Infectious bronchitis virus
Respiratory Tract Infections
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Pulmonary Heart Disease
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Function Tests
Forced Expiratory Volume
Mass Chest X-Ray
Forced Expiratory Flow Rates
Agricultural Workers' Diseases
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System
Direct medical costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (1/165)In this study we aimed to estimate direct medical costs of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by disease type; chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This study estimates direct costs in 1996 dollars using a prevalence approach and both aggregate and microcosting. A societal perspective is taken using prevalence, and multiple national, state and local data sources are used to estimate health-care utilization and costs. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema together account for $14.5 billion in annual direct costs. Inpatient costs are greater than outpatient and emergency costs ($8.3 vs. $7.8 billion) and hospital and medication costs account for most resources spent. The high prevalence of chronic bronchitis accounts for its larger total costs ($11.7 billion) compared with emphysema ($2.8 billion). Emphysema, which is more severe, has higher costs per prevalent case ($1341 vs. $816). Hospital stays account for the highest costs, $6.0 billion for chronic bronchitis and $1.9 billion for emphysema. The hospitalization rate, length of stay and average cost per prevalent case are higher for emphysema than for chronic bronchitis. Medication costs are the second highest cost category ($4.4 billion for chronic bronchitis, $0.693 billion for emphysema). The high hospitalization and low home care costs (0.2% of total) suggest underuse of home care and room to shift from acute to preventive care. More attention to healthcare management of chronic bronchitis and emphysema is suggested, and improving inhaler and anti-smoking compliance might be important targets. (+info)
Heat shock proteins mRNA expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma and chronic bronchitis. (2/165)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the manifestations that heat shock proteins(HSPs) possess in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic bronchitis. METHODS: Using reverse transcription-DNA polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the expression levels of HSP70, HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) at natural state and after heat shock in 14 healthy volunteers, 21 patients with asthma and 18 patients with chronic bronchitis. RESULTS: No HSP70 gene but HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta expressions were found in non-heat-shocked PBMC of normal control; HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes may be expressed in PBMC of patients no matter whether they were in acute episode or not. Expression of HSP70 was found in PBMC of patients in acute episodes and of three symptoms-free patients with Aas 3, step 2. No expression of HSP70 gene was found in PBMC of patients in convalescent period but in PBMC of patients in acute episode. HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta genes were expressed in PBMC of the two patients groups; After heat shock, expressions of the three genes increased in amount significantly in PBMC of all normal controls and patients. CONCLUSION: Expression of HSP70 gene in PBMC of asthmatic patients and chronic bronchitis was different, indicating that HSPs, especially HSP70 might be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. (+info)
Sleep as a teaching tool for integrating respiratory physiology and motor control. (3/165)Sleep exerts major effects on most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms. Current data suggest, however, that students of physiology and medicine typically receive little or no formal teaching in sleep. Because sleep takes up a significant component of our life span, it is proposed that current teaching in systems and integrative physiology is not representative if it is confined to functions describing wakefulness only. We propose that sleep can be readily integrated into various components of physiology and medical curricula simply by emphasizing how commonly taught physiological processes are importantly affected by sleep mechanisms. In our experience, this approach can be used to reinforce basic physiological principles while simultaneously introducing sleep physiology into the students' training. We find that students have a general and inherent interest in sleep and related clinical disorders, and this proves useful as an effective means to teach the material. In this paper, examples of how sleep influences motor control and the respiratory system will illustrate these points. These considerations also highlight some important gaps in traditional teaching of respiratory physiology. (+info)
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and antibiotics: what studies are still needed? (4/165)The use of antibiotics in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs) remains the subject of controversy despite considerable medical and socioeconomic implications. First, the contribution of bacterial infection to AECBs is difficult to assess in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are chronically colonized with respiratory pathogens. In addition, several studies suggest a major role of viral infections in AECBs. Secondly, it is unlikely that all COPD patients will benefit from antibiotics during AECBs. In particular, the benefit in mild COPD remains uncertain. Unfortunately, the number of studies complying with evidence-based medicine requirements is too small for definite recommendations in AECBs to be drawn up. Considering the impact of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, as well as the community, and the impact of antibiotic therapy on the development of bacterial resistance, there is an urgent need for the design of appropriate multicentric studies to define the usefulness of this type of treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. (+info)
