Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.

Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers--cough and airways irritancy syndrome? (1/1269)

Glass bottle workers have been shown to experience an excess of respiratory symptoms. This work describes in detail the symptoms reported by a cohort of 69 symptomatic glass bottle workers. Symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years (median = 4 yrs; range = 0-28). The interval preceding the development of dysponea was longer and much more variable (median = 16 yrs; range = 3-40). Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1269)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/1269)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (4/1269)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial responsiveness in patients with "corticosteroid naive" mild asthma: a meta-analysis. (5/1269)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. International guidelines also advocate the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in corticosteroid naive patients. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma by conventional meta-analysis. METHODS: A Medline search of papers published between January 1966 and June 1998 was performed and 11 papers were selected in which the patients had no history of treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Bronchial responsiveness to bronchoconstricting agents was considered as the main outcome parameter. Doubling doses (DD) of histamine or methacholine were calculated. RESULTS: The total effect size of inhaled corticosteroids (average daily dose 1000 microg) versus placebo in the 11 studies was +1.16 DD (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.76 to +1.57). When only the eight short term studies (2-8 weeks) were analysed the effect size of the bronchoconstricting agent was +0.91 DD (95% CI +0.65 to +1.16). No relationship was found between the dose of inhaled corticosteroid used and the effect on bronchial responsiveness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma indicates that, on average, high doses of inhaled corticosteroids decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 2-8 weeks. It remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between inhaled corticosteroids and effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  (+info)

Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease. (6/1269)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased airways responsiveness (5801 observations) to develop the following symptoms during any 3-year follow-up interval: chronic cough (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]), chronic phlegm (2.0 [1.3-3.0]), dyspnoea (2.3[1.5-3.5]), asthmatic attacks (3.7[2.2-6.1]), and persistent wheeze (2.7[1.7-4.4]). The estimate of the odds ratio for the development of any of the six symptoms was 1.7 (1.2-2.3). Participants with increased airways responsiveness were less likely than those without this characteristic to show remission of these respiratory symptoms. The estimate of the odds ratio for the remission of any of the six symptoms was 0.42 (0.28-0.61). INTERPRETATION: These prospective analyses show that increased airways responsiveness is positively associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and negatively associated with the remission of these symptoms in adults.  (+info)

Effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on cellular infiltration in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma. (7/1269)

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that pranlukast reduces the antigen induced immediate and late phase asthmatic responses, airway hyperreactivity to acetylcholine, and pulmonary eosinophil accumulation in guinea pigs. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that pranlukast may reduce the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled study was performed in 17 mild to moderate asthmatic subjects to examine changes in inflammatory cell infiltration in response to pranlukast (225 mg orally twice per day for four weeks). Comparisons of the mean daily beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, FEV1 percentage predicted, and airway methacholine responsiveness were made before and after treatment. Using fibreoptic bronchoscopy, bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained before and after treatment with either pranlukast (n = 10) or placebo (n = 7). Immunohistology was performed using monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, NP57, AA1, EG1, EG2, gamma GTP and CD19. RESULTS: When the pranlukast and placebo treated groups were compared there were decreases in beta 2 agonist use, symptom score, and airway methacholine responsiveness after pranlukast but no increase in FEV1 was seen. The clinical response in patients treated with pranlukast was accompanied by a reduction in CD3 (median difference -37, 95% confidence interval (CI) -69 to -1; p < 0.05), CD4 (median difference -28, 95% CI -49 to -8; p < 0.01), AA1 (median difference -15, 95% CI -26 to 0; p < 0.05) and EG2 positive cells (95% CI -35 to 0; p < 0.05), but not in EG1 positive eosinophils, gamma GTP positive cells, and CD19 positive plasma cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the view that pranlukast may act by inhibition of bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma.  (+info)

Clearance in small ciliated airways in allergic asthmatics after bronchial allergen provocation. (8/1269)

BACKGROUND: Asthma tends to affect mucociliary clearance, as assessed from measurements in large airways. However, there is no knowledge about clearance in the smallest airways of the tracheobronchial region in acute exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate clearance from the bronchiolar region in patients with allergic asthma in a situation resembling a mild acute exacerbation of the disease. We also aimed to compare clearance data with corresponding data found for healthy subjects and asthmatics on therapy. METHODS: Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 9 patients with mild asthma of the allergic type after inhalation of 6 microm (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In. At one exposure, inhalation was performed 4 h after bronchial provocation with an allergen the patients were allergic to. The second exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 liter/s, which gives deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated an early asthmatic reaction of varying degree after bronchial provocation. There was significant clearance of radioaerosol in each 24-hour period for both exposures, with the possible exception of the period between 24 and 48 h for the provocation exposure, with similar fractions of retained particles at all points of time. The retained fractions were significantly larger compared to a group of healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in allergic asthmatics a bronchial allergen provocation with an early asthmatic reaction does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region. However, in the present group of patients, retention in small ciliated airways was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment.  (+info)

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Nasal provocation tests are a type of diagnostic procedure used in allergy testing to determine the specific allergens that cause a person's nasal symptoms. In this test, a small amount of an allergen is introduced into the patient's nostril using a spray or drops. The patient's response is then observed and measured for any signs of an allergic reaction, such as sneezing, runny nose, or congestion.

The test may be performed with a single allergen or with a series of allergens to identify which specific substances the patient is allergic to. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and management strategies for allergies, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and avoidance measures.

It's important to note that nasal provocation tests should only be performed under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as there is a small risk of inducing a severe allergic reaction.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "metallurgy" is not a term that has a medical definition. Metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the properties, physical and chemical behavior, and production of metals. It involves studying the techniques and processes used to isolate, alloy, and fabricate various types of metal products. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Ergonovine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is derived from the ergot fungus and is used in medical settings as a uterotonic agent, which means it causes the uterus to contract. Ergonovine is often used after childbirth to help the uterus return to its normal size and reduce bleeding.

