Ciliary Motility Disorders
Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Respiratory Function Tests
Forced Expiratory Volume
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
A pilot study of low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis. (1/518)Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from sputum production, recurrent exacerbations, and progressive airway destruction. Erythromycin is effective in diffuse panbronchiolitis, another suppurative airway disorder, although its efficacy is unknown in idiopathic bronchiectasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of 8-week administration of low dose erythromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) in steady-state idiopathic bronchiectasis. Patients in the erythromycin group (n=11, 8 female, mean age 50+/-15 yrs), but not the placebo group (n=10, 8 female, mean age 59+/-16 yrs) had significantly improved forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and 24-h sputum volume after 8 weeks (p<0.05). There was no parallel improvement in sputum pathogens, leukocytes, interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B4. The results of this pilot study show that low-dose erythromycin improves lung function and sputum volume in bronchiectasis. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the efficacy of long-term erythromycin therapy in bronchiectasis. (+info)
Degradation of porstaglandin F2alpha in the human pulmonary circulation. (2/518)Degradation of prostaglandins (PGs) during passage through the human pulmonary circulation was investigated by measuring the transpulmonary plasma PGF2 alpha difference during continuous intravenous infusion of PGF2 alpha (5-10 mug/min). Seven patients with cardiological disorders and two patients with extensive pulmonary abnormalities were investigated during diagnostic cardiac catheterization. PGF2 alpha levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The seven cardiac patients were found to have transpulmonary PGF2 alpha differences of 47-88%, indicating metabolism of the PG in the lungs. A patient with extensive bronchiectasis had an apparently normal transpulmonary PGF2alpha difference despite gross abnormalities in routine lung function tests. A patient with primary pulmonary arterial hypertension showed no metabolism of PGF2alpha in the pulmonary circulation. The results show that PG degradation is an aspect of normal lung function and suggest that it becomes imparied when extensive pulmonary vascular damage exists. (+info)
Increased levels of exhaled carbon monoxide in bronchiectasis: a new marker of oxidative stress. (3/518)BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased production of oxidants due mostly to neutrophilic inflammation. Induction of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by reactive oxygen species is a general cytoprotective mechanism against oxidative stress. HO-1 catabolises heme to bilirubin, free iron and carbon monoxide (CO). Exhaled CO measurements may therefore reflect an oxidative stress and be clinically useful in the detection and management of inflammatory lung disorders. METHODS: The levels of exhaled CO of 42 non-smoking patients with bronchiectasis treated or not treated with inhaled corticosteroids were compared with CO levels in 37 normal non-smoking subjects. RESULTS: Levels of exhaled CO were raised in patients with bronchiectasis, both those treated with inhaled corticosteroids (n = 27, median 5.5 ppm, 95% CI 5.16 to 7.76) and those not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (n = 15, median 6.0 ppm. 95% CI 4.74 to 11.8), compared with normal subjects (n = 37, median 3.0 ppm, 95% CI 2.79 to 3.81, p = 0.0024). There was no correlation between exhaled CO and HbCO levels (r = 0.42, p = 0.12) in normal subjects (n = 7), nor between the urine cotinine concentration and exhaled CO levels (r = 0.2, p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of exhaled CO may reflect induction of HO-1 and oxidative stress in bronchiectasis. Measurement of exhaled CO may be useful in the management of bronchiectasis and possibly other chronic inflammatory lung disorders. (+info)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic phospholipase C suppresses neutrophil respiratory burst activity. (4/518)Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a persistent pathogen in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis from other causes and appears to have evolved strategies to survive the inflammatory response of the host. We hypothesized that the secreted hemolytic phospholipase C (PLC) of P. aeruginosa (PlcHR) would decrease neutrophil respiratory burst activity. We found that while intact wild-type P. aeruginosa cells stimulated moderate respiratory burst activity from human neutrophils, an isogenic mutant pseudomonas (DeltaHR strain) containing a targeted deletion of the plcHR operon induced a much more robust oxidative burst from neutrophils. In contrast, a second pseudomonas mutant (DeltaN) containing a disruption in the gene encoding the nonhemolytic PLC (PlcN) was not different from the wild type in stimulating neutrophil O2.- production. Readdition of purified PlcHR to the DeltaHR strain suppressed neutrophil O2.- production to levels stimulated by wild-type bacteria. Interestingly, purified PlcHR decreased phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- but not formyl methionyl-leucyl-proline (fMLP)-induced respiratory burst activity, suggesting interference by PlcHR with a protein kinase C (PKC)-specific signaling pathway. Accordingly, the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide inhibited the oxidative burst induced by either PMA or intact pseudomonas, but not by fMLP, whereas the p38 kinase inhibitor SB-203580 fully inhibited the respiratory burst induced by fMLP or the PlcHR-replete wild-type bacteria, but not PMA or the PlcHR-deficient DeltaHR bacterial mutant. We conclude that expression of PlcHR by P. aeruginosa suppresses bacterium-induced neutrophil respiratory burst by interfering with a PKC-dependent, non-p38 kinase-dependent pathway. (+info)