Effect of sputum processing with dithiothreitol on the detection of inflammatory mediators in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. (5/165)BACKGROUND: Sputum analysis is used increasingly to assess airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including those with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. However, it is not known whether dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing mucolytic agent regularly used to homogenise sputum, affects the detection of inflammatory mediators in the sputum soluble phase from such patients. METHODS: Thirty two spontaneous sputum samples were collected from 13 patients with chronic bronchitis and 17 with bronchiectasis. An aliquot from each sample was treated with either freshly prepared 0.1% DTT plus normal saline (NaCl) or NaCl alone, then ultracentrifuged to obtain the sputum sol phase. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were measured by ELISA, and neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by chromogenic substrate assay. The effect of DTT on the detection of assay standards was also determined. RESULTS: Median levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, SLPI, and NE were similar in the DTT and NaCl treated samples. There was a significant reduction in median (IQR) levels of detectable TNFalpha (0.07 (0.00-0.47) pM v 0.90 (0.06-6.98) pM, p<0.001), LTB(4) (1.67 (1.31-2.64) nM v 2.29 (0.95-4.22) nM, p<0.05) and MPO (0.00 (0.00-0.00) mg/l v 4.48 (0.00-33.66) mg/l, p<0.001) and a small increase in the median alpha(1)-AT concentration (0.05 (0.03-0.08) nM v 0.03 (0.02-0.08) nM, p<0.01) in the DTT treated samples. DTT had no effect on the assay standards for IL-1beta, IL-8 or TNFalpha, but at higher concentrations it did affect IL-6, SLPI, NE, and LTB(4) standards (43%, 70%, 76% and 643% of control value for top standard, respectively) and at all concentrations DTT completely abolished MPO activity. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum processing with DTT significantly reduces the detectable concentration of TNFalpha, LTB(4) and MPO, and produces a small but significant increase in median alpha(1)-AT levels. To avoid this problem we recommend that an untreated aliquot of sputum be retained for cytokine analysis, unless the assay has been specifically validated. (+info)
Chlamydia pneumoniae and chronic bronchitis: association with severity and bacterial clearance following treatment. (6/165)BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae chronic infection, other respiratory infections, and functional impairment in patients with chronic bronchitis (stage 1) and to examine chronic C pneumoniae infection, rate of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and rate of C pneumoniae eradication following antibiotic treatment (stage 2). METHODS: In the stage 1 study respiratory specimens from 42 patients with steady state chronic bronchitis were analysed for Gram staining, sputum culture, and C pneumoniae DNA detection by nested touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the results of stage 1, a second population of 141 consecutive patients with steady state mild to moderate chronic bronchitis (FEV(1) >or=50% predicted) was studied. On admission, at regular intervals, and at exacerbation all patients underwent serological testing for C pneumoniae (microimmunofluorescence) and a nested touchdown PCR to detect C pneumoniae DNA was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Patients were assessed over a 12 month period. Information regarding the previous 12 months was taken from medical records. RESULTS: Chronic colonisation of the sputum with C pneumoniae was significantly associated with lower FEV(1) and greater airway bacterial colonisation. On admission to the stage 2 study, 80 patients were PCR negative and 61 were PCR positive. Over the 2 years a mean (SD) of 1.43 (1.32) acute exacerbations occurred in PCR negative patients and 2.03 (1.21) in PCR positive patients (p<0.01). During the 12 month follow up period 34 PCR positive patients had acute exacerbations and were treated with azithromycin for 6 weeks. Serological evidence of acute C pneumoniae reinfection/reactivation was found in two of the 34 patients. The rate of C pneumoniae DNA clearance from blood following treatment was 29% at follow up. CONCLUSION: Chronic colonisation with C pneumoniae is associated with a higher rate of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Long term treatment is required to obtain clearance of the organism from the blood. (+info)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4: imaging the lungs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (7/165)The role of chest radiography and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis is reviewed. (+info)
Chronic bronchitis among French adults: high prevalence and underdiagnosis. (8/165)The aims of this survey were to determine the prevalence of symptoms indicative of chronic bronchitis (CB) in the French adult population, to identify the role of risk factors for CB, and to assess rates of CB diagnosis and pulmonary function testing (PFT) in the presence of CB. A representative sample of 14,076 individuals aged > or = 25 yrs completed a self-administered questionnaire on symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, sociodemographical data, and diagnosis and care by physicians. The prevalence of CB was 4.1% and the prevalence of chronic cough and/or expectoration was 11.7%. In individuals with comorbidity, these figures were 10.4% and 24.4%, respectively. Smoking was associated with an increased frequency of CB. In subjects with CB, 44.6% had PFT (spirometry or peak expiratory flow measurement), 24% were diagnosed as having CB, and 7.2% received care. Rates of diagnosis, PFT, and follow-up were lower in young individuals and in those without comorbidity. PFT and follow-up were less common in current smokers. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis in French adults is high and similar in magnitude to that of other industrialised countries. Comorbidities and tobacco smoking increase the frequency of chronic bronchitis symptoms. Chronic bronchitis is too infrequently diagnosed, investigated and cared for. (+info)
Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:
* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches
The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.
Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD
Preventive measures for bronchitis include:
* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, from the common cold to severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Coronavirus infections are caused by one of the four subtypes of coronaviruses: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta.
The symptoms of coronavirus infections can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Sore throat
* Runny nose or stuffy nose
* Body aches or muscle pains
* Nausea or vomiting
In severe cases, coronavirus infections can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. The virus is primarily spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching, shaking hands, or kissing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and objects, such as door handles, light switches, and countertops.
