opportunity to characterize the rheumatologic complications in silicosis within these highly exposed patients.. Methods: We reviewed data from all cases of silicosis due to synthetic stone dust referred for lung transplant assessment. In addition to silicosis-specific data, we extracted data relevant to the manifestations of autoimmune diseases in these patients.. Results: Of 40 patients in our silicosis cohort, we identified nine (22.5%) with findings consistent with various autoimmune disease. Among these nine, three also had findings suggestive of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Based on an expected autoimmune disease prevalence of 3% ( European international data), the proportion of disease in our group represents a more than seven-fold excess (prevalence ratio [PR] 7.5; 99% CI 2.6 to 16.7). ...
Predicted to have cytokine receptor activity. Predicted to be involved in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. Localizes to the plasma membrane. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Is expressed in early conceptus and embryo. Orthologous to human CSF2RB (colony stimulating factor 2 receptor beta common subunit ...
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BAL specimens were initially introduced as a therapeutic procedure for removal of the alveolar spaces of accumulated secretions for cases of alveolar proteinosis and bronchial asthma. Subsequently, it has been used for cases of sarcoidosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Most recently it has been used for the identification of organisms such as Pneumocystis carinii and bacterial and viral agents causing pulmonary infections in individuals afflicted with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ...
bronchoalveolar definition: Adjective (comparative more bronchoalveolar, superlative most bronchoalveolar) 1. Relating to both the bronchi and the alvioli of the lungs...
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AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of Mouse/Rat C-C Motif Chemokine 5 / Regulated Upon Activation Normal T-Cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES) in serum, bronchial lavage fluid (BALF), buffered solution or cell culture medium.
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Recently, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) auto-antibodies have been found in many patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The present study reports a retrospective case series of patients who used aerosolised GM-CSF in the treatment of idiopathic PAP. Between 1999 and 2003, 12 patients elected to receive aerosolised GM-CSF (250 microg b.i.d. every other week) in lieu of whole-lung lavage or observation. Patient characteristics, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analysis, laboratory values and chest radiographs were extracted from the patients medical records. Of the six patients tested, all had GM-CSF neutralising antibodies. Additionally, abnormalities in GM-CSF gene expression (one patient), receptor expression (two patients) and ability to upregulate adhesion molecules (one patient) were found. All patients except one had a positive response (mean improvements in arterial oxygen tension, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, carbon monoxide ...
en] OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the endotoxin level in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and to propose to the clinician a guide in the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective studies to investigate the relation between endotoxin level and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL and to test the predictive value of a defined threshold. SETTING: University hospital general intensive care unit. PATIENTS: In the first part of the study, 77 consecutive ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of nosocomial pneumonia between January 1995 and January 1996. In the second part of the study, 93 consecutive ventilated patients studied prospectively between February 1996 and April 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. Bacterial species were determined with standard techniques. The detection of endotoxin in BAL was made using a quantitative chromogenic Limulus ...
Elevation of procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of dogs with idiopathic pulmonary ...
SEM picture of Alveolar Macrophages in lung lavage of a rat 24 hrs after instillation of 10.3 μm polystyrene spheres: AM in foreground with 1 phagocytized sp
... u. ... .... _n of lung parenchyma by CD8+ cells ~hl!eOI~cut immunohistological observations f!CU:ii~J CD8+ infiltrate in the group of continued to ~ regularly exposed, and of CD4+ cells after 6 months in the lungs of were not. indicate that alveolitis in RP patients is a and its intensity might be modulated by to relevant antigens, amount of antigen of sensitization, thus explaining the BAL lymphocytosis observed in patients exposed to the specific antigens compared are noL Increased cells with supprcssor/cyin the lung of these patients is related to a local immunological response . These mechanisms may be relevant in the pathogenesis of HP.
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Sample Processing is to collect target protein. The processing shall be done as gently as possible as protein denatures or degrades easily. It is also very important to store processed sample, especially avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles. Processed sample can be sub-packed and sealed. Expiry Time: a week at 4 degree; a month at -20 degree; two months at -80 degree. Just put sample in room until its temperature reaches room temperature before using the sample. It is forbidden to heat the sample to melt the sample.. Collect sample and then centrifuge it at 10000rpm for 10 minutes at 4 degree. Then collect supernatant and store it at -80 degree, avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles.. ...
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The figure above shows the overall detectability of the specified assay in a range of different mouse sample types. Detectability in each sample matrix is presented as the mean % of all samples included in the validation studies that could be measured above the limit of detection (LOD).. Dilution of samples may be necessary for some sample matrices other than plasma or serum to achieve optimal assay performance - the data shown above represents the values obtained at the optimal dilution identified in each case. Details regarding possible dilutions should be discussed with your Olink representative prior to commencing the study. The data is compiled from multiple studies comprising a range of healthy and disease samples, including samples from genetically modified mouse lines in some cases.. (Note: CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; BAL = bronchoalveolar lavage).. ...
