Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/1734)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1734)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/1734)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Exhaled nitric oxide; relationship to clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. (4/1734)

Bronchial asthma is an airway disorder associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. The variables all reflect, in part, the underlying airway inflammation in this disease. To understand their interrelationships we have investigated the relationship between exhaled NO levels and clinicophysiological markers of asthma severity. Twenty-six steroid naive atopic asthmatics participated in the analysis. All were given diary cards and were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates twice daily together with their asthma symptom scores and beta-agonist use. Diary cards were collected 2 weeks later and measurements of exhaled NO levels, FEV1 and histamine bronchial hyperreactivity (PC20 histamine) were undertaken. Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in our study population than in normal control subjects and correlated negatively with PC20 histamine (r = -0.51; P = 0.008) and positively with PEF diurnal variability (r = 0.58; P = 0.002), but not with symptom scores, beta-agonist use of FEV1 (%). We conclude that a significant relationship exists between exhaled NO levels and the two characteristic features and markers of asthma severity, namely bronchial hyperreactivity and PEF diurnal variability. The lack of correlation between symptom score and beta-agonist use, of FEV1 (%) predicted and exhaled NO suggests that these measures are reflective of differing aspects of asthma.  (+info)

IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (5/1734)

Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection.  (+info)

Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial responsiveness in patients with "corticosteroid naive" mild asthma: a meta-analysis. (6/1734)

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. International guidelines also advocate the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in corticosteroid naive patients. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma by conventional meta-analysis. METHODS: A Medline search of papers published between January 1966 and June 1998 was performed and 11 papers were selected in which the patients had no history of treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Bronchial responsiveness to bronchoconstricting agents was considered as the main outcome parameter. Doubling doses (DD) of histamine or methacholine were calculated. RESULTS: The total effect size of inhaled corticosteroids (average daily dose 1000 microg) versus placebo in the 11 studies was +1.16 DD (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.76 to +1.57). When only the eight short term studies (2-8 weeks) were analysed the effect size of the bronchoconstricting agent was +0.91 DD (95% CI +0.65 to +1.16). No relationship was found between the dose of inhaled corticosteroid used and the effect on bronchial responsiveness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis in patients with corticosteroid naive asthma indicates that, on average, high doses of inhaled corticosteroids decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 2-8 weeks. It remains unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between inhaled corticosteroids and effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  (+info)

Deficiency of nitric oxide in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity. (7/1734)

Using a perfused guinea-pig tracheal tube preparation, we investigated the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in polycation-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Intraluminal (IL) administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) caused a 1.8 fold increase in the maximal contractile response (Emax) to IL methacholine compared to control, without an effect on the pEC50 (-log10 EC50). The polycation poly-L-arginine (100 microg ml(-1), IL) similarly enhanced the Emax for methacholine; however, the pEC50 value was also increased, by one log10 unit. L-NAME had no effect on the enhanced methacholine response of poly-L-arginine-treated airways, while the enhanced agonist response was completely normalized by the polyanion heparin (25 u ml(-1), IL). In addition, the effect of L-NAME was fully restored in the poly-L-arginine plus heparin treated airways. The results indicate that, in addition to enhanced epithelial permeability, a deficiency of endogenous NO contributes to polycation-induced AHR. The latter finding may represent a novel mechanism of AHR induced by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins in allergic asthma.  (+info)

Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease. (8/1734)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased airways responsiveness (5801 observations) to develop the following symptoms during any 3-year follow-up interval: chronic cough (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]), chronic phlegm (2.0 [1.3-3.0]), dyspnoea (2.3[1.5-3.5]), asthmatic attacks (3.7[2.2-6.1]), and persistent wheeze (2.7[1.7-4.4]). The estimate of the odds ratio for the development of any of the six symptoms was 1.7 (1.2-2.3). Participants with increased airways responsiveness were less likely than those without this characteristic to show remission of these respiratory symptoms. The estimate of the odds ratio for the remission of any of the six symptoms was 0.42 (0.28-0.61). INTERPRETATION: These prospective analyses show that increased airways responsiveness is positively associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and negatively associated with the remission of these symptoms in adults.  (+info)

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Health Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects ...
