Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/1734)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1734)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/1734)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Exhaled nitric oxide; relationship to clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. (4/1734)

Bronchial asthma is an airway disorder associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. The variables all reflect, in part, the underlying airway inflammation in this disease. To understand their interrelationships we have investigated the relationship between exhaled NO levels and clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. Twenty-six steroid naive atopic asthmatics participated in the analysis. All were given diary cards and were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates twice daily together with their asthma symptom scores and beta-agonist use. Diary cards were collected 2 weeks later and measurements of exhaled NO levels, FEV1 and histamine bronchial hyperreactivity (PC20 histamine) were undertaken. Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in our study population than in normal control subjects and correlated negatively with PC20 histamine (r = -0.51; P = 0.008) and positively with PEF diurnal variability (r = 0.58; P = 0.002), but not with symptom scores, beta-agonist use of FEV1 (%). We conclude that a significant relationship exists between exhaled NO levels and the two characteristic features and markers of asthma severity, namely bronchial hyperreactivity and PEF diurnal variability. The lack of correlation between symptom score and beta-agonist use, of FEV1 (%) predicted and exhaled NO suggests that these measures are reflective of differing aspects of asthma.  (+info)

IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (5/1734)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial responsiveness in patients with "corticosteroid naive" mild asthma: a meta-analysis. (6/1734)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. International guidelines also advocate the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in corticosteroid naive patients. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma by conventional meta-analysis. METHODS: A Medline search of papers published between January 1966 and June 1998 was performed and 11 papers were selected in which the patients had no history of treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Bronchial responsiveness to bronchoconstricting agents was considered as the main outcome parameter. Doubling doses (DD) of histamine or methacholine were calculated. RESULTS: The total effect size of inhaled corticosteroids (average daily dose 1000 microg) versus placebo in the 11 studies was +1.16 DD (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.76 to +1.57). When only the eight short term studies (2-8 weeks) were analysed the effect size of the bronchoconstricting agent was +0.91 DD (95% CI +0.65 to +1.16). No relationship was found between the dose of inhaled corticosteroid used and the effect on bronchial responsiveness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma indicates that, on average, high doses of inhaled corticosteroids decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 2-8 weeks. It remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between inhaled corticosteroids and effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/1734)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease. (8/1734)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased airways responsiveness (5801 observations) to develop the following symptoms during any 3-year follow-up interval: chronic cough (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]), chronic phlegm (2.0 [1.3-3.0]), dyspnoea (2.3[1.5-3.5]), asthmatic attacks (3.7[2.2-6.1]), and persistent wheeze (2.7[1.7-4.4]). The estimate of the odds ratio for the development of any of the six symptoms was 1.7 (1.2-2.3). Participants with increased airways responsiveness were less likely than those without this characteristic to show remission of these respiratory symptoms. The estimate of the odds ratio for the remission of any of the six symptoms was 0.42 (0.28-0.61). INTERPRETATION: These prospective analyses show that increased airways responsiveness is positively associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and negatively associated with the remission of these symptoms in adults.  (+info)

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Health Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold.. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Heart Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity. T2 - methods of study.. AU - Grassi, C.. AU - Casali, L.. AU - Rossi, A.. AU - Rampulla, C.. AU - Zanon, P.. AU - Cerveri, I.. AU - Mastroberardino, M.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The authors evaluated bronchial hyperreactivity comparing two different methods for aspecific bronchostimulation (H2O ultrasonic mist and free running) and a bronchodilation test. The investigation had been carried out on three groups of subjects. The first included 15 nonsmoking normal subjects, the second 23 asthmatic patients and the third 16 rhinitic patients. All subjects were submitted to bronchodynamic tests in three different ways. The ventilatory parameters were FVC, FEV1, MMEF and Vmax25. In normal subjects no significant changes were found. In asthmatic patients the bronchodilation test was positive in 65% of the cases, regarding FEV1 and in 87% regarding the forced flows. The running ...
The inter-relationship between the perception of bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and temporal adaptation in asthma is still a matter of debate. In a total of 52 stable asthmatic patients, 32 without airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC) 84.1% (S.D. 7.9%)], and 20 with airway obstruction [FEV1/VC 60% (4%)], we assessed the perception of bronchoconstriction during methacholine inhalation by using: (i) the slope and intercept of the Borg and VAS (Visual Analog Scale) scores against the decrease in FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the predicted value; and (ii) the Borg and VAS scores at a 20% decrease in FEV1 from the lowest post-saline level (PB20). Bronchial hyper-responsiveness was assessed as the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20FEV1). The reduction in FEV1 was significantly related to the Borg and VAS scores, with values for the group mean slope and intercept of this relationship of 0.13 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia.. AU - Gavett, S. H.. AU - Chen, X.. AU - Finkelman, F.. AU - Wills-Karp, M.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - The pathogenesis of asthma remains unclear. An in vivo murine model of antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation was developed to investigate the possibility, suggested by a wealth of descriptive human data, that alterations in immunoregulation are important in the genesis of airway hyperreactivity. A/J mice developed airway hyperreactivity and markedly increased numbers of pulmonary inflammatory cells following intraperitoneal sensitization and intratracheal challenge with sheep red blood cells. Notably, eosinophils were a prominent component of the inflammatory infiltrate. The dependence of these phenomena, both pathologic and functional, on CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated by in vivo depletion of CD4+ cells using the anti-CD4 mAb GK1.5. When ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement for neuropeptide Y in the development of type 2 responses and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. AU - Oda, Naohiro. AU - Miyahara, X. Nobuaki. AU - Taniguchi, Akihiko. AU - Morichika, Daisuke. AU - Senoo, Satoru. AU - Fujii, Utako. AU - Itano, Junko. AU - Gion, Yuka. AU - Kiura, Katsuyuki. AU - Kanehiro, Arihiko. AU - Maeda, Yoshinobu. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - Neuro-peptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter that is widely expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Various immune cells express the NPY Y 1 receptor. NPY modulates these cells via its Y 1 receptor; however, involvement of NPY in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, particularly airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), has not been defined. NPY-deficient and wild-type mice were intranasally sensitized and challenged to house dust mite (HDM) extract, and airway responses were monitored. After sensitization and challenge, NPY-deficient mice showed significantly lower AHR ...
The results of this study indicate that four weeks of treatment with inhaled steroids leads to improvements in airway hyperresponsiveness, sputum eosinophil numbers, and levels of exhaled NO in patients with mild atopic asthma. In addition, it appears that the improvements in these markers are lost two weeks after cessation of treatment. This suggests that each of these markers may be useful for monitoring patients with asthma, even though there might be small differences between the markers in their earliest response to anti-inflammatory treatment.. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare the treatment induced changes in airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, eosinophil counts in induced sputum, and exhaled NO levels in a group of asthmatic patients. Our study confirms and extends the results of others who have shown the beneficial effect of glucocorticosteroids on each of these markers separately. Like Kraan et al, we found an improvement of two doubling doses in airway ...