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Polyclonal autoantibodies against human GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) are a hallmark of PAP (pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and several other reported autoimmune diseases. MB007 is a high-affinity anti-(human GM-CSF) autoantibody isolated from a patient suffering from PAP which shows only modest neutralization of GM-CSF bioactivity. We describe the first crystal structure of a cytokine-directed human IgG1λ autoantibody-binding fragment (Fab) at 1.9 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. Its CDR3-H substantially differs from all VH7 germline IgG1 structures reported previously. We derive a reliable model of the antigen-autoantibody complex by using NMR chemical shift perturbation data in combination with computational methods. Superposition of the modelled complex structure with the human GM-CSF-GM-CSF ternary receptor complex reveals only little overlap between receptor and Fab when bound to GM-CSF. Our model provides a structural basis for understanding the mode of action of ...
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Die bronchoalveoläre Lavage ist heute als eine routinemäßig anzuwendehde Methode zur Gewinnung cellulärer oder humoraler Faktoren aus dem Bronchoalveolarraum etabliert ( 1). Zur Verlaufskontrolle ist...
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0071]In an alternate embodiment, the invention comprises a developable microscope slide coverslip which is constructed from a developable liquid microscope slide coverslip media that is spread over the microscope slide at the end of testing to preserve the biological specimen disposed thereon without the need for a separate glass or plastic microscope slide coverslip being attached to the slide via a common mounting medium. The developable microscope slide coverslip can be made by the liquid microscope slide coverslip media, of the present invention, that can be spread thinly over the biological specimen by a gap coater or similar applicator that can make a thin coating from the liquid media. The microscope slide coverslip media thus could be placed in front or rear of the gap coater and then the coater moved about the slide to lay down a specific thickness of media in accordance with the specific gap coater device. In one example, the gap coating device has a gap of 8 microns away from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased angiostatin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ARDS patients and from human volunteers after lung instillation of endotoxin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Lijnen, H. Roger. AU - Suffredini, Anthony F.. AU - Pepper, Michael S.. AU - Steinberg, Kenneth P.. AU - Martin, Thomas R.. AU - Pugin, Jérôme. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, due to both an epithelial and an endothelial dysfunction. Whereas epithelial apoptosis seems to be mainly mediated by Fas ligand, the mediators of endothelial damage remain to be identified. Angiostatin, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo, also specifically induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The concentration of various enzymes that cleave angiostatin from plasminogen was reported to be significantly increased in bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from patients with ARDS. Therefore, in this study, we ...
Detection of P. acnes DNA in BAL cells was significantly more common in the patients with confirmed sarcoidosis. Detection was associated with some indices of disease activity in the lung.
The interstitial lung diseases of childhood, so called chILD, until fairly recently were classified based upon histologic appearance and clinical outcomes and although these metrics are still useful; identification of the genetic causes of many of these diseases is making classification more precise and helping to identify potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, in the case of surfactant metabolism disorders of the neonate and infant, what were once considered histologically distinctly disorders, e.g. pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, and chronic pneumonitis of infancy are now recognized to have related underlying genetic mechanisms making it possible to identify some patients with these disorders by genetic testing rather than by lung biopsy [8].. Using PAP as an example, it is now recognized that the severe, neonatal form is caused by deficiency in the hydrophobic surfactant apoprotein (Sp)B. Abnormalities in the ...
Case Report Our case is a 4 month old, Sudanese boy, residing in Qatar, who presented to our hospital with fever for two weeks. He remained febrile in the hospital for two weeks, despite receiving Intravenous antibiotics for presumed partially treated meningitis. He also received IVIG for the suspicion of atypical Kawasaki. Computerised tomography of the head and abdomen and bone marrow studies were also inconclusive. The mother subsequently revealed that a previous child had died during infancy with prolonged fever and no specific diagnosis. This alerted the treating physicians to the possibility of immunodeficiency. Our patient had received BCG vaccine at birth without any complications, and three gastric aspirate samples were negative for tuberculosis. A broncho-alveolar lavage was performed, despite the absence of any respiratory symptoms, to exclude any unusual organisms causing prolonged fever. The broncho-alveolar lavage revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis which was resistant to Isoniazid ...