There are several ways to diagnose coronavirus infections, including:
* Physical examination and medical history
* Chest X-ray or CT scan
* Blood tests
* Nucleic acid test (NAT)
Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. This may include:
* Antiviral medications
* Oxygen therapy
* Pain relief medication
* Rest and hydration
Prevention is key to avoiding coronavirus infections, and this includes:
* Washing hands frequently with soap and water
* Using alcohol-based hand sanitizers
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Staying home when sick
There are also several vaccines currently being developed to protect against coronavirus infections, but these are not yet widely available. It is important to follow the guidance of public health authorities and take precautions to prevent the spread of the virus.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
The term cough is used to describe a wide range of symptoms that can be caused by various conditions affecting the respiratory system. Coughs can be classified as either dry or productive, depending on whether they produce mucus or not. Dry coughs are often described as hacking, barking, or non-productive, while productive coughs are those that bring up mucus or other substances from the lungs or airways.
Causes of Cough:
There are many potential causes of cough, including:
* Upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold and influenza
* Lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia
* Allergies, including hay fever and allergic rhinitis
* Asthma and other chronic lung conditions
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can cause coughing due to stomach acid flowing back up into the throat
* Environmental factors such as smoke, dust, and pollution
* Medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta blockers.
Symptoms of Cough:
In addition to the characteristic forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, coughs can be accompanied by a range of other symptoms that may include:
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and exhaustion
* Sore throat or hoarseness
* Coughing up mucus or other substances.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cough:
The diagnosis and treatment of cough will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious condition that requires medical attention, such as pneumonia or asthma. In other cases, a cough may be caused by a minor infection or allergy that can be treated with over-the-counter medications and self-care measures.
Some common treatments for cough include:
* Cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan or pholcodine to relieve the urge to cough
* Expectorants such as guaifenesin to help loosen and clear mucus from the airways
* Antihistamines to reduce the severity of allergic reactions and help relieve a cough.
* Antibiotics if the cough is caused by a bacterial infection
* Inhalers and nebulizers to deliver medication directly to the lungs.
It is important to note that while cough can be a symptom of a serious condition, it is not always necessary to see a doctor for a cough. However, if you experience any of the following, you should seek medical attention:
* A persistent and severe cough that lasts for more than a few days or weeks
* A cough that worsens at night or with exertion
* Coughing up blood or mucus that is thick and yellow or greenish in color
* Shortness of breath or chest pain
* Fever, chills, or body aches that are severe or persistent.
It is also important to note that while over-the-counter medications can provide relief from symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the cough. If you have a persistent or severe cough, it is important to see a doctor to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.
Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:
1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
Some common poultry diseases include:
1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.
Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.
Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.
There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.
Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.
While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.
The common types of RTIs include:
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
There are several types of pulmonary emphysema, including:
1. Centriacinar emphysema: This type of emphysema affects the central airways and is caused by the destruction of the walls of the air sacs, leading to their enlargement.
2. Paraseptal emphysema: This type of emphysema affects the spaces between the air sacs and is caused by the destruction of the connective tissue that supports the air sacs.
3. Panacinar emphysema: This type of emphysema affects all parts of the lungs and is caused by the destruction of the walls of the air sacs, leading to their enlargement.
Pulmonary emphysema can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollutants, and genetic predisposition. The symptoms of pulmonary emphysema can vary in severity and may include shortness of breath, fatigue, wheezing, and chest tightness.
Diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and lung function tests such as spirometry and bronchodilator testing. Imaging tests such as chest X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans may also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease.
Treatment for pulmonary emphysema typically involves a combination of medications, including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics, as well as lifestyle modifications such as quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to air pollutants, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
Prevention of pulmonary emphysema includes avoiding smoking and other environmental risk factors, maintaining a healthy diet and exercise regimen, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development of the disease. Early detection and treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.
In conclusion, pulmonary emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by the destruction of the walls of the air sacs in the lungs, leading to enlargement of the sacs and difficulty breathing. While there is no cure for pulmonary emphysema, treatment can help to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention includes avoiding smoking and other environmental risk factors, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and managing any underlying medical conditions. Early detection and treatment can improve quality of life for those affected by this condition.
There are several types of lung diseases that are classified as obstructive, including:
1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that makes it hard to breathe and can cause long-term disability and even death. COPD is caused by damage to the lungs, usually from smoking or exposure to other forms of pollution.
2. Emphysema: This is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged and cannot properly expand and contract. This can cause shortness of breath and can lead to respiratory failure.
3. Chronic bronchitis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it harder to breathe.
4. Asthma: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become damaged and widened, leading to thickening of the walls of the airways and chronic infection.
6. Pulmonary fibrosis: This is a condition where the lung tissue becomes scarred and stiff, making it harder to breathe.
7. Lung cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can occur in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollution, genetics, and certain occupations or environments. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases may include medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to pollutants. In severe cases, surgery or lung transplantation may be necessary.
It's important to note that these diseases can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a doctor if you experience any persistent breathing difficulties or other symptoms. A proper diagnosis and treatment plan can help manage the condition and improve quality of life.
There are several types of emphysema, including:
1. Centriacinar emphysema: This type of emphysema affects the central airways and is often caused by smoking or other forms of respiratory irritation.
2. Paraseptal emphysema: This type of emphysema affects the septal veins and is often caused by smoking or other forms of respiratory irritation.