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine or histamine. These chemicals trigger bronchospasm in normal individuals as well, but people with bronchial hyperresponsiveness have a lower threshold.. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Lung Heart Study, bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present in approximately two-thirds of patients with non-severe COPD, and this predicted lung function decline independently of other factors. In asthma it tends to be reversible with bronchodilator therapy, while this is not the case in COPD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity. T2 - methods of study.. AU - Grassi, C.. AU - Casali, L.. AU - Rossi, A.. AU - Rampulla, C.. AU - Zanon, P.. AU - Cerveri, I.. AU - Mastroberardino, M.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The authors evaluated bronchial hyperreactivity comparing two different methods for aspecific bronchostimulation (H2O ultrasonic mist and free running) and a bronchodilation test. The investigation had been carried out on three groups of subjects. The first included 15 nonsmoking normal subjects, the second 23 asthmatic patients and the third 16 rhinitic patients. All subjects were submitted to bronchodynamic tests in three different ways. The ventilatory parameters were FVC, FEV1, MMEF and Vmax25. In normal subjects no significant changes were found. In asthmatic patients the bronchodilation test was positive in 65% of the cases, regarding FEV1 and in 87% regarding the forced flows. The running ...
The inter-relationship between the perception of bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and temporal adaptation in asthma is still a matter of debate. In a total of 52 stable asthmatic patients, 32 without airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC) 84.1% (S.D. 7.9%)], and 20 with airway obstruction [FEV1/VC 60% (4%)], we assessed the perception of bronchoconstriction during methacholine inhalation by using: (i) the slope and intercept of the Borg and VAS (Visual Analog Scale) scores against the decrease in FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the predicted value; and (ii) the Borg and VAS scores at a 20% decrease in FEV1 from the lowest post-saline level (PB20). Bronchial hyper-responsiveness was assessed as the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20FEV1). The reduction in FEV1 was significantly related to the Borg and VAS scores, with values for the group mean slope and intercept of this relationship of 0.13 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia.. AU - Gavett, S. H.. AU - Chen, X.. AU - Finkelman, F.. AU - Wills-Karp, M.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - The pathogenesis of asthma remains unclear. An in vivo murine model of antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation was developed to investigate the possibility, suggested by a wealth of descriptive human data, that alterations in immunoregulation are important in the genesis of airway hyperreactivity. A/J mice developed airway hyperreactivity and markedly increased numbers of pulmonary inflammatory cells following intraperitoneal sensitization and intratracheal challenge with sheep red blood cells. Notably, eosinophils were a prominent component of the inflammatory infiltrate. The dependence of these phenomena, both pathologic and functional, on CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated by in vivo depletion of CD4+ cells using the anti-CD4 mAb GK1.5. When ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement for neuropeptide Y in the development of type 2 responses and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. AU - Oda, Naohiro. AU - Miyahara, X. Nobuaki. AU - Taniguchi, Akihiko. AU - Morichika, Daisuke. AU - Senoo, Satoru. AU - Fujii, Utako. AU - Itano, Junko. AU - Gion, Yuka. AU - Kiura, Katsuyuki. AU - Kanehiro, Arihiko. AU - Maeda, Yoshinobu. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - Neuro-peptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter that is widely expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Various immune cells express the NPY Y 1 receptor. NPY modulates these cells via its Y 1 receptor; however, involvement of NPY in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, particularly airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), has not been defined. NPY-deficient and wild-type mice were intranasally sensitized and challenged to house dust mite (HDM) extract, and airway responses were monitored. After sensitization and challenge, NPY-deficient mice showed significantly lower AHR ...
The results of this study indicate that four weeks of treatment with inhaled steroids leads to improvements in airway hyperresponsiveness, sputum eosinophil numbers, and levels of exhaled NO in patients with mild atopic asthma. In addition, it appears that the improvements in these markers are lost two weeks after cessation of treatment. This suggests that each of these markers may be useful for monitoring patients with asthma, even though there might be small differences between the markers in their earliest response to anti-inflammatory treatment.. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare the treatment induced changes in airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, eosinophil counts in induced sputum, and exhaled NO levels in a group of asthmatic patients. Our study confirms and extends the results of others who have shown the beneficial effect of glucocorticosteroids on each of these markers separately. Like Kraan et al, we found an improvement of two doubling doses in airway ...
This is a Phase 3 study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Aridol bronchial challenge test to detect bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suspected asthma. Patients with suspected asthma of either gender, aged between 6 and 50 years, with only mildly impaired lung function (FEV1 ,70%) are to be tested with three different bronchial hyperresponsiveness challenges (Aridol, exercise and methacholine), and the results compared. A clinical diagnosis will also be made at the end of the study ...
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an asthma prevalence video questionnaire, a standard written questionnaire based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire and a new written questionnaire designed for an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood ISAAC in predicting bronchial hyper-responsiveness BHR...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive value of childhood airway hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli: 10-year longitudinal study. AU - Lajunen, Katariina Tytti. AU - Malmberg, Leo Pekka. AU - Kalliola, Satu. AU - Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne. AU - Pelkonen, L. Anna Susanna. AU - Mäkelä, Mika Juhani. PY - 2020/10. Y1 - 2020/10. KW - 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics. KW - Airway hyper-responsiveness. KW - Ashtma. KW - Childhood. KW - Lung function. KW - Methacholine challenge. KW - Prospective. KW - BRONCHIAL HYPERRESPONSIVENESS. KW - RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS. KW - LUNG-FUNCTION. KW - ASTHMA. KW - CHILDREN. KW - AGE. KW - RESPONSIVENESS. KW - DETERMINANTS. KW - IMPEDANCE. KW - 3121 Internal medicine. U2 - 10.1111/pai.13248. DO - 10.1111/pai.13248. M3 - Article. VL - 31. SP - 767. EP - 773. JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. SN - 0905-6157. IS - 7. ER - ...