Table II shows differential count for the three patients. There is increased neutrophil count after CPB with predominance of macrophages in both samples.. DISCUSSION. Inflammation may be understood as a protective response against the consequences of tissue aggression, organ dysfunction and cell necrosis 10, being a systemic process present even in the absence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) 11. However, if SIRS evolves to organ dysfunction, the inflammatory response may be noxious 10 with pulmonary function changes, renal failure, multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS) and shock 11.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction is frequent and contributes to morbidity, mortality and hospitalization-related costs 12. The understanding of postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathophysiology is critical for postoperative clinical pulmonary complication evaluation and the definition of therapeutic regimens.. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction pathogenesis is associated to changes in gas ...
Lipoid pneumonia is a form of pneumonia associated with oily or lipid components within the pneumonitis component. This can either result from aspiration of oily substances (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous accumulation of lipid subst...
Background: Cytologic examination of specimens obtained from the respiratory tract is a lung cancer diagnostic procedure with high specificity, but moderate sensitivity. The use of molecular biomarkers may enhance the sensitivity of cytologic examination in the detection of lung cancer. Methods: Complement factor H, a protein secreted by lung cancer cells, was quantified in a series of bronchoalveolar lavage supernatants from lung cancer patients and patients with non-malignant respiratory diseases. Albumin, total protein content, and hemoglobin were also analyzed. Results were validated in independent sets of bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum supernatants. Results: There was a significantly higher concentration of factor H in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from lung cancer patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the factor H test was 82% and 77%, respectively. These results were validated in an independent set of patients with nearly identical results. Furthermore, 70% and 45% of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a condition caused by the inhalation of fat-like material of animal, vegetable or mineral origin. There are cases described in the literature related to administration of liquid paraffin for the treatment of chronic...
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Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were recruited by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from human smokers before and one, three, and six months after smoking cessation. The metabolic activity of the AM was...
IHC WORLD is now introducing a new standard adhesive slide, TruBond Microscope Slides, a hydrophilic adhesive slide with proven performance under high temperature and high pH conditions. Our extensive testing have shown the TruBond Slides outperformed many commonly used positive charged and adhesive slides. It is especially useful in preventing sections from falling off slides when performing high temperature antigen retrieval or enzyme digestion, and it is ideal for use in immunostaining of paraffin and frozen sections where requires stronger adhesion. We also strongly recommend using our TruBond slides to protect your valuable tissue microarray sections.. Specification:. ...
BioreclamationIVT provides various types of matrices from human and animal species. The human samples are collected from consented donors at IRB approved facilities located in the United States. The animal samples are collected at facilities located in the United States. Both collections follow BioreclamationIVT Standard Operating Procedures. This allows us to customize every order according to your exact specifications, while maintaining the highest level of product quality. The list of matrices that is provided is not all inclusive. Our large network of sites provides us with limitless options when procuring other fluid type matrices. Amniotic Fluid Feces Sputum Aqueous Humor Gastric Fluid Synovial Fluid (lavage) Bile Hair Tears Bone Marrow Nasal Swabs Throat Swabs Breast Milk Nasal Swabs Urine Bronchial Lavage Saliva Vaginal Fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid Semen Vitreous Humor
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; Nasopharyngeal swab. Please see Virology Specimen Collection Instructions at stanfordlab.com/esoteric/Virology.html ...
As with the present case, the majority of cases of lipoid pneumonia in horses present in respiratory distress with a history of nasogastric intubation [11].. However, many of the reported cases of equine lipoid pneumonia are chronic rather than acute in nature, thought to be related to the small amount of oil aspirated at the time. This is also the case in humans, with chronic lipoid pneumonia more commonly reported and thought to be due to repeated small volumes of oil aspirated over a long period of time. In comparison, the per-acute presentation of this case was considered to be due to the large volume of liquid paraffin believed to have been administered directly into the trachea as a result of dislodgement of the nasogastric tube secondary to the horse moving; to support this hypothesis, there was no post-mortem evidence of mineral oil found within the stomach or intestines.. Haematological and biochemical evaluations of horses diagnosed with lipoid pneumonia often reveal non-specific and ...
BACKGROUND Checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) is a highly morbid complication of immune checkpoint immunotherapy (ICI), one which precludes the continuation of ICI. Yet, the mechanistic underpinnings of CIP are unknown.METHODS To better understand the mechanism of lung injury in CIP, we prospectively collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in ICI-treated patients with (n = 12) and without CIP (n = 6), prior to initiating first-line therapy for CIP (high-dose corticosteroids). We analyzed BAL immune cell populations using a combination of traditional multicolor flow cytometry gating, unsupervised clustering analysis, and BAL supernatant cytokine measurements.RESULTS We found increased BAL lymphocytosis, predominantly CD4+ T cells, in patients with CIP. Specifically, we observed increased numbers of BAL central memory T cells, evidence of type I polarization, and decreased expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 in BAL Tregs, ...