A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast. (5/518)A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection. (+info)
Epidemiological analysis of sequential Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from chronic bronchiectasis patients without cystic fibrosis. (6/518)PCR fingerprinting was used for the epidemiological investigation of 64 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from 16 chronic bronchiectasis patients without cystic fibrosis: 56% of the patients harbored one clone, 12.5% carried a single major type with minor variants, and 31.5% carried two clones. Only a minority of the acquisitions of antibiotic resistance was related to the acquisition of exogenous strains. Mucoid and nonmucoid sets of isolates did not display any consistent differences in their patterns. The genetic similarity among the clones ranged from 10 to 69%. Cross-infection or common-source exposure did not appear to have occurred. (+info)
A possible mechanism of primary ciliary dyskinesia: a case of a segmental defect in ciliary microtubules. (7/518)We report here a 13-year-old woman with cough, sputum and fever. The patient had both chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. Chest X-ray and computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed mucous bronchial filling and bronchiectasia in bronchi of bilateral lower lobes, right middle lobe and left upper lobe. Aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with 99mTechnetium demonstrated delays of the discharged tracer. On the basis of these findings, primary ciliary dyskinesia was suggested. This was confirmed by the findings from nasal biopsy with transmission electron microscopy where all of the microtubules were segmentally defected near the basal body in the cilia. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia which may be due, at least in part, to segmental defect of ciliary microtubules. (+info)
Respiratory epithelial ion transport in patients with disseminated bronchiectasis. (8/518)The nosological limits between disseminated bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis (CF) remain unclear. In patients with isolated congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, a forme fruste of the CF disease, a normal baseline nasal transepithelial potential difference (PD) but an impaired response to pharmacological interventions have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to explore ion transport in respiratory epithelium from patients with disseminated bronchiectasis. The PD under both baseline and pharmacological interventions was investigated in 13 healthy subjects, six patients with genetically proven CF and 15 patients with disseminated bronchiectasis as confirmed by computed tomography scan. Baseline PD was similar in the control and bronchiectasis groups but, as expected, was significantly more negative in the CF group. Patients with bronchiectasis responded to pharmacological tests (sequential perfusion with amiloride, chloride-free solution, isoprenaline and uridine triphosphate (UTP) similarly to healthy subjects. In contrast, CF patients exhibited an increased response to amiloride and an impaired response to chloride-free solution and isoprenaline. The data show that patients with disseminated bronchiectasis exhibit normal electrophysiological properties in their nasal epithelium. Nasal transepithelial potential difference including pharmacological tests may appear a valuable diagnostic procedure for cystic fibrosis with disseminated bronchiectasis. (+info)
The hallmark symptoms of bronchiectasis are chronic cough, recurrent respiratory tract infections, and excessive mucus production. These symptoms can significantly impact quality of life, and if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe respiratory failure and other complications such as pulmonary hypertension.
Bronchiectasis is most commonly caused by recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, such as those caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Other risk factors for developing bronchiectasis include a history of childhood respiratory infections, exposure to tobacco smoke, and underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis or primary immunodeficiency disorders.
Diagnosis of bronchiectasis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, radiologic imaging (such as high-resolution computed tomography, or HRCT), and pulmonary function tests. Treatment options for bronchiectasis include antibiotics to manage infections, bronchodilators to improve lung function, and airway clearance techniques such as chest physical therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be considered.
Preventive measures for bronchiectasis include prompt treatment of respiratory infections, avoiding exposure to environmental irritants such as tobacco smoke, and managing underlying conditions that increase the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and aggressive management of bronchiectasis can help slow disease progression, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of complications such as respiratory failure and lung cancer.
