Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
'Bronchial diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the bronchial tubes, including inflammation, infection, obstruction or narrowing, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Tracheal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, and integrity of the trachea, including inflammation, infection, trauma, tumors, and congenital abnormalities, which can lead to symptoms such as cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and stridor.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/1734)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1734)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/1734)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Exhaled nitric oxide; relationship to clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. (4/1734)

Bronchial asthma is an airway disorder associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. The variables all reflect, in part, the underlying airway inflammation in this disease. To understand their interrelationships we have investigated the relationship between exhaled NO levels and clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. Twenty-six steroid naive atopic asthmatics participated in the analysis. All were given diary cards and were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates twice daily together with their asthma symptom scores and beta-agonist use. Diary cards were collected 2 weeks later and measurements of exhaled NO levels, FEV1 and histamine bronchial hyperreactivity (PC20 histamine) were undertaken. Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in our study population than in normal control subjects and correlated negatively with PC20 histamine (r = -0.51; P = 0.008) and positively with PEF diurnal variability (r = 0.58; P = 0.002), but not with symptom scores, beta-agonist use of FEV1 (%). We conclude that a significant relationship exists between exhaled NO levels and the two characteristic features and markers of asthma severity, namely bronchial hyperreactivity and PEF diurnal variability. The lack of correlation between symptom score and beta-agonist use, of FEV1 (%) predicted and exhaled NO suggests that these measures are reflective of differing aspects of asthma.  (+info)

IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (5/1734)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial responsiveness in patients with "corticosteroid naive" mild asthma: a meta-analysis. (6/1734)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. International guidelines also advocate the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in corticosteroid naive patients. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma by conventional meta-analysis. METHODS: A Medline search of papers published between January 1966 and June 1998 was performed and 11 papers were selected in which the patients had no history of treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Bronchial responsiveness to bronchoconstricting agents was considered as the main outcome parameter. Doubling doses (DD) of histamine or methacholine were calculated. RESULTS: The total effect size of inhaled corticosteroids (average daily dose 1000 microg) versus placebo in the 11 studies was +1.16 DD (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.76 to +1.57). When only the eight short term studies (2-8 weeks) were analysed the effect size of the bronchoconstricting agent was +0.91 DD (95% CI +0.65 to +1.16). No relationship was found between the dose of inhaled corticosteroid used and the effect on bronchial responsiveness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma indicates that, on average, high doses of inhaled corticosteroids decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 2-8 weeks. It remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between inhaled corticosteroids and effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/1734)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease. (8/1734)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased airways responsiveness (5801 observations) to develop the following symptoms during any 3-year follow-up interval: chronic cough (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]), chronic phlegm (2.0 [1.3-3.0]), dyspnoea (2.3[1.5-3.5]), asthmatic attacks (3.7[2.2-6.1]), and persistent wheeze (2.7[1.7-4.4]). The estimate of the odds ratio for the development of any of the six symptoms was 1.7 (1.2-2.3). Participants with increased airways responsiveness were less likely than those without this characteristic to show remission of these respiratory symptoms. The estimate of the odds ratio for the remission of any of the six symptoms was 0.42 (0.28-0.61). INTERPRETATION: These prospective analyses show that increased airways responsiveness is positively associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and negatively associated with the remission of these symptoms in adults.  (+info)

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Methacholine chloride is a medication that is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and assess the severity of asthma or other respiratory conditions that cause airway hyperresponsiveness. It is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter that causes smooth muscle contraction in the body.

When methacholine chloride is inhaled, it stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the airways, causing them to constrict or narrow. This response is measured and used to determine the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can help diagnose asthma and assess its severity.

The methacholine challenge test involves inhaling progressively higher doses of methacholine chloride until a significant decrease in lung function is observed or until a maximum dose is reached. The test results are then used to guide treatment decisions and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It's important to note that this test should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it carries some risks, including bronchoconstriction and respiratory distress.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Bronchoconstrictor agents are substances that cause narrowing or constriction of the bronchioles, the small airways in the lungs. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchoconstrictor agents include certain medications (such as some beta-blockers and prostaglandin F2alpha), environmental pollutants (such as tobacco smoke and air pollution particles), and allergens (such as dust mites and pollen).

In contrast to bronchodilator agents, which are medications that widen the airways and improve breathing, bronchoconstrictor agents can make it more difficult for a person to breathe. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be particularly sensitive to bronchoconstrictor agents and may experience severe symptoms when exposed to them.

Methacholine compounds are medications that are used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and confirm the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheeze, or shortness of breath. These compounds act as bronchoconstrictors, causing narrowing of the airways in individuals who have heightened sensitivity and reactivity of their airways, such as those with asthma.

Methacholine is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that mediates nerve impulse transmission in the body. When inhaled, methacholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle surrounding the airways, leading to their contraction and narrowing. The degree of bronchoconstriction is then measured to assess the patient's airway responsiveness.