Culturing of tissue is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of IA.11 This method not only yields Aspergillus spp, but further defines therapeutic options via susceptibility testing. However, the invasiveness of obtaining tissue makes culturing less desirable. In the absence of tissue specimens, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from the upper and lower respiratory tracts can serve to establish the diagnosis of IA.12 Although BAL is a safe procedure, the overall sensitivity of culture using BAL specimens is relatively low (estimated at 50%).13 Blood sampling is the optimal noninvasive diagnostic approach for IA.12 Despite this noninvasiveness, however, Aspergillus spp are rarely isolated from blood through conventional culture techniques-hence the reliance on tissue specimens to secure a definitive diagnosis of IA.12 Since results from cultures are relatively slow to obtain overall, IA is well established by the time the culture is positive. These challenges have resulted in ...
Human alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 18 patients with a variety of conditions. For each patient the percentages of AM showing the following properties were determined: (1) staining for the enzymes non-specific esterase (NSE) and acid phosphatase (ACP); (2) in vitro phagocytosis of Candida guillermondii; (3) expression of cell surface markers detected by two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) (1B5 and DA2) and two anti-monocyte/macrophage MoAb (UCHMI and RFD2); and (4) simultaneous phagocytosis of C. guillermondii and staining with the MoAb. In all patients the majority of AM were found to be Ia positive (90 +/- 10%) ACP positive (100%) and NSE positive (97 +/- 4%). In contrast a smaller proportion were UCHM1 and RFD2 positive (77 +/- 11%, 68 +/- 12%) and less were phagocytic (37 +/- 17%). Whilst the total percentage of cells staining with the MoAb was unaltered by phagocytosis, the proportion of UCHM1 or RFD2 positive cells was significantly higher in the phagocytic
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The differential cytology reflected mainly that described for healthy infants with lymphocyte counts at the upper range level. A positive association between BAL CD8+ lymphocytes and neutrophils and endobronchial reticular basement membrane was found. Detectable levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-23, and IL-33 were found, whereas levels of Th2-type cytokine proteins were low. Frequent wheeze was the only clinical characteristic significantly related to detectable combined pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Lung function did not correlate with any cytokine ...
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations of interleukin 36 (IL-36) and Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A total of 35 children with M. pneumnoiae pneumonia (MPP) and 15 control subjects were enrolled. BALF concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and clinical profiles of children with MPP were obtained. Children with MPP had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to control subjects (both P < 0.05). Meanwhile, children with pleural effusion had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to children without pleural effusion (both P < 0.05). BALF concentration of sB7-H3 was strongly associated with concentration of IL-36 (r = 0.796, P < 0.0001) and sB7-H3 was correlated with duration of fever (r = 0.427, P = 0.11) and length of stay (r = 0.345, P = 0.043). Both concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were significantly
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Traditional methods of sampling secretions from the lower respiratory tract include sputum collection, sputum induction, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. They cannot be repeated within a short period of time because of their invasiveness, and because the procedures themselves may include an inflammatory response. The need to monitor inflammation in the lungs has led to the exploration of exhaled gases and condensates. Noninvasive monitoring may assist in differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, assessment of disease severity and response to treatment ...
As someone who is usually more interested in the taxonomy of organisms than the pathologies they cause, Im struck by the emphasis clinicians place on disease and symptoms rather than the creature itself. From a clinical point of view, the case for infection is strong: a given patient has respiratory symptoms, some apparently-flagellated cells are observed in bronchial lavage fluid, and the condition clears up with treatment by metronidazole, which is, after all, the preferred treatment for another metomonad parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. These are all important facts that are hard to dismiss if you approach the subject from a clinical point of view. However, from a purely protistological perspective, we might note that identification by light microscopy is often unreliable, especially with such small cells; the micrographs in the published literature are usually quite poor, and may depict cells in an unnatural condition; the morphological characters used in these case studies tend to be weak, ...
Despite the relatively large size, the whole mounts (item# 311676) are cleared and stained. Serial sections (item# 311688) show the beginning of most of the structures of the adult eye.
Learn about why your doctor would order a bronchoscopy, what the procedure is like, and what results and complications you might experience.
This morning I had my bronchoscopy, which is required for the study Im enrolled in. This was not very fun at all. I could handle it, I always do. Now it...
