Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Dyspnea, Paroxysmal: A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Naphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchial DiseasesLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CCockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Cissampelos: A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Tracheal DiseasesAirway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Eosinophil Major Basic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Mice, Inbred C57BLChemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/1734)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1734)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/1734)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Exhaled nitric oxide; relationship to clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. (4/1734)

Bronchial asthma is an airway disorder associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. The variables all reflect, in part, the underlying airway inflammation in this disease. To understand their interrelationships we have investigated the relationship between exhaled NO levels and clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. Twenty-six steroid naive atopic asthmatics participated in the analysis. All were given diary cards and were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates twice daily together with their asthma symptom scores and beta-agonist use. Diary cards were collected 2 weeks later and measurements of exhaled NO levels, FEV1 and histamine bronchial hyperreactivity (PC20 histamine) were undertaken. Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in our study population than in normal control subjects and correlated negatively with PC20 histamine (r = -0.51; P = 0.008) and positively with PEF diurnal variability (r = 0.58; P = 0.002), but not with symptom scores, beta-agonist use of FEV1 (%). We conclude that a significant relationship exists between exhaled NO levels and the two characteristic features and markers of asthma severity, namely bronchial hyperreactivity and PEF diurnal variability. The lack of correlation between symptom score and beta-agonist use, of FEV1 (%) predicted and exhaled NO suggests that these measures are reflective of differing aspects of asthma.  (+info)

IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (5/1734)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial responsiveness in patients with "corticosteroid naive" mild asthma: a meta-analysis. (6/1734)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. International guidelines also advocate the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in corticosteroid naive patients. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma by conventional meta-analysis. METHODS: A Medline search of papers published between January 1966 and June 1998 was performed and 11 papers were selected in which the patients had no history of treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Bronchial responsiveness to bronchoconstricting agents was considered as the main outcome parameter. Doubling doses (DD) of histamine or methacholine were calculated. RESULTS: The total effect size of inhaled corticosteroids (average daily dose 1000 microg) versus placebo in the 11 studies was +1.16 DD (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.76 to +1.57). When only the eight short term studies (2-8 weeks) were analysed the effect size of the bronchoconstricting agent was +0.91 DD (95% CI +0.65 to +1.16). No relationship was found between the dose of inhaled corticosteroid used and the effect on bronchial responsiveness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma indicates that, on average, high doses of inhaled corticosteroids decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 2-8 weeks. It remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between inhaled corticosteroids and effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/1734)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease. (8/1734)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased airways responsiveness (5801 observations) to develop the following symptoms during any 3-year follow-up interval: chronic cough (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]), chronic phlegm (2.0 [1.3-3.0]), dyspnoea (2.3[1.5-3.5]), asthmatic attacks (3.7[2.2-6.1]), and persistent wheeze (2.7[1.7-4.4]). The estimate of the odds ratio for the development of any of the six symptoms was 1.7 (1.2-2.3). Participants with increased airways responsiveness were less likely than those without this characteristic to show remission of these respiratory symptoms. The estimate of the odds ratio for the remission of any of the six symptoms was 0.42 (0.28-0.61). INTERPRETATION: These prospective analyses show that increased airways responsiveness is positively associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and negatively associated with the remission of these symptoms in adults.  (+info)

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Health Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold.. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Heart Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement for neuropeptide Y in the development of type 2 responses and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. AU - Oda, Naohiro. AU - Miyahara, X. Nobuaki. AU - Taniguchi, Akihiko. AU - Morichika, Daisuke. AU - Senoo, Satoru. AU - Fujii, Utako. AU - Itano, Junko. AU - Gion, Yuka. AU - Kiura, Katsuyuki. AU - Kanehiro, Arihiko. AU - Maeda, Yoshinobu. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - Neuro-peptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter that is widely expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Various immune cells express the NPY Y 1 receptor. NPY modulates these cells via its Y 1 receptor; however, involvement of NPY in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, particularly airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), has not been defined. NPY-deficient and wild-type mice were intranasally sensitized and challenged to house dust mite (HDM) extract, and airway responses were monitored. After sensitization and challenge, NPY-deficient mice showed significantly lower AHR ...
The results of this study indicate that four weeks of treatment with inhaled steroids leads to improvements in airway hyperresponsiveness, sputum eosinophil numbers, and levels of exhaled NO in patients with mild atopic asthma. In addition, it appears that the improvements in these markers are lost two weeks after cessation of treatment. This suggests that each of these markers may be useful for monitoring patients with asthma, even though there might be small differences between the markers in their earliest response to anti-inflammatory treatment.. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare the treatment induced changes in airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, eosinophil counts in induced sputum, and exhaled NO levels in a group of asthmatic patients. Our study confirms and extends the results of others who have shown the beneficial effect of glucocorticosteroids on each of these markers separately. Like Kraan et al, we found an improvement of two doubling doses in airway ...
This is a Phase 3 study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Aridol bronchial challenge test to detect bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suspected asthma. Patients with suspected asthma of either gender, aged between 6 and 50 years, with only mildly impaired lung function (FEV1 ,70%) are to be tested with three different bronchial hyperresponsiveness challenges (Aridol, exercise and methacholine), and the results compared. A clinical diagnosis will also be made at the end of the study ...
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an asthma prevalence video questionnaire, a standard written questionnaire based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire and a new written questionnaire designed for an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood ISAAC in predicting bronchial hyper-responsiveness BHR...
Wilson, AM, Gray, RD, Hall, IP and Lipworth, BJ (2006) The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with asthma. Allergy, 61 (2). pp. 254-259. ISSN 1398-9995 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine forming capacity (HFC) and its modulation by H3 receptor ligands in a model of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AU - Allen, Marcus. AU - Graham, P.. AU - Morris, G.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 118. EP - 122. JO - Inflammation Research. JF - Inflammation Research. SN - 1023-3830. IS - 3. ER - ...
To study the role of CD8+ T cells in allergic sensitization, we examined the effects of in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells prior to sensitization on IgE production, immediate type cutaneous hypersensitivity and development of altered airway responsiveness. BALB/c mice were thymectomized and treated with anti-CD8 antibody resulting in depletion of CD8+ T cells (,1%) in spleen and lymphoid tissues. In these mice, sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) via the airways still resulted in IgE anti-OVA responses and immediate cutaneous reactions to OVA, but the animals were unable to develop airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil infiltration of the lung parenchyma, or IL-5 production in the local lymph nodes of the airway. Transfer of CD8+ T cells from naive animals during sensitization (on day 8 of the 10-d protocol) fully restored the ability to develop airway hyperresponsiveness and this was accompanied by IL-5 production and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. These data indicate a critical role for ...