This is a Phase 3 study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Aridol bronchial challenge test to detect bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suspected asthma. Patients with suspected asthma of either gender, aged between 6 and 50 years, with only mildly impaired lung function (FEV1 ,70%) are to be tested with three different bronchial hyperresponsiveness challenges (Aridol, exercise and methacholine), and the results compared. A clinical diagnosis will also be made at the end of the study ...
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an asthma prevalence video questionnaire, a standard written questionnaire based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire and a new written questionnaire designed for an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood ISAAC in predicting bronchial hyper-responsiveness BHR...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive value of childhood airway hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli: 10-year longitudinal study. AU - Lajunen, Katariina Tytti. AU - Malmberg, Leo Pekka. AU - Kalliola, Satu. AU - Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne. AU - Pelkonen, L. Anna Susanna. AU - Mäkelä, Mika Juhani. PY - 2020/10. Y1 - 2020/10. KW - 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics. KW - Airway hyper-responsiveness. KW - Ashtma. KW - Childhood. KW - Lung function. KW - Methacholine challenge. KW - Prospective. KW - BRONCHIAL HYPERRESPONSIVENESS. KW - RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS. KW - LUNG-FUNCTION. KW - ASTHMA. KW - CHILDREN. KW - AGE. KW - RESPONSIVENESS. KW - DETERMINANTS. KW - IMPEDANCE. KW - 3121 Internal medicine. U2 - 10.1111/pai.13248. DO - 10.1111/pai.13248. M3 - Article. VL - 31. SP - 767. EP - 773. JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. SN - 0905-6157. IS - 7. ER - ...
Wilson, AM, Gray, RD, Hall, IP and Lipworth, BJ (2006) The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with asthma. Allergy, 61 (2). pp. 254-259. ISSN 1398-9995 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine forming capacity (HFC) and its modulation by H3 receptor ligands in a model of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AU - Allen, Marcus. AU - Graham, P.. AU - Morris, G.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 118. EP - 122. JO - Inflammation Research. JF - Inflammation Research. SN - 1023-3830. IS - 3. ER - ...
To study the role of CD8+ T cells in allergic sensitization, we examined the effects of in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells prior to sensitization on IgE production, immediate type cutaneous hypersensitivity and development of altered airway responsiveness. BALB/c mice were thymectomized and treated with anti-CD8 antibody resulting in depletion of CD8+ T cells (,1%) in spleen and lymphoid tissues. In these mice, sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) via the airways still resulted in IgE anti-OVA responses and immediate cutaneous reactions to OVA, but the animals were unable to develop airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil infiltration of the lung parenchyma, or IL-5 production in the local lymph nodes of the airway. Transfer of CD8+ T cells from naive animals during sensitization (on day 8 of the 10-d protocol) fully restored the ability to develop airway hyperresponsiveness and this was accompanied by IL-5 production and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. These data indicate a critical role for ...
In mice, CD4+ T cells are alone sufficient to mediate many of the pathognomonic changes that occur in human asthma by a mechanism dependent upon IL-4, but independent of IL-5, IgE, or both. Clarification of the role played by CD4+ T cells is likely to stimulate important therapeutic advances in trea …
Lin, J.T., Hiroshi, I., Suzuki, T., et al. (1994) Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness. Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 17, 213-215.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corticosteroids enhance CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic inflammation by upregulating leukotriene B4 receptor 1. AU - Ohnishi, Hiroshi. AU - Miyahara, Nobuaki. AU - Dakhama, Azzeddine. AU - Takeda, Katsuyuki. AU - Mathis, Steven. AU - Haribabu, Bodduluri. AU - Gelfand, Erwin W.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Background: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent inflammatory lipid mediator that binds to LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). Ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 plays an important role in the recruitment of effector memory CD8+ T cells into the airways of sensitized and challenged mice. Objectives: The effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on BLT1-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells and effector memory CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation were determined. Methods: Effector memory CD8+ T cells were generated from ovalbumin257-264-primed mononuclear cells from OT-1 mice in the presence of IL-2. In some cultures DEX ...
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Critical role for IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity.: Airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of specific and nonspecific stim
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ching-Feng Huang, Ho-Jen Peng, Chia-Chao Wu, Wen-Tsung Lo, Yu-Lueng Shih, Tzee-Chung Wu].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway hyperresponsiveness. T2 - From molecules to bedside. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12794089. AN - SCOPUS:0038309533. VL - 95. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 1. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
These studies of Ormdl3Δ2-3/Δ2-3/CC10 mice demonstrate that selectively inhibiting ORMDL3 in airway epithelial cells plays a significant role in induction of allergen-induced increases in AHR in vivo through a pathway independent of inflammation and associated with a pathway of increased S1P generation, which can induce increased smooth muscle contraction. These results further suggest that utilizing an inhalation therapeutic approach in asthma targeting a selective significant reduction in ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelium may paradoxically result in increased AHR as a consequence of increased epithelial-derived S1P increasing airway smooth muscle contractility. Whether an inhalation therapy targeting a less than complete inhibition of ORMDL3 expression by airway epithelium would also result in increased AHR is at present unknown. However, a therapy inducing only partial inhibition of ORMDL3 expression in the airway may also not be an effective therapy in asthma.. In this study, we ...
Fig. 5. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of the EFS-evoked contractions of the guinea pig-isolated trachea incubated for 4 days with TNF-α (100 ng/ml) by Δ9-THC (A) and CP55940 (B) in the presence of ethanol (vehicle), AM251 (3 × 10−9 M), or JTE907 (3 × 10−8 M). EFS parameters: 5-second trains every 100 seconds at 5-Hz frequency, 0.5-millisecond pulse width, and a voltage 10% greater than the voltage required to evoke maximal contractions. Each curve was fitted by nonlinear regression analysis. Each symbol represents the mean value of inhibition of the contractions expressed as a percentage reduction of the amplitude of the contractions measured immediately before the addition of any drug to the organ bath. Vertical lines indicate S.E.M., n = 6 for each curve. AM251 or ethanol was added 20 minutes before the first addition of the agonist. ...
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Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. Eosinophils migrate to the airways and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotides prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.. AU - Edwan, Jehad. AU - Kandimalla, Ekambar R.. AU - Yu, Dong. AU - Bhagat, Lakshmi. AU - Wang, Daqing. AU - Agrawal, Sudhir. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG oligos) have been shown to prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of asthma. Recently, we reported immunomodulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs) containing novel structures (immunomers) and synthetic immunostimulatory CpR (R=2′-deoxy-7- deazguanosine) motifs show potent stimulatory activity with distinct cytokine secretion profiles. Since type 2 T cells predominate in asthma and increase in type 1 cells can prevent the differentiation of naïve T lymphocytes to a type 2 phenotype, we hypothesized that IMOs can prevent the development of allergic ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
article{733304be-b795-4682-8916-cd1774ecdcab, abstract = {Cigarette smoke exposure is strongly associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) which is the main characteristic seen in asthma. The intracellular MAPK signaling pathways are suggested to be associated with the airway damage to the AHR. In the present study, we hypothesize that secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure upregulates the bronchial contractile receptors via activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway.}, articleno = {e44170}, author = {Cao, Lei and Zhang, Yaping and Cao, Yong-Xiao and Edvinsson, Lars and Xu, Cang-Bao}, issn = {1932-6203}, language = {eng}, number = {8}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, series = {PLoS ONE}, title = {Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A Receptors.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044170}, volume = {7}, year = {2012 ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this further, we studied 77 patients with stable bronchiectasis (noncystic fibrosis) with special reference to the prevalence of BHR to methacholine (MCh), and its relation to lung function, sputum characteristics, concommitant asthma, and atopy. The concentration of MCh required to produce a fall of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1), PC 20, was determined by Wrights nebulization tidal breathing method. BHR defined by a PC 20 ≤ 8 mg/ml was found in 21 of 47 (45%) subjects who underwent bronchial challenge. Presence of BHR was positively associated with low baseline spirometric values, diagnosis of asthma, long duration of disease, and elevated total IgE on univariant analysis, and was significantly related to FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and asthma on multiple regression analysis. Ten of the 21 hyperreactive subjects did not have clinical asthma, whereas ...