Πνευμονολόγος Θεόδωρος Ι. Βασιλακόπουλος - Καθηγητής Πνευμονολογίας και Εντατικής Θεραπείας Ιατρικής Σχολής Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών ΓΝΑ Ευαγγελισμός
Histamin Testi, konserve, taze veya dondurulmuş balıklarda histaminin kantitatif analizinde kullanılan kolorimetrik bir enzim tayinidir.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacists can help prevent lipoid pneumonia. T2 - Two case reports. AU - Cabri, Ann E.. AU - King, Afoma. AU - Morrow, Lee. AU - Malesker, Mark A.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Objectives To report 2 cases of lipoid pneumonia. Summary Lipoid pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lower airways due to the presence of lipid molecules in the alveoli. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is due to the inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances. Historically, mineral oil is the most common medication cause but there have also been several reports of lipoid pneumonia associated with petroleum jelly, medicated vapor rub, and lip glosses. Two case reports are presented to illustrate the importance of identifying risk factors for lipoid pneumonia. Results Use of the Naranjo algorithm suggested that both cases of lipoid pneumonia were "possibly" due to aspiration of lipid-containing over-the-counter agents. The first case was associated with aspiration of mentholated topical ...
We observed significant associations between 2 circulating markers of interstitial lung disease and subsequent lung cancer risk in a large cohort study, the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. After adjustment for cigarette smoking, lung cancer risk was increased 1.9-fold during follow-up for those in the highest quartile of SP-D, and 1.6-fold for those in the highest quartile of KL-6, compared with people with the lowest levels of these markers.. These associations with lung cancer risk are biologically plausible because elevated circulating SP-D and KL-6 levels have been detected in patients with a number of pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (15, 21), idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (22), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (16, 23). Individuals with COPD also have elevated SP-D levels (17, 18). Both glycoproteins are produced by type II alveolar cells, which proliferate and replace type I alveolar cells during lung injury (27). Subsequently, the reparative ...
en] An increased production of NO* and peroxynitrite in lungs has been suspected during acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, and recent studies provided evidence for an alveolar production of nitrated compounds. We observed increased concentrations of nitrites/nitrates, nitrated proteins and markers of neutrophil degranulation (myeloperoxidase, elastase and lactoferrine) in the fluids recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of patients with ALI and correlated these changes to the number of neutrophils and the severity of the ALI. We also observed that BALFs stimulated the DNA-binding activity of the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in human alveolar cells (A549) and monocytes (THP1). The level of activation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity was correlated to the concentration of nitrated proteins and myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, in vitro studies confirmed that NO*-derived species (peroxynitrite and nitrites) and the ...
In the past few years, several endemic outbreaks of measles have been recognised, not only in children but also in adults, with severe and, occasionally, even fatal complications, possibly due to delayed diagnosis of the disease in adult medicine and decreasing vaccination rates. Furthermore, the treatment consists of supportive measures only. We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CT findings and pulmonary function testing revealed features of obstructive bronchiolitis; the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids. He fully recovered, and lung function measurement returned to normal values. We conclude that acute measles can present as obstructive bronchiolitis and may be successfully treated with corticosteroids. ...
To investigate whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in surfactant-induced systemic and pulmonary vasodilatation in newborn piglets with surfactant deficiency, 2-6-d-old piglets were subjected to repeated saline lung lavages. They were then randomly
Cell components in the peripheral lung area were examined in 24 asthmatic subjects by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchoscopic lung biopsy (TBLB). In cases with increased percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in the peripheral lung tissue was observed with a high frequency. The increased percentage of eosinophils in BALF correlated with the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchiolo-alveolar region. A reverse correlation was observed between the macrophage count in the alveolar region and the percentage of eosinophils and lymphocytes in BALF. No significant correlation was present between the percentage of neutrophils in BALF and the infiltration of any type of cell in the lung tissue ...
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Background. In acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia, a procoagulant shift is observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The effect of a primarily extrapulmonary infection on coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pulmonary compartment is unclear. Methods. In 35 patients, 87 bronchoalveolar lavages were performed on the day of operation for secondary peritonitis (day 0) and on days 2 and 3 after surgery. Two noninfectious control groups were included: subjects undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage after elective surgery (n = 8) and those undergoing long-term mechanical ventilation (n = 10). Results. In BALF from patients with peritonitis, a tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIaâ€"mediated activation of coagulation was shown (high levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes). Levels of fibrinolysis activators decreased rapidly after day 0, whereas levels of inhibitors increased. The net effect was reduced fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator activity). The sequential comparison of plasma ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage[edit]. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a procedure whereby a small volume of fluid is put into the ... Cytopathology (examination under a microscope) of either a tracheal wash or a bronchoalveolar lavage sample can determine ... McKane, SA; Rose, RJ (10 June 2010). "Effects of exercise intensity and training on bronchoalveolar lavage cytology". Equine ... EIPH in the small airways may still be present and can be confirmed by a bronchoalveolar lavage. Impaired arterial blood gas ( ...
... by bronchoalveolar macrophages isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage washings; and by the human H295R adrenocortical cell ... and that 5-oxo-ETE is present in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cats with experimentally induced asthma; these findings ...
"Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark". Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 49 (1): 2. ...
Comparison of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2007; 175(3): ... that is a problem with all methods of sampling the airway and lungs including sputum collection and bronchoalveolar lavage. ...
"Costs of Bronchoalveolar Lavage-Directed Therapy in the First 5 Years of Life for Children with Cystic Fibrosis". Journal of ... "Effect of Bronchoalveolar Lavage-directed Therapy on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection and Structural Lung Injury in Children ... "Safety of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis". Pediatric Pulmnology. 43 (10): 965-72. Thomas CL, ... "Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Profiling with an Application to Pediatric Bronchoalveolar Lavage ...
Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter (2007). "Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-tolerated diagnostic procedure in ILD. BAL cytology analyses (differential cell counts) ... "Significance of bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 179 (11 ...
P. acnes can be found in bronchoalveolar lavage of approximately 70% of patients with sarcoidosis and is associated with ... "Propionibacterium acnes DNA detected in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with sarcoidosis". Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis ...
Histopathology of lung biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage may indicate lipid-laden macrophages. Laboratory results may show ...
Inhaled pentamidine is mainly deposited into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the lungs. Metabolism: Pentamidine is ... When inhaled through a nebulizer, pentamidine accumulates in the bronchoalveolar fluid of the lungs at a higher concentration ...
... it is present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cats undergoing experimentally induced asthma; it stimulates the local ...
These other tests may include basic blood work, blood cultures, and bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical picture is similar to ...
Samitas K, Zervas E, Xanthou G, Panoutsakopoulou V, Gaga M (Feb 2013). "Osteopontin is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage ...
"Effect of Location, PH, and Temperature of Instillate in Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Normal Volunteers." ATSJournals (1983): n. ... "First Report of Isolation of Mycobacterium Elephantis from Bronchial Lavage of a Patient in Asia." JRSM Short Reports 2.4 (2011 ... but the testing of the patient's bronchial lavage found coccobacillary, acid-fast microbes. After further testing, the isolate ...
For acute silicosis, bronchoalveolar lavage may alleviate symptoms, but does not decrease overall mortality. Experimental ...
2001). "Human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein two-dimensional database: study of interstitial lung diseases". ...
Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs by biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, or endobronchial brushing. To evaluate a person ...
The most suitable specimens are the sputum, or when clinically necessary, bronchoalveolar lavage or biopsy. Further biochemical ...
... diagnosis by sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage". South Med J. 83 (10): 1226-9. doi:10.1097/00007611-199010000-00024. PMID ...
Trough insulin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage following inhaled human insulin (Exubera®) in patients with diabetes mellitus. ...
"Dietary Perilla Oil Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Ovalbumin-Challenged ...
Allergen inhalation challenge of humans produces rises in the PGD2 levels in their Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, ...
Wattiez R, Hermans C, Bernard A, Lesur O, Falmagne P (June 1999). "Human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: two-dimensional gel ...
Typical inclusions called "Leventhal-Cole-Lillie bodies" can be seen within macrophages in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid. ...
"Utility of reflex gomori methenamine silver staining for Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic specimens: ...
While radiographs can be helpful for diagnosis, airway sampling through transtracheal wash or bronchoalveolar lavage is often ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage. Respiratory therapy/. intubation. *Artificial respiration. *CPR. *Hyperbaric medicine. *Decompression ...
Another is more invasive and advocates a bronchoscopy plus bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for people with symptoms of VAP. Both ... A recent finding has highlighted the presence of Mycoplasma in the lavage of patients with VAP, a finding which was largely ... or change in secretions Positive tracheal cultures or bronchoalvelolar lavage cultures Some sign of respiratory distress, such ...
0.3-0.4 ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was recovered per animal. One hundred microliter of BALF was mounted on glass ... Indices of lung injury in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. wt = wild-type mouse,mkk3 = mkk3−/− mouse, jnk1 = jnk1−/− mouse, n = 5- ... Necropsy protocol, tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. At the end of the experiment the abdomen and the chest of ... For all animals, total cell count and total protein content were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). ...
As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL) is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and ... An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis ... The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without ...
Twelve litres of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were drained under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient gained ... The findings on bronchoscopy were normal, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) only produced a small amount of milky secretions. ... Multiple segmental lavage by fibre-optic bronchoscopy is a possible alternative to whole-lung lavage and has been used ... in conjunction with examination of fluid obtained from segmental alveolar lavage.[6] The lavage fluid has an opaque milky ...
Bronchoalveolar Lavage 2,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage 1. 6. Cytology, Breast Nipple Secretion. 7. Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimen ... Cytology, Breast Ductal Lavage. 4. Cytology, Body Cavity Fluid Collection. 5. ...