In mice, CD4+ T cells are alone sufficient to mediate many of the pathognomonic changes that occur in human asthma by a mechanism dependent upon IL-4, but independent of IL-5, IgE, or both. Clarification of the role played by CD4+ T cells is likely to stimulate important therapeutic advances in trea …
Lin, J.T., Hiroshi, I., Suzuki, T., et al. (1994) Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness. Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 17, 213-215.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corticosteroids enhance CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic inflammation by upregulating leukotriene B4 receptor 1. AU - Ohnishi, Hiroshi. AU - Miyahara, Nobuaki. AU - Dakhama, Azzeddine. AU - Takeda, Katsuyuki. AU - Mathis, Steven. AU - Haribabu, Bodduluri. AU - Gelfand, Erwin W.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Background: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent inflammatory lipid mediator that binds to LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). Ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 plays an important role in the recruitment of effector memory CD8+ T cells into the airways of sensitized and challenged mice. Objectives: The effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on BLT1-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells and effector memory CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation were determined. Methods: Effector memory CD8+ T cells were generated from ovalbumin257-264-primed mononuclear cells from OT-1 mice in the presence of IL-2. In some cultures DEX ...
PubMed journal article Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and reversibility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Critical role for IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity.: Airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of specific and nonspecific stim
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ching-Feng Huang, Ho-Jen Peng, Chia-Chao Wu, Wen-Tsung Lo, Yu-Lueng Shih, Tzee-Chung Wu].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway hyperresponsiveness. T2 - From molecules to bedside. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12794089. AN - SCOPUS:0038309533. VL - 95. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 1. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
These studies of Ormdl3Δ2-3/Δ2-3/CC10 mice demonstrate that selectively inhibiting ORMDL3 in airway epithelial cells plays a significant role in induction of allergen-induced increases in AHR in vivo through a pathway independent of inflammation and associated with a pathway of increased S1P generation, which can induce increased smooth muscle contraction. These results further suggest that utilizing an inhalation therapeutic approach in asthma targeting a selective significant reduction in ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelium may paradoxically result in increased AHR as a consequence of increased epithelial-derived S1P increasing airway smooth muscle contractility. Whether an inhalation therapy targeting a less than complete inhibition of ORMDL3 expression by airway epithelium would also result in increased AHR is at present unknown. However, a therapy inducing only partial inhibition of ORMDL3 expression in the airway may also not be an effective therapy in asthma.. In this study, we ...
Fig. 5. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of the EFS-evoked contractions of the guinea pig-isolated trachea incubated for 4 days with TNF-α (100 ng/ml) by Δ9-THC (A) and CP55940 (B) in the presence of ethanol (vehicle), AM251 (3 × 10−9 M), or JTE907 (3 × 10−8 M). EFS parameters: 5-second trains every 100 seconds at 5-Hz frequency, 0.5-millisecond pulse width, and a voltage 10% greater than the voltage required to evoke maximal contractions. Each curve was fitted by nonlinear regression analysis. Each symbol represents the mean value of inhibition of the contractions expressed as a percentage reduction of the amplitude of the contractions measured immediately before the addition of any drug to the organ bath. Vertical lines indicate S.E.M., n = 6 for each curve. AM251 or ethanol was added 20 minutes before the first addition of the agonist. ...
Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. Eosinophils migrate to the airways and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotides prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.. AU - Edwan, Jehad. AU - Kandimalla, Ekambar R.. AU - Yu, Dong. AU - Bhagat, Lakshmi. AU - Wang, Daqing. AU - Agrawal, Sudhir. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG oligos) have been shown to prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of asthma. Recently, we reported immunomodulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs) containing novel structures (immunomers) and synthetic immunostimulatory CpR (R=2′-deoxy-7- deazguanosine) motifs show potent stimulatory activity with distinct cytokine secretion profiles. Since type 2 T cells predominate in asthma and increase in type 1 cells can prevent the differentiation of naïve T lymphocytes to a type 2 phenotype, we hypothesized that IMOs can prevent the development of allergic ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
article{733304be-b795-4682-8916-cd1774ecdcab, abstract = {Cigarette smoke exposure is strongly associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) which is the main characteristic seen in asthma. The intracellular MAPK signaling pathways are suggested to be associated with the airway damage to the AHR. In the present study, we hypothesize that secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure upregulates the bronchial contractile receptors via activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway.}, articleno = {e44170}, author = {Cao, Lei and Zhang, Yaping and Cao, Yong-Xiao and Edvinsson, Lars and Xu, Cang-Bao}, issn = {1932-6203}, language = {eng}, number = {8}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, series = {PLoS ONE}, title = {Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A Receptors.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044170}, volume = {7}, year = {2012 ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this further, we studied 77 patients with stable bronchiectasis (noncystic fibrosis) with special reference to the prevalence of BHR to methacholine (MCh), and its relation to lung function, sputum characteristics, concommitant asthma, and atopy. The concentration of MCh required to produce a fall of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1), PC 20, was determined by Wrights nebulization tidal breathing method. BHR defined by a PC 20 ≤ 8 mg/ml was found in 21 of 47 (45%) subjects who underwent bronchial challenge. Presence of BHR was positively associated with low baseline spirometric values, diagnosis of asthma, long duration of disease, and elevated total IgE on univariant analysis, and was significantly related to FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and asthma on multiple regression analysis. Ten of the 21 hyperreactive subjects did not have clinical asthma, whereas ...
BACKGROUND: Although there is convincing evidence that the prevalence of asthma among children has increased over the last three decades, it remains uncertain whether such an upward trend has occurred in adults. The aim of this study was to assess whether the prevalence of asthma has changed in young Belgian adults in recent years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of available statistics from the Belgian Armed Forces for the period 1978-91 because conscripts who reported a history of past or current asthma at call-up examination underwent standardised assessment of non-specific airway responsiveness by military chest physicians. Exemption from military service due to asthma was strictly based on the objective evidence of airway hyperresponsiveness. RESULTS: A mean of 48,331 conscripts aged 17-31 years were examined annually from 1978 to 1991. The prevalence of reported asthma rose from 2.4% in 1978 to 7.2% in 1991, while the proportion of asthmatics with airway hyperresponsiveness ...
Wheezing during infancy has been linked to early loss of pulmonary function. We prospectively investigated the relation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and progressive impairment of pulmonary function in a cohort of asthmatic infants followed until age 9 years. We studied 129 infants who had had at least three episodes of wheezing. Physical examinations, baseline lung function tests and methacholine challenge tests were scheduled at ages 16 months and 5, 7 and 9 years. Eighty-three children completed follow-up. Twenty-four (29%) infants had wheezing that persisted at 9 years of age. Clinical outcome at age 9 years was significantly predicted by symptoms at 5 years of age and by parental atopy. Specific airway resistance (sRaw) was altered in persistent wheezers as early as 5 years of age, and did not change thereafter. Ninety-five per cent of the children still responded to methacholine at the end of follow-up. The degree of BHR at 9 years was significantly related to current clinical status
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin receptor alterations in equine airway hyperreactivity. AU - Venugopal, Changaram S.. AU - Polikepahad, Sumanth. AU - Holmes, Earnestine P.. AU - Vanden Heuvel, John Patrick. AU - Leas, Tara L.. AU - Moore, Rustin M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptors in the airway hyperreactivity of horses with obstructive pulmonary disease associated with summer pasture (SPAOPD). The right diaphragmatic lobe of the lung of 8 clinically healthy (unaffected) and 8 SPAOPD-affected horses was collected immediately after euthanasia. Bronchial rings (4 mm wide) were prepared and mounted in organ baths and attached to force transducers interfaced with a polygraph. Four rings were used to study each ET-1 receptor; 1 ring served as the control, and the other 3 were incubated with 10-9, 10-7, or 10-5 M of either BQ-123, an ETA-receptor antagonist, or IRL-1038, an ETB-receptor antagonist. Cumulative ...