Ergonovine works by binding to specific receptors in the smooth muscle of the uterus, causing it to contract. It has a potent effect on the uterus and can also cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) in other parts of the body. This is why ergonovine is sometimes used to treat severe bleeding caused by conditions such as uterine fibroids or ectopic pregnancy.

Like other ergot alkaloids, ergonovine can have serious side effects if not used carefully. It should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and should not be used in women with certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or heart disease. Ergonovine can also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before receiving this drug.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Coronary vasospasm refers to a sudden constriction (narrowing) of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. This constriction can reduce or block blood flow, leading to symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or, in severe cases, a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Coronary vasospasm can occur spontaneously or be triggered by various factors, including stress, smoking, and certain medications. It is also associated with conditions such as coronary artery disease and variant angina. Prolonged or recurrent vasospasms can cause damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

A hypertonic saline solution is a type of medical fluid that contains a higher concentration of salt (sodium chloride) than is found in the average person's blood. This solution is used to treat various medical conditions, such as dehydration, brain swelling, and increased intracranial pressure.

The osmolarity of a hypertonic saline solution typically ranges from 1500 to 23,400 mOsm/L, with the most commonly used solutions having an osmolarity of around 3000 mOsm/L. The high sodium concentration in these solutions creates an osmotic gradient that draws water out of cells and into the bloodstream, helping to reduce swelling and increase fluid volume in the body.

It is important to note that hypertonic saline solutions should be administered with caution, as they can cause serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, heart rhythm abnormalities, and kidney damage if not used properly. Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients receiving these solutions to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Angina pectoris, variant (also known as Prinzmetal's angina or vasospastic angina) is a type of chest pain that results from reduced blood flow to the heart muscle due to spasms in the coronary arteries. These spasms cause the arteries to narrow, temporarily reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Variant angina is typically more severe than other forms of angina and can occur at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is often treated with medications that help relax the coronary arteries and prevent spasms, such as calcium channel blockers and nitrates. In some cases, additional treatments such as angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow to the heart.

It's important to note that chest pain can have many different causes, so it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of angina or other types of chest pain. A healthcare professional can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Immunologic tests are a type of diagnostic assay that detect and measure the presence or absence of specific immune responses in a sample, such as blood or tissue. These tests can be used to identify antibodies, antigens, immune complexes, or complement components in a sample, which can provide information about the health status of an individual, including the presence of infection, autoimmune disease, or immunodeficiency.

Immunologic tests use various methods to detect these immune components, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blots, immunofluorescence assays, and radioimmunoassays. The results of these tests can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage medical conditions, monitor treatment effectiveness, and assess immune function.

It's important to note that the interpretation of immunologic test results should be done by a qualified healthcare professional, as false positives or negatives can occur, and the results must be considered in conjunction with other clinical findings and patient history.

Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome, is a condition that affects the blood vessels, particularly in the fingers and toes. It is characterized by episodes of vasospasm (constriction) of the small digital arteries and arterioles, which can be triggered by cold temperatures or emotional stress. This results in reduced blood flow to the affected areas, causing them to become pale or white and then cyanotic (blue) due to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. As the episode resolves, the affected areas may turn red as blood flow returns, sometimes accompanied by pain, numbness, or tingling sensations.

Raynaud's disease can be primary, meaning it occurs without an underlying medical condition, or secondary, which is associated with connective tissue disorders, autoimmune diseases, or other health issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration tool usage, or smoking. Primary Raynaud's is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's.

Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves avoiding triggers, keeping the body warm, and using medications to help dilate blood vessels and improve circulation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications and smoking cessation may also be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.

Drug hypersensitivity is an abnormal immune response to a medication or its metabolites. It is a type of adverse drug reaction that occurs in susceptible individuals, characterized by the activation of the immune system leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction can range from mild symptoms such as skin rashes, hives, and itching to more severe reactions like anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions can be classified into two main types: immediate (or IgE-mediated) and delayed (or non-IgE-mediated). Immediate reactions occur within minutes to a few hours after taking the medication and are mediated by the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils. Delayed reactions, on the other hand, can take several days to develop and are caused by T-cell activation and subsequent cytokine release.

Common drugs that can cause hypersensitivity reactions include antibiotics (such as penicillins and sulfonamides), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), monoclonal antibodies, and chemotherapeutic agents. It is important to note that previous exposure to a medication does not always guarantee the development of hypersensitivity reactions, as they can also occur after the first administration in some cases.

The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and sometimes skin or laboratory tests. Treatment typically includes avoiding the offending medication and managing symptoms with antihistamines, corticosteroids, or other medications as needed. In severe cases, emergency medical care may be required to treat anaphylaxis or other life-threatening reactions.

Allergic rhinitis, seasonal (also known as hay fever) is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when an individual breathes in allergens such as pollen or mold spores. The immune system identifies these substances as harmful and releases histamine and other chemicals, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, red, watery, and itchy eyes, cough, and fatigue. Unlike perennial allergic rhinitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis is worse during specific times of the year when certain plants pollinate.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Allergic conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids) caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is often characterized by redness, itching, watering, and swelling of the eyes. In some cases, the eyes may also become sensitive to light. Allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious and can be treated with medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or mast cell stabilizers.

Oxytocics are a class of medications that stimulate the contraction of uterine smooth muscle. They are primarily used in obstetrics to induce or augment labor, and to control bleeding after childbirth. Oxytocin is the most commonly used oxytocic and is naturally produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Synthetic forms of oxytocin, such as Pitocin, are often used in medical settings to induce labor or reduce postpartum bleeding. Other medications with oxytocic properties include ergometrine and methylergometrine. It's important to note that the use of oxytocics should be monitored carefully as overuse can lead to excessive uterine contractions, which may compromise fetal oxygenation and increase the risk of uterine rupture.