Wilson, AM, Gray, RD, Hall, IP and Lipworth, BJ (2006) The effect of beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with asthma. Allergy, 61 (2). pp. 254-259. ISSN 1398-9995 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histamine forming capacity (HFC) and its modulation by H3 receptor ligands in a model of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AU - Allen, Marcus. AU - Graham, P.. AU - Morris, G.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 118. EP - 122. JO - Inflammation Research. JF - Inflammation Research. SN - 1023-3830. IS - 3. ER - ...
To study the role of CD8+ T cells in allergic sensitization, we examined the effects of in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells prior to sensitization on IgE production, immediate type cutaneous hypersensitivity and development of altered airway responsiveness. BALB/c mice were thymectomized and treated with anti-CD8 antibody resulting in depletion of CD8+ T cells (,1%) in spleen and lymphoid tissues. In these mice, sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) via the airways still resulted in IgE anti-OVA responses and immediate cutaneous reactions to OVA, but the animals were unable to develop airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil infiltration of the lung parenchyma, or IL-5 production in the local lymph nodes of the airway. Transfer of CD8+ T cells from naive animals during sensitization (on day 8 of the 10-d protocol) fully restored the ability to develop airway hyperresponsiveness and this was accompanied by IL-5 production and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. These data indicate a critical role for ...
In mice, CD4+ T cells are alone sufficient to mediate many of the pathognomonic changes that occur in human asthma by a mechanism dependent upon IL-4, but independent of IL-5, IgE, or both. Clarification of the role played by CD4+ T cells is likely to stimulate important therapeutic advances in trea …
Lin, J.T., Hiroshi, I., Suzuki, T., et al. (1994) Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness. Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 17, 213-215.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corticosteroids enhance CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic inflammation by upregulating leukotriene B4 receptor 1. AU - Ohnishi, Hiroshi. AU - Miyahara, Nobuaki. AU - Dakhama, Azzeddine. AU - Takeda, Katsuyuki. AU - Mathis, Steven. AU - Haribabu, Bodduluri. AU - Gelfand, Erwin W.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Background: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent inflammatory lipid mediator that binds to LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). Ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 plays an important role in the recruitment of effector memory CD8+ T cells into the airways of sensitized and challenged mice. Objectives: The effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on BLT1-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells and effector memory CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation were determined. Methods: Effector memory CD8+ T cells were generated from ovalbumin257-264-primed mononuclear cells from OT-1 mice in the presence of IL-2. In some cultures DEX ...
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Critical role for IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity.: Airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of specific and nonspecific stim
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ching-Feng Huang, Ho-Jen Peng, Chia-Chao Wu, Wen-Tsung Lo, Yu-Lueng Shih, Tzee-Chung Wu].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway hyperresponsiveness. T2 - From molecules to bedside. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038309533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12794089. AN - SCOPUS:0038309533. VL - 95. SP - 1. EP - 2. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 1. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
These studies of Ormdl3Δ2-3/Δ2-3/CC10 mice demonstrate that selectively inhibiting ORMDL3 in airway epithelial cells plays a significant role in induction of allergen-induced increases in AHR in vivo through a pathway independent of inflammation and associated with a pathway of increased S1P generation, which can induce increased smooth muscle contraction. These results further suggest that utilizing an inhalation therapeutic approach in asthma targeting a selective significant reduction in ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelium may paradoxically result in increased AHR as a consequence of increased epithelial-derived S1P increasing airway smooth muscle contractility. Whether an inhalation therapy targeting a less than complete inhibition of ORMDL3 expression by airway epithelium would also result in increased AHR is at present unknown. However, a therapy inducing only partial inhibition of ORMDL3 expression in the airway may also not be an effective therapy in asthma.. In this study, we ...