0117] 1. Gavett, S. H., X. Chen, F. Finkelman, and M. Wills-Karp. 1994. Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:587-593. [0118] 2. Umetsu, D. T., J. J. McIntire, O. Akbari, C. Macaubas, and R. H. DeKruyff. 2002. Asthma: an epidemic of dysregulated immunity. Nat Immunol 3:715-720. [0119] 3. Hogan, S. P., K. I. Matthaei, J. M. Young, A. Koskinen, I. G. Young, and P. S. Foster. 1998. A novel T cell-regulated mechanism modulating allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity in BALB/c mice independently of IL-4 and IL-5. J Immunol 161:1501-1509. [0120] 4. Wills-Karp, M., J. Luyimbazi, X. Xu, B. Schofield, T. Y. Neben, C. L. Karp, and D. D. Donaldson. 1998. Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma. Science 282:2258-2261. [0121] 5. Robinson, D. S., Q. Hamid, S. Ying, A. Tsicopoulos, J. Barkans, A. M. Bentley, C. Corrigan, S. R. Durham, and A. B. Kay. 1992. Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar ...
To the Editors: We read with interest the recent paper by van den Nieuwenhof et al. 1 who reported no statistically significant association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with asthma incidence over 14 yrs in 123 asymptomatic adolescents aged 10-22 yrs at baseline. They concluded that AHR is not a risk factor for the development of asthma in adulthood and that screening for AHR in adolescents to detect subjects at risk for asthma cannot be recommended. We similarly assessed the association between AHR at baseline and asthma incidence over 11.4 yrs among 172 asymptomatic children (44.2% with AHR (provocative dose causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second ,4 mg methacholine) at baseline) and 517 adults (31.7% with AHR at baseline) from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) 2, 3. Asymptomatic adults were defined as those with a null symptomatic score according to Pekkanen et al. 4 over the previous 12 months. The score is based on ...
Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. This study examines the role of intrinsic airway neurons in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-1. Ferrets were instilled intratracheally with IL-1 (0.3 g/0.3 ml) or saline (0.3 ml) once daily for 5 days. Tra
The NF-κB/Rel family of transcription factors regulates the expression of multiple genes that have been implicated in immune and inflammatory responses, including asthma (8, 16). Analyzing the effects of germline deletions or mutations of specific NF-κB/Rel subunits will elucidate their roles in various inflammatory diseases, including asthma. The present study demonstrates that absence of c-Rel is associated not only with significant attenuation of allergen-induced pulmonary and BAL eosinophilia but also with inhibition of total IgE and the physiological correlate of allergic airway inflammation, AHR. p50−/− mice do not develop eosinophilic airway inflammation in response to allergen sensitization and challenge, concomitant with a lack of IL-5 and eotaxin production; total serum IgE and AHR were not examined (27). The phenotype and immune system defects of c-Rel−/− mice are distinct from those of p50−/− mice (23, 24).. One explanation for the blunted response of c-Rel−/− mice ...
Discussion BHR occurred in 21%, and 6% presented BHRms. The latter is in line with the reported prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma (7%) in Helsinki (6). We found no discrepancy with results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in which the prevalence of BHR ranged from 3% to 28% among 16 countries, with a median prevalence of 13% (34).. We assessed BHR by two cut-off levels of PD15FEV1 indicating different severity levels of BHR, thus showing variations and differences in importance of the determinants assessed. For most of the determinants, ORs were higher, parallel with BHR severity. Our results, however, revealed that some risk factors for BHR and asthma, like severe respiratory infection in childhood, were associated with the higher PD15FEV1 cut-off level only.. The strongest determinant of BHR was decreased FEV1 (,80% of predicted) when combined with airway obstruction (defined as FEV1/FVC , 88% of predicted). But, studies on the association of BHR with allergic ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness are key components of asthma. The allergen-induced inflammatory response in the lungs results from the interaction of key airway resident cells and inflammatory cells that release local mediators. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) participates in the inflammatory response of the lungs by phenotypic changes that include synthesizing inflammatory mediators as well as an increase in contractility. Although anti-inflammatory agents and beta-adrenergic bronchodilators remain the primary treatment for chronic and acute episodes of bronchoconstriction, there is a great need for newer therapeutic targets that can modify the development and treatment of asthma. For that reason, molecular targets that might be predicted to suppress allergic inflammatory responses as well as bronchoconstriction are highly desirable. Actin dynamics is well established as the primary mechanism for motility and migration ...
In the course of the follow-up of 206 previously obstructive bronchitis children, the effect of parental smoking upon the occurrence of respiratory diseases, the yearly frequency of wheezing episodes and the age until the obstructive episodes used to return have been investigated. Familial and mater …
BACKGROUND:. Asthma is a respiratory disease characterized by variable airways obstruction, airways inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). There are recent increases in asthma mortality and prevalence in the US, especially in African-Americans. Multiple studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors are important in asthma susceptibility.. The study was recommended by the Pulmonary Diseases Advisory Committee at its February 1991 meeting and given concept approval by the May 1991 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The Request for Applications was released in October 1992.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The CSGA was composed of five centers (Johns Hopkins University, University of Chicago, University of Maryland, University of Minnesota, and a data coordinating center at Wake Forest). At each center, families were ascertained through two siblings with asthma. All family members were characterized with spirometry, bronchial responsiveness to methacholine or ...
Rationale: In asthma, airway inflammation, obstruction and reactivity may lead to ventilation heterogeneity; our understanding of this process is limited in asthmatic chi..
Tale M. Torjussen, Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen, Monica C. Munthe-Kaas, Petter Mowinckel, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Peter J. Helms, Jorrit Gerritsen, Moira K. Whyte, Warren Lenney, Dag E. Undlien, Kevin V. Shianna, Guohua Zhu and Sreekumar G. Pillai Alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and tobacco smoke exposure: Effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 23. Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2011 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01222.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease or an inflammatory disorder of the airway related to the airflow impediment and bronchial hyper-responsiveness which ranges in severity across the continuum of the diseases. Here, adequate control cannot be achieved in a considerable ratio thought the application of possible treatments
Asthma, Rhinitis, Risk, Population, Adults, Allergy, Association, Bronchi, Mite, Nose, Risk Factor, Risks, Classification, Electrodiagnosis, Syndrome, Adult, Bronchial Hyperreactivity, Children, Methacholine, Odds Ratio
Airway inflammation is a state of irritation in the airways caused by the immune system responding to a perceived threat. If the...
p,Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which is characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Allergen inhalation by sensitized atopic asthmatics enhances airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, providing a model to study mild asthma exacerbation. Airway inflammation can be measured non-invasively from airway secretions by sputum induction. Prior to starting this thesis, information on allergen-induced inflammation measured from sputum was limited. Furthermore, the pro- or anti-inflammatory effects of asthma therapies had not been investigated using this model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. The aim of this thesis was to first characterize the allergen-induced changes in sputum inflammatory cells and determine the repeatability of measurements of sputum inflammatory cells following allergen inhalation challenge. In addition, this thesis was aimed to investigate the pro- or anti-inflammatory effects of asthma therapies on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ovalbumin-sensitized mice are good models for airway hyperresponsiveness but not acute physiological responses to allergen inhalation. AU - Zosky, G. R.. AU - Larcombe, A. N.. AU - White, O. J.. AU - Burchell, J. T.. AU - Janosi, T. Z.. AU - Hantos, Z.. AU - Holt, P. G.. AU - Sly, P. D.. AU - Turner, D. J.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized clinically by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to bronchoconstricting agents. The physiological response of the asthmatic lung to inhaled allergen is often characterized by two distinct phases: an early-phase response (EPR) within the first hour following exposure that subsides and a late-phase response (LPR) that is more prolonged and may occur several hours later. Mouse models of asthma have become increasingly popular and should be designed to exhibit an EPR, LPR and AHR. Objective: To determine whether a common model of asthma is capable of demonstrating an EPR, LPR ...