Ciliary motility disorders can affect any part of the body where cilia are found, but they most commonly affect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including recurring infections, chronic inflammation, and difficulty with breathing or swallowing.
Examples of ciliary motility disorders include primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which is caused by defects in the structure and function of cilia, and other less common conditions such as ciliary abnormalities, which can be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.
Diagnosis of ciliary motility disorders typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for these conditions often focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications, and may involve medications, breathing exercises, or other interventions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove blockages in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.
The main cause of ABPA is exposure to airborne spores of the fungus Aspergillus, which are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. Individuals with a pre-existing allergic condition may be more susceptible to developing an allergic reaction to these spores, leading to inflammation and damage to the airways.
Diagnosis of ABPA typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and bronchoscopy with biopsy. Treatment for ABPA typically involves corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and antifungal medications to treat any underlying infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy and other supportive care.
Prevention of ABPA includes avoiding exposure to known allergens and maintaining good respiratory hygiene. This can involve regularly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects, using HEPA filters in air purifiers, and wearing a mask when working with or around potentially contaminated materials.
Prognosis for ABPA is generally good if treated promptly and effectively, but untreated cases can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure and other organ damage. With proper management and prevention strategies in place, individuals with ABPA can lead active and fulfilling lives.
In medical terminology, hemoptysis is classified based on the amount of blood present in the sputum:
1. Mild hemoptysis: Small amounts of blood (less than 1/2 teaspoon) that may be seen in the sputum or on the tongue after coughing.
2. Moderate hemoptysis: Amounts of blood ranging from 1/2 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon.
3. Severe hemoptysis: Large amounts of blood (more than 1 tablespoon) that can be seen in the sputum or on the tongue after coughing, or blood that is sprayed out of the mouth during coughing.
Hemoptysis can be a symptom of various conditions, including:
1. Lung cancer: The most common cause of hemoptysis is lung cancer.
2. Bronchitis: Acute or chronic bronchitis can cause hemoptysis due to inflammation and damage to the bronchial tubes.
3. Tuberculosis: Hemoptysis is a common symptom of tuberculosis, especially in cases where the infection has spread to the lungs.
4. Pneumonia: Pneumonia can cause hemoptysis due to inflammation and damage to the lung tissue.
5. Cystic fibrosis: This genetic disorder can cause recurrent respiratory infections and hemoptysis.
6. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis can cause hemoptysis due to inflammation and damage to the lungs.
7. Trauma: Injury to the chest or lungs can cause hemoptysis.
8. Medications: Certain medications, such as blood thinners, can increase the risk of hemoptysis.
9. Infections: Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can cause hemoptysis.
10. Gastrointestinal disorders: Conditions such as esophageal varices, stomach ulcers, and gastritis can cause hemoptysis due to bleeding in the digestive tract.
It is important to note that hemoptysis can be a symptom of a serious underlying condition, and it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any episodes of coughing up blood. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopy to determine the cause of hemoptysis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
People with Kartagener Syndrome have defects in the genes that code for proteins involved in cilia formation and function, which can lead to a range of respiratory and digestive problems. The syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a person must inherit two copies of the faulty gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.
Symptoms of Kartagener Syndrome can include:
* Chronic respiratory infections and inflammation
* Recurring pneumonia
* Persistent cough
* Shortness of breath
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain
* Poor growth and development
* Infertility and/or miscarriage
Kartagener Syndrome can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing symptoms with antibiotics, bronchodilators, and other medications, as well as addressing any underlying respiratory or digestive problems. In some cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.
Overall, Kartagener Syndrome is a rare and complex condition that can significantly impact quality of life if left untreated. However, with appropriate medical care and support, many people with the syndrome are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from person to person, but may include:
* Persistent coughing and wheezing
* Thick, sticky mucus that clogs airways and can lead to respiratory infections
* Difficulty gaining weight or growing at the expected rate
* Intestinal blockages or digestive problems
* Fatty stools
* Nausea and vomiting
* Rectal prolapse
* Increased risk of liver disease and respiratory failure
Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in infancy, and treatment typically includes a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care. Management of the disease focuses on controlling symptoms, preventing complications, and improving quality of life. With proper treatment and care, many people with cystic fibrosis can lead long, fulfilling lives.