Fig. 5. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of the EFS-evoked contractions of the guinea pig-isolated trachea incubated for 4 days with TNF-α (100 ng/ml) by Δ9-THC (A) and CP55940 (B) in the presence of ethanol (vehicle), AM251 (3 × 10−9 M), or JTE907 (3 × 10−8 M). EFS parameters: 5-second trains every 100 seconds at 5-Hz frequency, 0.5-millisecond pulse width, and a voltage 10% greater than the voltage required to evoke maximal contractions. Each curve was fitted by nonlinear regression analysis. Each symbol represents the mean value of inhibition of the contractions expressed as a percentage reduction of the amplitude of the contractions measured immediately before the addition of any drug to the organ bath. Vertical lines indicate S.E.M., n = 6 for each curve. AM251 or ethanol was added 20 minutes before the first addition of the agonist. ...
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Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. Eosinophils migrate to the airways and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotides prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.. AU - Edwan, Jehad. AU - Kandimalla, Ekambar R.. AU - Yu, Dong. AU - Bhagat, Lakshmi. AU - Wang, Daqing. AU - Agrawal, Sudhir. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG oligos) have been shown to prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of asthma. Recently, we reported immunomodulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs) containing novel structures (immunomers) and synthetic immunostimulatory CpR (R=2′-deoxy-7- deazguanosine) motifs show potent stimulatory activity with distinct cytokine secretion profiles. Since type 2 T cells predominate in asthma and increase in type 1 cells can prevent the differentiation of naïve T lymphocytes to a type 2 phenotype, we hypothesized that IMOs can prevent the development of allergic ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
article{733304be-b795-4682-8916-cd1774ecdcab, abstract = {Cigarette smoke exposure is strongly associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) which is the main characteristic seen in asthma. The intracellular MAPK signaling pathways are suggested to be associated with the airway damage to the AHR. In the present study, we hypothesize that secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure upregulates the bronchial contractile receptors via activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway.}, articleno = {e44170}, author = {Cao, Lei and Zhang, Yaping and Cao, Yong-Xiao and Edvinsson, Lars and Xu, Cang-Bao}, issn = {1932-6203}, language = {eng}, number = {8}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, series = {PLoS ONE}, title = {Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A Receptors.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044170}, volume = {7}, year = {2012 ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been reported to occur in patients with bronchiectasis. To evaluate this further, we studied 77 patients with stable bronchiectasis (noncystic fibrosis) with special reference to the prevalence of BHR to methacholine (MCh), and its relation to lung function, sputum characteristics, concommitant asthma, and atopy. The concentration of MCh required to produce a fall of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1), PC 20, was determined by Wrights nebulization tidal breathing method. BHR defined by a PC 20 ≤ 8 mg/ml was found in 21 of 47 (45%) subjects who underwent bronchial challenge. Presence of BHR was positively associated with low baseline spirometric values, diagnosis of asthma, long duration of disease, and elevated total IgE on univariant analysis, and was significantly related to FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and asthma on multiple regression analysis. Ten of the 21 hyperreactive subjects did not have clinical asthma, whereas ...
BACKGROUND: Although there is convincing evidence that the prevalence of asthma among children has increased over the last three decades, it remains uncertain whether such an upward trend has occurred in adults. The aim of this study was to assess whether the prevalence of asthma has changed in young Belgian adults in recent years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of available statistics from the Belgian Armed Forces for the period 1978-91 because conscripts who reported a history of past or current asthma at call-up examination underwent standardised assessment of non-specific airway responsiveness by military chest physicians. Exemption from military service due to asthma was strictly based on the objective evidence of airway hyperresponsiveness. RESULTS: A mean of 48,331 conscripts aged 17-31 years were examined annually from 1978 to 1991. The prevalence of reported asthma rose from 2.4% in 1978 to 7.2% in 1991, while the proportion of asthmatics with airway hyperresponsiveness ...
Wheezing during infancy has been linked to early loss of pulmonary function. We prospectively investigated the relation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and progressive impairment of pulmonary function in a cohort of asthmatic infants followed until age 9 years. We studied 129 infants who had had at least three episodes of wheezing. Physical examinations, baseline lung function tests and methacholine challenge tests were scheduled at ages 16 months and 5, 7 and 9 years. Eighty-three children completed follow-up. Twenty-four (29%) infants had wheezing that persisted at 9 years of age. Clinical outcome at age 9 years was significantly predicted by symptoms at 5 years of age and by parental atopy. Specific airway resistance (sRaw) was altered in persistent wheezers as early as 5 years of age, and did not change thereafter. Ninety-five per cent of the children still responded to methacholine at the end of follow-up. The degree of BHR at 9 years was significantly related to current clinical status
This study tested the hypotheses that short-term exposure to DE would affect all three characteristic features of asthma: airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. The most important finding was that short-term exposure to DE increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in asthmatic airways. Exposure to DE was also associated with an immediate increase in Raw and elevated levels of IL-6 in sputum detected 6 h after exposure.. Airway hyperresponsiveness is an important feature of asthma and has been shown to correlate well with the severity of the disease 22. In the present study, methacholine data obtained at 24 h postair exposure was compared with the postdiesel data, and it was found that exposure to DE induced an increase in airway responsiveness equal to a shift in PC20 methacholine of almost one doubling concentration. The relevance of this finding is supported by the consistency of the data, with 12 of 14 subjects showing decreased PC20 values ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin receptor alterations in equine airway hyperreactivity. AU - Venugopal, Changaram S.. AU - Polikepahad, Sumanth. AU - Holmes, Earnestine P.. AU - Vanden Heuvel, John Patrick. AU - Leas, Tara L.. AU - Moore, Rustin M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptors in the airway hyperreactivity of horses with obstructive pulmonary disease associated with summer pasture (SPAOPD). The right diaphragmatic lobe of the lung of 8 clinically healthy (unaffected) and 8 SPAOPD-affected horses was collected immediately after euthanasia. Bronchial rings (4 mm wide) were prepared and mounted in organ baths and attached to force transducers interfaced with a polygraph. Four rings were used to study each ET-1 receptor; 1 ring served as the control, and the other 3 were incubated with 10-9, 10-7, or 10-5 M of either BQ-123, an ETA-receptor antagonist, or IRL-1038, an ETB-receptor antagonist. Cumulative ...