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a type of lung inflammation that occurs in response to inhaling organic dusts or mold spores that contain allergens. It is also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This condition typically affects people who have been repeatedly exposed to the allergen over a period of time, such as farmers, bird fanciers, and workers in certain industries.

The symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. These symptoms may develop gradually or suddenly, depending on the frequency and intensity of exposure to the allergen. In some cases, the condition may progress to cause permanent lung damage if it is not treated promptly.

Diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and pulmonary function tests. In some cases, blood tests or bronchoscopy with lavage may also be used to help confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen, as well as using medications such as corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization and oxygen therapy may be necessary. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with extrinsic allergic alveolitis can recover fully and avoid long-term lung damage.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

In medical terms, fingers are not specifically defined as they are common anatomical structures. However, I can provide you with a general anatomy definition:

Fingers are the terminal parts of the upper limb in primates, including humans, consisting of four digits (thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers) and one opposable thumb. They contain bones called phalanges, connected by joints that allow for movement and flexibility. Each finger has a nail, nerve endings for sensation, and blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Fingers are crucial for various activities such as grasping, manipulating objects, and tactile exploration of the environment.

'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' is a species of mite that belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae. These mites are commonly known as house dust mites, and they are found in various environments, particularly in households. They thrive in warm and humid conditions, and their primary food source consists of human skin scales.

House dust mites like 'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' are associated with allergic reactions in humans, such as asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Their feces and body parts contain protease enzymes that can trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals, leading to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. These allergens can become airborne and inhaled or come into contact with the skin, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and difficulty breathing.

It is essential to maintain a clean living environment, particularly in bedding and upholstered furniture, to reduce the population of house dust mites and minimize allergen exposure. Measures such as using allergen-impermeable covers for mattresses and pillows, washing bedding in hot water, and reducing humidity levels can help control dust mite populations and alleviate allergic symptoms.

Cromolyn sodium is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mast cell stabilizers. It works by preventing the release of certain chemicals from mast cells, which are immune system cells found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. When a person is exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander, mast cells release chemicals like histamine, which can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and inflammation.

Cromolyn sodium is used to prevent asthma attacks, hay fever, and other allergic reactions. It is often prescribed for people who have difficulty controlling their symptoms with other medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids or antihistamines.

The medication is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and eye drops. When used as an inhaler, cromolyn sodium is typically administered four times a day to prevent asthma symptoms. As a nasal spray or eye drop, it is usually used several times a day to prevent allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis.

While cromolyn sodium can be effective in preventing allergic reactions, it does not provide immediate relief of symptoms. It may take several days or even weeks of regular use before the full benefits of the medication are felt.

Skin temperature is the measure of heat emitted by the skin, which can be an indicator of the body's core temperature. It is typically lower than the body's internal temperature and varies depending on factors such as environmental temperature, blood flow, and physical activity. Skin temperature is often used as a vital sign in medical settings and can be measured using various methods, including thermal scanners, digital thermometers, or mercury thermometers. Changes in skin temperature may also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or nerve damage.

Ketotifen is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer used in the prevention and treatment of allergic reactions. It works by blocking the release of histamine, a substance that causes allergic symptoms, and preventing the activation of mast cells, which play a key role in allergic responses. Ketotifen is available as an oral medication and is often used to treat chronic urticaria (hives) and other allergic conditions. It may also have some benefits in the treatment of asthma.

It's important to note that ketotifen should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and increased appetite. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting ketotifen.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Urticaria, also known as hives, is an allergic reaction that appears on the skin. It is characterized by the rapid appearance of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin, which are often accompanied by itching, stinging, or burning sensations. These wheals can vary in size and shape, and they may change location and appear in different places over a period of hours or days. Urticaria is usually caused by an allergic reaction to food, medication, or other substances, but it can also be triggered by physical factors such as heat, cold, pressure, or exercise. The condition is generally harmless, but severe cases of urticaria may indicate a more serious underlying medical issue and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, and postnasal drip. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies (such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander), infections (viral or bacterial), environmental irritants (such as smoke or pollution), and hormonal changes. Depending on the cause, rhinitis can be classified as allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, or hormonal rhinitis. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