Asthma is one of the most common clinical symptoms in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). However, it is not known how lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) prior to the development of CSS differs from asthmatics do not develop CSS. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to predict the onset of CSS and facilitate diagnosis in the early phase of the disease. We examined 24 pre-CSS asthmatic patients and 294 non-CSS asthmatic patients for clinical features, percent forced expiratory volume at 1 second (%FEV1), BHR to acetylcholine, and evaluated eosinophils (%) in the peripheral blood at their first hospital visit for asthma treatment. All of the 24 pre-CSS patients had adult-onset asthma. The asthma of 87.5% of pre-CSS patients at the first hospital visit before the onset of CSS was severe and was complicated by sinusitis. The eosinophils (%) in the peripheral blood was significantly higher than in non-CSS asthmatic patients. The %FEV1 in both the patients with severe asthma and ...
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease with reported increasing incidence over the world. Definition of asthma includes variable obstruction of the airways and increase in bronchial responsiveness to various stimuli. Drug treatment for asthma traditionally consists of bronchodilatory beta-receptor-agonists, often in combination with anti-inflammatory remedies such as corticosteroids.. Salbutamol, a beta-receptor-agonist, has two stereo-isomers, R-salbutamol and Ssalbutamol, and is mostly given as a racemate. The ability for bronchodilation rests in the R-isomer, whereas the S-isomer has been suspected to increase bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Salbutamol m1dergoes stereo-selective metabolism favouring the Renantiomer. This leaves the S-enantiomer to rest for longer time in the body, and gives SiR-ratios in plasma exceeding one.. Pharmacokinetic stndies were performed in twenty-two healthy volunteers. Stereoselective metabolism was more pronounced after oral delivery than after ...
Exposure to ozone, which is a major component of air pollution, induces a form of asthma that occurs in the absence of adaptive immunity. Although ozone-induced asthma is characterized by airway neutrophilia, and not eosinophilia, it is nevertheless associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR), which is a cardinal feature of asthma. Because AHR induced by allergens requires the presence of natural killer T (NKT) cells, we asked whether ozone-induced AHR had similar requirements. We found that repeated exposure of wild-type (WT) mice to ozone induced severe AHR associated with an increase in airway NKT cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Surprisingly, NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/- and Jα18-/-) mice failed to develop ozone-induced AHR. Further, treatment of WT mice with an anti-CD1d mAb blocked NKT cell activation and prevented ozone-induced AHR. Moreover, ozone-induced, but not allergen-induced, AHR was associated with NKT cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, and failed to occur in IL-17-/- mice nor in
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact on childrens respiratory health of a government air quality intervention that restricted the sulphur content of fuels to 0.5% from July 1990 onwards. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study examined the changes, one and two years after the introduction of the intervention, in airway hyperreactivity of non-asthmatic and non-wheezing, primary 4, 5, and 6, school children aged 9-12 years living in a polluted district compared with those in a less polluted district. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR)(a 20% decrease in FEV1 provoked by a cumulative dose of histamine less than 7.8 mumol) and bronchial reactivity slope (BR slope) (percentage change in logarithmic scale in FEV1 per unit dose of histamine) were used to estimate responses to a histamine challenge. The between districts differences after the intervention were studied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. MAIN RESULTS: In cohorts, comparing measurements made before the intervention ...
Interleukin (IL)-4-producing-CD8 (cytotoxic T cells, Tc) contribute to lung eosinophilia and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to an antigen. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) attenuate airway inflammation and AHR. This study investigated whether Tregs decrease Tc2frequencies in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model of mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with OVA intraperitoneally and challenged with OVA intranasally to induce allergic asthma model. Tregs were sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) microbeads. OVA-sensitized mice were injected with Tregs or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by tail vein ahead of the first challenge. Airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR)were evaluated by histological analysis and invasive method, respectively. OVA-specific IgE and cytokine levels were detected by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentages of Tc1 and Tc2. Gata3 and T-bet mRNA was determined by ...
Our study highlights the expression of the CaSR in ASM and identifies a fundamental pathophysiological role for this receptor in the context of asthma. The fact that inflammatory cationic proteins known to correlate with asthma severity can activate the CaSR expressed by ASM cells at physiologically relevant concentrations to elevate [Ca2+]i and increase the contractility of the ASM nonspecifically provides both a rational explanation for the genesis of nonspecific AHR in asthma and a basis for the direct mechanistic link between this phenomenon and airway inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that the CaSR directly influences mechanisms involved in inflammatory cell recruitment and activation. In turn, production of asthma-relevant cytokines can further increase CaSR expression, thereby generating a positive feedback loop. Thus, locally delivered calcilytics would have the advantage of breaking this cycle by reducing inflammation and by blunting ASM hyperresponsiveness. Indeed, in ...
Asthma affects 8-9% of the US population. Asthma related costs are estimated to exceed $56 billion annually with half of this due to a small subpopulation (,10%) of asthmatics whose disease is inadequately controlled by current therapy. This, together with evidence that long acting bronchodilator use can increase asthma severity has precipitated a critical need for novel asthma therapeutics. My laboratory identified key phenotypic elements of moderate to severe human asthma in horses with pasture asthma, including airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine challenge at doses ,/=1 mg/ml, chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation, and comprehensive airway structural changes collectively termed airway remodeling. Airway hyper-responsiveness persists for life. The condition is chronic and progressive and corticosteroids have diminishing efficacy unless horses are removed from the offending environment. These collective attributes address complexities of severe human asthma that are not otherwise ...