BACKGROUND: Although there is convincing evidence that the prevalence of asthma among children has increased over the last three decades, it remains uncertain whether such an upward trend has occurred in adults. The aim of this study was to assess whether the prevalence of asthma has changed in young Belgian adults in recent years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of available statistics from the Belgian Armed Forces for the period 1978-91 because conscripts who reported a history of past or current asthma at call-up examination underwent standardised assessment of non-specific airway responsiveness by military chest physicians. Exemption from military service due to asthma was strictly based on the objective evidence of airway hyperresponsiveness. RESULTS: A mean of 48,331 conscripts aged 17-31 years were examined annually from 1978 to 1991. The prevalence of reported asthma rose from 2.4% in 1978 to 7.2% in 1991, while the proportion of asthmatics with airway hyperresponsiveness ...
Wheezing during infancy has been linked to early loss of pulmonary function. We prospectively investigated the relation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and progressive impairment of pulmonary function in a cohort of asthmatic infants followed until age 9 years. We studied 129 infants who had had at least three episodes of wheezing. Physical examinations, baseline lung function tests and methacholine challenge tests were scheduled at ages 16 months and 5, 7 and 9 years. Eighty-three children completed follow-up. Twenty-four (29%) infants had wheezing that persisted at 9 years of age. Clinical outcome at age 9 years was significantly predicted by symptoms at 5 years of age and by parental atopy. Specific airway resistance (sRaw) was altered in persistent wheezers as early as 5 years of age, and did not change thereafter. Ninety-five per cent of the children still responded to methacholine at the end of follow-up. The degree of BHR at 9 years was significantly related to current clinical status
This study tested the hypotheses that short-term exposure to DE would affect all three characteristic features of asthma: airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. The most important finding was that short-term exposure to DE increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in asthmatic airways. Exposure to DE was also associated with an immediate increase in Raw and elevated levels of IL-6 in sputum detected 6 h after exposure.. Airway hyperresponsiveness is an important feature of asthma and has been shown to correlate well with the severity of the disease 22. In the present study, methacholine data obtained at 24 h postair exposure was compared with the postdiesel data, and it was found that exposure to DE induced an increase in airway responsiveness equal to a shift in PC20 methacholine of almost one doubling concentration. The relevance of this finding is supported by the consistency of the data, with 12 of 14 subjects showing decreased PC20 values ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin receptor alterations in equine airway hyperreactivity. AU - Venugopal, Changaram S.. AU - Polikepahad, Sumanth. AU - Holmes, Earnestine P.. AU - Vanden Heuvel, John Patrick. AU - Leas, Tara L.. AU - Moore, Rustin M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptors in the airway hyperreactivity of horses with obstructive pulmonary disease associated with summer pasture (SPAOPD). The right diaphragmatic lobe of the lung of 8 clinically healthy (unaffected) and 8 SPAOPD-affected horses was collected immediately after euthanasia. Bronchial rings (4 mm wide) were prepared and mounted in organ baths and attached to force transducers interfaced with a polygraph. Four rings were used to study each ET-1 receptor; 1 ring served as the control, and the other 3 were incubated with 10-9, 10-7, or 10-5 M of either BQ-123, an ETA-receptor antagonist, or IRL-1038, an ETB-receptor antagonist. Cumulative ...
Infection with influenza A virus represents a major public health threat worldwide, particularly in patients with asthma. However, immunity induced by influenza A virus may have beneficial effects, particularly in young children, that might protect against the later development of asthma, as suggested by the hygiene hypothesis. Herein, we show that infection of suckling mice with influenza A virus protected the mice as adults against allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. The protective effect was associated with the preferential expansion of CD4-CD8-, but not CD4+, NKT cells and required T-bet and TLR7. Adoptive transfer of this cell population into allergen-sensitized adult mice suppressed the development of allergen-induced AHR, an effect associated with expansion of the allergen-specific forkhead box p3+ (Foxp3+) Treg cell population. Influenza-induced protection was mimicked by treating suckling mice with a glycolipid derived from Helicobacter pylori (a ...
0117] 1. Gavett, S. H., X. Chen, F. Finkelman, and M. Wills-Karp. 1994. Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:587-593. [0118] 2. Umetsu, D. T., J. J. McIntire, O. Akbari, C. Macaubas, and R. H. DeKruyff. 2002. Asthma: an epidemic of dysregulated immunity. Nat Immunol 3:715-720. [0119] 3. Hogan, S. P., K. I. Matthaei, J. M. Young, A. Koskinen, I. G. Young, and P. S. Foster. 1998. A novel T cell-regulated mechanism modulating allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity in BALB/c mice independently of IL-4 and IL-5. J Immunol 161:1501-1509. [0120] 4. Wills-Karp, M., J. Luyimbazi, X. Xu, B. Schofield, T. Y. Neben, C. L. Karp, and D. D. Donaldson. 1998. Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma. Science 282:2258-2261. [0121] 5. Robinson, D. S., Q. Hamid, S. Ying, A. Tsicopoulos, J. Barkans, A. M. Bentley, C. Corrigan, S. R. Durham, and A. B. Kay. 1992. Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar ...
To the Editors: We read with interest the recent paper by van den Nieuwenhof et al. 1 who reported no statistically significant association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with asthma incidence over 14 yrs in 123 asymptomatic adolescents aged 10-22 yrs at baseline. They concluded that AHR is not a risk factor for the development of asthma in adulthood and that screening for AHR in adolescents to detect subjects at risk for asthma cannot be recommended. We similarly assessed the association between AHR at baseline and asthma incidence over 11.4 yrs among 172 asymptomatic children (44.2% with AHR (provocative dose causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second ,4 mg methacholine) at baseline) and 517 adults (31.7% with AHR at baseline) from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) 2, 3. Asymptomatic adults were defined as those with a null symptomatic score according to Pekkanen et al. 4 over the previous 12 months. The score is based on ...