It is important to note that methacholine compounds are not used as therapeutic agents but rather as diagnostic tools in a controlled medical setting under the supervision of healthcare professionals.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Bronchial spasm refers to a sudden constriction or tightening of the muscles in the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that lead to the lungs. This constriction can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Bronchial spasm is often associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. In these conditions, the airways are sensitive to various triggers such as allergens, irritants, or infections, which can cause the muscles in the airways to contract and narrow. This can make it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Bronchial spasm can be treated with medications that help to relax the muscles in the airways and open up the airways, such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Paroxysmal dyspnea is a medical term used to describe sudden and recurring episodes of difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It can occur in people with various underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, or neuromuscular disorders. The severity and duration of the symptoms may vary from person to person, but they usually last for a few minutes to a few hours.

Paroxysmal dyspnea is different from chronic dyspnea, which is persistent and continuous shortness of breath that may worsen over time. Paroxysmal dyspnea can be a medical emergency, especially if it is accompanied by chest pain, palpitations, or other symptoms. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if you experience sudden and severe shortness of breath.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Naphazoline is an imidazole-derived direct-acting sympathomimetic amine, which is primarily used as a decongestant in over-the-counter (OTC) nasal sprays and eye drops. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the lining of the nose and eyes, providing temporary relief from stuffiness, congestion, and swelling caused by allergies or the common cold.

The medical definition of Naphazoline is:

A decongestant and mydriatic agent with a rapid onset of action; used as an ingredient in various topical ophthalmic and nasal preparations to relieve redness, itching, and swelling associated with allergies or other causes. Naphazoline's therapeutic effect is due to its alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist properties, which cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels in the affected area.

Common brand names containing Naphazoline include:

* Clear Eyes®
* Naphcon®
* Opcon-A®
* Privine®
* Vasocon-A®

As with any medication, it is essential to follow the recommended dosage and usage guidelines provided by the manufacturer or healthcare professional. Prolonged use of Naphazoline can lead to a rebound effect, where the nasal congestion worsens upon discontinuation of the drug. If you experience any adverse effects or have concerns about using Naphazoline, consult your healthcare provider for advice.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Bronchial diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These diseases can cause inflammation, narrowing, or obstruction of the bronchi, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing.

Some common bronchial diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurring episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing.
2. Chronic Bronchitis: A long-term inflammation of the bronchi that leads to a persistent cough and excessive mucus production.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the bronchi become damaged and widened, leading to chronic infection and inflammation.
4. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchi that can cause coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness.
5. Emphysema: A lung condition that causes shortness of breath due to damage to the air sacs in the lungs. While not strictly a bronchial disease, it is often associated with chronic bronchitis and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease).

Treatment for bronchial diseases may include medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or surgery may be necessary.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Eosinophil granule proteins are a group of biologically active molecules that are stored within the granules of eosinophils, which are types of white blood cells. These proteins include:

1. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP): A protein with potent ribonuclease activity and the ability to disrupt cell membranes. It is involved in the immune response against parasites and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and allergies.
2. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO): An enzyme that generates hypohalous acids, which can cause oxidative damage to cells and tissues. It contributes to the microbicidal activity of eosinophils and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases.
3. Major basic protein (MBP): A highly cationic protein that can disrupt cell membranes, leading to cell lysis. MBP is involved in the immune response against parasites and has been linked to tissue damage in several inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis.
4. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN): A protein with ribonuclease activity that can induce histamine release from mast cells and contribute to the inflammatory response. EDN is also involved in the immune response against parasites and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory diseases.

These eosinophil granule proteins are released during eosinophil activation and degranulation, which can occur in response to various stimuli, such as immune complexes, cytokines, and infectious agents. Their release contributes to the inflammatory response and can lead to tissue damage in various diseases.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Fenoterol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, which is a type of medication used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and increasing the flow of air into the lungs, making it easier to breathe.

Fenoterol is available in various forms, including inhalation solution, nebulizer solution, and dry powder inhaler. It is usually used as a rescue medication to relieve sudden symptoms or during an asthma attack. Like other short-acting β2-agonists, fenoterol has a rapid onset of action but its effects may wear off quickly, typically within 4-6 hours.

It is important to note that the use of fenoterol has been associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and cardiovascular events, such as irregular heartbeat and high blood pressure. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that mediates and regulates immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. IL-5 is primarily produced by activated T cells, especially Th2 cells, as well as mast cells, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

The primary function of IL-5 is to regulate the growth, differentiation, activation, and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response against parasitic infections. IL-5 also enhances the ability of eosinophils to migrate from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then into tissues, where they can participate in immune responses.

In addition to its effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been shown to have a role in the regulation of B cell function, including promoting the survival and differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Dysregulation of IL-5 production and activity has been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain parasitic infections.

Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a type of lipid mediator called a cysteinyl leukotriene, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by activated mast cells and basophils, and to a lesser extent by eosinophils, during an allergic response or inflammation.

LTC4 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases by causing bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, mucus secretion, and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. It exerts its effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) found on various cell types, including airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and immune cells.

LTC4 is rapidly metabolized to Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then to Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) by enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases, which are present in the extracellular space. These metabolites also have biological activity and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase or leukotriene receptor antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory conditions.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat bronchospasm, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs, in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a short-acting beta-2 agonist, which means it works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in several forms, including an inhaler, nebulizer solution, and syrup, and it is typically used as needed to relieve symptoms of bronchospasm. It may also be used before exercise to prevent bronchospasm caused by physical activity.

The medical definition of Albuterol is: "A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe."

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

A muscarinic M2 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is one of five subtypes of muscarinic receptors (M1-M5) and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the heart, smooth muscle, and exocrine glands.

The M2 receptor is coupled to the G protein inhibitory Gαi/o, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and reduces intracellular cAMP levels. This leads to a variety of physiological responses, including negative chronotropy (slowing of heart rate) and negative inotropy (decreased contractility) in the heart, relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchioles and gastrointestinal tract, and inhibition of exocrine gland secretion.

The M2 receptor is an important target for drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and gastrointestinal disorders. Anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and ipratropium bind to the M2 receptor and block its activity, while muscarinic agonists such as bethanechol activate the receptor.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high concentration of eosinophils in the circulating blood. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in fighting off parasitic infections and regulating allergic reactions. However, when their numbers become excessively high, they can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Eosinophilia is typically defined as a count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood. Mild eosinophilia (up to 1,500 cells/μL) may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered during routine blood tests. However, higher levels of eosinophilia can lead to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, skin rashes, and organ damage, depending on the underlying cause.

The causes of eosinophilia are varied and can include allergic reactions, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, and some types of cancer. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilia require identification and management of the underlying cause.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Parathion is not a medical term, but a chemical one. It refers to a type of organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin or ingested. Parathion works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death. Although parathion is not used in medical treatments, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of its potential health effects, particularly in cases of accidental or intentional exposure.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs or pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils play a role in the body's immune response to parasites and allergens, but an overabundance can contribute to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The condition may be associated with various underlying causes, such as:

1. Asthma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
2. Eosinophilic lung diseases, like eosinophilic pneumonia or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome
3. Parasitic infections, such as ascariasis or strongyloidiasis
4. Drug reactions, including certain antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs
5. Connective tissue disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis or Churg-Strauss syndrome
6. Malignancies, such as lymphoma or leukemia
7. Other less common conditions, like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) with differential, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), or lung biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antiparasitic medications.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyroglyphidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a family of small arthropods, specifically mites, that are often found in houses and other buildings. These mites are commonly known as dust mites or storage mites, and some species are associated with allergies and asthma symptoms in humans. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'll be happy to help!

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is not a medical term itself, but it is an important chemical in the industrial field, particularly in the production of polyurethane products. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this compound.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3C6H3NCO)2. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid with a pungent odor and is highly reactive due to the presence of two isocyanate functional groups (-N=C=O). TDI is primarily used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, coatings, and adhesives. Exposure to TDI can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and may pose potential health hazards if not handled properly.

Goblet cells are specialized epithelial cells that are located in various mucosal surfaces, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are named for their goblet-like shape, which is characterized by a narrow base and a wide, rounded top that contains secretory granules. These cells play an essential role in producing and secreting mucins, which are high molecular weight glycoproteins that form the gel-like component of mucus.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier for the underlying epithelial cells by trapping foreign particles, microorganisms, and toxins, preventing them from coming into contact with the epithelium. Goblet cells also help maintain the hydration of the mucosal surface, which is important for normal ciliary function in the respiratory tract and for the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.

In summary, goblet cells are secretory cells that produce and release mucins to form the mucus layer, providing a protective barrier and maintaining the homeostasis of mucosal surfaces.

Arecoline is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is the primary active component found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects in various parts of the world. It can cause stimulation of the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease.

The medical definition of Arecoline is:

A parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects. It stimulates the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease. The chemical formula for Arecoline is C7H9NO2.

Chemokine CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1, is a small chemotactic cytokine that belongs to the CC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in immunity and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

CCL11 specifically attracts eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that is involved in allergic reactions and the immune response to parasitic worm infections. It does this by binding to its specific receptor, CCR3, which is expressed on the surface of eosinophils and other cells.

CCL11 is produced by a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells such as macrophages and Th2 lymphocytes. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain neurological disorders.