The present study demonstrated that CD86 siRNA treatment attenuated the upregulation of CD86 on maturing BMDCs. CD86 siRNA-treated BMDCs were poor stimulators of effector Th2 cells, shown by reduced productions of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but not of IFN-γ. In vivo, intratracheal administration of CD86 siRNA during OVA challenge reduced the production of IL-5, IL-13, and TARC release and ameliorated airway eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness, and elevation of OVA-specific IgE. These results clearly show that CD86 has a pivotal role in the reactivation of Th2 cells in the effector phase of allergic reactions. In addition, CD86 siRNA treatment did not stimulate systemic production of IL-6 or IFN-β, suggesting that CD86 may become a promising target for the treatment of allergic asthma.. The effector phase of allergic reactions has long been explained by the initiative interaction between antigen-bearing DCs and a memory phenotype of Th2 cells in the draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Thus, airway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of overexpression of IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β and IL-4 on allergen induced change in bronchial responsiveness. AU - Fu, Chi Ling. AU - Ye, Yi Ling. AU - Lee, Yueh L.. AU - Chiang, Bor Luen. PY - 2006/5/8. Y1 - 2006/5/8. N2 - Background: An increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, has been noted worldwide. Allergic asthma strongly correlates with airway inflammation caused by the unregulated production of cytokines secreted by allergen-specific type-2 T helper (Th2) cells. This study aims to explore the therapeutic effect of the airway gene transfer of IL-12, IL-10 and TGF-β on airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intr aperitoneal injections with OVA and challenged by nebulized OVA. Different cytokine gene plasmids or non-coding vector plasmids were instilled daily into the trachea up to one day before the inhalatory OVA ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
1. Grandjean EM, Berthet P, Ruffmann R, et al. Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2000;22:209-221. 2. Hansen NCG, Skriver A, Brorsen-Riis L, et al. Orally administered N-acetylcysteine may improve general well-being in patients with mild chronic bronchitis. Respir Med. 1994;88:531-535. 3. Grassi C, Casali L, Rossi A, et al. A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity: methods of study. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1980;106:19-27. 4. Grassi C, Morandini GC. A controlled trial of intermittent oral acetylcysteine in the long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1976;9:393-396. 5. Riise GC, Larsson S, Larsson P, et al. The intrabronchial microbial flora in chronic bronchitis patients: a target for N-acetylcysteine therapy? Eur Respir J. 1994;7:94-101. 6. Rasmussen JB, Glennow C. ...
The study was conducted under the supervision of Associate Professor Samuel and Dr Simon Royce of the Monash Lung Biology Network,1 focusing on the effects of CymerusTM MSCs in combination with or in comparison to the corticosteroid dexamethasone, which is commonly used to treat exacerbations of asthma in human patients. The study used a well-established mouse model of chronic allergic airways disease that closely resembles asthma in humans. This part of the study focused on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), which is a key clinical manifestation of asthma.. Initial results from this study have demonstrated that, as expected, treatment with dexamethasone alone significantly improved AHR compared to untreated controls (p,0.05). However, treatment with either Cymerus™ MSCs alone, or Cymerus™ MSCs in combination with dexamethasone, resulted in a substantially greater suppression of AHR, which was significantly superior to that seen with dexamethasone treatment alone (p,0.01). All treatments were ...
Background: Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) stimulation by extracellular protons causes the activation of G proteins and subsequent cellular functions. However, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of OGR1 in airway responses remain largely unknown.. Objective: We examined whether OGR1 is involved in the asthmatic inflammatory responses.. Methods: Mice deficient in OGR1 were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to measure airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. To examine the involvement of dendritic cells (DCs) in the airway responses, OVA-pulsed bone marrow-derived DCs were intratracheally transferred. Functional OGR1 expression and its activities in relation to migration in DCs were examined in vitro.. Results: OGR1-deficient mice are resistant to the cardinal features of asthma, including airway eosinophilia, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and goblet cell metaplasia, in association with a remarkable inhibition of TH2 cytokine production, in an ...
What are known: Asthma Eosinophilic inflammation Small airways disease Bronchial hyper-responsiveness -| smooth muscle contraction & mucus secretion Reversible bronchoconstriction COPD Neurophilic inflammation Small and large airways disease Inflammatory infiltrates -| smooth muscle contraction, mucus secretion (chronic bronchitis) & tissue breakdown (emphysema) Irreversible bronchoconstriction Why is there an entity called ACOS? In asthma, with age, airway remodelling…
in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2012), 66(2), 158-65. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of ... [more ▼]. Background: Asthma diagnosis is based on the presence of symptoms and the demonstration of airflow variability. Airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measured at a flow rate of 50 ml/s (FE(NO50) ) remains a controversial diagnostic tool. Aim: To assess the ability of FE(NO50) to identify bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) ; PC20M ,/= 16 mg/ml) and to establish whether or not symptoms relate to FE(NO50) and PC20M in patients with no demonstrated reversibility to beta(2) -agonist. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 174 steroid naive patients with respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory ...
P. Fontanari, M-C. Zattera-Hartmann, H. Burnet, Y. Jammes. Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry a airway increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal, European Respiratory Society, 1997, 10 (10), pp.2250 - 2254. ⟨10.1183/09031936.97.10102250⟩. ⟨hal-01802744⟩ ...
This study showed a prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation during pregnancy of 0.43% in South Korea. In a field survey conducted more than 10 years ago of a randomly recruited general population from cities and rural areas in Korea, the prevalence of current asthma, defined as current wheezing and positive bronchial hyper-responsiveness, in participants aged ≤39 years was approximately 2%.12 Considering that only a small percentage of patients seek healthcare services, the prevalence in our study may be reasonable. The prevalence of asthma during pregnancy was comparable to or slightly lower than that in the previous report in which, on the basis of the insurance database, the prevalence of asthma in the Korean general population aged 20-39 years was reportedly 4.65-6.73 cases per 1000 persons.11. Significant numbers of pregnant women with asthma experienced severe exacerbations in our study. Among the women who were diagnosed with asthma, 11.6% visited the emergency room or ...
IL-1 is a pleotropic cytokine that has been shown to play a prominent role in asthma induced by large-molecular-weight proteins. Increased IL-1 immunostaining in the submucosa of patients with toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma has also been observed, suggesting that this cytokine might also be important in asthma associated with low-molecular-weight chemicals. We sought to determine the ro
Principal Investigator:OBOKI Keisuke, Project Period (FY):2010 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), Research Field:膠原病・アレルギー・感染症内科学
Asthma bronchiale is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. It is marked by airway hyperresponsiveness, i. e. a constriction of the airways due to contact to a certain stimulus that is usually innocuous, as well as enhanced mucus production and remodelling of the airway wall. The most common form of asthma is allergic asthma, which is induced by sensitization of the airways to ordinary aeroallergens. Mostly this sensitization is mediated by TH2-type T lymphocytes, which secrete specific cytokines, e. g. Interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13 or GM-CSF. Those factors coordinate the classic asthma immune response, like TH2 cell survival, B cell isotype switching to IgE, as well as mast cell, eosinophil and basophil recruitment and maturation1,2. So far, therapeutic approaches have been focusing on inhibition of the TH2 response, as well as skewing the immune response to a more pronounced TH1 response or on the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg)3-5.. As inflammatory diseases of the ...
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, airway hyper-responsiveness, and coughing, particularly at night or after exercise. Asthma can seriously impact the daily routines of ...
Reactive airway disease is a term used to refer to a reversible narrowing of airways. This condition is not a diagnosis but a term used until a more precise
2016 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 3, p. 198-198Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published ...