Our experiments with Jα18−/− mice clearly show that iVα14 NKT lymphocytes are required for the characteristic features of experimental allergic asthma, namely airway inflammation, BALF Th2 cytokine production and the secretion of high levels of specific anti-OVA IgE, that will ultimely induce AHR.. The failure of Jα18−/− mice to develop the typical Th2 inflammation, AHR and IgE responses following OVA airway challenge is not due to a deficiency in Th2 responsiveness since these mice produce high levels of IgE in another protocol using three systemic immunizations with 2.5 higher doses of OVA. These data concur with previous reports showing that Jα18−/− mice are not defective in IgE production (15). In this study we used a protocol where all mice were similarly immunized with OVA and alum, and airway OVA challenge resulting in Th2 inflammation and AHR. Because we found that iVα14 NKT cells are present in the lung of OVA-challenged mice, it is possible that they are involved ...
Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. This study examines the role of intrinsic airway neurons in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-1. Ferrets were instilled intratracheally with IL-1 (0.3 g/0.3 ml) or saline (0.3 ml) once daily for 5 days. Tra
Discussion BHR occurred in 21%, and 6% presented BHRms. The latter is in line with the reported prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma (7%) in Helsinki (6). We found no discrepancy with results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in which the prevalence of BHR ranged from 3% to 28% among 16 countries, with a median prevalence of 13% (34).. We assessed BHR by two cut-off levels of PD15FEV1 indicating different severity levels of BHR, thus showing variations and differences in importance of the determinants assessed. For most of the determinants, ORs were higher, parallel with BHR severity. Our results, however, revealed that some risk factors for BHR and asthma, like severe respiratory infection in childhood, were associated with the higher PD15FEV1 cut-off level only.. The strongest determinant of BHR was decreased FEV1 (,80% of predicted) when combined with airway obstruction (defined as FEV1/FVC , 88% of predicted). But, studies on the association of BHR with allergic ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness are key components of asthma. The allergen-induced inflammatory response in the lungs results from the interaction of key airway resident cells and inflammatory cells that release local mediators. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) participates in the inflammatory response of the lungs by phenotypic changes that include synthesizing inflammatory mediators as well as an increase in contractility. Although anti-inflammatory agents and beta-adrenergic bronchodilators remain the primary treatment for chronic and acute episodes of bronchoconstriction, there is a great need for newer therapeutic targets that can modify the development and treatment of asthma. For that reason, molecular targets that might be predicted to suppress allergic inflammatory responses as well as bronchoconstriction are highly desirable. Actin dynamics is well established as the primary mechanism for motility and migration ...
In the course of the follow-up of 206 previously obstructive bronchitis children, the effect of parental smoking upon the occurrence of respiratory diseases, the yearly frequency of wheezing episodes and the age until the obstructive episodes used to return have been investigated. Familial and mater …
BACKGROUND:. Asthma is a respiratory disease characterized by variable airways obstruction, airways inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). There are recent increases in asthma mortality and prevalence in the US, especially in African-Americans. Multiple studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors are important in asthma susceptibility.. The study was recommended by the Pulmonary Diseases Advisory Committee at its February 1991 meeting and given concept approval by the May 1991 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The Request for Applications was released in October 1992.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The CSGA was composed of five centers (Johns Hopkins University, University of Chicago, University of Maryland, University of Minnesota, and a data coordinating center at Wake Forest). At each center, families were ascertained through two siblings with asthma. All family members were characterized with spirometry, bronchial responsiveness to methacholine or ...
Allergic throat hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, mediated by allergen-specific Th2 cells and Th2-like iNKT cells, develops under the impact of inhibitory and enhancing Capital t cells. neglected contributor. Intra-peritoneal shot of Ovum/alum refurbished advancement of the AHR-enhancers in all of the mutant pressures, suggesting that the boosters can become caused when they fail to develop automatically still, and that they themselves want not really communicate TNFRp75, IL-4 or IFN- in purchase to exert their function. We consider that both the advancement and the cytokine potential of the AHR-enhancing Capital t cells differs vitally from that of Th2 cells and NKT cells, despite identical affects of these cell populations on AHR. can be not really very clear. Relating to one theory, fragile Ag-stimulation mementos ARRY-438162 Th2-reactivity. A Th2-prejudice also is present after delivery when the immune system program can be still premature (4). Nevertheless, it ...
We investigated the potential role of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation in sensitised Brown-Norway rats. Rats were sensitised with ovalbumin (OA) intraperitoneally and 21 days later they were either exposed to 0.9% NaCl or 1% OA aerosol for 15 min. Rats exposed to OA aerosol were pretreated either with ICAM-1 antibody (3 mg/kg i.p. and i.v., 45 min prior to OA exposure) or with the diluent for the antibody. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after OA or 0.9% NaCl exposure, rats were anaesthetised, tracheostomised and mechanically ventilated, and airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) aerosol was measured as the provocative concentration of ACh needed to increase pulmorary resistance by 100% (PC100). Mean -log PC100 was increased in rats exposed to OA but pretreated with diluent (2.75 +/- 0.06) compared to rats treated with ICAM-1 antibody (2.51 +/- 0.08 ...
Rationale: In asthma, airway inflammation, obstruction and reactivity may lead to ventilation heterogeneity; our understanding of this process is limited in asthmatic chi..
Tale M. Torjussen, Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen, Monica C. Munthe-Kaas, Petter Mowinckel, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Peter J. Helms, Jorrit Gerritsen, Moira K. Whyte, Warren Lenney, Dag E. Undlien, Kevin V. Shianna, Guohua Zhu and Sreekumar G. Pillai Alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and tobacco smoke exposure: Effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 23. Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2011 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01222.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease or an inflammatory disorder of the airway related to the airflow impediment and bronchial hyper-responsiveness which ranges in severity across the continuum of the diseases. Here, adequate control cannot be achieved in a considerable ratio thought the application of possible treatments
Asthma, Rhinitis, Risk, Population, Adults, Allergy, Association, Bronchi, Mite, Nose, Risk Factor, Risks, Classification, Electrodiagnosis, Syndrome, Adult, Bronchial Hyperreactivity, Children, Methacholine, Odds Ratio
Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. The chronic inflammation is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway obstruction and airway remodeling. In asthmatics the airway ...
The pathogenesis of COPD is due to an interaction between host factors (ie, genes, airway hyperresponsiveness, and lung growth) and exposure to environmental
Airway inflammation is a state of irritation in the airways caused by the immune system responding to a perceived threat. If the...
Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
Relation between manifest bronchial obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity (author's transl)]". Zeitschrift für Erkrankungen ...
van Herwerden, L (1995). "Linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor gene with bronchial hyperreactivity, even in absence of atopy ... 1976). "Changes in bronchial reactivity after administration of live attenuated influenza virus". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.: 194- ... This shows that in addition to causing airway hyperreactivity, rhinovirus also promotes the onset of non-atopic asthma. ... pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism leading to bronchial asthma. This is because the increase of ...
A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to support the diagnose occupational asthma. It involves measuring ...
The obstruction can be due to mucus or other secretions in the airway,: 411 bronchial hyperreactivity, or tumors. See rhonchus ... also known as bronchial fremitus, is a palpable vibration produced during breathing caused by partial airway obstruction. ... as these areas are closest to the bronchial trifurcation (right side) or bifurcation (left side). Tactile fremitus is ...
"Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity ...
In addition, ongoing airway inflammation is thought to cause airway hyperreactivity characteristic of asthma. The more severe ... Together, these mediators cause bronchial smooth muscle constriction, vascular leakage, inflammatory cell recruitment (with ...