Photochemical oxidants refer to chemical compounds that are formed as a result of a photochemical reaction, which involves the absorption of light. These oxidants are often highly reactive and can cause oxidative damage to living cells and tissues.

In the context of environmental science, photochemical oxidants are primarily associated with air pollution and the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful oxidizing agents in the atmosphere. These pollutants are formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, particularly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemical oxidation can also occur in biological systems, such as within cells, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by the absorption of light by certain molecules. These ROS can cause damage to cellular components, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Overall, photochemical oxidants are a significant concern in both environmental and health contexts, and understanding the mechanisms of their formation and effects is an important area of research.

Cissampelos is a genus of climbing shrubs and vines that belong to the family Menispermaceae. It includes several species that are native to tropical regions of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Some of these species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating pain, inflammation, fever, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that many of these uses have not been scientifically validated, and some Cissampelos species contain toxic compounds that can cause adverse effects if used improperly. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any Cissampelos preparations for medicinal purposes.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Tracheal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the trachea, also known as the windpipe. The trachea is a tube-like structure made up of rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which extends from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (airways leading to the lungs). Its primary function is to allow the passage of air to and from the lungs.

Tracheal diseases can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections.
2. Tracheal stenosis: Narrowing of the trachea due to scarring, inflammation, or compression from nearby structures such as tumors or goiters.
3. Tracheomalacia: Weakening and collapse of the tracheal walls, often seen in newborns and young children but can also occur in adults due to factors like chronic cough, aging, or connective tissue disorders.
4. Tracheoesophageal fistula: An abnormal connection between the trachea and the esophagus, which can lead to respiratory complications and difficulty swallowing.
5. Tracheal tumors: Benign or malignant growths that develop within the trachea, obstructing airflow and potentially leading to more severe respiratory issues.
6. Tracheobronchial injury: Damage to the trachea and bronchi, often caused by trauma such as blunt force or penetrating injuries.
7. Congenital tracheal abnormalities: Structural defects present at birth, including complete tracheal rings, which can cause narrowing or collapse of the airway.

Symptoms of tracheal diseases may include cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and its severity but may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to alleviate symptoms and improve respiratory function.

Airway remodeling is a term used to describe the structural changes that occur in the airways as a result of chronic inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma. These changes include thickening of the airway wall, increased smooth muscle mass, and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix components. These alterations can lead to narrowing of the airways, decreased lung function, and increased severity of symptoms. Airway remodeling is thought to be a major contributor to the persistent airflow obstruction that is characteristic of severe asthma.

Eosinophil Major Basic Protein (eMBP) is a cytotoxic protein found in the granules of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune response, particularly against parasitic infections. eMBP is one of the four major basic proteins (MBPs) and is released during degranulation of eosinophils, a process that occurs in response to certain stimuli such as allergens or parasites.

eMBP has been found to have several biological activities, including direct toxicity to various cells, including parasites, mast cells, and airway epithelial cells. It can also induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, contributing to the inflammation observed in diseases such as asthma and allergies.

It is important to note that while eMBP has been extensively studied for its role in immunity and disease, further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Vagus nerve diseases, also known as vagus nerve disorders, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen, playing a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, and sweating.

Diseases of the vagus nerve can result from various causes, including inflammation, infection, trauma, compression, or degeneration. Some common vagus nerve disorders include:

1. Vagus nerve dysfunction: This is a general term used to describe any abnormality in the functioning of the vagus nerve. Symptoms may vary depending on the specific functions affected but can include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, voice changes, and abnormal heart rate or blood pressure.
2. Vagus nerve neuropathy: This is a condition that results from damage to the vagus nerve fibers. It can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, voice changes, and abnormal digestive function.
3. Gastroparesis: This is a condition in which the stomach muscles fail to contract properly, leading to delayed gastric emptying. Vagus nerve dysfunction is a common cause of gastroparesis.
4. Orthostatic hypotension: This is a condition characterized by a drop in blood pressure when standing up from a sitting or lying down position. Vagus nerve dysfunction can contribute to this condition by causing an abnormal response in the heart rate and blood vessels.
5. Inflammatory disorders: Certain inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and sarcoidosis can affect the vagus nerve and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for vagus nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

"Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF)" is a term used to describe animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific pathogens (disease-causing agents) that could interfere with research outcomes or pose a risk to human or animal health. The "specific" part of the term refers to the fact that the exclusion of pathogens is targeted to those that are relevant to the particular organism or research being conducted.

To maintain an SPF status, animals are typically housed in specialized facilities with strict biosecurity measures, such as air filtration systems, quarantine procedures, and rigorous sanitation protocols. They are usually bred and raised in isolation from other animals, and their health status is closely monitored to ensure that they remain free from specific pathogens.

It's important to note that SPF does not necessarily mean "germ-free" or "sterile," as some microorganisms may still be present in the environment or on the animals themselves, even in an SPF facility. Instead, it means that the animals are free from specific pathogens that have been identified and targeted for exclusion.