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimen Collection,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Cytology, Breast Ductal Lavage. 4. Cytology, Body Cavity Fluid Collection. 5. Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage 1. 6. Cytology, ... Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage 2. 9. Cytology, Fine Needle Aspiration Collection. 10. Cytology, Conjunctival Scraping. 11. ... Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimen Collection. Company. ARUP Laboratories. Item. Cytology, Bronchoalveolar Lavage ...
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL; informally, "bronchoalveolar washing") is a medical procedure in which a bronchoscope is passed ... Whole lung lavage (WLL; informally, "lung washing") is a treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. "Bronchoalveolar Lavage ... In particular, bronchoalveolar lavage is commonly used to diagnose infections in people with immune system problems, pneumonia ... Henderson AJ (March 1994). "Bronchoalveolar lavage". Arch. Dis. Child. 70 (3): 167-9. doi:10.1136/adc.70.3.167. PMC 1029733 . ...
Single Cell Flow Cytometry Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Children.. Shanthikumar S1,2,3, Burton M4, Saffery R5,6, ... we describe a flow cytometry-based method for purification and characterisation of cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage ( ...
Comparison of leukocyte counts in sputum, bronchial biopsies, and bronchoalveolar lavage.. Maestrelli P1, Saetta M, Di Stefano ... To determine the relationship between inflammatory cells in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and bronchial mucosa, we ...
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-. Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis. Anders Tøndell,1,2,3 Torolf Moen ... Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases ... In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 ...
... is a 1-stage immunoenzymatic sandwich microplate assay that detects galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. ... is a 1-stage immunoenzymatic sandwich microplate assay that detects galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. ...
We report isolation and identification of Kerstersia gyiorum by MALDI-TOF MS from a bronchoalveolar lavage isolate in a patient ... Mini bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. The direct Gram stain of the specimen showed moderate polymorphonuclear cells and ... Kerstersia gyiorum Isolated from a Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with a Chronic Tracheostomy. Meredith Deutscher,1 ... Kerstersia gyiorum was identified from the bronchoalveolar lavage isolate. Kerstersia gyiorum has been isolated from human ...
Updated: 03/08/2017. Note: The information contained in this handbook is for use by personnel of University of Iowa Health Care. No other use is implied or intended.. Vacutainer® and/or Microtainer® are registered trademarks of Becton, Dickinson & Company.. ...
Patients with histopathologically proved sarcoidosis were studied serially by means of bronchoalveolar lavage, initially at the ... The recovery of lymphocytes and granulocytes in lavage fluid was of limited prognostic value for persistent lung disease. In ... were seen in at least one lavage investigation in 15 of the 16 patients with more active and progressive disease, but in only ... The finding in the two subsequent lavages of lymphocytosis (lymphocytes greater than 30% of recovered cells) or neutrophilia ( ...
Ph 3/4 GLASSIA Safety, Immunogenicity, and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
... Clewe, ... The developed optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling design provides a simplistic but informative approach to gathering of ... Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining ... Bronchoalveolar lavage, Pulmonary distribution, Sampling design, Pharmacometrics National Category Pharmaceutical Sciences ...
Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can be part of the clinical and diagnostic workup of e-cigarette, or vaping, product ... Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage can be part of the clinical and diagnostic workup of e-cigarette, or vaping, product ... Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage† (BAL) can be part of the clinical and diagnostic workup of EVALI patients. The ... Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in an Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung ...
... obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. The ... Analysis of fatty acids fractions of phospholipids and neutral lipids from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with ... obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. The ...
In normal bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lymphocytes typically account for fewer than 15% of the total cells. Measurements using ... Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Ware G. Kuschner, MD; James K. Brown, MD ... Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Ann Intern Med. ;119:1050-1051. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-119-10- ... This differential is not sufficient to explain the findings of a mean bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte percentage of 34.5% in ...
Quantifying Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Ann Intern Med. ;119:1050-1051. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-119-10- ...
Unopposed neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage from transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis.. [D Nunley, J Dauber, ... Ten of the 14 recipients with unopposed NE in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) had developed obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), but ... in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) obtained for surveillance or diagnostic purposes at various intervals (1 mo to 7 yr ...
We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage using low pressure suction. The ... Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield. doi: 10.3791/4345 Published: March 24, 2014 ... Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) removes nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface; biopsy is used to sample ... Rose, A. S., Knox, K. S. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a research tool. Sem. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 28, 561-573 (2007). ...
Clinimetric properties of bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory markers in cystic fibrosis. *Michael Fayon1,5⇑, ... Bronchoalveolar lavage in children with cystic fibrosis: how many lobes should be sampled? Arch Dis Child 2011; 96: 215-217. ... which determines the extent of the lavaged lung areas), lavage aliquot size and number, and lobe(s) lavaged [25]. In order to ... Interlobar differences in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J 2001; 17: 281-286. ...