... is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in ... This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized ...
T variant with increased incidences of asthma and/or bronchial hyper-reactivity. The intrinsic variants rs17831675, rs17831682 ... 2007). "Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 143 Suppl 1: 23-7. ...
... bronchial hyper reactivity and peak flow but not FEV1. More recent positive results of long-term treatment with azithromycin on ... Webley WC, Salva PS, Andrzejewski C, Cirino F, West CA, Tilahun Y, Stuart ES (May 2005). "The bronchial lavage of pediatric ... Hahn DL, Grasmick M, Hetzel S, Yale S (2012). "Azithromycin for bronchial asthma in adults: an effectiveness trial". Journal of ... Schmidt SM, Müller CE, Bruns R, Wiersbitzky SK (October 2001). "Bronchial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, markers of allergic ...
... (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity, BH used as a general abbreviation) is a ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. Logan, Carolynn ...
People with pre-existing airway hyperreactivity, such as asthmatics, will react to lower doses of drug. Sometimes, to assess ... A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma. The patient breathes in nebulized ... The bronchial challenge test is physically demanding, and the results can be affected by muscular weakness or exhaustion. The ... Dixon C (February 1983). "The bronchial challenge test: a new direction in asthmatic management". J Natl Med Assoc. 75 (2): 199 ...
... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes. In order to make a formal asthma ... Patients that have been diagnosed with RADS will likely have methacholine airway hyperreactivity, yet other tests that also ... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes. Physicians most commonly label patients ... Symptoms may also include, but are not limited to, coughing, shortness of breath, excess mucus in the bronchial tube, ...
IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... an increase in airway hyperreactivity, and mucus hypersecretion. Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway ...
... which are the predominant receptors on the bronchial smooth muscles. Activation of these receptors causes adenylyl cyclase to ... which can cause airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Potential formulation of the R form as an enantiopure drug is ... leading to hyperpolarization and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys ...
In vitro, exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen ... and airway hyperreactivity in firefighters at the world trade center site. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2:33-9. Berninger A ... Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... 2010) Sclerosis therapy of bronchial artery attenuates acute lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation injury in ovine ...
Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, as during asthma attacks and allergic ... "Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". ... hyperreactivity, and increased mucus production. These symptoms could result from pendrin's effects on ion concentration in the ... "Identification of pendrin as a common mediator for mucus production in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
The dysregulation of ILCs can lead to immune pathology such as allergy, bronchial asthma and autoimmune disease. The ... "Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity ...
Query Trace: Bronchial Hyperreactivity and CD14[original query] CD14 gene polymorphism is not associated with asthma but rather ... with bronchial obstruction and hyperreactivity in Slovenian children with non-atopic asthma. Respiratory medicine 2011 Oct 105 ...
... bronchial hyperreactivity is occurring (positive test result); if PC20 is 4-16 mg/mL, borderline bronchial hyperreactivity is ...
For individuals with COPD and bronchial hyperreactivity the 95th percentiles for year-to-year changes were about 15% and higher ...
72] but it has been shown to reduce bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and other measures of allergy. [73] ...
Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged allergen avoidance. Lancet. 1982 Sep 25. 2(8300):675-8. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Storm van Leeuwen W. Allergic diseases: diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. ... Dust sensitization in bronchial asthma. Med Clin North Am. 1921. 5:751. ...
... increased bronchial reactivity, and airway inflammation. Asthma results from complex interactions among inflammatory cells, ... During pregnancy, airway hyperreactivity (AHR) generally is stable to improved 69% of the time and worse 31% of the time. ... Clinically, the manifestations of the EAR in the airway include bronchial constriction, airway edema, and mucus plugging. These ... Asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and ...
... increased bronchial reactivity, and airway inflammation. Asthma results from complex interactions among inflammatory cells, ... During pregnancy, airway hyperreactivity (AHR) generally is stable to improved 69% of the time and worse 31% of the time. ... Clinically, the manifestations of the EAR in the airway include bronchial constriction, airway edema, and mucus plugging. These ... Asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity also can be found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and ... Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity is characteristic of asthma but occurs after a viral respiratory illness, with resolution ... Failure to demonstrate bronchial hyperreactivity does not totally exclude asthma, particularly asthma triggered by specific ... Bronchial spasm, airway inflammation, excessive secretions in the airway, and loss of lung elastic recoil increase airways ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity also can be found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and ... Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity is characteristic of asthma but occurs after a viral respiratory illness, with resolution ... Failure to demonstrate bronchial hyperreactivity does not totally exclude asthma, particularly asthma triggered by specific ... Bronchial spasm, airway inflammation, excessive secretions in the airway, and loss of lung elastic recoil increase airways ...
Query Trace: Bronchial Hyperreactivity and GSTP1[original query] MOLECULAR GENETIC ASPECTS OF BRONCHIAL HYPERREACTIVITY IN ...
No article was found for Bronchial Hyperreactivity and MPO[original query]. File Formats Help:. How do I view different file ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity 1 0 Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 1 0 Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive 1 0 ...
Pande JN, Guleria R. Bronchial hyperreactivity in chronic obstructive airways disease. The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & ...
Association between − 308 tumour necrosis factor promoter polymorphism and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma Share Share ... Association between − 308 tumour necrosis factor promoter polymorphism and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma ...
Occupational lung diseases refers to the development of lung diseases from inhalational exposure that occurs at the work place. However, these lung diseases may also occur in environments other than work.
They show that bronchial hyperreactivity is one factor that can be considered predictive of poor recovery from particulate ... This study assesses the post-9/11 courses of lung function as influenced by bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) a biomarker for ... Bronchial hyperreactivity-abnormal sensitivity to inhaled bronchoconstrictive agents, is a biomarker for susceptibility to ... In about 30%, there is accompanying bronchial hyperreactivity (easily triggered airway narrowing). This study will re-examine a ...
... airway hyperreactivity; asthma; bronchoconstriction; bronchial reactivity; enkephalinase; guinea pig; hypohalous acids; ... No hyperreactivity was noted in response to ACh or KCl. Phosphoramidon pretreated, HOCl perfused rings behaved the same as ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity / etiology * Bronchial Hyperreactivity / prevention & control* * Bronchial Provocation Tests * Diet * ... Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample Lancet. 1994 Aug 6; ... We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a ... and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from ...
Asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). There is no evidence that asthma is more common in CP, but both are common ...
Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
I have suffered a severe condition diagnosed as bronchial hyperreactivity and multiple chemical sensitivity. It has been caused ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity: pathogenesis and treatment options Martina Antosova, Anna Strapkova, Jana Plevkova ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity / drug therapy * Bronchial Hyperreactivity / physiopathology* * Bronchoconstriction / drug effects * ...
The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. Plausible ... Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 183 ... Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. ...
Hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema, exfoliative skin conditions, urticaria, or bronchial hyperreactivity). Type 1 ...