3. Panacinar emphysema: This type of emphysema affects the entire airway and is often caused by smoking or other forms of respiratory irritation.
4. Cystic fibrosis-related emphysema: This type of emphysema is associated with cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems.
The main symptoms of emphysema are shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. The condition can also cause fatigue, chest pain, and difficulty sleeping. Emphysema is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment for emphysema typically involves lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution, as well as medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged lung tissue or to repair damaged blood vessels.
The prognosis for emphysema varies depending on the severity of the condition and the individual's overall health. However, with proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with emphysema are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
The term "pulmonary heart disease" is sometimes used interchangeably with "pulmonary hypertension," but they are not exactly the same thing. Pulmonary hypertension refers specifically to high blood pressure in the lungs, while pulmonary heart disease is a broader term that includes both high blood pressure and other conditions that affect the heart and lungs.
Pulmonary heart disease can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lungs)
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
3. Sleep apnea
4. Congenital heart defects
5. Cardiomyopathy (a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened or enlarged)
6. Heart valve problems
7. Lupus (an autoimmune disease)
8. Rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease)
9. Scleroderma (a connective tissue disease)
10. Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that affects blood flow to the fingers and toes)
Symptoms of pulmonary heart disease can include:
1. Shortness of breath
3. Dizziness or lightheadedness
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
5. Chest pain
6. Coughing up pink, frothy liquid (called pulmonary edema)
If you suspect you may have pulmonary heart disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and chest X-ray to determine the cause of your symptoms and develop a treatment plan.
Treatment for pulmonary heart disease may include:
1. Medications to lower blood pressure and improve lung function
2. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygen levels in the blood
3. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves
4. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet
It is important to follow your healthcare provider's treatment plan and attend regular follow-up appointments to monitor your condition and adjust your treatment as needed. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with pulmonary heart disease are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.
There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.
Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The symptoms of nasopharyngitis may include:
* Nasal congestion or stuffiness
* Runny nose
* Sore throat
* Mild fever (less than 102°F)
Nasopharyngitis can be diagnosed based on a physical examination, medical history, and other diagnostic tests such as a nasal swab or blood tests to determine the cause of the infection.
Treatment for nasopharyngitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and letting the body fight off the infection on its own. This may include:
* Over-the-counter medications such as pain relievers, decongestants, and antihistamines to alleviate symptoms
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities to help the body recover
* Using a humidifier or saline nasal spray to moisturize the nasal passages and throat
* Antibiotics may be prescribed if the infection is caused by bacteria, but they are not effective against viral infections.
It's important to note that while nasopharyngitis can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily activities, it is generally not a serious condition and will resolve on its own with time and proper care.
The hallmark symptoms of bronchiectasis are chronic cough, recurrent respiratory tract infections, and excessive mucus production. These symptoms can significantly impact quality of life, and if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe respiratory failure and other complications such as pulmonary hypertension.
Bronchiectasis is most commonly caused by recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, such as those caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Other risk factors for developing bronchiectasis include a history of childhood respiratory infections, exposure to tobacco smoke, and underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis or primary immunodeficiency disorders.
Diagnosis of bronchiectasis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, radiologic imaging (such as high-resolution computed tomography, or HRCT), and pulmonary function tests. Treatment options for bronchiectasis include antibiotics to manage infections, bronchodilators to improve lung function, and airway clearance techniques such as chest physical therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be considered.
Preventive measures for bronchiectasis include prompt treatment of respiratory infections, avoiding exposure to environmental irritants such as tobacco smoke, and managing underlying conditions that increase the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and aggressive management of bronchiectasis can help slow disease progression, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of complications such as respiratory failure and lung cancer.
There are several types of coronaviridae infections, including:
1. Common cold: This is the most common type of coronavirus infection, and it is estimated that the common cold affects millions of people worldwide each year.
2. Seasonal flu: Some coronaviruses can cause seasonal flu, which is a more severe illness than the common cold.
3. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that was first identified in 2003.
4. MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus): This is another serious and potentially life-threatening infection that was first identified in 2012.
5. COVID-19: This is a viral respiratory disease that was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has since spread to become a global pandemic.
The symptoms of coronaviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected. Common symptoms include:
* Sore throat
* Runny nose
* Diarrhea (in some cases)
In severe cases, coronaviridae infections can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. In rare cases, they can also lead to more serious conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure.
There is no specific treatment for coronaviridae infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in some cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and wearing masks in public places. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent COVID-19 and other coronaviridae infections.
Coronaviridae infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
* Rapid antigen tests: These tests can detect the presence of the virus in a person's nose and throat.
* PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests: These tests can detect the genetic material of the virus in a person's respiratory tract.
* Serology tests: These tests can detect antibodies against the virus in a person's blood.
Overall, coronaviridae infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to recover from them. Prevention measures such as good hygiene practices and vaccination can also help prevent the spread of these infections.
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.
Types of Respiratory Sounds:
1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.
It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
There are several possible causes of airway obstruction, including:
1. Asthma: Inflammation of the airways can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that damages the lungs and can lead to airway obstruction.
3. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs) can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
4. Pneumonia: Infection of the lungs can cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
5. Tumors: Cancerous tumors in the chest or throat can grow and block the airways.
6. Foreign objects: Objects such as food or toys can become lodged in the airways and cause obstruction.
7. Anaphylaxis: A severe allergic reaction can cause swelling of the airways and obstruct breathing.
8. Other conditions such as sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, and vocal cord paralysis can also cause airway obstruction.
Symptoms of airway obstruction may include:
1. Difficulty breathing
2. Wheezing or stridor (a high-pitched sound when breathing in)
3. Chest tightness or pain
4. Coughing up mucus or phlegm
5. Shortness of breath
6. Blue lips or fingernail beds (in severe cases)
Treatment of airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as bronchodilators, inhalers, and steroids, as well as surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, a tracheostomy (a tube inserted into the windpipe to help with breathing) may be necessary.
Some common examples of respiration disorders include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
Some common types of lung diseases include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.
These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.
There are several forms of pneumoconiosis, including:
* Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP): caused by inhalation of coal dust in coal miners.
* Silicosis: caused by inhalation of silica dust in workers such as quarry workers, miners, and others who work with silica-containing materials.
* Asbestosis: caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, which can lead to inflammation and scarring of the lungs.
* Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: caused by exposure to specific organic dusts, such as those found in agricultural or woodworking settings.
The symptoms of pneumoconiosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the disease, but may include coughing, shortness of breath, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, pneumoconiosis can lead to respiratory failure and other complications.
Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and lung function tests. Treatment for pneumoconiosis may include medications to manage symptoms, pulmonary rehabilitation, and measures to reduce exposure to the offending particles. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
Prevention of pneumoconiosis is critical, and this involves implementing appropriate safety measures in workplaces where workers are exposed to dusts or other particles. This can include using respiratory protection equipment, improving ventilation, and reducing exposure to hazardous materials. Early detection and treatment of pneumoconiosis can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
The diagnosis of tachypnea is based on physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest x-rays, electrocardiograms (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, and may include oxygen therapy, antibiotics, or other medications to manage symptoms.
In severe cases of tachypnea, mechanical ventilation may be required to support breathing. It is important to monitor the patient's condition closely and provide appropriate treatment to prevent complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, or sepsis.
Tachypnea can be a serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional promptly.
The term "byssinosis" comes from the Greek word "byssus," meaning "linen thread," as these diseases were initially observed in workers involved in the production of linen and other natural fibers. The most common forms of byssinosis include:
1. Byssinosis (cotton dust disease): Caused by inhalation of cotton dust, this condition can lead to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
2. Flaxseed dust disease: Similar to byssinosis, this condition is caused by inhalation of flaxseed dust and can cause respiratory problems.
3. Hemp dust disease: Similarly, inhalation of hemp dust can lead to respiratory issues and inflammation.
The diagnosis of byssinosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and lung function tests. Treatment options may include medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the lungs, as well as respiratory therapy and avoidance of exposure to dusty environments. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
Terms related to Bronchiolitis:
* Acute bronchiolitis: This is a sudden and severe form of bronchiolitis that typically lasts for a few days.
* Chronic bronchiolitis: This is a long-term condition characterized by persistent inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
* Asthmatic bronchiolitis: This is a type of bronchiolitis that is associated with asthma.
Synonyms for Bronchiolitis:
* Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection
Antonyms for Bronchiolitis:
Hypernyms for Bronchiolitis:
* Respiratory disease
* Infectious disease
Hypersonyms for Bronchiolitis:
* Acute bronchiolitis
* Chronic bronchiolitis
* Asthmatic bronchiolitis
Collocations for Bronchiolitis:
* Viral bronchiolitis
* Bacterial bronchiolitis
* Allergic bronchiolitis
Idiomatic expressions related to Bronchiolitis:
* "Bronchiolitis attack"
* "Bronchiolitis episode"
* "Bronchiolitis flare-up"
Phrases that include Bronchiolitis:
* "Bronchiolitis diagnosis"
* "Bronchiolitis treatment"
* "Bronchiolitis management"
Other words that are related to Bronchiolitis but not included in the list above:
* Shortness of breath
* Chest tightness
* Runny nose
Note: Some of these words may have multiple meanings or be used in different contexts, but they are all related to Bronchiolitis in some way.
There are many possible causes of eosinophilia, including:
* Parasitic infections
* Autoimmune disorders
The symptoms of eosinophilia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Swelling of the skin, lips, and eyes
* Hives or itchy skin
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Abdominal pain
Eosinophilia is typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Other tests such as imaging studies, skin scrapings, and biopsies may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying cause.
The treatment of eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy. In some cases, removal of the causative agent or immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary.
Eosinophilia can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)
* Eosinophilic granulomas (collections of eosinophils that can cause organ damage)
* Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (conditions where eosinophils invade the digestive tract)
The prognosis for eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition is not life-threatening. However, if left untreated, complications can arise and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life.
In conclusion, eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in eosinophils in the body. While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and autoimmune disorders, the underlying cause must be identified and treated in order to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.