In summary, Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms refer to animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific disease-causing agents that are relevant to the research being conducted or human/animal health.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

"Intraperitoneal injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a substance or medication directly into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs contained within it. This type of injection is typically used in clinical settings for various purposes, such as delivering chemotherapy drugs, anesthetics, or other medications directly to the abdominal organs.

The procedure involves inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal cavity, taking care to avoid any vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Once the needle is properly positioned, the medication can be injected slowly and carefully to ensure even distribution throughout the cavity.

It's important to note that intraperitoneal injections are typically reserved for situations where other routes of administration are not feasible or effective, as they carry a higher risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or injury to surrounding organs. As with any medical procedure, it should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals under appropriate clinical circumstances.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of substance P, a neuropeptide involved in pain transmission and inflammation. These drugs work by binding to NK-1 receptors found on nerve cells, preventing substance P from activating them and transmitting pain signals. NK-1 receptor antagonists have been studied for their potential use in treating various conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as migraine headaches, depression, and irritable bowel syndrome. Some examples of NK-1 receptor antagonists include aprepitant, fosaprepitant, and rolapitant.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

A forehead, in medical terms, refers to the portion of the human skull that lies immediately above the eyes and serves as an attachment site for the frontal bone. It is a common area for the examination of various clinical signs, such as assessing the level of consciousness (by checking if the patient's eyebrows or eyelids twitch in response to a light touch) or looking for signs of increased intracranial pressure (such as bulging fontanelles in infants). Additionally, the forehead is often used as a site for non-invasive procedures like Botox injections.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Chemokines are a family of small proteins that are involved in immune responses and inflammation. They mediate the chemotaxis (directed migration) of various cells, including leukocytes (white blood cells). Chemokines are classified into four major subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the amino terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CC chemokines, also known as β-chemokines, are characterized by the presence of two adjacent cysteine residues near their N-terminal end. There are 27 known human CC chemokines, including MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and eotaxin.

CC chemokines play important roles in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury, as well as in the development and maintenance of immune responses. They bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation, and survival.