Infection with influenza A virus represents a major public health threat worldwide, particularly in patients with asthma. However, immunity induced by influenza A virus may have beneficial effects, particularly in young children, that might protect against the later development of asthma, as suggested by the hygiene hypothesis. Herein, we show that infection of suckling mice with influenza A virus protected the mice as adults against allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. The protective effect was associated with the preferential expansion of CD4-CD8-, but not CD4+, NKT cells and required T-bet and TLR7. Adoptive transfer of this cell population into allergen-sensitized adult mice suppressed the development of allergen-induced AHR, an effect associated with expansion of the allergen-specific forkhead box p3+ (Foxp3+) Treg cell population. Influenza-induced protection was mimicked by treating suckling mice with a glycolipid derived from Helicobacter pylori (a ...
0117] 1. Gavett, S. H., X. Chen, F. Finkelman, and M. Wills-Karp. 1994. Depletion of murine CD4+ T lymphocytes prevents antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary eosinophilia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:587-593. [0118] 2. Umetsu, D. T., J. J. McIntire, O. Akbari, C. Macaubas, and R. H. DeKruyff. 2002. Asthma: an epidemic of dysregulated immunity. Nat Immunol 3:715-720. [0119] 3. Hogan, S. P., K. I. Matthaei, J. M. Young, A. Koskinen, I. G. Young, and P. S. Foster. 1998. A novel T cell-regulated mechanism modulating allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity in BALB/c mice independently of IL-4 and IL-5. J Immunol 161:1501-1509. [0120] 4. Wills-Karp, M., J. Luyimbazi, X. Xu, B. Schofield, T. Y. Neben, C. L. Karp, and D. D. Donaldson. 1998. Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma. Science 282:2258-2261. [0121] 5. Robinson, D. S., Q. Hamid, S. Ying, A. Tsicopoulos, J. Barkans, A. M. Bentley, C. Corrigan, S. R. Durham, and A. B. Kay. 1992. Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar ...
To the Editors: We read with interest the recent paper by van den Nieuwenhof et al. 1 who reported no statistically significant association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with asthma incidence over 14 yrs in 123 asymptomatic adolescents aged 10-22 yrs at baseline. They concluded that AHR is not a risk factor for the development of asthma in adulthood and that screening for AHR in adolescents to detect subjects at risk for asthma cannot be recommended. We similarly assessed the association between AHR at baseline and asthma incidence over 11.4 yrs among 172 asymptomatic children (44.2% with AHR (provocative dose causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second ,4 mg methacholine) at baseline) and 517 adults (31.7% with AHR at baseline) from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) 2, 3. Asymptomatic adults were defined as those with a null symptomatic score according to Pekkanen et al. 4 over the previous 12 months. The score is based on ...
Our experiments with Jα18−/− mice clearly show that iVα14 NKT lymphocytes are required for the characteristic features of experimental allergic asthma, namely airway inflammation, BALF Th2 cytokine production and the secretion of high levels of specific anti-OVA IgE, that will ultimely induce AHR.. The failure of Jα18−/− mice to develop the typical Th2 inflammation, AHR and IgE responses following OVA airway challenge is not due to a deficiency in Th2 responsiveness since these mice produce high levels of IgE in another protocol using three systemic immunizations with 2.5 higher doses of OVA. These data concur with previous reports showing that Jα18−/− mice are not defective in IgE production (15). In this study we used a protocol where all mice were similarly immunized with OVA and alum, and airway OVA challenge resulting in Th2 inflammation and AHR. Because we found that iVα14 NKT cells are present in the lung of OVA-challenged mice, it is possible that they are involved ...