The symptoms of tracheitis may include:
* Difficulty breathing
* Chest pain
* Shortness of breath
Tracheitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Bacterial or viral infections
* Irritants such as smoke or pollution
* Inflammatory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Tracheitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays or endoscopy. Treatment for tracheitis may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to help manage symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy and other forms of supportive care.
Complications of tracheitis can include:
* Respiratory failure
* Bronchiectasis (a condition in which the airways become damaged and widened)
* Chronic cough
Prevention of tracheitis may include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding exposure to irritants such as smoke or pollution
* Managing underlying conditions such as allergies or COPD
* Getting vaccinated against respiratory infections such as influenza and pneumococcus.
Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and even death.
There are several types of pneumonia, including:
1. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses and typically affects healthy people outside of hospitals.
2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or fungi and typically affects people who are hospitalized for other illnesses or injuries.
3. Aspiration pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by food, liquids, or other foreign matter being inhaled into the lungs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungus and typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
5. Viral pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by viruses and can be more common in children and young adults.
Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment may involve antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and supportive care to manage symptoms and help the patient recover. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care and monitoring.
Prevention of pneumonia includes vaccination against certain types of bacteria and viruses, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for those affected by pneumonia.
1. Pesticide poisoning: Agricultural workers who handle or apply pesticides may be at risk for poisoning, which can cause a range of symptoms including headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Prolonged exposure to pesticides has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
2. Lung disease: Agricultural workers who work with dusty crops or in confined spaces may be at risk for lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
3. Heat stress: Agricultural workers who work outdoors during hot weather may be at risk for heat stress, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In severe cases, heat stress can be fatal.
4. Noise-induced hearing loss: Agricultural workers who are exposed to loud noises, such as tractors or other machinery, may be at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.
5. Musculoskeletal disorders: Agricultural workers may be at risk for musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries due to the physical demands of their work.
6. Skin diseases: Agricultural workers who handle animals or are exposed to chemicals may be at risk for skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis or fungal infections.
7. Eye diseases: Agricultural workers who work with pesticides or other chemicals may be at risk for eye diseases such as conjunctivitis or cataracts.
8. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers who handle grain or other dusty materials may be at risk for respiratory diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or farmer's lung.
9. Infectious diseases: Agricultural workers may be at risk for infectious diseases such as Q fever, which is caused by a bacteria that can be found in the intestines of some animals.
10. Mental health disorders: The stress and isolation of agricultural work may contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.
It's important for agricultural workers to take precautions to protect their health and safety on the job, such as wearing personal protective equipment, following proper handling and application procedures for chemicals, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch. Additionally, employers should provide a safe work environment and training on safe work practices to help prevent injuries and illnesses.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Deaths in April 1997
John G. Matteson
Lewis Thomas Drummond
Death and state funeral of George V
Obstructive lung disease
Edward Headlam Greenhow
List of diseases (C)
Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States
Dust collection system
Karl Stirner (painter)
Childhood immunizations in the United States
Labour government, 1964-1970
Exhaled nitric oxide
Textile industry in Bangladesh
Shortness of breath
Acute inhalation injury
James Campbell Walker
AIDS-defining clinical condition
Adeline, Countess of Cardigan and Lancastre
FastStats - Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease
'Bronchitis, Chronic'[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND 'last 1 Year' [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt]...
Non-obstructive Chronic Bronchitis | NHLBI, NIH
Chronic Bronchitis | Symptoms of Bronchitis | MedlinePlus
Bronchitis, Chronic - MeSH - NCBI
Table - Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis - Volume 14, Number 2...
Eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
WHO EMRO | Waterpipe smoking and dependence are associated with chronic bronchitis: a case-control study in Lebanon | Volume 18...