... bronchial provocation tests MeSH E01.370.386.700.150 - capnography MeSH E01.370.386.700.250 - exercise test MeSH E01.370. ... Nasal provocation test MeSH E01.370.386.700 - respiratory function tests MeSH E01.370.386.700.050 - airway resistance MeSH ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.370.750.300.400 - kveim test MeSH E01.370.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E01.370. ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.540 - kveim test MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH ...
"Cellular Events in the Bronchi in Mild Asthma and after Bronchial Provocation". American Review of Respiratory Disease. 139 (3 ... "Guidelines for Methacholine and Exercise Challenge Testing-1999". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. ... Beta-blocker, or beta-adrenergic antagonists, may also induce bronchial constriction and block the action of other beta- ... causing bronchial hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, excessive mucus secretion, airflow obstruction and an asthma attack ...
... the nasal provocation testing necessary to diagnose the condition was not widely available.: 617 Prevention often focuses on ... This IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway has been found to be one of the main genetic determinants in bronchial asthma pathogenesis, ... Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. This may include a patch test to determine if a particular substance ... The intradermal allergy test is more sensitive than the skin prick test, but is also more often positive in people that do not ...
Rather than increase histamine during the test diet, eliminate it. This procedure does not endanger the patient. Quite the ... ISBN 978-3-7776-2349-8. "Histamine intolerance: lack of reproducibility of single symptoms by oral provocation with histamine: ... However, since many complaints such as headaches, migraines, bronchial asthma, hypotension, arrhythmia and dysmenorrhea ( ... Histamin Intoleranz "Histamine intolerance: Causes, symptoms, and test". Medical News Today. 16 April 2021. Vogelreuter, Axel ( ...
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Witnesses said the policeman hit Davis in the stomach with a nightstick without provocation. Two detectives held the crowd back ... John's Hospital near his home in Santa Monica, California, for routine tests. Doctors suggested he have a tracheal tube ... implanted to relieve his breathing after repeated bouts of bronchial pneumonia. The suggestion provoked an outburst from Davis ...
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Bronchial Provocation Testing. Sleep and Lung Care , Services , Service , Bronchial Provocation Testing ... Medication Withholding before the bronchial provocation test:. Some of your regular medications need to be withheld prior to ... Any other relevant tests, including blood tests or sleep studies, if you have any ... Regular inhalers medications for Asthma or COPD should be stopped 24 hours prior to the test. Avoid substances containing ...
Bronchial provocation testing (BPT) is used in the evaluation and diagnosis of asthma; its primary goal is to identify and ... The use of bronchial provocation testing is important to identifying asthma in individuals with what appears to be normal lung ... The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase ... A decrease of 10% in the FEV1 has been suggested for a positive test. Similar to exercise testing, treatment with inhaled ...
Bronchial Provocation Tests * Bronchial Spasm / etiology * Bronchial Spasm / physiopathology* * Humans * Methacholine Chloride ... nifedipine had no significant effect on the weak changes in SGaw induced by the DI before or after the bronchial challenge. We ... in six asthmatic patients and six healthy controls both before and after a bronchial challenge with methacholine (MCh). In the ...
... single-breath washout test at rest, after DACh, and after beta(2)-thera … ... Breath Tests* * Bronchial Hyperreactivity * Bronchial Provocation Tests * Child * Female * Humans * Male * Respiratory Function ... single-breath washout test at rest, after DACh, and after beta(2)-therapy. The normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) of the ...
Adverse events were monitored and diaries kept for 7 days following the tests. Mean pre-test FEV1 (mean ± SD) was 95.5 ± 14% ... developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage ... Cough was common during testing. There were no serious adverse events. The diarised events were similar for mannitol and HS, ... Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT) ... of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test ...
UC San Diego Health provides state-of-the-art testing for lung disease, evaluation of exercise tolerance, and measurements of ... Bronchial provocation test: Spirometry is used before and after inhalation of a breathing spray (e.g., methacholine) to assess ... About Conditions We Test For Pulmonary Function Test Pulmonary Exercise Test Specialist/Location ... What is a Pulmonary Function Test?. A pulmonary function test is a non-invasive test used to determine a patients lung ...
Blood tests to look for antibodies to the suspected substance. *Bronchial provocation test (test measuring reaction to possible ... Tests may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis:. * ... Lung function tests. *Peak expiratory flow rate, before, during ...
The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powered mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase ... Monitoring asthma therapy using direct bronchial provocation tests. Clin Respir J 2007;1:3-15. ... Provocation testing may be necessary if the spirometry results are normal. The diagnosis of asthma depends on the physicians ... of the patient to generate reproducible flow-volume curves is often a reason to discontinue a bronchial provocation test. ...
Functional Test. Skin Test. ?. Conjunctival Provocation Test. ?. Nasal Provocation Test. ?. Bronchial Provocation Test. ?. ...
Functional Test. Skin Test. Yes. Conjunctival Provocation Test. ?. Nasal Provocation Test. ?. Bronchial Provocation Test. ?. ...
Opinions vary as to whether this should be sought by performing a bronchial provocation test. Some centres see this as an ... However, the test has poor sensitivity and specificity. In select patients, laryngoscopy may be useful in identifying inducible ... Chronic cough as the sole presenting manifestation of bronchial asthma. N Engl J Med 1979; 300: 633-637. ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ...
Bronchial provocation testing in the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to latex surgical gloves G Pisati, A Baruffini, F ... The leukotriene-antagonist ICI-204,219 inhibits the early airway reaction to cumulative bronchial challenge with allergen in ... ERS/ATS technical standard on interpretive strategies for routine lung function tests ...
The allergen bronchial provocation test (ABPT) can induce allergic airway inflammation in individuals with atopic asthma.. ... YKL-40 in Induced Sputum After Allergen Bronchial Provocation in Atopic Asthma. ...