In summary, cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems, causing thick and sticky mucus to build up in these organs, leading to serious health problems. It can be diagnosed in infancy and managed with a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care.
The term cough is used to describe a wide range of symptoms that can be caused by various conditions affecting the respiratory system. Coughs can be classified as either dry or productive, depending on whether they produce mucus or not. Dry coughs are often described as hacking, barking, or non-productive, while productive coughs are those that bring up mucus or other substances from the lungs or airways.
Causes of Cough:
There are many potential causes of cough, including:
* Upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold and influenza
* Lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia
* Allergies, including hay fever and allergic rhinitis
* Asthma and other chronic lung conditions
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can cause coughing due to stomach acid flowing back up into the throat
* Environmental factors such as smoke, dust, and pollution
* Medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta blockers.
Symptoms of Cough:
In addition to the characteristic forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, coughs can be accompanied by a range of other symptoms that may include:
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and exhaustion
* Sore throat or hoarseness
* Coughing up mucus or other substances.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cough:
The diagnosis and treatment of cough will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious condition that requires medical attention, such as pneumonia or asthma. In other cases, a cough may be caused by a minor infection or allergy that can be treated with over-the-counter medications and self-care measures.
Some common treatments for cough include:
* Cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan or pholcodine to relieve the urge to cough
* Expectorants such as guaifenesin to help loosen and clear mucus from the airways
* Antihistamines to reduce the severity of allergic reactions and help relieve a cough.
* Antibiotics if the cough is caused by a bacterial infection
* Inhalers and nebulizers to deliver medication directly to the lungs.
It is important to note that while cough can be a symptom of a serious condition, it is not always necessary to see a doctor for a cough. However, if you experience any of the following, you should seek medical attention:
* A persistent and severe cough that lasts for more than a few days or weeks
* A cough that worsens at night or with exertion
* Coughing up blood or mucus that is thick and yellow or greenish in color
* Shortness of breath or chest pain
* Fever, chills, or body aches that are severe or persistent.
It is also important to note that while over-the-counter medications can provide relief from symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the cough. If you have a persistent or severe cough, it is important to see a doctor to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.
Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:
* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches
The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.
Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD
Preventive measures for bronchitis include:
* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.
The symptoms of CVID can vary from person to person and may include:
1. Frequent or recurring infections, such as sinus infections, ear infections, and pneumonia.
2. Poor response to vaccines.
3. Delayed growth and development in children.
4. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or arthritis.
5. Increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma.
CVID is caused by mutations in several genes that are involved in the immune system. These genes play a role in the development and function of immune cells, such as T cells and B cells. The exact cause of CVID is often not known, but it can be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.
There is no cure for CVID, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight off infections, immunoglobulin replacement therapy to boost the immune system, and medication to manage autoimmune disorders. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be recommended.
The prognosis for CVID varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any complications. With proper treatment, many people with CVID can lead normal lives and have a good quality of life. However, some individuals may experience ongoing health problems and a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer.
Suppuration is a process of pus formation that occurs in response to an infection or inflammation. It is a natural defense mechanism of the body, which helps to eliminate pathogens and protect the surrounding tissues from further damage. Suppuration involves the accumulation of pus, a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris, within a specific area of the body.
Suppuration can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, lungs, and joints, and is typically associated with bacterial or fungal infections. The process of suppuration involves several stages, including:
1. Inflammation: The body's response to an initial injury or infection, characterized by increased blood flow, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area.
2. Neutrophil migration: White blood cells called neutrophils migrate to the site of infection and engulf the pathogens, releasing enzymes that help to break down the bacterial cell walls.
3. Bacterial killing: The neutrophils and other immune cells work together to kill the invading bacteria, releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other chemicals that damage the bacterial cell membranes.
4. Pus formation: As the bacteria are killed, the dying cells and their components, such as lipopolysaccharides, are engulfed by the neutrophils and other immune cells. This material is then converted into pus, which is a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris.
5. Resolution: The suppuration process eventually resolves as the pus is either absorbed by the body or drained through natural openings (such as the skin) or medical intervention (such as drainage).
Suppuration is a natural process that helps to protect the body from infection and promotes healing. However, if the process becomes chronic or excessive, it can lead to complications such as abscesses or sepsis.
Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Some common types of lung diseases include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.
These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.
Obstructive lung disease
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Bronchiectasis - What Is Bronchiectasis? | NHLBI, NIH
Bronchiectasis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
New Inhaled Antibiotic Promising in Bronchiectasis
Fungal Cultures in Bronchiectasis Don't Predict Outcomes
Pediatric Bronchiectasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Nebulised 7% hypertonic saline improves lung function and quality of life in bronchiectasis
Pathology Outlines - Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis toolbox - The Thoracic Society of Australia & New Zealand
Bronchiectasis in COPD Patients Carries Higher Risk of Exacerbations | RT
Airflow obstruction in bronchiectasis: correlation between computed tomography features and pulmonary function tests | Thorax
Patrick Flume, MD: Finding the Best Management for Bronchiectasis
Evaluation of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bronchiectasis (QOL-B) in Patients With Bronchiectasis - Full Text View -...
A randomised crossover trial of chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis | European Respiratory Society
Bronchoscopic Aspects of Early Bronchiectasis - Michael E. DeBakey - Profiles in Science
Oral antibiotics vs placebo for exacerbations of paediatric bronchiectasis
RFA-FD-19-005: Patient Reported Outcomes Tool Development for Use in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Clinical Trials (U01)...
Impact of Long-Term Erythromycin Therapy on the Oropharyngeal Microbiome and Resistance Gene Reservoir in Non-Cystic Fibrosis...
Two cases of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
Reduced Physical Activity With Bronchiectasis | Respiratory Care
CF and non-CF bronchiectasis | European Respiratory Society
Outcomes of lung transplantation in adults with bronchiectasis - Northumbria Research Link
Antibiotic Formulary - Bronchiectasis
Subjects: Bronchiectasis -- surgery - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
Bronchoscopic Aspects of Early Bronchiectasis - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine
ERS publications news: Bronchiectasis in Europe
Bronchiectasis | Pulmonary Health | El Camino Health
Alana Kessler, Author at Bronchiectasis News Today
- LOS ANGELES - For patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, an investigational inhaled powder form of ciprofloxacin can significantly reduce the frequency of exacerbations, results from the phase 3 RESPIRE 1 trial show. (medscape.com)
- This is the first large, double-blind, randomized inhaled antibiotic trial to suggest efficacy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis," said lead investigator Kevin Winthrop, MD, from Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. (medscape.com)
- The management of frequent exacerbations in non-[cystic fibrosis] bronchiectasis is a challenge, with very limited evidence for the various treatment options," said Dr Ulrik, who was involved in a recent systematic review of antibiotic therapy for stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis ( Chron Respir Dis . (medscape.com)
- Several previous trials have failed to show benefit for patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, "so this is exciting," Dr Winthrop told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
- Sputum retention is a distressing feature of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and has been shown to contribute to the vicious cycle of infection seen in this disease. (nih.gov)
- Patients with a clinical diagnosis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, confirmed by HRCT, were entered into a randomised single blind cross-over study to evaluate 0.9% sodium chloride (IS) and 7% hypertonic saline (HS). (nih.gov)
- Regular use of 7% hypertonic saline improves lung function, quality of life and health care utilisation in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients. (nih.gov)
- Regular chest physiotherapy is advocated in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis despite little evidence supporting its routine use. (ersjournals.com)
- This study aimed to establish the efficacy of regular chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis compared with no regular chest physiotherapy. (ersjournals.com)
- Regular chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis has small, but significant benefits. (ersjournals.com)
- However, to date, there are no randomised controlled trials of chest physiotherapy exclusively in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis 6 . (ersjournals.com)
- The aim of this randomised crossover study was to establish the efficacy of routine chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, comparing the effect of twice daily physiotherapy using an oscillatory PEP device with no chest physiotherapy in patients not previously practising regular chest physiotherapy. (ersjournals.com)
- The severity and type of clinical manifestations are variable in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The respiratory syndromes in these patients consist of lung infections associated with disseminated bronchiectasis (DB), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
- Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel dysfunction in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to support research to develop and qualify a Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) for Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis (NCFB) under FDA's Drug Development Tools Qualification Program. (nih.gov)
- Two cases of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. (nih.gov)
- The pulmonary microbiome in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. (ers-education.org)
- BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for end-stage non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (BR), though information regarding outcomes of transplantation remains limited. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Brodt AM, Stovold E, Zhang L. Inhaled antibiotics for stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a longitudinal retrospective observational cohort study of Pseudomonas persistence and resistance. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Lobar distribution in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis predicts bacteriologic pathogen treatment. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- No approved therapies exist for the condition other than for bronchiectasis caused by cystic fibrosis. (dundee.ac.uk)
- Bronchiectasis continues to be a significant problem in developing countries and in specific groups of individuals, particularly in people who have cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- Although treatments are available or under development for bronchiectasis related to cystic fibrosis, many of the disease-specific treatments may not be effective for bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
Treatment of bronchiectasis2
- Bronchiectasis usually results from an infection or other condition that injures the walls of your airways or prevents the airways themselves from clearing mucus. (nih.gov)
- In bronchiectasis, your airways slowly lose their ability to clear out this mucus. (nih.gov)
- The illustration shows the lungs with normal airways and with widened airways with bronchiectasis. (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis is a disease in which the large airways in the lungs are damaged. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bronchiectasis is often caused by inflammation or infection of the airways that keeps coming back. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bronchiectasis (Figure 1), permanent dilation of the airways, is very uncommon in NTP studies. (nih.gov)
- CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that airflow obstruction in bronchiectasis is primarily linked to evidence of intrinsic disease of small and medium airways on CT scanning and not to bronchiectatic abnormalities in large airways, emphysema, or retained endobronchial secretions. (bmj.com)
- To date, bronchographic and computed tomographic (CT) imaging have evaluated the abnormalities of the large airways on which the diagnosis of bronchiectasis depends. (bmj.com)
- That's a genetic condition, that one of the clinical features, the quelli of this genetic mutation, is the development of persistent airways infection and bronchiectasis,' Flume said. (consultantlive.com)
- In bronchiectasis there is abnormal permanent dilatation of the airways, and the normal mucociliary clearance mechanism is impaired 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
- 1 People with NTM lung disease can develop bronchiectasis because of the repeated infections which can cause permanent inflammation and scarring of the airways. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- Airway clearance - There are non-medicine therapies that help those with bronchiectasis and NTM to clear mucus from the airways. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- Bronchiectasis is a condition that damages the airways and causes mucus buildup and infection. (elcaminohealth.org)
- When you have bronchiectasis, your airways become abnormally wide and scarred. (elcaminohealth.org)
- Bronchiectasis is characterised by pathological dilation of the airways. (dundee.ac.uk)
- In a previous blog post, we discussed the methods a prescriber may use to diagnose bronchiectasis (brong-kee-EK-tuh-sis), an irreversible chronic lung condition caused by abnormal widening of the airways of the lung. (smartvest.com)
- Bronchiectasis is a disease characterized by airways that are inflamed, abnormally dilated, and chronically infected. (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis is often confused with COPD or asthma. (copdfoundation.org)
- Llame al 866.731.COPD (2673) y presione 9 para hablar en español con un paciente o cuidador. (copdfoundation.org)
- Bronchiectasis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with a notably higher risk of acute respiratory flares and other serious problems, a Taiwan study shows. (rtmagazine.com)
- The study, "Acute respiratory events in patients with bronchiectasis-COPD overlap syndrome: A population-based cohort study," was published in the journal Respiratory Medicine. (rtmagazine.com)
- Bronchiectasis and COPD can coexist in a person, a condition called bronchiectasis-COPD overlap syndrome (BCOS). (rtmagazine.com)
- Bronchiectasis develops as a result of acute or chronic infection or inflammation, which may also be associated with an underlying anatomic airway obstruction, or congenital disease (see Etiology ). (medscape.com)
- In patients with suspected bronchiectasis, a high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is the diagnostic procedure of choice. (medscape.com)
- The most common way to diagnose bronchiectasis is through a high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. (smartvest.com)