Interleukin (IL)-1 causes airway inflammation, enhances airway smooth muscle responsiveness, and alters neurotransmitter expression in sensory, sympathetic, and myenteric neurons. This study examines the role of intrinsic airway neurons in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-1. Ferrets were instilled intratracheally with IL-1 (0.3 g/0.3 ml) or saline (0.3 ml) once daily for 5 days. Tra
Discussion BHR occurred in 21%, and 6% presented BHRms. The latter is in line with the reported prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma (7%) in Helsinki (6). We found no discrepancy with results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in which the prevalence of BHR ranged from 3% to 28% among 16 countries, with a median prevalence of 13% (34).. We assessed BHR by two cut-off levels of PD15FEV1 indicating different severity levels of BHR, thus showing variations and differences in importance of the determinants assessed. For most of the determinants, ORs were higher, parallel with BHR severity. Our results, however, revealed that some risk factors for BHR and asthma, like severe respiratory infection in childhood, were associated with the higher PD15FEV1 cut-off level only.. The strongest determinant of BHR was decreased FEV1 (,80% of predicted) when combined with airway obstruction (defined as FEV1/FVC , 88% of predicted). But, studies on the association of BHR with allergic ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness are key components of asthma. The allergen-induced inflammatory response in the lungs results from the interaction of key airway resident cells and inflammatory cells that release local mediators. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) participates in the inflammatory response of the lungs by phenotypic changes that include synthesizing inflammatory mediators as well as an increase in contractility. Although anti-inflammatory agents and beta-adrenergic bronchodilators remain the primary treatment for chronic and acute episodes of bronchoconstriction, there is a great need for newer therapeutic targets that can modify the development and treatment of asthma. For that reason, molecular targets that might be predicted to suppress allergic inflammatory responses as well as bronchoconstriction are highly desirable. Actin dynamics is well established as the primary mechanism for motility and migration ...
In the course of the follow-up of 206 previously obstructive bronchitis children, the effect of parental smoking upon the occurrence of respiratory diseases, the yearly frequency of wheezing episodes and the age until the obstructive episodes used to return have been investigated. Familial and mater …
BACKGROUND:. Asthma is a respiratory disease characterized by variable airways obstruction, airways inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). There are recent increases in asthma mortality and prevalence in the US, especially in African-Americans. Multiple studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors are important in asthma susceptibility.. The study was recommended by the Pulmonary Diseases Advisory Committee at its February 1991 meeting and given concept approval by the May 1991 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council. The Request for Applications was released in October 1992.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The CSGA was composed of five centers (Johns Hopkins University, University of Chicago, University of Maryland, University of Minnesota, and a data coordinating center at Wake Forest). At each center, families were ascertained through two siblings with asthma. All family members were characterized with spirometry, bronchial responsiveness to methacholine or ...
Allergic throat hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, mediated by allergen-specific Th2 cells and Th2-like iNKT cells, develops under the impact of inhibitory and enhancing Capital t cells. neglected contributor. Intra-peritoneal shot of Ovum/alum refurbished advancement of the AHR-enhancers in all of the mutant pressures, suggesting that the boosters can become caused when they fail to develop automatically still, and that they themselves want not really communicate TNFRp75, IL-4 or IFN- in purchase to exert their function. We consider that both the advancement and the cytokine potential of the AHR-enhancing Capital t cells differs vitally from that of Th2 cells and NKT cells, despite identical affects of these cell populations on AHR. can be not really very clear. Relating to one theory, fragile Ag-stimulation mementos ARRY-438162 Th2-reactivity. A Th2-prejudice also is present after delivery when the immune system program can be still premature (4). Nevertheless, it ...
We investigated the potential role of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation in sensitised Brown-Norway rats. Rats were sensitised with ovalbumin (OA) intraperitoneally and 21 days later they were either exposed to 0.9% NaCl or 1% OA aerosol for 15 min. Rats exposed to OA aerosol were pretreated either with ICAM-1 antibody (3 mg/kg i.p. and i.v., 45 min prior to OA exposure) or with the diluent for the antibody. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after OA or 0.9% NaCl exposure, rats were anaesthetised, tracheostomised and mechanically ventilated, and airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) aerosol was measured as the provocative concentration of ACh needed to increase pulmorary resistance by 100% (PC100). Mean -log PC100 was increased in rats exposed to OA but pretreated with diluent (2.75 +/- 0.06) compared to rats treated with ICAM-1 antibody (2.51 +/- 0.08 ...
Rationale: In asthma, airway inflammation, obstruction and reactivity may lead to ventilation heterogeneity; our understanding of this process is limited in asthmatic chi..