The value of differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients who were serologically positive for the human ... Bronchoalveolar lavage cell analysis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus related diseases. ... Bronchoalveolar lavage cell analysis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus related diseases. ... A significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils was observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. The lavage fluid differential cell ...
T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ... Finally, when analyzing TCR V gene usage by CD8+ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood T cells, a normal V alpha ... T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ... T-cell receptor variable region gene usage by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood of ...
Galactomannan detection in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. To assess ... Galactomannan detection in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Cochrane ...
  • The purpose of the study is to assess the microbiological diagnosis capacity of a new technique for taking samples from the lower respiratory tract: mini bronchoalveolar lavage performed by naso tracheal way through a suction catheter.Each consecutive patient admitted in intensive care unit for a community acquired or nosocomial pneumonia and not requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation will be included. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The precision of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pneumonia has been compared with that of tracheal aspirates and protected brushing in mechanically ventilated animals. (alpfmedical.info)
  • False-positive results were obtained in 8 per cent of bronchoalveolar lavage cultures but in 40 per cent of tracheal aspirates. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Presumably, other chemo-attractants (leukotriens, enzymes) can also be found in the lavage fluid beside macrophage- or serum-derived and locally activated complement components. (eurekamag.com)
  • Endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected from each patient to perform a fungal smear, culture, and D-glucan assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proteins were measured in unconcentrated lavage fluid by means of a solid phase, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (eurekamag.com)
  • PMN accumulation in the lung (myeloperoxidase assay), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung vascular permeability (protein content in BAL fluid) were assessed 6 h later. (physiology.org)
  • We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (uzh.ch)
  • Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. (bmj.com)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage is a minimally invasive, first-line examination of the lung parenchyma. (medcaretips.com)
  • This differential is not sufficient to explain the findings of a mean bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte percentage of 34.5% in patients before irradiation. (annals.org)
  • Immunoglobulin concentrations and lymphocyte counts were determined in bronchoalveolar fluid obtained from nine symptomless, healthy, non-smoking granite workers (mean age 45.6, range 22-56 years) and nine normal, non-smoking, non industrial controls (mean age 22.8, range 21-32 years). (eurekamag.com)
  • We also performed repeated TCR V gene analyses on some HLA-DR3+ patients and found an association between the ratio bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/peripheral blood V alpha 2.3+ CD4+ T cells and clinical signs of disease activity. (pnas.org)
  • Most recently, we used liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-FTMS) to perform metabolomic analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of otherwise healthy HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagnostic and prognostic utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was first evaluated in historical series in the 1980s, and endorsed by expert groups [ 1 , 2 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Conclusions: The presence of an abnormal lavage in the Scleroderma Lung Study defined patients with more advanced interstitial lung disease but added no additional value to physiologic and computed tomography findings as a predictor of progression or treatment response. (umn.edu)
  • Cytokines levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with tuberculosis (TB), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the combination of both TB and ARDS. (nih.gov)
  • The cytological and ultrastructural findings of Pneumocystis carinii(PC) obtained from rats by bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) are described. (jpatholtm.org)
  • Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is helpful to exclude infectious etiologies of pulmonary disease, BAL findings in nitrofurantoin-associated lung injury are nonspecific 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . (ispub.com)
  • An investigation was conducted of the lipidic composition (phospholipids, neutral lipids and fatty acids) of the extracellular compartment of the pulmonary surfactant, obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid surfactant protein-A and surfacta. (mysciencework.com)
  • Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation ( Lavaged-Gas , n = 5) or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 ( Lavaged-PF5080 , n = 5). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to Healthy -lungs, Lavaged -animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, when analyzing TCR V gene usage by CD8+ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood T cells, a normal V alpha 2.3 usage was found in all cases, but lung-restricted T-cell expansions using other TCR V gene segment products were identified. (pnas.org)
  • We report isolation and identification of Kerstersia gyiorum by MALDI-TOF MS from a bronchoalveolar lavage isolate in a patient with a chronic tracheostomy. (hindawi.com)
  • Further metabolite analysis demonstrated that four features were significantly overrepresented in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of HIV-infected individuals compared to HIV-uninfected, including cystine, two complex carbohydrates, and 3,5-dibromo- l -tyrosine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For each patient included an endotracheal aspiration and a mini bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Medical Ethics Committee of the Maastricht University Hospital, Maastricht, the Netherlands, approved the study in which the patient was enrolled and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected. (bmj.com)
  • First Report of the Isolation of Nocardia thailandica from the Bronchoalveolar Lavage of a Patient in Iran', Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 43(5), pp. 560-563. (ac.ir)