206010066091 Bronchial hyperreactivity Diseases 0.000 claims description 3 * 206010007521 Cardiac arrhythmias Diseases 0.000 ... 230000036427 bronchial hyperreactivity Effects 0.000 claims description 3 * 239000004044 bronchoconstricting agent Substances ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity: 108 reports. *Bronchial wall thickening: 108 reports. *Bronchiectasis (abnormal widening of the ... Increased bronchial secretion: 118 reports. *Increased tendency to bruise (increased tendency to injure the underlying soft ... Bronchospasm (spasm of bronchial smooth muscle producing narrowing of the bronchi): 858 reports ... Pneumonia aspiration (bronchopneumonia that develops due to the entrance of foreign materials into the bronchial tree): 416 ...
2. Tests of bronchial hyperreactivity. *If spirometry is normal and asthma is still suspected, methacholine challenge or an ... Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and variable airway ... documented evidence of reversible obstruction or bronchial hyperreactivity with lung function testing (see Investigations or ...
Consumption of quercetin-rich foods may help reduce the risk of asthma, bronchial hyper-reactivity and COPD. Quercetin may even ...
Reactive dye induced occupational asthma without nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity Park HS, Lee MK, Hong CS ... We report two asthmatic patients with normal bronchial hyperresponsiveness and one asthmatic patient with mild bronchial ... Current asthma is often excluded by the presence of normal bronchial hyperresponsiveness. ...
... bronchial hyperreactivity, atopic status, and smoking status. Recruitment was initiated in November 1994 and ended November 28 ... variously influence short-term bronchial hyperreactivity, improve lung function acutely or short-term, and slow rate of decline ... Bronchial activity was tested at baseline, at nine months, and at three-and-a-half years using a methacholine inhalation ... There are various published studies suggesting that inhaled steroids reduce bronchial lavage markers of inflammation, ...
... and bronchial hyperreactivity. Objectives: This work assesses the effect of TLD on COPD exacerbation... ... It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree. ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity 28% * Type A CCK Receptor Structure Function and Regulation. Miller, L. J. & Miller, L. J. ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and methacholine in asthmatic children after inhalation of SCH 1000 and chlorpheniramine ... General considerations for bronchial challenge testing. Indications. Bronchial challenge, or bronchoprovocation, testing is ... High prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in ice hockey players. Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 13-16. ... Indications for bronchial challenge testing. BCTs are done to assess the presence and degree of airway responsiveness to a ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity 1 0 Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 1 0 Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive 1 0 ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity, failure to thrive. Bronchial obstruction, respiratory failure. Yes/8. 13. Jul 22. 5 y/F. Asthma. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. Asthma exacerbation. No. 19. Jul 25. 5 mo/M. 22q11 deletion, tetralogy of Fallot, tracheal stoma. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. Status asthmaticus. Yes/2. 24. Jul 30. 51 y/F. Autologous stem cell transplantation. Influenza-like ...
  • Current asthma is often excluded by the presence of normal bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (koreamed.org)
  • We report two asthmatic patients with normal bronchial hyperresponsiveness and one asthmatic patient with mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness (methacholine. (koreamed.org)
  • The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (medscape.com)
  • Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. (medscape.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness tests can be used to support the evaluation of an air quality intervention. (bmj.com)
  • The demonstrated reduction in bronchial hyperresponsiveness is an indication of the effectiveness of the intervention. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, it produces mucosal edema, secretion and a delayed and longlasting bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The AR is a risk factor for the development of obstruction in lower airways and clinical studies with asthmatic patients demonstrated reduction of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma symptoms after just nasal topical treatment. (unicamp.br)
  • Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with airway hyperresponsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing particularly at night or in the early morning. (onlineanesthesiatools.com)
  • Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. (cdc.gov)
  • There are various published studies suggesting that inhaled steroids reduce bronchial lavage markers of inflammation, variously influence short-term bronchial hyperreactivity, improve lung function acutely or short-term, and slow rate of decline in lung function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antibodies directed against key epitopes of the crystallization interface dissolved pre-existing CLC in patient-derived mucus within hours, and reversed crystal driven inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, IgE synthesis and bronchial hyperreactivity in a humanized asthma model. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Eosinophils are particularly evident in chronic lung inflammation where their products appear to play roles both in bronchial hyper-responsiveness and in tissue remodeling, leading to compromised lung function [ 5 , 6 ]. (ispub.com)
  • The mechanism of inflammation in asthma may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and the presence of airway edema and mucus secretion also contributes to airflow obstruction and bronchial reactivity. (medscape.com)
  • Paper I: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 65 (2), pages 118-125,(2007) L.-Z. Sun, S. Elsayed, A. M. Bronstad, T. Van Do, A . Irgens, N. P. Aardal & T. B. Aasen, Airway Inflammation and Bronchial Remodelling in Toluene Diisocyanate-exposed BALB/c Mouse Model. (uib.no)
  • Paper III: Li-Zhi Suna, Thien Van Dob, Erik Florvaag, Nils P Aardald, Jørn Skavlanda and Kirsi Vaali, Toluene diisocyanate-induced bronchial hyper-reactivity and neutrophilic inflammation deviates from the eosinophil-dominant response to ovalbumin. (uib.no)
  • Inflammation in the ASM bundles and submucosa of bronchial biopsies is positively associated with impaired airway mechanics during DI in asthma [ 7 ]. (sch.ac.kr)
  • Starting in the 1980s with ever-increasing information and knowledge about asthma, bronchial tube inflammation was considered by most authorities as the basic underlying problem. (aarogya.com)
  • In summary, we now recognize asthma as a condition which begins with inflammation of the bronchial membranes which results in changes that bring about bronchial hyper-reactivity, which in turn cause the physical symptoms of wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and chest tightness, i.e. the classic symptoms of asthma. (aarogya.com)
  • These steroids have anti-inflammatory properties that lower inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways caused due to asthma. (canadapharmacy.com)
  • Corticosteroids are considered the most effective medication currently available for the treatment of inflammation in the bronchial tubes. (nmihi.com)
  • This study will re-examine a large number of firefighters who had bronchial reactivity soon after 9/11 to determine whether those with bronchial hyper-reactivity at onset have persistent hyperactivity more than ten years later, whether they have accelerated lung function decline, and whether those treated with anti-asthma medications were more likely to show resolution of bronchial hyperactivity and/or show less rapid decline in lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • Did bronchial reactivity influence the course of recovery or worsening function after WTC exposure? (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchial reactivity remained relatively stable, with a trend toward increasing reactivity.76% of firefighters reported using either inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids between 2001-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • 10 years after 9/11, to define the natural history of WTC-associated OAD, to determine whether clinical outcomes varied according to their degree of bronchial reactivity, and to assess the influence of anti-inflammatory treatment (oral and/or inhaled corticosteroids). (cdc.gov)