Consideration can be made for bronchial provocation challenge testing with methacholine and mannitol, understanding the ... a fistula test, and electronystagmography (which tests the vestibular system). Obviously, this approach takes time. If there is ... In 1690, the first diving bell with a replenishing air supply was tested. The first crude underwater suit dates back to 1837, ... Before diving, a thorough history and physical, along with spirometry and allergy testing, should be performed. A particular ...
Mannitol by inhalation is permitted e.g. to perform bronchial provocation testing in asthma. ... Can a dietary/nutritional supplement company have their supplements tested by WADA? See more ... The National Anti-Doping Organizations are no longer obliged to conduct tests but may assist IF and National Federations where ... A significant number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements and attributing an Adverse Analytical ...
The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase ... a positive field test is diagnostic for EIB, but false negative field tests are common,27 28 so laboratory tests should be ... Box 2: Challenge tests for EIB. Indirect challenge tests. High intensity exercise challenge. *. Should be performed in a ... Positive field test results may be used to diagnoses EIB, but a negative field test result does not rule out EIB ...
... a positive bronchial provocation test result with HDM allergen extract, and a measured amount of dust from the childs mattress ... The children were tested for allergies at the end of the study, ensuring that neither the families nor the clinic staff knew ... Samples were tested for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens.. Children were randomly assigned to the control group or ... Allergy skin tests were conducted using house dust mite (HDM), cat, dog, cockroach, Alternaria species (fungi), cows milk, egg ...
In the case of foods or medicines, sometimes a provocation test is performed, observing under medical control the reaction ... Secondly, bronchial asthma. It should not be forgotten that 80% of all asthmatics are asthmatic due to allergic causes. ... The diagnosis of allergies is made by means of a skin test with the aim of reproducing on the skin the reaction that we present ... In addition, it is possible to perform blood tests, so that in a more precise way we can quantify and demonstrate the presence ...
Allergen skin testing. *Blood allergy testing. *Bronchial provocation testing. *Immune function testing ... Allergy/Immunology Testing Depending on your symptoms and a thorough review of your medical history, our specialists may order ...
A dose related response to TDI was observed on bronchial provocation testing using TDI concentrations of 0.0165 and 0.030 parts ... Bronchial-asthma; Chemical-factory-worker; Case-studies ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity (MeSH) * Bronchial Provocation Tests (MeSH) * Europe (MeSH) * Female (MeSH) * Humans (MeSH) ...
... bronchial provocation testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ... This role will involve performing respiratory function testing ... As part of a teaching hospital, this large clinical laboratory service performs a comprehensive range of patient testing. The ...
... bronchial provocation tests MeSH E01.370.386.700.150 - capnography MeSH E01.370.386.700.250 - exercise test MeSH E01.370. ... Nasal provocation test MeSH E01.370.386.700 - respiratory function tests MeSH E01.370.386.700.050 - airway resistance MeSH ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.370.750.300.400 - kveim test MeSH E01.370.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E01.370. ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.540 - kveim test MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH ...
The exercise bronchial provocation test seeks to evince the presence of an increased obstructive response in the context of ... Bronchial challenge tests can be performed with substances that act directly on bronchial smooth muscle or by inducing the ... Of the 81 tests, 16% were baseline tests, 32.1% were spirometry with bronchodilator responsiveness testing (BRT), and 51.9% ... spirometry with BRT and bronchial provocation tests with high-quality results in the paediatric population and at the primary ...
Bronchial provocation testing: Should we look beyond FEV1? [25-Apr-2023]. Finlay P.; Smith E. ...
Exhaled nitric oxide in the diagnosis of asthma: Comparison with bronchial provocation tests. Berkman, N., Avital, A., Breuer, ... Ventilatory compensation during the incremental exercise test is inversely correlated with air trapping in COPD. Nusair, S., ...
Bronchial Provocation Tests. -. dc.subject.MESH. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. -. dc.subject.MESH. Enzyme-Linked ... Specific bronchial challenge testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. RESULTS: Both patients had positive skin test ... Pharaoh ant bronchial challenge test results showed typical early asthmatic reactions in 1 patient and dual asthmatic reactions ... Skin prick tests with ant extracts were performed. Specific IgE to pharaoh ant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
Bronchial Provocation (Mannitol Challenge Test). • Exercise Challenge Test (for assessment of exercise induced asthma) ... We offer a wide range of tests at three different locations. Please speak with our reception staff to find a convenient ...
  • Regular inhalers medications for Asthma or COPD should be stopped 24 hours prior to the test. (sleepandlungcare.com.au)
  • 1 Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation are the two primary pathophysiologic manifestations of asthma. (respiratory-therapy.com)
  • To assess whether the peripheral airways are involved in pediatric asthma, 10 asthmatic children (aged 8-15 years), hyperresponsive to dry-air hyperventilation challenge (DACh), performed spirometry and a vital capacity He/SF(6) single-breath washout test at rest, after DACh, and after beta(2)-therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, a conclusive diagnosis of asthma is based on tests designed to detect rapid changes in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) or peak expiratory flow. (cmaj.ca)
  • Although this review focuses particularly on diagnosis, these tests can also be used to assess asthma control and as an aid in optimizing chronic therapy. (cmaj.ca)
  • The allergen bronchial provocation test (ABPT) can induce allergic airway inflammation in individuals with atopic asthma. (jiaci.org)
  • The study comprised 60 children with physican-diagnosed asthma, a positive skin-prick test response to HDM, a positive bronchial provocation test result with HDM allergen extract, and a measured amount of dust from the child's mattress. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondly, bronchial asthma. (cun.es)
  • To diagnose bronchial asthma, respiratory function tests are performed. (cun.es)
  • 1,2 Still, these signs and symptoms are not specific to asthma, so clinical practice guidelines recommend performance of objective diagnostic tests, such as forced spirometry. (pap.es)
  • The bronchodilator responsiveness test (PRT) provides information on the reversibility of the airflow obstruction, and is therefore the most useful test for diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. (pap.es)