Mucus Dehydration May Contribute to Chronic Bronchitis | RT
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine - Keyword chronic bronchitis
Chronic Bronchitis in Dogs | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Remedies
Health Information in Hindi (हिन्दी): MedlinePlus
Subjects: Bronchitis, Chronic - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
Can chronic bronchitis be cured relieving - What is Walking Pneumonia
DailyMed - PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE capsule, extended release
DailyMed - PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE capsule, extended release
DailyMed - PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE tablet
Publication: Association of birthplace and occupational exposures with chronic bronchitis in …
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Details for: Chronic bronchitis and cor pulmonale in Nepal : › WHO HQ Library catalog
Moraxella catarrhalis Infection Differential Diagnoses
NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine WGS-CFTR variants are associated with chronic bronchitis in smokers
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Clinical Assessment | Environmental Medicine | ATSDR
Moraxella catarrhalis Infection Differential Diagnoses
- In the nearly fifty years since the MRC report was published, the definition and classification system for chronic bronchitis (CB) have persisted without substantial modification, but the attention paid to CB has diminished substantially in comparison to other pulmonary conditions. (nih.gov)
- Some clinicians diagnose Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in those with both chronic bronchitic symptoms and a suggestive history, but without confirming the diagnosis by spirometry, resulting in treatment of NCB patients with drugs whose efficacy has been demonstrated only in subjects with airflow obstruction. (nih.gov)
- Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). (medlineplus.gov)
- Pulmonary rehabilitation , which is a program that helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic breathing problems. (medlineplus.gov)
- In chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neutrophils are present in the airways. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2000: a state-of-the-art review. (medscape.com)
- Bronchial microbial patterns in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation. (medscape.com)
- However, it can too difficult courses with a so-called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , or also 'Smoker's lung' , come that is not curable. (lifeafterjob.com)
- Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) (or spirometry) must be performed in all patients presenting with chronic cough. (godasco.com)
- Unfortunately, research focused on the co-existence of COPD and CB has failed to inform the clinical management of non-obstructive chronic bronchitis (NCB), that is, CB occurring in the absence of or in advance of chronic airflow obstruction sufficient to warrant a proper diagnosis of COPD. (nih.gov)
- Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person. (medlineplus.gov)
- Also, smokers who get chronic bronchitis are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD. (medlineplus.gov)
- The percentages of neutrophils in BALF were greater in patients with COPD than in those with CB, suggesting a role in the chronic airflow limitation. (nih.gov)
- COPD: management of acute exacerbations and chronic stable disease. (medscape.com)
- In addition to cigarette smoke, air pollution, bronchopulmonary Infections (affecting bronchi and lung tissue) or affecting the lungs embryonic development disorders increase the likelihood of chronic bronchitis leading to COPD. (lifeafterjob.com)
- Chronic bronchitis can develop into more severe forms such as chronic obstructive bronchitis (COPD) or emphysema. (lifeafterjob.com)
- An FEV1/FVC ratio below 0.7 that is not fully reversible after bronchodilator therapy indicates the presence of COPD, that requires more aggressive therapy and carries a more severe prognosis than simple chronic bronchitis. (godasco.com)
- The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. (nih.gov)
- One rather common form of acute bronchitis is kennel cough (acute tracheobronchitis), which is a group of highly contagious respiratory diseases found in dogs. (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)
- Dogs with chronic bronchitis have a dry, harsh cough that may or may not be productive (i.e. may or may not be coughing up phlegm). (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)
- In some cases, chronic bronchitis develops after the dog has had kennel cough. (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)
- Therefore, Manuka honey is a great natural remedy to ease discomfort brought on by a cough and fight infection caused by bronchitis. (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)
- Respiratory system: cough, bronchitis, and bronchogenic cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Chronic bronchitis was defined by the WHO (World Health Organization) as follows: Chronic bronchitis is present if a productive cough (that is, with sputum) for at least three months consists. (lifeafterjob.com)
- This means that the diagnosis of chronic cough can only be made after 6 months at the earliest. (lifeafterjob.com)
- This leads to an even stronger inflammatory reaction and thus to chronic bronchitis with mucus production, which constant urge to cough caused. (lifeafterjob.com)
- In contrast to an acute one bronchitis Chronic bronchitis, which almost everyone has once in their life and where symptoms such as cough, fever, sore throat and chest pain caused by bacteria or viruses disappear again permanent symptoms . (lifeafterjob.com)
- The main symptoms of chronic bronchitis include Cough and sputum over an extended timespan. (lifeafterjob.com)
- In the case of chronic bronchitis or the corresponding symptoms, such as a cough that has persisted for several months, the diagnosis begins with the medical interview (anamnesis) . (lifeafterjob.com)
- A 55-year-old male comes to your office complaining of increasing dyspnea on exertion and chronic cough with sputum production, slight at first but increasing over time. (usmle-xl.com)
- Bronchitis may be indicated by an expectorating cough (also known as a productive cough, i.e. one that produces sputum), shortness of breath (dyspnea) and wheezing. (godasco.com)
- Most doctors rely on the presence of a persistent dry or wet cough as evidence of bronchitis. (godasco.com)
- About the development of bronchitis can be discussed only in case if it is the main symptom (cough) is not terminated for 3 months. (vsebolezni.com)
- Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. (ox.ac.uk)
- Eosinophilic bronchitis presents with chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia, but without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is important to know how commonly eosinophilic bronchitis causes cough, since in contrast to cough in patients without sputum eosinophilia, the cough responds to inhaled corticosteroids. (ox.ac.uk)