  • We found that steroid therapy was significantly associated with recovery of lung function and that bronchial reactivity, which tended to persist or slightly worsen over the decade since 9/11, was significantly associated with worsening lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • Both effects were fairly strong, with the highest steroid dose predicting about 5 percentage points better result than those who did not receive steroids, and the most bronchial reactivity predicting about 5 percentage points worse result. (cdc.gov)
  • Consumption of quercetin-rich foods may help reduce the risk of asthma, bronchial hyper-reactivity and COPD. (dailybulletin.com)
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR)(a 20% decrease in FEV1 provoked by a cumulative dose of histamine less than 7.8 mumol) and bronchial reactivity slope (BR slope) (percentage change in logarithmic scale in FEV1 per unit dose of histamine) were used to estimate responses to a histamine challenge. (bmj.com)
  • Alerzine substantially reduces the asthmatic patient's bronchial hyper reactivity to histamine. (plaintips.com)
  • The term bronchial hyper-reactivity ( or hyper-responsiveness ) refers to unnatural sensitiveness to a broad scope of stimulations such as irritant chemicals, cold air, stimulation drugs, etc. , all of which can ensue in bronchoconstriction. (lyceecharlesdegaulle.eu)
  • The respiratory illness known as bronchial asthma (BA) is characterized by a persistent inflammatory process, reversible airway constriction, and airway hyperreactivity. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Bronchial asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract , which is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory obstruction which is reversible (spontaneously or under influence of bronchodilater) marked by wheezing ,shortness of breath,chest tightness and coughing. (bhaskarhealth.com)
  • Worsening symptoms of the both types include bronchial irritation by the streneous exercise ,exposure to cold air,dust,tobbaco smoke,fumes, emotional stress and respiratory infections. (bhaskarhealth.com)
  • Salmeterol (Serevent®) is a long acting ß2-agonist which has been shown to improve respiratory function in two-thirds of adult patients with bronchial lability (Bargon et al, 1996). (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • T-cell tolerance, induced by respiratory exposure to allergen, can inhibit the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, and we show here that regulatory T (T(R)) cells can mediate this protective effect. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • Mature pulmonary dendritic cells in the bronchial lymph nodes of mice exposed to respiratory allergen induced the development of T(R) cells, in a process that required T-cell costimulation via the inducible costimulator (ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway. (stanfordhealthcare.org)
  • In most cases, atopic dermatitis is combined with respiratory allergies: bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. (medica-tour.com)
  • Damage of the respiratory system is caused by the action of a pathological agent on the walls of the bronchi and their hyperreactivity, which are provoked by a combination of internal characteristics of the body and the influence of external factors. (inhalers-online.com)
  • reactive airway disease (rad) is a term used to refer to respiratory conditions in which the bronchial tubes in the lungs overreact to an irritant, the narrow airway is caused by muscle spasms around the airway. (ancientvalue.com)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and variable airway obstruction which results in recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and/or coughing that can vary over time and in intensity. (gov.bc.ca)
  • Asthma is a disease that involves periodic episodes of severe but reversible bronchial obstruction in person with hypersensitive or hyperresponsive airway. (nursinganswers.net)
  • Approximately 50% of patients have some degree of bronchial lability (asthma) which will improve with a bronchodilator (Eggleston et al, 1988). (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • This study assesses the post-9/11 courses of lung function as influenced by bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) a biomarker for susceptibility to asthma, and by corticosteroid treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity-abnormal sensitivity to inhaled bronchoconstrictive agents, is a biomarker for susceptibility to asthma, and may predict rapid decline in lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • It can be dangerous to smoke marijuana to help bronchial asthma as a result of it may possibly additional irritate lungs and lead to infections and the risk of lung most cancers cbd for asthma. (culhost.com)
  • A 2019 examine revealed within the European Journal of Pharmacology discovered that CBD use may scale back inflammatory reactions and promote the restoration of lung perform in sufferers with allergy-induced bronchial asthma (1). (culhost.com)
  • Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are the basis of anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma, they prevent symptoms and exacerbations of the disease, improve lung function, and reduce bronchial hyperreactivity. (vcu-ntc.org)
  • In already sensitized animals, blocking OX40-OX40L interactions at the time of inhalation of aerosolized antigen suppressed memory effector accumulation in lung draining lymph nodes and lung, and prevented eosinophilia, airway hyperreactivity, mucus secretion, and Th2 cyto-kine production. (silverchair.com)
  • One Australian study that observed the dietary habits of 1600 adults, found that those who consumed apples and pears had lower risk of asthma and bronchial hypersensitivity. (cleansejoy.com)
  • Hypersensitivity to linagliptin or any of the excipients in TRADJENTA, reactions such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, exfoliative skin conditions, urticaria, or bronchial hyperreactivity have occurred. (tradjenta.com)
  • Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies with treatment of linagliptin monotherapy were hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, angioedema, localized skin exfoliation, or bronchial hyperreactivity) and myalgia. (mdtodate.com)
  • Other factors, such as pungent odors, colds, exercise, cold air, emotions, can cause a reaction similar to an allergic one, but the cause of which is hypersensitivity (hyperreactivity) of the airways caused before this contact with the allergen. (medica-tour.com)
  • There's an rising physique cannabis and asthma of analysis concentrating on CBD's potential instead treatment for bronchial asthma signs. (culhost.com)
  • Homeopathy has more than 100 preventive and curative medicines in Treatment For Bronchial Asthma that works very well for patients of all ages. (welcomecure.com)
  • Homeopathic Treatment For Bronchial Asthma is very subtle and gentle and brings immense relief to the patient without causing any side-effects. (welcomecure.com)
  • There is normally a blood eosinophilia and besides some grade of loss of bronchial epithelial tissue. (lyceecharlesdegaulle.eu)
  • There also is some evidence of greater bronchial hyperreactivity in women, although conflicting findings have been reported. (patientcareonline.com)
  • Inhaled long-acting beta 2 -agonists are preferred over oral sustained-release formulations due to their longer duration of action, greater bronchial protection during exercise, and a lower incidence of adverse events. (medicalbrandnames.com)
  • Because of the potential for severe bronchoconstriction, the bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL should not be performed in any patient with clinically apparent asthma or very low baseline pulmonary function tests (e.g. (methapharmrespiratory.com)
  • reported that increased levels of Th2 cytokines were detected in the airways and bronchial mucosa of TDI asthmatics. (uib.no)
  • Activated T-lymphocytes and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa in isocyanate-induced asthma. (nature.com)
  • Thus, the use of a Ventolin inhaler as a rescue bronchodilator can serve as an example of rational and compliant pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma, regardless of its etiology and severity. (vcu-ntc.org)
  • This damage results in the development of easily irritated bronchial tubes, which is called hyper-responsiveness. (aarogya.com)
  • In removing the scum of Kapha from the bronchial tubes, Kantkari may be very effective in oxygenating the blood and relieving signs and symptoms of IPF, and providing a person with solace in pain. (cowurine.com)
  • As mentioned, some folks discover it very difficult to manage the symptoms of bronchial asthma. (culhost.com)
  • Up until 15 years ago, asthma was considered by physicians to be simply a spastic disease of the bronchial tubes which in turn led to all the other symptoms associated with it. (aarogya.com)
  • The also-twitchy bronchial tubes will react by going into a spasm, which leads to the symptoms of shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. (aarogya.com)
  • A decrease in the peak flow can show that the bronchial tubes have narrowed even before asthma symptoms develop. (peacehealth.org)