  • The exercise challenge test or free running test is indicated for assessment of symptoms suggestive of asthma associated with physical activity and for diagnosis of uncontrolled asthma and exercise-induced asthma. (pap.es)
  • According to the most recent protocol of the Airway Group of the Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (Spanish Association of Primary Care Paediatrics), every child and adolescent with asthma should have results of some type of lung function testing documented in their health records. (pap.es)
  • Bronchial thermoplasty is a procedure that may be recommended for adults with severe persistent asthma that is not well controlled on inhaled steroids combined with a long acting bronchodilator medicine. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The test can help to confirm the diagnosis of asthma in a patient with history of asthma but normal spirometry findings. (medscape.com)
  • There is no agreed gold standard to diagnose asthma, and the objective tests that can aid diagnosis are often poorly available to primary care physicians. (ersjournals.com)
  • Treating asthma prior to carrying out objective tests decreases their sensitivity and can make confirmation of the diagnosis difficult. (ersjournals.com)
  • There is no single gold standard test to diagnose asthma, and there are significant differences between the suggested algorithms in commonly used guidelines. (ersjournals.com)
  • As asthma is so common, the majority of diagnoses are made in primary care, where access to objective testing in asthma is limited. (ersjournals.com)
  • Even if objective tests are available, there is no gold standard test for asthma and many of the tests that are available ( e.g. spirometry, fractionated exhaled nitric oxide ( F eNO ) and bronchial provocation tests) do not necessarily exclude asthma even if they are normal, particularly if the patient has started treatment prior to testing. (ersjournals.com)
  • In our Asthma Health Assessment we will ask you about your present treatment and its potential dangers, lifestyle factors that are important in preventing asthma, the role of tests infrequently used in the mainstream that are very important in dealing with possible underlying causes for asthma, and a variety of possible treatments for asthma and other related. (doctorsaputo.com)
  • Bronchial provocation testing helps identify those people with a cough who have asthma from those with esophagitis. (doctorsaputo.com)
  • Bronchial Asthma: Cough with or without mucus, shortness of breath, wheezing, pain or pressure in the chest. (probeltepharma.es)
  • The specific bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • One patient presented asthma, showing a positive bronchial provocation test, and two patients rhinoconjunctivitis, showing positive conjunctival provocation tests. (allergopedia.gr)
  • Solodovnikova GM (1991) [AP therapy to treat patients with bronchial asthma] . (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Erythron membrane impairment was investigated using membrane-active drugs (obsidan, delagil, morphium, ethanol) to specify indications to AP in bronchial asthma (BA). (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Dotsenko EK (1995) Bronchial nonspecific reactivity in patients with bronchial asthma and in the preasthmatic state and its alteration under the influence of AP . (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • The development of nonspecific bronchial hypersensitivity and hyperreactivity in bronchial asthma and effectiveness of its correction with AP were studied in 152 patients with asthma and preasthma. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Zagustina NA (1995) An analysis of the AP treatment results in bronchial asthma patients . (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Treatment effects reached in 94 patients with bronchial asthma show that neurogenic, humoral and bioenergetic responses to AP proceed according to adaptation laws and result in reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Joshi_YM (1992) AP in bronchial asthma . (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • By now, there is ample clinical experience of treating bronchial asthma with AP . (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Although the methacholine challenge test is not a primary test for evaluating chronic cough, if no other reason for chronic cough is found, it may be a guiding test for asthma. (who.int)
  • Yes, while airways cough of more than 3 weeks duration, tory, physical examination and the reactivity is among the characteristics of cough without a known cause, age methacholine test results were analysed asthma, it is not considered a sufficient above 10 years and normal radiography statistically using the chi-squared test. (who.int)
  • 2 After an appropriate history has been obtained and a physical examination performed, the recommended diagnostic testing methods include spirometry (preferred), serial peak flow measurements and provocational challenges. (cmaj.ca)
  • the aim of the study was to describe our experience in performing spirometry in the paediatric population and encourage other primary care centres to offer this test to their patients. (pap.es)
  • a total of 81 spirometry tests were performed in 67 patients aged 5 to 14 years between January 2019 and February 2020. (pap.es)
  • Of the 81 tests, 16% were baseline tests, 32.1% were spirometry with bronchodilator responsiveness testing (BRT), and 51.9% spirometry with exercise challenge and BRT All tests were performed with a Sibelmed Datospir Touch 511-B00-MU1 spirometer. (pap.es)
  • twenty-six spirometry tests included a BRT, with negative results of the BRT in 15 and positive results in 11. (pap.es)
  • 3,6,7 There are additional methods used to assess lung function in children, such as spirometry with bronchodilator responsiveness testing and spirometry with bronchial challenge tests. (pap.es)
  • FVC spirometry comparison test and pre/post FVCcomparison test. (oxigraf.com)
  • in addition, the most widely available tests (peak flow and spirometry) can be normal unless the patient is exacerbating. (ersjournals.com)
  • The corrective role of AP consists in reduction of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity, normalization of blood ACh, resensitization of cell beta-adrenergic receptors, elevation of mean levels of 11-OCS and T-lymphocytes. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • Airway hyperresponsiveness is usually measured using direct stimuli, such as methacholine or histamine, that act by stimulating specific receptors on the bronchial smooth muscle to cause contraction and narrowing of the airways. (cmaj.ca)
  • Bronchial provocation tests may be performed to diagnose bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). (medscape.com)
  • These tests are performed in specialized laboratories by specially trained personnel to document airway hyperresponsiveness to substances (eg, methacholine, histamine). (medscape.com)
  • HS provocation testing can also be used to measure airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). (edu.au)
  • Lung function tests the market in the European region stands second due to the rising chronic allergic diseases. (fnetchat.com)
  • Skin tests are based on reproducing the allergic inflammatory response in the skin. (probeltepharma.es)