- Unlike other methods used to diagnose bronchiectasis , an HRCT scan allows clinicians to examine the lungs' structure with greater accuracy. (smartvest.com)
- If you request or your doctor recommends a HRCT scan to evaluate for bronchiectasis , you will be placed, while lying down on your back, on top of a table that slides into a tunnel-like scanner. (smartvest.com)
- The data were drawn in December 2022 from the US-based Bronchiectasis and NTM Registry, which at that time had 22 participating sites. (medscape.com)
Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis2
- Bronchiectasis, derived from the Greek words for stretched windpipe, is a pathologic diagnosis or clinical syndrome that results from cyclic inflammation, infection, airway destruction, and airflow limitation. (medscape.com)
- In addition to the treatment of an identified underlying disorder in patients with bronchiectasis, therapy is aimed at reducing airway secretions and facilitating their removal through airway clearance techniques. (medscape.com)
- Bronchiectasis is defined by the findings of bronchiole destruction on pathology or more commonly on radiologic imaging, CT scan, and a clinical syndrome of chronic wet cough, and recurrent airway infections and/or signs of airway inflammation. (medscape.com)
- 1983. Chronic airway obstruction and bronchiectasis in the rat after intratracheal bleomycin. (nih.gov)
- If your clinician determines that your symptoms (i.e., shortness of breath, frequent cough, recurring lower respiratory infections, etc.), are a sign of bronchiectasis , the next step is prescribing an effective airway clearance device to help you manage symptoms and find relief, so you can get back to breathing easier. (smartvest.com)
- As a part of this protocol we may obtain blood, sputum, urine, or buccal swabs from some blood relatives of patients on the study, with the hope of isolating and characterizing the primary host defense defect(s) or genetic links responsible for airway infection susceptibility and/or bronchiectasis seen within families. (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis may need to be differentiated from emphysema. (nih.gov)
- The history and physical examination should help guide the clinician to choose the appropriate studies, especially when there is suspicion for bronchiectasis in a patient with chronic or recurrent respiratory infections. (medscape.com)
- When a patient is experiencing respiratory infections that are S evere, P ersistent, U nusual or R ecurrent (frequent) or "SPUR" (as a reminder tip), healthcare providers should consider if it may be bronchiectasis. (copdfoundation.org)
- In the latest episode of Coffee Talk on the ERS Respiratory Channel , Professor Stuart Elborn interviews Professor Stefano Aliberti and Professor Eva Polverino about the largest ever prospective study of adults with bronchiectasis from 28 countries - the EMBARC study. (blogspot.com)
- Bronchiectasis is a respiratory disease that affects nutritional status and quality of life. (bronchiectasisnewstoday.com)
- Individuals with bronchiectasis have a history of chronic and recurring respiratory infections. (nih.gov)
- Individuals 5 years of age and older who have an established diagnosis of bronchiectasis or a history of chronic/recurring respiratory infections. (nih.gov)
- Abnormal permanent dilatation of bronchior sub segmental bronchi with inflammatory destruction of peribronchial tissue [muscle, cartilage] with accumulation of secretions in the dependent bronchi Bronchiectasis is a chronic, irreversible dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles. (slideshare.net)
- Bronchiectasis is a pathologic term defined by the dilatation of bronchi with destruction of elastic and muscular components of their walls. (medscape.com)
- Another common test for evaluating bronchiectasis is the pulmonary function test (PFT). (copdfoundation.org)
- The presence of a positive fungal culture in patients with bronchiectasis does not appear to correlate with disease severity or any increased risk of an adverse outcome, according to data pulled from the Bronchiectasis and NTM Registry and presented at the 6th World Bronchiectasis & NTM Conference. (medscape.com)
- When fungal infections are detected in an initial microbiologic evaluation of patients with bronchiectasis or other lung diseases, first-line clinicians generally assume that coverage is needed. (medscape.com)
- McShane noted that many of the patients referred to her with bronchiectasis and a positive fungal culture were already on an antifungal. (medscape.com)
- Finally, with the exception of the slightly lower FEV1 in patients with fungal infections, McShane said that there was no discernible relationship between the presence of a fungal infection and severity of bronchiectasis. (medscape.com)
- A high suspicion for bronchiectasis is necessary because pediatric patients do not readily expectorate. (medscape.com)
- Physical examination findings in patients with bronchiectasis may include variable degrees of wheezing, crackles or coarse rhonchi and digital clubbing. (medscape.com)
- René Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope, first described bronchiectasis in 1819 while observing patients with tuberculosis and the sequelae of pneumonia in the pre-antibiotic era. (medscape.com)
- METHODS The inspiratory and expiratory features on the CT scan of 100 patients with bronchiectasis undergoing concurrent lung function tests were scored semi-quantitatively by three observers. (bmj.com)