Dysregulation of CC chemokines and their receptors has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in cancer. Therefore, targeting CC chemokine-mediated signaling pathways has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
Relation between manifest bronchial obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity (author's transl)]". Zeitschrift für Erkrankungen ...
The thesis was titled Bronchial Hyperreactivity in the Guinea-pig. Galland heads the Paediatric Sleep Research Group at the ...
van Herwerden, L (1995). "Linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor gene with bronchial hyperreactivity, even in absence of atopy ... 1976). "Changes in bronchial reactivity after administration of live attenuated influenza virus". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.: 194- ... This shows that in addition to causing airway hyperreactivity, rhinovirus also promotes the onset of non-atopic asthma. ... pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism leading to bronchial asthma. This is because the increase of ...
A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to support the diagnose occupational asthma. It involves measuring ...
People with pre-existing airway hyperreactivity, such as asthmatics, will react to lower doses of drug. Sometimes, to assess ... A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma. The patient breathes in nebulized ... The bronchial challenge test is physically demanding, and the results can be affected by muscular weakness or exhaustion. The ... Dixon C (February 1983). "The bronchial challenge test: a new direction in asthmatic management". J Natl Med Assoc. 75 (2): 199 ...
The obstruction can be due to mucus or other secretions in the airway,: 411 bronchial hyperreactivity, or tumors. See rhonchus ... also known as bronchial fremitus, is a palpable vibration produced during breathing caused by partial airway obstruction. ... as these areas are closest to the bronchial trifurcation (right side) or bifurcation (left side). Tactile fremitus is ...
"Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity ...
... is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in ... This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized ...
In addition, ongoing airway inflammation is thought to cause airway hyperreactivity characteristic of asthma. The more severe ... Together, these mediators cause bronchial smooth muscle constriction, vascular leakage, inflammatory cell recruitment (with ...
... (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity, BH used as a general abbreviation) is a ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. Logan, Carolynn ...
T variant with increased incidences of asthma and/or bronchial hyper-reactivity. The intrinsic variants rs17831675, rs17831682 ... 2007). "Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 143 (Suppl 1): 23-7 ...
... bronchial hyper reactivity and peak flow but not FEV1. More recent positive results of long-term treatment with azithromycin on ... Webley WC, Salva PS, Andrzejewski C, Cirino F, West CA, Tilahun Y, Stuart ES (May 2005). "The bronchial lavage of pediatric ... Hahn DL, Grasmick M, Hetzel S, Yale S (2012). "Azithromycin for bronchial asthma in adults: an effectiveness trial". Journal of ... Schmidt SM, Müller CE, Bruns R, Wiersbitzky SK (October 2001). "Bronchial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, markers of allergic ...
... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes.[medical citation needed] In order to make ... Patients that have been diagnosed with RADS will likely have methacholine airway hyperreactivity, yet other tests that also ... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes.[medical citation needed] Physicians most ... Symptoms may also include, but are not limited to, coughing, shortness of breath, excess mucus in the bronchial tube, ...
IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... an increase in airway hyperreactivity, and mucus hypersecretion. Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway ...
... which are the predominant receptors on the bronchial smooth muscles. Activation of these receptors causes adenylyl cyclase to ... which can cause airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Potential formulation of the R form as an enantiopure drug is ... leading to hyperpolarization and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys ...
In vitro, exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen ... and airway hyperreactivity in firefighters at the world trade center site. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2:33-9. Berninger A ... Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... 2010) Sclerosis therapy of bronchial artery attenuates acute lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation injury in ovine ...
Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, as during asthma attacks and allergic ... "Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". ... hyperreactivity, and increased mucus production. These symptoms could result from pendrin's effects on ion concentration in the ... "Identification of pendrin as a common mediator for mucus production in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
The dysregulation of ILCs can lead to immune pathology such as allergy, bronchial asthma and autoimmune disease. The ... "Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity ...
EVIDENCE OF BRONCHIAL HYPERREACTIVITY IN INFANTS WITH ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS E. Motoyama, M.D.; E. Motoyama, M.D. ... E. Motoyama, G. Lister, G. Mallory, P. Mestad, P. Rothstein, T. Weng; EVIDENCE OF BRONCHIAL HYPERREACTIVITY IN INFANTS WITH ... Intravenous Lidocaine and Bupivacaine Dose-dependently Attenuate Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Awake Volunteers Anesthesiology ( ... Combined Intravenous Lidocaine and Inhaled Salbutamol Protect against Bronchial Hyperreactivity More Effectively than Lidocaine ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity, failure to thrive. Bronchial obstruction, respiratory failure. Yes/8. 13. Jul 22. 5 y/F. Asthma. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. Asthma exacerbation. No. 19. Jul 25. 5 mo/M. 22q11 deletion, tetralogy of Fallot, tracheal stoma. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. Status asthmaticus. Yes/2. 24. Jul 30. 51 y/F. Autologous stem cell transplantation. Influenza-like ...
Occupational lung diseases refers to the development of lung diseases from inhalational exposure that occurs at the work place. However, these lung diseases may also occur in environments other than work.
Bronchial Hyperreactivity * Bronchial Provocation Tests * Child * Female * Humans * Male * Respiratory Function Tests ...
The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity / physiopathology* * Bronchial Hyperreactivity / therapy * Female * Histamine * Humans * ... The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR ...
Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity ISO. Il5 (Mus musculus). 9068941. RGD. PMID:9712797 and REF_RGD_ID:4890961. ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity treatment. ISO. Il5 (Mus musculus). 9068941. RGD. PMID:10471622 and REF_RGD_ID:11354935. ...