  • Of a general allergic population of 237, 10 patients also presented cutaneous test and IgE positive to saffron. (allergopedia.gr)
  • Testing bronchial hyper-responsiveness: provocation or peak expiratory flow variability? (ru.nl)
  • Inappropriate laryngeal movements during exercise were measured by the continuous laryngoscopy exercise test, lung function was measured by flow-volume curves, and non-specific bronchial hyper-responsiveness was measured by a methacholine provocation test. (bmj.com)
  • Induced sputum differential cytology tests, measurements of exhaled nitric oxide concentration and methacholine bronchial provocation tests were performed. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • A combined HS challenge and sputum induction procedure has been developed to permit assessment of AI and AHR in a single test. (edu.au)
  • The aim of this study is to report the success and tolerability of sputum induction alone, and in combination with a HS bronchial provocation challenge. (edu.au)
  • Outcomes assessed were completion of the test protocol, adequacy of sputum samples, decrease in FEV 1 , and adverse effects during the procedure. (edu.au)
  • Fifty-three children who underwent a sputum induction alone, and 182 children who underwent a combined sputum induction and bronchial provocation using HS. (edu.au)
  • Depending on the route of exposure these tests may be ocular, nasal, bronchial, oral or parenteral. (probeltepharma.es)
  • Bronchial hypersensitivity as indicated by the response to ACh was related to impaired coordination of bronchomotor tone regulating systems: parasympathetic part of the ANS, eosinophilic and monocytic bronchial inflammation, glucocorticoid homeostatic alterations. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • In an indirect method, the stimuli cause a release of mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, which in turn cause contraction of the bronchial smooth muscle. (respiratory-therapy.com)
  • In contrast to her first visit, she showed a positive response in the MBT, and developed bronchoconstriction in the PPE-bronchial provocation test (BPT). (korea.ac.kr)
  • These tests also evaluate responsiveness to treatment. (mse.nhs.uk)
  • The degree of airway responsiveness can be assessed by methacholine challenge testing. (medscape.com)
  • A PC 20 of greater than 16 mg/mL indicates normal bronchial responsiveness. (medscape.com)
  • Of 101 patients with chronic cough (with no history of sinusitis, recent pulmonary infection, bronchitis, gasteroesophageal reflux or underlying pulmonary conditions), 51.5% showed reactive airways disease to the methacholine test, 40.6% were unreactive and 7.9% were indeterminate. (who.int)
  • The prick test (intraepidermal test) is the application on the skin surface of a small amount of a suspected allergen extract (usually a drop) on which a slight puncture is performed with a short tip lancet. (probeltepharma.es)
  • Intradermal test involves administration in the superficial dermis of an allergen extract in aqueous dilution. (probeltepharma.es)
  • We offer state-of-the-art exercise and lung function testing to diagnose lung disease, determine your oxygen needs, and help you manage breathing problems. (ucsd.edu)
  • DLCO test (diffusing capacity): Assesses how well lungs exchange gases. (ucsd.edu)
  • Pulmonary exercise tests allow the physician to evaluate the lungs and heart under conditions of increased metabolic demand. (ucsd.edu)
  • Medical Thoracoscopy is an investigative test when a patient has plural effusion - which is when excess fluid accumulates between the two pleural layers, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. (mse.nhs.uk)
  • The Pulmonary Physiology Department carries out a wide range of diagnostic tests to assess lungs function, cardio-respiratory function and muscle strength. (mse.nhs.uk)
  • During the bronchial thermoplasty the bronchoscope will be placed through the nose into the lungs. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The lung function tests market has been witnessing augmenting demand, mainly due to the vital role that these lung function tests play in the diagnosis of various diseases and disorders associated with the respiratory tract and lungs. (fnetchat.com)
  • The laser welding of biological tissues is a particular use of lasers in surgery.The technique has been proposed since the 1970s for surgical applications, such as repairing blood vessels, nerves, tendons, bronchial fistulae, skin and ocular tissues. (biolifesas.org)
  • The diagnosis of allergies is made by means of a skin test with the aim of reproducing on the skin the reaction that we present in other parts of the body. (cun.es)
  • In the case of foods or medicines, sometimes a provocation test is performed, observing under medical control the reaction after ingestion. (cun.es)
  • The diagnostic work-up consists of a specific history of allergies, a general ENT examination, provocation tests of allergens such as skin reaction tests, and Lab tests. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • In addition, it is possible to perform blood tests, so that in a more precise way we can quantify and demonstrate the presence of specific antibodies. (cun.es)
  • RESULTS: Both patients had positive skin test reactions to pharaoh ant extract and high levels of specific IgE antibodies to pharaoh ant. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Skin prick tests for specific antibodies proved positive for nickel chloride at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and negative for potassium dichromate. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • She showed strong positive response in the skin prick test (SPT) (5+, wheal ratio of allergen to histamine) and had a high serum-specific IgE level to PPE, but showed a negative response in the methacholine bronchial challenge test (MBT). (korea.ac.kr)
  • Depending on your symptoms and a thorough review of your medical history, our specialists may order tests to help confirm your diagnosis. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Provocation tests are to reproduce the symptoms of the shock organ by contacting the patient with the suspected allergen. (probeltepharma.es)
  • Provocation tests in patients with clinical findings were used to verify the implication of saffron components in these symptoms. (allergopedia.gr)
  • Respiratory symptoms, highly predictive of increased bronchial reactivity, consist principally of nocturnal dyspnoea and chest tightness on awakening and an associated breathlessness and wheezing in response to various respiratory irritants such as cold air. (isanagpur.org)
  • the sinusitis or other pulmonary conditions sion criteria (51 men and 50 women), methacholine test was shown to have an or symptoms consistent with airways with a mean age of 38.8 [standard de- important role in reaching a diagnosis disease such as wheezing. (who.int)
  • A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an evaluation of the cardiopulmonary system. (oxigraf.com)
  • As part of a teaching hospital, this large clinical laboratory service performs a comprehensive range of patient testing. (anzsrs.org.au)
  • Cross-reactivity among pharaoh ant, imported fire ant, Pachycondyla chinensis ant, and other indoor allergens was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Intracutaneous test and bronchial provocation with cow epithelium allergens were both positive. (radoslawspiewak.net)