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by hyper-responsiveness of airways to various stimuli. This complex disease affects patients of all ages.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can enhance both early and late airway narrowing after inhaled antigen in allergic asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that NO2 may also increase airway inflammation during the late response. Nitrogen dioxide has been shown to cause airway inflammation in healthy subjects without asthma. We also hypothesized that individuals with asthma may have increased non-allergic airway inflammation after exposure to NO2. To test these hypotheses, we designed two experiments with the following specific aims: Experiment 1) To determine the effect of a single exposure to NO2 on allergen-induced airway inflammation. Experiment Two: To determine the effect of NO2 exposure on non-allergic airway inflammation. Experiment One: 15 house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive asthmatic subjects were exposed for 3 hours to filtered air or 0.4 ppm NO2 followed immediately by inhalation of HDM allergen. Lung function was measured before and after each exposure and after allergen challenge, hourly for 6 hours. Sputum
Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day
In a previous study, we demonstrated that intravenous administration of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) could significantly reduce allergic symptoms and suppress eosinophilic inflammation. To evaluate the secretome of ASCs, we administrated culture supernatant of ASCs (ASC sup, which contains the ASC secretome) and uncultured fresh medium (con sup) into a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Subsequently we observed the mice for signs of inflammation and investigated Th1-, Th2-, and Treg-related cytokine levels as well as recruitment of Treg cells into the airway. We found that ASC sup could ameliorate allergic airway inflammation in this model; the value of airway hyperresponsiveness, and the occurrence of inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung, as well as the number of eosinophils, and goblet cells in the lung epithelium were all significantly decreased by ASC sup treatment. In addition, ASC sup treatment significantly decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the bronchial
The effectiveness of strategies for treatment of the altered static lung volume and against the development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) following a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) induced by myocardial ischaemia was investigated in a rat model of sustained postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. Airway resistance (Raw) was identified from the respiratory system input impedance (Zrs) in four groups of rats. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV) was determined plethysmographically, and Zrs was measured under baseline conditions and following iv infusions of 2, 6 or 18 μg/kg/min methacholine. Sham surgery was performed in the rats in Group C, while the left interventricular coronary artery was ligated and Zrs and its changes following identical methacholine challenges were reassessed in the same rats 8 weeks later, during which no treatment was applied (Group I), or the animals were treated daily with a combination of an angiotensin enzyme converter inhibitor and a diuretic (enalapril and furosemide,
CHEMICAL ecology. Abstract:Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this diseasehas continued to increase. Exercise is a powerful trigger of asthma symptoms and reversible airflow obstructionand may result in the avoidance of physical activity by patients with asthma, resulting in detrimentalconsequences to their health. Approximately 90% of patients with asthma are hyperresponsive to exercise andexperience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While pharmacologic treatment of asthma is usuallyhighly effective, medications often have significant side-effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapiesfor treatment (complementary medicine) that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacologic interventions wouldbe beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidencethat dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells. AU - Hochman, Daniel J.. AU - Collaco, Christopher R.. AU - Brooks, Edward G. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to ...
Changes in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokines or receptors observed during the progression of several inflammatory and fibrotic disorders have been used to implicate these cytokines in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Although correlative, these studies were inconclusive because they were unable to demonstrate actual continuous TGF-beta-mediated signaling in the involved tissues. We reasoned that the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of Smad2, the intracellular effector of TGF-beta/activin-mediated signaling, could be used as a marker of active signaling mediated by these cytokines in situ. We therefore used an experimental model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and were able to demonstrate a dramatic increase in the numbers of bronchial epithelial, alveolar, and infiltrating inflammatory cells expressing nuclear phosphorylated Smad2 within the allergen-challenged lungs. This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin ...
BACKGROUND: In conjunction with allergens, diesel exhaust particles act as an adjuvant to enhance IgE responses, inducing expression of cytokines/chemokines and adhesion molecules, and increasing airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). As most studies wer
PubMed journal article [Relationships between atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity in Polish school age children were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
.. In an inhalation challenge with methacholine (a drug that stimulates secretions and smooth muscle activity) and leukotriene D4, the fluticasone propionate therapy vs. placebo for two weeks caused a significant improvement (reduction) in methacholine sensitivity (a measure of airway hyper-responsiveness) and in exhaled nitric oxide 5HT1 agonist (Triptans) and Intranasal Migraine Medications - and…
In this study, we evaluated whether BV could inhibit asthma and whether BV inhibition of asthma could be correlated with regulatory T cells (Treg) activity. We found that BV treatment increased Treg populations and suppressed the production of Th1, Th2 and Th17-related cytokines in an in vitro culture system, including IL2, IL4, and IL17. Interestingly, production of IL10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by Tregs, was significantly augmented by BV treatment. We next evaluated the effects of BV treatment on allergic asthma in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma. Cellular profiling of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly lowered following BV treatment. BV also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark symptom of asthma. In addition, IL4 and IL13 levels in the BAL fluid were decreased in the BV treated group ...
This study investigates the contribution of these transcription factors in the pathogenesis of late-phase airway inflammation in adult allergic asthma patients ...
Blooume 2 (old name Asthmasan) is recomended for bronchial asthma, allergic asthma, cough associated with asthma, sudden coughing attacks, difficulty in breathing, irritation in throat.
Another name for Allergic Asthma is Asthma. The underlying cause of asthma is unknown, but most cases tend to be inherited and it occurs more frequently ...
Allergic asthma, which is the most common type of asthma, is triggered by inhaling allergens. Learn more about how to avoid triggers and manage symptoms.
Le mouse model of allergic asthma exhibiting inflammation alone, remodeling alone, or both characteristics together, (ii) to validate a semiautomatic method
Hello, are you looking for article Nursingcrib Com Nursing Care Plan Bronchial Asthma Wallpaper Picture ? If it is true we are very fortunate in being able to provide information Nursingcrib Com Nursing Care Plan Bronchial Asthma Wallpaper Picture And good article Nursingcrib Com Nursing Care Plan Bronchial Asthma Wallpaper Picture This could benefit/solution for you. ...
This study investigated the dose-related efficacy and safety of QAW039 in patients with allergic asthma inadequately controlled by low-dose inhaled
Dr. Len Former provides information on allergic asthma and its key features. This website is for healthcare professionals outside of the US and the UK.
Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) is a major feature of asthmatic and inflammatory airways. Cigarette smoke exposure, and bacterial and viral infections are well-known environmental risk factors for AHR, but knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms on how these risk factors lead to the development of AHR is limited. Activation of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and their related signal pathways including protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways may result in airway kinin receptor upregulation, which is suggested to play an important role in the development of AHR. Environmental risk factors trigger the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukins (ILs) that activate intracellular MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory pathways, which subsequently lead to AHR via kinin receptor upregulation. Blockage of intracellular ...
The major goal of this study was to examine directly the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells in a murine model of asthma. The Th1/Th2 paradigm suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells counterbalance each other and that Th1 cells protect or prevent Th2-mediated allergic disease and asthma (27). However, using well-defined, phenotypically committed OVA-specific Th1 and Th2 cells expressing identical TCRs and adoptively transferred into either SCID mice or into OVA-immunized BALB/c mice, we found that OVA-specific Th1 cells failed to reverse Th2-mediated airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity, even when given in twofold excess. These studies indicate that the Th1/Th2 paradigm, which predicts that Th1 cells downregulate allergic disease and asthma, may be more complex than initially appreciated and that suppression of allergic inflammation and Th2 activity in vivo may depend on cells other than Th1 lymphocytes.. Inasmuch as asthma is associated with the ...