- 9 We reported that the extent of decreased attenuation on expiratory CT scans correlated with the severity of airflow obstruction in a study of 55 patients with bronchiectasis. (bmj.com)
- The study population consisted of patients with bronchiectasis undergoing CT scanning and formal lung function tests (maximum time interval one month) between November 1992 and July 1993 at the Royal Brompton Hospital, and between November 1992 and June 1994 at Green Lane Hospital. (bmj.com)
- Patients were recruited from the bronchiectasis clinic, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. (ersjournals.com)
- METHODS: A retrospective review of case notes and transplantation databases was conducted for patients that had underwent lung transplantation for bronchiectasis at the Freeman Hospital between 1990 and 2013. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- These ideas or guidelines are useful to patients who have bronchiectasis, NTM lung disease or both. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- Bronchodilators - There is limited proof that the drugs called bronchodilators (brawn-coe die lay tores) will improve symptoms for patients with bronchiectasis and NTM lung disease. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- Up to 64% of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis suffer from chronic bacterial infections, most commonly Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Bacterial colonization in patients with bronchiectasis: microbiological pattern and risk factors. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Adult bronchiectasis patients: a first look at the United States bronchiectasis research registry. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Chawla K, Vishwanath S, Manu M, Lazer B. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Recent observations of the past 2 years have improved the understanding of physicians regarding bronchiectasis, and have indicated that it might be more effective to classify patients in a different way. (dundee.ac.uk)
- To prevent infections and potential disease progression, patients may receive standard medical care and treatment for bronchiectasis and related infections during this protocol. (nih.gov)
- The treatment goals for people with bronchiectasis and/or nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM lung disease) are similar. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- Mucus-thinning Medicines - Clearing mucus from your lungs is one of the most important parts of a treatment plan for bronchiectasis and NTM lung disease. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- The list of conditions that are known to be associated with bronchiectasis consists of a multitude of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, genetic issues, infection, injuries, chronic aspiration and more, he explained. (consultantlive.com)
- 3. Emphasis will be primarily on non CF bronchiectasis for elucidation of mechanisms of infection susceptibility. (nih.gov)
- 1 Removing the affected area of the lungs can result in a significant decrease of bronchiectasis symptoms and an improved quality of life. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- The aim of the present study was to determine which inspiratory or expiratory CT features in bronchiectasis-including the extent and severity of bronchiectasis, extent of mucous plugging, severity of bronchial collapse, and extent of decreased attenuation-were most strongly associated with airflow obstruction. (bmj.com)
- C, Saccular bronchiectasis. (slideshare.net)
- A, Varicose bronchiectasis. (slideshare.net)
- B, Cylindrical bronchiectasis. (slideshare.net)
- In the next post, we'll talk about breaking the cycle of infections, and treatments for bronchiectasis. (copdfoundation.org)
- Likewise, people with bronchiectasis are at risk of getting infections like NTM and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , (soo-duh-mo-nuhs air-o-gin-osa) as well as many other lung infections. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- These drugs are the main treatment for lung infections caused by bronchiectasis. (bronchiectasisandntminitiative.org)
- To study the natural history of bronchiectasis to identify inherited and immune factors that may explain why certain individuals have chronic recurring infections. (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis should be diagnosed whenever present and given a severity grade. (nih.gov)
- A comprehensive analysis of the impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization on prognosis in adult bronchiectasis. (bronchiectasisanswers.com)
- Absence of sputum production does not exclude bronchiectasis (younger children may not be able to expectorate) Contd. (slideshare.net)
- The extent of bronchiectasis can range anywhere from focal (one segment or lobe) to diffuse disease (involving both lungs and all lobes). (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. (bronchiectasisnewstoday.com)
- Here, we describe some of the recent advances in endotyping, genetics, and disease heterogeneity of bronchiectasis including observations related to the microbiome. (dundee.ac.uk)
- Bronchiectasis is a condition that occurs when the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs get damaged, causing them to widen and become loose and scarred. (nih.gov)
- Bronchiectasis can affect just one section of one of your lungs or many sections of both lungs. (nih.gov)
- How bronchiectasis affects the lungs. (nih.gov)
- Airflow obstruction is the functional hallmark of bronchiectasis. (bmj.com)