  • North America is projected to continue leading the global lung function tests market. (fnetchat.com)
  • Furthermore, high healthcare expenditure and the high adoption of advanced technology drive the Lung Function Tests market in North America. (fnetchat.com)
  • Anesthesiologist has to be selective regarding the choice of anesthesia technique and the use of drugs in these patients to avoid the provocation of bronchospasm and other airway related complications and if it occurs should recognize and manage appropriately. (isanagpur.org)
  • The most useful are three: prick test, intradermal test and patch test. (probeltepharma.es)
  • The prick test and RAST, with saffron pollen, stamen, and pistil extracts, were used to evaluate the cutaneous and specific antibody responses in the studied population. (allergopedia.gr)
  • A pulmonary function test is a non-invasive test used to determine a patient's lung function and source of shortness of breath. (ucsd.edu)
  • A dose related response to TDI was observed on bronchial provocation testing using TDI concentrations of 0.0165 and 0.030 parts per million. (cdc.gov)
  • As a calcium-dependent myogenic response could be involved, we examined the effect of a potent voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDC) antagonist, nifedipine (20 mg administered sublingually) versus placebo, on the DI-induced change in plethysmographic specific airway conductance (SGaw) in six asthmatic patients and six healthy controls both before and after a bronchial challenge with methacholine (MCh). (nih.gov)
  • Physicians order pulmonary exercise tests for patients who are easily short of breath. (ucsd.edu)
  • We test adults and some paediatric patients who are inpatients and referred as outpatients. (mse.nhs.uk)
  • Results of pulmonary function testing are not reliable in patients younger than 5 years. (medscape.com)
  • Sur un total de 101 patients atteints de toux chronique (sans antécédents de sinusite, d'infection pulmonaire récente, de bronchite, de reflux gastro-oesophagien ni d'affections pulmonaires sous-jacentes), 51,5 % ont présenté une hyperréactivité des voies aériennes au test de provocation à la méthacholine, 40,6 % n'ont pas eu de réaction et 7,9 % ont eu des résultats non concluants. (who.int)
  • All patients over indeterminate and the test was repeated the 2-year period who presented with after 2 weeks. (who.int)
  • Bronchial challenge tests can be performed with substances that act directly on bronchial smooth muscle or by inducing the release of endogenous mediators that cause airway narrowing through exercise, hyperventilation or administration of hypertonic saline. (pap.es)
  • Pharaoh ant bronchial challenge test results showed typical early asthmatic reactions in 1 patient and dual asthmatic reactions in the other patient. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Another 32 tests included an exercise challenge, which was positive compared to baseline in 9, while in 23 there were no significant differences relative to baseline, although in 5 of them the BRT was positive. (pap.es)
  • ③ Positive rate of bronchial provocation test of the moderate/severe group had significantly statistical difference with the mild group and the normal control group(14.85% vs 4.24%,14.85% vs 1.23%, P<0.01), but the mild group had no significantly statistical difference with the normal control group(4.24% vs 1.23%, P>0.05). (sdu.edu.cn)
  • A positive methacholine challenge test was positively correlated with new wheezing. (who.int)
  • Within the airway wall sensory receptors alter bronchial smooth muscle tone through the parasympathetic vagal pathways. (isanagpur.org)
  • It is important that the methacholine challenge test (MCT) is standardized so results are comparable between laboratories and to differentiate between normal and abnormal. (respiratory-therapy.com)
  • 6 American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines were published in 1999 for both exercise and methacholine challenge testing. (respiratory-therapy.com)
  • What is a Pulmonary Function Test? (ucsd.edu)
  • You will be given oxygen during and after the bronchial thermopasty to make sure your body is getting enough oxygen. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Your doctor has suggested you have a procedure called bronchial thermoplasty as part of your treatment . (nationaljewish.org)
  • To monitor the treatment effect, it is recommended to define osmotic resistance of the red blood cells in obsidan test in addition to clinicofunctional indices. (med-vetacupuncture.org)
  • A reduction in inappropriate laryngeal movements during maximal effort, according to continuous laryngoscopy exercise tests prephysiotherapy and postphysiotherapy treatment. (bmj.com)
  • In vascular surgery, two procedures have been tested and optimized in animal models, both ex vivo and in vivo, in order to design different approaches for blood vessels anastomoses and for the repair of vascular lesions: the laser-assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) and the laser-assisted vessel repair (LAVR). (biolifesas.org)
  • The remainder of the procedure for testing is similar regardless of how the medication is delivered. (respiratory-therapy.com)
  • The procedure involves draining any pleural fluid which is then tested. (mse.nhs.uk)
  • The bronchial thermoplasty is a procedure that is done in three visits, each visit two to three weeks apart. (nationaljewish.org)
  • You will be scheduled to see the pulmonary doctor who performs the bronchial thermoplasty before the procedure. (nationaljewish.org)
  • This role will involve performing respiratory function testing as part of the team, both at the main campus and possibly at satellite laboratories. (anzsrs.org.au)
  • According to Market Research Future (MRFR), a leading research firm, the global lung function tests market is estimated to garner exponential accruals by 2025. (fnetchat.com)
  • Also, the lack of awareness of the availability and advantages of these lung function tests is likely to hinder the market growth. (fnetchat.com)
  • Nevertheless, advances in techniques and devices used for the lung function tests market would support the market growth throughout the forecast period. (fnetchat.com)
  • Additionally, increasing funding for research by private public organizations would boost the growth of the Europe lung function tests market. (fnetchat.com)
  • The Asia Pacific lung function tests market is expected to register a substantial CAGR during the forecast period. (fnetchat.com)
  • Highly competitive, the global lung function tests market appears fragmented due to the presence of several well-established players. (fnetchat.com)
  • Figure 1 ⇓ shows the pathogenesis of EIB and how diagnostic tests and management interventions work. (bmj.com)
  • Animal test alternatives: Refinement, reduction, replacement. (cdc.gov)
  • Specific bronchial challenge testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • The patch test consists of the application on the skin of one or more agents responsible for skin reactions by contact, in order to confirm a delayed hypersensitivity response. (probeltepharma.es)