We have characterized previously the expression of the chemokines eotaxin, MCP-5, RANTES, and MCP-1 (mRNA and/or protein), and correlated this with the leukocytes migrating to the lung during a murine model of lung inflammation ((5), (16)). From these experiments, we concluded that MCP-1 mRNA expression paralleled the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in this organ, both events occurring predominantly at early stages of the response (day 15). Also, eotaxin mRNA expression paralleled lung eosinophilia predominantly at late stages (day 21). In contrast, other chemokines, such as RANTES or MCP-5, were expressed throughout the inflammatory reaction. This underlines the contribution of chemokines at different stages of the response.. From the work presented here, we first conclude that eosinophil recruitment and development of BHR in this model system involve the action of both eosinophilic (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-5, and MIP-1α) and noneosinophilic chemokines (MCP-1). This indicates the absence of ...
Dr. Anand responded: Methacholine test. The test result is available as soon as the test is completed. It can take half to one hour. A physician has to interpret the test results. Some times the answer may not be clear cut.
We can test the effectiveness of your compound against these parameters. We have previously demonstrated efficacy of bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists, anticholinergics, Rho-kinase inhibitors) and anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticopsteroids, arginase inhibitors) in this model.. A unique feature of this model is that guinea pigs can be instrumented using a balloon catheter to measure lung function online in freely moving unrestrained animals. This way, not only hyperresponsiveness to histamine, but also the nature and size of the early and late asthmatic response can be measured including effects of pharmacological treatments hereon. This can be done without the need for surgical interventions during the treatment period, without the need for anaesthesia (which effectively blocks the neural component of airway hyperresponsiveness) and with the possibility of repeated and on-line measurements in time.. Furthermore, the guinea pig offers a number of unique characteristics that make the model ...
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and clinical phenotypes are highly variable. This is exemplified in the variability of patients responses to medications such as beclomethasone. It is a critical clinical question whether a particular therapy will be effective in an individual child with symptoms of asthma. At the moment, there is a lack of diagnostic tools to assess this individual responsiveness. Beclomethasone is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) used as controller therapy in children with asthma, providing protection against bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). A single dose of an ICS can have a significant effect on BHR measured by a bronchial provocation test (BPT). This rapid response shows variability similar to the variable responsiveness to long term treatment. We hypothesized that the effect of a single dose of beclomethasone on a BPT (a mannitol challenge) could predict the effect of longterm therapy with beclomethasone on BHR ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Regulation of skeletal muscle development and organization is a complex process that is not fully understood. Here, we focused on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, also known as bridging integrator-1) and dynamin 2 (DNM2), two ubiquitous proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and mutated in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs). We generated Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice to decipher the physiological interplay between BIN1 and DNM2. While Bin1-/- mice die perinatally from a skeletal muscle defect, Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice survived at least 18 months, and had normal muscle force and intracellular organization of muscle fibers, supporting BIN1 as a negative regulator of DNM2. We next characterized muscle-specific isoforms of BIN1 and DNM2. While BIN1 colocalized with and partially inhibited DNM2 activity during muscle maturation, BIN1 had no effect on the isoform of DNM2 found in adult muscle. Together, these results indicate that BIN1 and DNM2 regulate muscle development and organization, function through a common pathway, ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with seasonal bronchial asthma observed through two consecutive years]". Pol ... A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to help diagnose occupational asthma. It involves testing with ...
Relation between manifest bronchial obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity (author's transl)]". Zeitschrift für Erkrankungen ...
Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity ...
A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to support the diagnose occupational asthma. It involves measuring ...
... is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in ... This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized ...
In addition, ongoing airway inflammation is thought to cause the airway hyperreactivity characteristic of asthma. The more ... Together, these mediators cause bronchial smooth muscle constriction, vascular leakage, inflammatory cell recruitment (with ...
T variant with increased incidences of asthma and/or bronchial hyper-reactivity. The intrinsic variants rs17831675, rs17831682 ... 2007). "Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 143 Suppl 1: 23-7. ...
... (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. Postma DS, ...
... bronchial hyper reactivity and peak flow but not FEV1. Evidence from macrolide RCTs of patients with uncontrolled severe and ... Webley WC, Salva PS, Andrzejewski C, Cirino F, West CA, Tilahun Y, Stuart ES (May 2005). "The bronchial lavage of pediatric ... Hahn DL, Grasmick M, Hetzel S, Yale S (2012). "Azithromycin for bronchial asthma in adults: an effectiveness trial". Journal of ... Schmidt SM, Müller CE, Bruns R, Wiersbitzky SK (October 2001). "Bronchial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, markers of allergic ...
People with pre-existing airway hyperreactivity, such as asthmatics, will react to lower doses of drug. Sometimes, to assess ... A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma. The patient breathes in nebulized ... The bronchial challenge test is physically demanding, and the results can be affected by muscular weakness or exhaustion. The ... Dixon C (February 1983). "The bronchial challenge test: a new direction in asthmatic management". J Natl Med Assoc. 75 (2): 199 ...
IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... an increase in airway hyperreactivity, and mucus hypersecretion. Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway ...
... which can cause airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Salbutamol was discovered in 1966 by a team led by David Jack at the ... which are the predominant receptors on the bronchial smooth muscles. Activation of these receptors causes adenylyl cyclase to ... leading to hyperpolarization and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys ...
In vitro, exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen ... and airway hyperreactivity in firefighters at the world trade center site. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2:33-9. Berninger A ... Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... 2010) Sclerosis therapy of bronchial artery attenuates acute lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation injury in ovine ...
1976). "Changes in bronchial reactivity after administration of live attenuated influenza virus". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.: 194- ... This shows that in addition to causing airway hyperreactivity, rhinovirus also promotes the onset of non-atopic asthma. ... pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism leading to bronchial asthma. This is because the increase of ... pneumoniae has been found to cause ciliostasis in bronchial epithelial cells. Meanwhile, sero-epidemiological data also provide ...
Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, as during asthma attacks and allergic ... "Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". ... hyperreactivity, and increased mucus production. These symptoms could result from pendrin's effects on ion concentration in the ... "Identification of pendrin as a common mediator for mucus production in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
... is cytotoxic to respiratory epithelium and is present in the sputum of asthmatics and on damaged bronchial epithelium from ... Article: Human eosinophil major basic protein causes hyperreactivity of respiratory smooth muscle. Role of the epithelium. * ... The results suggest that MBP, by inhibiting the function of epithelial but not smooth muscle cells, causes hyperreactivity of ... The results suggest that MBP, by inhibiting the function of epithelial but not smooth muscle cells, causes hyperreactivity of ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to distilled water and saline. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 :1117 ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to distilled water and saline.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine induced by Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.. Schreurs AJ, Nijkamp FP. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine 4 days following vaccination with the human respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae ... This suggests a hyperreactivity of the parasympathetic, cholinergic pathways as a result of H. influenzae vaccination. ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to leucotriene D4 and histamine in exogenous asthma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 290 :1468 ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to leucotriene D4 and histamine in exogenous asthma.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 290 doi: https:// ... The findings suggest a role for leucotriene D4 in human bronchial asthma. ... The hyperreactivity of the airways of the asthmatic subjects to leucotriene D4 was comparable to that to histamine. Inhalation ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in patients who cough after receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ...