- We investigated patients referred over a 2-yr period with chronic cough, using a well-established protocol with the addition of induced sputum in selected cases. (ox.ac.uk)
- 3%). Ninety-one patients with chronic cough were identified among 856 referrals. (ox.ac.uk)
- The cause of chronic cough remained unexplained in six patients. (ox.ac.uk)
- We conclude that eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, and that sputum induction is important in the investigation of cough. (ox.ac.uk)
- The primary diagnosis was eosinophilic bronchitis in 12 patients, rhinitis in 20, asthma in 16, post-viral-infection status in 12, and gastroesophageal reflux in seven. (ox.ac.uk)
- Moreover, clinicians and researchers alike have tended in recent decades to focus on one particular form of CB, namely chronic obstructive bronchitis. (nih.gov)
- In the chronic obstructive bronchitis The bronchi (airways of the lungs) constrict due to functional restructuring processes of the lung tissue, which leads to shortness of breath and coughing, especially during physical exertion. (lifeafterjob.com)
Contribute to chronic bronchitis1
- Exposure to other inhaled irritants can contribute to chronic bronchitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Vaccines for the flu and pneumococcal pneumonia, since people with chronic bronchitis are at higher risk for serious problems from these diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- Microbiology of acute and chronic sinusitis in children and adults. (medscape.com)
- Doubtful as- ankle infection and diabetes from hospital-based sociations exist between diabetes and prevalence of data appears too great to be explained by detection, chronic sinusitis or S. aureus colonization. (nih.gov)
- Complications of rhinovirus infection include otitis media, sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, and exacerbations of reactive airway disease in children and adults. (medscape.com)
- During an exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in a patient appear dry wheezing, and during remission - wet. (vsebolezni.com)
Likelihood of chronic bronchitis1
- The combination of smoking and snoring almost tripled the likelihood of chronic bronchitis compared with those who did not smoke or snore. (sott.net)
Symptoms of Bronchitis1
- The symptoms of bronchitis are talking about the activation of the microbial flora and in need of immediate treatment to the doctor. (vsebolezni.com)
Exacerbations of chronic2
- With chronic bronchitis, coughing with sputum usually occurs over a long period of time. (lifeafterjob.com)
Simple chronic bronchitis1
- In simple chronic bronchitis, there is no such thing Shortness of breath . (lifeafterjob.com)
- Mucus dehydration may lead to reduced mucociliary clearance and symptoms of chronic bronchitis, according to new research published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . (rtmagazine.com)
- Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found that mucus concentration was increased in patients with chronic bronchitis compared with healthy controls, and this correlated with disease severity. (rtmagazine.com)
- These data suggest airway mucus concentration could serve as a biomarker to complement the symptom-based diagnosis of [chronic bronchitis]", the researchers wrote. (rtmagazine.com)
- This medical exhibit depicts healthy airways, including bronchioles and alveoli, in contrast to similar images demonstrating the narrowed congested airways (due to mucus), resulting in decreased gas exchange in alveoli that is characteristic of chronic bronchitis. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
- Individuals who have smoked cigarettes for many years eventually develop deterioration in their lungs leading to various symptoms, including chronic production of thick mucus. (empowher.com)
- In severe cases, chronic bronchitis can cause weight loss, weakness in your lower muscles, and swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Oxygen therapy , if you have severe chronic bronchitis and low levels of oxygen in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- The results of these studies, involving a total of about 1,400 individuals, suggest that NAC taken daily at a dose of 400 mg to 1,200 mg can reduce the number of acute attacks of severe bronchitis. (empowher.com)
- Clinical features and 1-year outcomes of chronic bronchitis in participants with normal spirometry: results from the ECOPD study in China. (nih.gov)
- Outcomes were assessed through chronic bronchitis symptom scale (CBSS) and FEV1/ FVC ratio with spirometry for over a period of two years. (bvsalud.org)
Inflammation of the bronchi2
- Chronic bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs that affects approximately 6% of the U.S. population. (nih.gov)
- Olive leaf is frequently used to support the immune function of both people and animals with colds, flu, and bronchitis because of its effectiveness against disease-causing germs. (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)
- Background Simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (SMCB) is characterized by recurrent mucoid or mucopurulent expectoration in absence of localized suppurative disease . (bvsalud.org)
- In obstructive forms of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, usually occurs with the onset of the disease. (vsebolezni.com)
- Some people with chronic bronchitis get frequent respiratory infections such as colds and the flu . (medlineplus.gov)
- Prevalence and risk factors of patients with chronic bronchitis among Iraqi adults. (nih.gov)
- When manifested chronic bronchitis, the symptoms and treatment in adults should know every person who cares about their health. (vsebolezni.com)
- Whatever the signs of chronic bronchitis in adults, at first they appear, you should immediately consult a doctor. (vsebolezni.com)
- 0.001) was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. (who.int)
- In the past, significantly more men than women were affected by chronic bronchitis. (lifeafterjob.com)
- Since significantly more men than women smoked in the past, it was mainly men who developed chronic bronchitis. (lifeafterjob.com)
- Snoring may significantly increase susceptibility to chronic bronchitis, investigators here have found. (sott.net)
- Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your air tubes and lungs. (ayurveda.ae)
- OBJECTIVES: In the US, chronic bronchitis (CB) is common and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
- This case-control study in Beirut in 2009/2010 evaluated this relationship: 274 cases of chronic bronchitis and 559 controls without the condition aged ≥ 40 years were enrolled. (who.int)
- An estimated 9 million individuals in the U.S. suffer from non-obstructive chronic bronchitis (NCB) and there is little consensus regarding how the condition should be managed. (nih.gov)
- Some conditions that predispose to bronchitis may be indicated by chest radiography. (godasco.com)
- Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks. (godasco.com)
- Natural home treatment includes using herbs and supplements to effectively and holistically treat bronchitis in dogs, without the side effects of drugs such as steroids. (natural-dog-health-remedies.com)