They show that bronchial hyperreactivity is one factor that can be considered predictive of poor recovery from particulate ... This study assesses the post-9/11 courses of lung function as influenced by bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) a biomarker for ... Bronchial hyperreactivity-abnormal sensitivity to inhaled bronchoconstrictive agents, is a biomarker for susceptibility to ... In about 30%, there is accompanying bronchial hyperreactivity (easily triggered airway narrowing). This study will re-examine a ...
Persons with asthma generally exhibit bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine challenge (45,47--49,62). However, a small ... Symptoms include recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, expectoration of brownish plugs, peripheral blood ... also might exhibit hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine (49); therefore, test results must be considered together with other ...
The physicians diagnosis of OA was mostly made on the basis of the presence of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (NSBH), ... Region-1; Hazard-Confirmed; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Respiratory-system-disorders; Bronchial-asthma; ...
1991) Dissociation between LPS-Induced bronchial hyperreactivity and airway edema in the guinea-pig. Agents Actions 34:203-204. ...
Effect of Breastfeeding on Asthma, Lung function, and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in ISAAC-Phase-Two. Eur Respir J. 2009 Jan 22 ...
Does measurement of bronchial hyper-reactivity help in the clinical diagnosis of asthma? Eur J Respir Dis. 1986;68:233-238. ... Predictive nature of bronchial responsiveness and respiratory symptoms in a one year cohort study of Sydney schoolchildren. Eur ... Nonspecific bronchial reactivity and its relationship to the clinical expression of asthma. A longitudinal study. Am Rev Respir ... The interrelationship among bronchial hyperresponsiveness, the diagnosis of asthma, and asthma symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis. ...
Finally, the presence of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity may also precede BOS. In a recent longitudinal study that ... Stanbrook MB, Kesten S. Bronchial hyperreactivity after lung transplantation predicts early bronchiolitis obliterans. Am J ... nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity may be present in patients who will develop BOS later 9. It is important to emphasise ... Alho HS, Inkinen KA, Salminen U‐S, et al. Collagens I and III in a porcine bronchial model of obliterative bronchiolitis. Am J ...
Testing for bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. * Opthalmological Uses * Acetylcholine and Carbachol may be used for ...
21 Lowhagen O, Rak S. Modification of bronchial hyperreactivity after treatment with sodium cromoglycate during pollen season. ... of cold air challenge data in a population sample using a model of bronchial hyperreactivity and disposition to bronchial ... Effects of regular inhalation of beclomethasone dipropionate and sodium cromoglycate on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic ... 19 Jenkins C J, Breslin A B. Long term study of the effect of sodium cromoclycate on non-specific bronchial hyperresponsivness ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity in children with antibody deficiencies. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Jan 2014. Epub. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Viruses and bacteria in bronchial samples from patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Apr ...
I have suffered a severe condition diagnosed as bronchial hyperreactivity and multiple chemical sensitivity. It has been caused ...
U-60,257 inhibits O3-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in the guinea pig. Murlas, C., Lee, H.K. Prostaglandins (1985) [Pubmed] ... U-60,257 inhibits O3-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in the guinea pig [2]. ... We studied the effects on ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity of U-60,257, a pyrroloprostacyclin shown to inhibit leukotriene ...
None of the workers had evidence of bronchial hyper-reactivity (percent amplitude means of greater than 20%), an indication of ... However, there are several limitations to our ability to assess bronchial hyper-reactivity, which may indicate asthma. A few ... However, the small number of workers studied decreased the likelihood of finding bronchial hyper-reactivity because the ... A participant was considered to have significant bronchial lability if the amplitude percent mean ([maximum - minimum]/ mean) ...
Linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor gene with bronchial hyperreactivity, even in absence of atopy. van Herwerden, L., Harrap ... A new marker for bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Fryer, A.A., Bianco, A., Hepple, M., Jones, P.W., Strange, R.C., ...
We have recently identified, for the first time, that bronchial epithelial cells are its novel cell source in response to IL-33 ... Signaling mechanism of IL-17F expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells are a novel cell source of ... Th17 cells, but not Th2 cells, mediate steroid resistant airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of ... and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells [3, 20-28]. In addition to bronchial epithelial cells, IL-17F is also able ...
However, 14, 15-EET is able to contrast TNF-α induced hyper-reactivity in human airway smooth muscle cells (Imig, 2012). ... but they can be beneficial in the treatment of bronchial inflammation (Imig, 2012). ...
... bronchial hyperreactivity). Cautions. Acute pancreatitis, including fatal pancreatitis, reported; if pancreatitis is suspected ...
It may take up to 7 weeks for bronchial airway hyperreactivity to return to normal following a simple viral upper respiratory ... Postinfectious bronchial inflammation is also a common cause for referral but that usually takes place when a cough has not ...
The usual mechanisms that produce pneumomediastinum include severe acute asthma, toxic-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, and ...
Keywords: Bronchial Hyperreactivity, Child, Female, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Multivariate Analysis, Prevalence, ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity, Child, Female, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Multivariate Analysis, Prevalence, Rhinitis/ ... Significant bronchial hyperresponsiveness (methacholine concentration giving a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in I s ,4.0 ... Significant bronchial hyperresponsiveness (methacholine concentration giving a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in I s ,4.0 ...
... we showed that a low intake of vitamin C was associated with bronchial hyperreactivity.8 In the other, nested in a 30 year ... a low intake of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids appeared protective against hyperreactivity while, in the second, ...
  • The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with mild persistent asthma. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND We examined the natural history of asthma in a primary care cohort of patients 10 years after the cohort was stratified for asthma risk by responses to a questionnaire and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) testing. (annfammed.org)
  • Most clinical studies of asthma have used a combination of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) testing and responses to respiratory questionnaires to assist with an asthma diagnosis. (annfammed.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Rhinitis is common at the age of 10 y, with strong associations with atopy, wheezing, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and a low level of lung function in childhood are independent risk factors for a low level of FEV 1 in early adulthood. (atsjournals.org)