  • Allergy & Asthma Community and Joanna Zeiger, PhD, hosted a Twitter chat on June eleven on cannabis (marijuana) use and its affect on individuals with bronchial asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm, allergic reactions, eczema and urticaria. (culhost.com)
  • Bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL should only be conducted by trained professionals under the supervision of a physician familiar with all aspects of the bronchial challenge test and the management of acute bronchospasm. (methapharmrespiratory.com)
  • Inhalation of albuterol with a nebulizer is prescribed for acute bronchospasm which is not controlled by conventional therapy with metered-dose aerosols or powder inhalers, as well as for severe exacerbation of bronchial asthma. (vcu-ntc.org)
  • Because of airway hyperreactivity, bronchospasm may readily be precipitated by instrumentation, a variety of drugs, and perioperative complications such as aspiration, infection, or trauma. (onlineanesthesiatools.com)
  • It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree. (researchgate.net)
  • During an bronchial asthma attack, the air passages leading to the lungs develop into slender and often stuffed with mucus and other irritants. (culhost.com)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that Causes hyperreactivity of the airways of lungs leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. (welcomecure.com)
  • rad occurs when your bronchial tubes, which bring air into your lungs, overreact to an irritant, swell, and anytime you have difficulty breathing from your bronchial tubes, swelling, and overreaction to an irritant, it can be referred to as reactive airway disease. (ancientvalue.com)
  • Your peak flow drops when the tubes that carry air to the lungs (bronchial tubes) narrow. (peacehealth.org)
  • Humbert, M., Durham, S.R. & Ying, S. IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein in bronchial biopsies from patients with atopic and non-atopic asthma: evidence against "intrinsic" asthma being a distinct immunopathologic entity. (nature.com)
  • In this episode, Dr Rizzo interviews Geoffrey Chupp, MD, on his team's research titled "Bronchial Thermoplasty in Patients with Severe Asthma at 5 years: Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma Study. (consultant360.com)
  • Bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe asthma at 5 years: the Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty In Severe Persistent Asthma study. (consultant360.com)
  • Before we begin discussing the recent article in Chest, can you please set the stage for many of our listeners regarding the background on the proposed mechanism as to how bronchial thermoplasty came about and why it may be effective in patients with severe refractory asthma. (consultant360.com)
  • Consequently, the acute effects of both inhaled marijuana smoke and oral delta-9-THC on specific airway conductance (SGaw) were investigated in a group of patients with clinically stable bronchial asthma. (420magazine.com)
  • In patients with bronchial asthma, their airways contract too much and too simply when a trigger is introduced. (culhost.com)
  • All patients should be tested regularly with a bronchodilator (e.g. at the annual assessment) to determine if bronchial lability is present. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • Thus, the Ventolin inhaler is the first-line therapy for the relief of an acute attack of suffocation in patients suffering from bronchial asthma, regardless of their age, concomitant diseases, as well as the form and severity of asthma. (vcu-ntc.org)
  • Patients with bronchial asthma or bronchitis have the next 'bronchial hyperreactivity', which implies they're extra prone to have a extreme disaster induced by any exterior stimuli, together with substances emitted by cotton wool and heated plastic", reinforces Sabara Hospital's emergency room coordinator. (herouf.com)
  • Its hallmark pathophysiologic features are widespread, reversible narrowing of the bronchial airways and a marked increase in bronchial responsiveness to inhaled stimuli. (mhmedical.com)
  • Classically COPD is certainly a heterogeneous condition seen as a incompletely reversible air flow blockage including emphysema chronic bronchitis and bronchial hyperreactivity frequently in mixture. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • And in the process of the body trying to defend itself, some damage and changes occur in the tissues of the bronchial tubes. (aarogya.com)
  • Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. (cdc.gov)
  • The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Cough & bronchial responsiveness in firefighters at the World Trade Center site. (cdc.gov)
  • Transgenic mice engineered to overexpress human Gal10 in eosinophils (GALILEO mice) had enhanced features of asthma including mucus plugging and bronchial hyperreactivity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma: Critical Observations in Pulmonary Medicine, Ep. (consultant360.com)
  • Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma study, to be with us today. (consultant360.com)
  • In some cases of non-allergic bronchial asthma, the reason for the situation is mediated by the central nervous system dysfunction that leads to a narrowing of the airway. (culhost.com)
  • Bronchial challenge tests may be used to assess airway reactions to specific allergens and other sensitizing agents and also to quantify non-allergic airway responsiveness to pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine. (sch.ac.kr)
  • The danger of smoking is extra pronounced in sufferers with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, the illness is extra widespread in younger individuals, in addition to in instances of pulmonary emphysema, similar to COPD is fashionable ( Chronic obstructive pulmonary illness ), in individuals over 40 years of age, particularly with elevated danger of disaster and hospitalization, as we noticed in sufferers when uncovered throughout fires throughout the nation", he says. (herouf.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Bronchial hyperreactivity in chronic obstructive airways disease. (who.int)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the whole bronchial tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenotypes of COPD could be additional classified based on radiographic results (i.e the existence or lack of emphysema and/or bronchial wall structure thickening) or genetic Dabigatran etexilate polymorphisms. (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • This reduction in hyperreactivity (excessive sensitivity) makes the medication useful as a preventative treatment. (nmihi.com)
  • Intraperitoneal treatment with α-T-13'-COOH reduced OVA-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) as well as peri-bronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. (unisa.it)
  • Bronchial activity was tested at baseline, at nine months, and at three-and-a-half years using a methacholine inhalation challenge. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. (ersjournals.com)
  • This report focuses on general considerations for bronchial challenge testing, then specifically on the performance of the methacholine challenge test (MCT). (ersjournals.com)
  • airway hyperreactivity is also a specific term that means that the airways are hyperreactive to a variety of stimuli including methacholine, histamine, hypertonic saline, distilled water, exercise, or eucapnic hyperventilation (4). (ancientvalue.com)
  • Broncho-constriction results from contraction of bronchial smooth muscle induced by a myriad possible stimuli, including intrinsic factors, allergens, exercise, stress, or cold air (Table 3.1). (onlineanesthesiatools.com)
  • 2. asthma is a form of reactive airways disease in that it exhibits hyperreactivity to substances like those mentioned above, but reactive airways disease as a phrase refers to other, less well-defined conditions. (ancientvalue.com)
  • The immediate stage, i.e. the initial response, occurs suddenly and is due chiefly to spasm of the bronchial smooth musculus. (lyceecharlesdegaulle.eu)
  • It may help reduce the severity of IPF and protect against bronchial constrictions. (cowurine.com)
  • A chart of the twice daily peak expiratory flow rates may be a useful method of measuring the severity of bronchial lability (difference between the best and the worst values) and monitoring the effects of any new treatment. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • Comparison between two districts of the effects of an air pollution intervention on bronchial responsiveness in primary school children in Hong Kong. (bmj.com)
  • SUMMARY: The acute effects of smoked 2 per cent natural marijuana (7 mg per kg) and 15 mg of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on plethysmographically determined airway resistance (Raw) and specific airway conductance (SGaw) were compared with those of placebo in 10 subjects with stable bronchial asthma using a double-blind crossover technique. (420magazine.com)
  • This level of bronchial asthma involves frequent nighttime and daytime flare-ups, and often require medicines to keep signs at bay. (culhost.com)