Bronchial hyper reactivity. Fractional exhaled NO. Methacholine Challenge Test. Pediatric Crohns Disease Activity Index. To ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Children With Crohn Disease. This study has been completed. ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Gastroenteritis. Gastrointestinal Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. ... Background: Latent pulmonary involvement is described in Crohn Disease(CD). Bronchial hyperreactivity measured by the ...
Biological context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *To evaluate the influence of aging on bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) during ... Chemical compound and disease context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged ... Gene context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *The TNF system may play a key role in the pathomechanism of bronchial ... Disease relevance of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *Airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokine induction, IgE production, and bronchial ...
Bronchial.... *Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline Br Med ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline. Br Med ... Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline ...
Relationships between atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity in Polish school age children were found in PRIME PubMed. Download ... AllergensAsthmaBronchial HyperreactivityBronchial Provocation TestsChildExercise TestFemaleHumansHypersensitivity, Immediate ... Relationships between atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity in Polish school age children].. Przegl Lek 2002; 59(10):780-4PL ... Relationships Between Atopy and Bronchial Hyper-reactivity in Polish School Age Children]. Prz Lek. 2002;59(10):780-4. PubMed ...
Home » Topics » Respiratory » Research » The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in ... The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Preschool Children. 2014-07-24 14:11:01 , ... More From BioPortfolio on "The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Preschool ... Other studies reported relation between asthma control and reduction in airway hyperreactivity. The purpose of this study is to ...
Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Husein Hadeiba and Richard ... Abrogation of bronchial eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in signal transducers and activators of ... Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity ... Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity ...
... Acta Paediatr Hung. 1991;31(1):103-12. ... The familial smoking did not seem to influence the bronchial hyperreactivity challenged with acetylcholine, although the ...
Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine ... Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine ... Cigarette smoke exposure is strongly associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) which is the main characteristic seen in ... In the present study, we hypothesize that secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure upregulates the bronchial contractile ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... A 12-year-old girl, with a previous history of bronchial reaction and contact dermatitis to sodium hypochlorite, was referred ... All patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine at the time of diagnosis. However, induced sputum samples did ... kg(-1) x min(-1) was necessary to break the severe refractory bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There was no previous exposure to ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity. Treating bronchial hyperreactivity with homoeopathy. Bronchial hyperreactivity is an inflammation of ... Symptoms of bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity manifests itself by an increased secretion of mucus in the ... In the event that bronchial hyperreactivity is accompanied by mucus congestion of the bronchial tubes and expectoration ... Bronchial hyperreactivity is often a clinical sign that is linked to the development of asthma. It may be acute or chronic. In ...
Salvinorin A abrogated bronchial hyperreactivity and interleukin (IL)-13 production, without effect on pulmonary inflammation. ... Salvinorin A abrogated bronchial hyperreactivity and interleukin (IL)-13 production, without effect on pulmonary inflammation. ... In another set of experiments, mice were sensitized with OVA and both bronchial reactivity and pulmonary inflammation were ... Our study demonstrates that Salvinorin A inhibits airway hyperreactivity induced by sensitization by inhibition of LT ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial challenge testing was undertaken using the technique described by Cockcroft et al.16 In ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. The non-smoking group had a geometric mean (SD) methacholine PC20 of 0.76 (1.3) mg/ml at baseline ... Bronchial hyperreactivity was a criterion for entry into the study and, although not specific to the diagnosis of asthma, we ... Bronchial hyperreactivity data were log transformed before analysis and are reported as geometric mean and geometric SD. Two ...
Analysis of factors associated with bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine in bronchiectasis. Authors. Ip, MLam, WKSo, SY ... Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this ... Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this ... Article: Analysis of factors associated with bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine in bronchiectasis. *Show simple item ...
5.2 Bronchial hyperreactivity. An unspecific bronchial hyperreactivity can be detected in almost all asthmatics. In case of the ... which is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory obstruction. 2 Etiology. The development of bronchial ... the hyperreactivity manifests as a very strong constriction of the bronchial tubes, and can be objectified by the methacholine ... of the pathophysiological processes of bronchial asthma. It develops through the shift of the bronchial lumen as a consequence ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. ... Bronchial responsiveness of parents [ Time Frame: two years ]. In parents at first visit bronchial hyperresponsiveness will be ... Change of severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness over time of five years. [ Time Frame: five years ]. Bronchial ... Over a time-span of 5 years the investigators will explore the lung function and the bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Bronchial ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. ... This is a Phase 3 study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Aridol bronchial challenge test to detect bronchial ... Ability of Aridol to Detect Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Suspected Asthmatics. The safety and scientific validity of this ... A new method for bronchial-provocation testing in asthmatic subjects using a dry powder of mannitol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Respiration Disorders. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory. Signs and ... Bronchial Hyper-responsiveness in Reflux Cough. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Bronchial Diseases. Omeprazole. Ranitidine. Ranitidine bismuth citrate. Anti-Ulcer Agents. Gastrointestinal Agents. Proton Pump ... The study aim is to determine the effect of 8 weeks of anti-reflux treatment (full acid suppression) on bronchial hyper- ...
Inflammatory Processes in the Airway of Asthmatics With Persistent Bronchial Hyperreactivity the period of treatment with ... inflammatory processes in the airway of moderate to severe persistent asthmatics who have persistent bronchial hyperreactivity ... inflammatory processes in the airway of moderate to severe persistent asthmatics who have persistent bronchial hyperreactivity ... Layout table for MeSH terms Asthma Bronchial Diseases Respiratory Tract Diseases Lung Diseases, Obstructive Lung Diseases ...
Changes during 24 hours in the lung function and histamine hyperreactivity of the bronchial tree in asthmatics and bronchitic ...
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity is a pathology that can be treated by homoeopathy, thanks to its gentle and in-depth action that relieves patients of breathing difficulties. (homeopathyguide.net)
  • BACKGROUND: Whereas a high prevalence of bronchial abnormalities has been reported in endurance athletes, its underlying mechanisms and consequences during exercise are still unclear. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Beclometasone dipropionate - Qvar to reduce airways hyperreactivity in preschool children, as demonstrated by Adenosine challenge test. (bioportfolio.com)
  • AChE-method revealed a rich network of cholinesterase positive nerves both inside the bronchial glands where they run around and between the acini, and the airway smooth muscle from secondary bronchi to terminal bronchioli. (springer.com)
  • Outside the glands adrenergic fibers were constantly seen in connection with the bronchial blood vessels in connective tissues surrounding bronchi. (springer.com)
  • The familial smoking did not seem to influence the bronchial hyperreactivity challenged with acetylcholine, although the prevalence was higher. (nih.gov)
  • In about 30%, there is accompanying bronchial hyperreactivity (easily triggered airway narrowing). (cdc.gov)