  • Two longitudinal studies, one of middle-aged and older men with no history of asthma, the other of subjects aged 65 yr or older, found that bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and atopy were both independent predictors of decline of lung function ( 15 , 16 ). (atsjournals.org)
  • The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (medscape.com)
  • Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. (medscape.com)
  • Beyond that, we can presume that patients who already have poorly controlled asthma or more bronchial hyperresponsiveness would be at risk, as would patients who have other concurrent risk factors for allergic asthma (such as rhinovirus infection [ 5 ] ). (medscape.com)
  • Even if objective tests are available, there is no gold standard test for asthma and many of the tests that are available ( e.g. spirometry, fractionated exhaled nitric oxide ( F eNO ) and bronchial provocation tests) do not necessarily exclude asthma even if they are normal, particularly if the patient has started treatment prior to testing. (ersjournals.com)
  • The physician's diagnosis of OA was mostly made on the basis of the presence of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (NSBH), work-related respiratory symptoms, and in some cases work-related serial peak flow changes. (cdc.gov)
  • During the first postoperative months, nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity may be present in patients who will develop BOS later 9 . (ersjournals.com)
  • 10 years after 9/11, to define the natural history of WTC-associated OAD, to determine whether clinical outcomes varied according to their degree of bronchial reactivity, and to assess the influence of anti-inflammatory treatment (oral and/or inhaled corticosteroids). (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphic forms of TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 genes regulate the degree of bronchial inflammation, deterioration of lung functional parameters in spirometry and elevated level of total IgE. (researchsquare.com)
  • It is used to treat asthma and bronchial spasm in the USA. (pharmakb.com)
  • Asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and airway inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • This study will re-examine a large number of firefighters who had bronchial reactivity soon after 9/11 to determine whether those with bronchial hyper-reactivity at onset have persistent hyperactivity more than ten years later, whether they have accelerated lung function decline, and whether those treated with anti-asthma medications were more likely to show resolution of bronchial hyperactivity and/or show less rapid decline in lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • The mechanism of inflammation in asthma may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and the presence of airway edema and mucus secretion also contributes to airflow obstruction and bronchial reactivity. (medscape.com)
  • Here we show that T cell-specific Notch deficiency in mice prevented house dust mite-driven eosinophilic airway inflammation and significantly reduced Th2 cytokine production, serum IgE levels, and airway hyperreactivity. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study assesses the post-9/11 courses of lung function as influenced by bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) a biomarker for susceptibility to asthma, and by corticosteroid treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity-abnormal sensitivity to inhaled bronchoconstrictive agents, is a biomarker for susceptibility to asthma, and may predict rapid decline in lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that steroid therapy was significantly associated with recovery of lung function and that bronchial reactivity, which tended to persist or slightly worsen over the decade since 9/11, was significantly associated with worsening lung function. (cdc.gov)
  • At this age 1373 children (94%) completed standardized questionnaires, 1,043 (72%) skin-prick testing, 953 (65%) serum inhalant immunoglobulin E antibody screening and 784 (54%) methacholine bronchial challenges. (soton.ac.uk)
  • TGF-β and its receptors play a key role in asthma pathogenesis, bronchial hyperreactivity and bronchial remodeling. (researchsquare.com)
  • High acute exposure levels may result in reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), an asthma-like syndrome with persistent bronchial hyperreactivity but no sensitisation. (gu.se)
  • Bronchial reactivity remained relatively stable, with a trend toward increasing reactivity.76% of firefighters reported using either inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids between 2001-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Likewise, patients with exercise-induced asthma (who perhaps have more than just this condition) should probably have spirometry to assess for baseline airway hyperreactivity and perhaps exhaled nitric oxide as well. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic exposure to average ammonia levels above 25 ppm has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms (cough, wheezing, phlegm, and dyspnoea) and bronchial asthma. (gu.se)
  • 3 µm) to reach the bronchial tree, resulting in asthma symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis who perhaps have never exhibited asthma before. (medscape.com)
  • Among respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma, one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood, has been linked to exposure to environmental pollutants in many parts of the world 3-6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • diagnostic aid (gastric secretion, pheochromocytoma, bronchial hyperreactivity). (drugfuture.com)
  • Additionally, significant increase in non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was observed after SICT. (ijomeh.eu)
  • Did bronchial reactivity influence the course of recovery or worsening function after WTC exposure? (cdc.gov)
  • We have recently identified, for the first time, that bronchial epithelial cells are its novel cell source in response to IL-33 via ST2-ERK1/2-MSK1 signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • The GSTM1 gene deletion polymorphism and the GSTP1 gene A313G genotype may be a risk factor for developing bronchial hyperreactivity in children living under adverse environmental conditions, including radioactively contaminated areas. (org.ua)
  • The laser welding of biological tissues is a particular use of lasers in surgery.The technique has been proposed since the 1970s for surgical applications, such as repairing blood vessels, nerves, tendons, bronchial fistulae, skin and ocular tissues. (biolifesas.org)
  • Molecular genetic studies showed that the GSTM1 gene deletion genotype and the GSTP1 gene A313G polymorphism were found significantly more often in the subgroup of children with bronchial hyperreactivity living in RCA than in children without bronchial hyperreactivity and children of the control group. (org.ua)
  • Both effects were fairly strong, with the highest steroid dose predicting about 5 percentage points better result than those who did not receive steroids, and the most bronchial reactivity predicting about 5 percentage points worse result. (cdc.gov)