Tale M. Torjussen, Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen, Monica C. Munthe-Kaas, Petter Mowinckel, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Peter J. Helms, Jorrit Gerritsen, Moira K. Whyte, Warren Lenney, Dag E. Undlien, Kevin V. Shianna, Guohua Zhu and Sreekumar G. Pillai Alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and tobacco smoke exposure: Effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 23. Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2011 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01222.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease or an inflammatory disorder of the airway related to the airflow impediment and bronchial hyper-responsiveness which ranges in severity across the continuum of the diseases. Here, adequate control cannot be achieved in a considerable ratio thought the application of possible treatments
Asthma, Rhinitis, Risk, Population, Adults, Allergy, Association, Bronchi, Mite, Nose, Risk Factor, Risks, Classification, Electrodiagnosis, Syndrome, Adult, Bronchial Hyperreactivity, Children, Methacholine, Odds Ratio
Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. The chronic inflammation is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway obstruction and airway remodeling. In asthmatics the airway ...
The pathogenesis of COPD is due to an interaction between host factors (ie, genes, airway hyperresponsiveness, and lung growth) and exposure to environmental
Airway inflammation is a state of irritation in the airways caused by the immune system responding to a perceived threat. If the...
Furukawa, Clifton T. (1984). "Other pharmacologic agents that may affect bronchial hyperreactivity". Journal of Allergy and ...
Relation between manifest bronchial obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity (author's transl)]". Zeitschrift für Erkrankungen ...
Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with seasonal bronchial asthma observed through two consecutive years]". Pol ... A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to help diagnose occupational asthma. It involves testing with ...
Trajenta's Prescribing Information states the drug is contraindicated for people with bronchial hyperreactivity (for example, ...
The obstruction can be due to mucus or other secretions in the airway, bronchial hyperreactivity, or tumors. See rhonchus ( ... Rhonchal fremitus, also known as bronchial fremitus, is a palpable vibration produced during breathing caused by partial airway ... as these areas are closest to the bronchial trifurcation (right side) or bifurcation (left side). Tactile fremitus is ...
"Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity ...
... is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in ... This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized ...
In addition, ongoing airway inflammation is thought to cause the airway hyperreactivity characteristic of asthma. The more ... Together, these mediators cause bronchial smooth muscle constriction, vascular leakage, inflammatory cell recruitment (with ...
T variant with increased incidences of asthma and/or bronchial hyper-reactivity. The intrinsic variants rs17831675, rs17831682 ... 2007). "Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 143 Suppl 1: 23-7. ...
... bronchial hyper reactivity and peak flow but not FEV1. Evidence from macrolide RCTs of patients with uncontrolled severe and ... Webley WC, Salva PS, Andrzejewski C, Cirino F, West CA, Tilahun Y, Stuart ES (May 2005). "The bronchial lavage of pediatric ... Hahn DL, Grasmick M, Hetzel S, Yale S (2012). "Azithromycin for bronchial asthma in adults: an effectiveness trial". Journal of ... Schmidt SM, Müller CE, Bruns R, Wiersbitzky SK (October 2001). "Bronchial Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, markers of allergic ...
... (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be assessed with a bronchial challenge test. This most often uses products like methacholine ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma but also occurs frequently in people suffering from chronic obstructive ... Bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. Postma DS, ...
People with pre-existing airway hyperreactivity, such as asthmatics, will react to lower doses of drug. Sometimes, to assess ... A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma. The patient breathes in nebulized ... The bronchial challenge test is physically demanding, and the results can be affected by muscular weakness or exhaustion. The ... Dixon C (February 1983). "The bronchial challenge test: a new direction in asthmatic management". J Natl Med Assoc. 75 (2): 199 ...
... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes. In order to make a formal asthma ... Patients that have been diagnosed with RADS will likely have methacholine airway hyperreactivity, yet other tests that also ... swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes. Physicians most commonly label patients ... Symptoms may also include, but are not limited to, coughing, shortness of breath, excess mucus in the bronchial tube, ...
IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... an increase in airway hyperreactivity, and mucus hypersecretion. Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway ...
... which are the predominant receptors on the bronchial smooth muscles. Activation of these receptors causes adenylyl cyclase to ... which can cause airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Potential formulation of the R form as an enantiopure drug is ... leading to hyperpolarization and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys ...
In vitro, exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen ... and airway hyperreactivity in firefighters at the world trade center site. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2:33-9. Berninger A ... Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... 2010) Sclerosis therapy of bronchial artery attenuates acute lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation injury in ovine ...
1976). "Changes in bronchial reactivity after administration of live attenuated influenza virus". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.: 194- ... This shows that in addition to causing airway hyperreactivity, rhinovirus also promotes the onset of non-atopic asthma. ... pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism leading to bronchial asthma. This is because the increase of ... pneumoniae has been found to cause ciliostasis in bronchial epithelial cells. Meanwhile, sero-epidemiological data also provide ...
Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, as during asthma attacks and allergic ... "Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". ... hyperreactivity, and increased mucus production. These symptoms could result from pendrin's effects on ion concentration in the ... "Identification of pendrin as a common mediator for mucus production in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
The dysregulation of ILCs can lead to immune pathology such as allergy, bronchial asthma and autoimmune disease. The ... "Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity ...
Bronchial/. obstructive. acute. Acute bronchitis. chronic. COPD Chronic bronchitis. Acute exacerbation of COPD). Asthma (Status ... Tentative evidence indicates that those with asthma and airway hyperreactivity are at increased risk of COPD.[9] Birth factors ...
A non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity test can be used to support the diagnose occupational asthma. It involves measuring ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to distilled water and saline. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 :1117 ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to distilled water and saline.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine induced by Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.. Schreurs AJ, Nijkamp FP. ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine 4 days following vaccination with the human respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae ... This suggests a hyperreactivity of the parasympathetic, cholinergic pathways as a result of H. influenzae vaccination. ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity to leucotriene D4 and histamine in exogenous asthma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 290 :1468 ... Bronchial hyperreactivity to leucotriene D4 and histamine in exogenous asthma.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 290 doi: https:// ... The findings suggest a role for leucotriene D4 in human bronchial asthma. ... The hyperreactivity of the airways of the asthmatic subjects to leucotriene D4 was comparable to that to histamine. Inhalation ...
Bronchial hyper reactivity. Fractional exhaled NO. Methacholine Challenge Test. Pediatric Crohns Disease Activity Index. To ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Children With Crohn Disease. This study has been completed. ... Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Gastroenteritis. Gastrointestinal Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. ... Background: Latent pulmonary involvement is described in Crohn Disease(CD). Bronchial hyperreactivity measured by the ...
Biological context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *To evaluate the influence of aging on bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) during ... Chemical compound and disease context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged ... Gene context of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *The TNF system may play a key role in the pathomechanism of bronchial ... Disease relevance of Bronchial Hyperreactivity. *Airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokine induction, IgE production, and bronchial ...
Relationships between atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity in Polish school age children were found in PRIME PubMed. Download ... AllergensAsthmaBronchial HyperreactivityBronchial Provocation TestsChildExercise TestFemaleHumansHypersensitivity, Immediate ... Relationships between atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity in Polish school age children].. Przegl Lek 2002; 59(10):780-4PL ... Relationships Between Atopy and Bronchial Hyper-reactivity in Polish School Age Children]. Prz Lek. 2002;59(10):780-4. PubMed ...
Effect of the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitor N6022 on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. Download Prime PubMed App ... Administration, IntravenousAdultAldehyde OxidoreductasesAsthmaBenzamidesBronchial HyperreactivityBronchial Provocation Tests ... Effect of the S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase Inhibitor N6022 On Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Asthma. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2018;6( ... Effect of the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitor N6022 on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2018;6( ...
Home » Topics » Respiratory » Research » The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in ... The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Preschool Children. 2014-07-24 14:11:01 , ... More From BioPortfolio on "The Effect of HFA - Beclomethasone Dipropionate Qvar on Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Preschool ... Other studies reported relation between asthma control and reduction in airway hyperreactivity. The purpose of this study is to ...
Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Husein Hadeiba and Richard ... Abrogation of bronchial eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in signal transducers and activators of ... Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity ... Lung CD25 CD4 Regulatory T Cells Suppress Type 2 Immune Responses But Not Bronchial Hyperreactivity ...
... Acta Paediatr Hung. 1991;31(1):103-12. ... The familial smoking did not seem to influence the bronchial hyperreactivity challenged with acetylcholine, although the ...
Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine ... Secondhand Smoke Exposure Causes Bronchial Hyperreactivity via Transcriptionally Upregulated Endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine ... Cigarette smoke exposure is strongly associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) which is the main characteristic seen in ... In the present study, we hypothesize that secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure upregulates the bronchial contractile ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... A 12-year-old girl, with a previous history of bronchial reaction and contact dermatitis to sodium hypochlorite, was referred ... All patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine at the time of diagnosis. However, induced sputum samples did ... kg(-1) x min(-1) was necessary to break the severe refractory bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There was no previous exposure to ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity. Treating bronchial hyperreactivity with homoeopathy. Bronchial hyperreactivity is an inflammation of ... Symptoms of bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity manifests itself by an increased secretion of mucus in the ... In the event that bronchial hyperreactivity is accompanied by mucus congestion of the bronchial tubes and expectoration ... Bronchial hyperreactivity is often a clinical sign that is linked to the development of asthma. It may be acute or chronic. In ...
Hyperoxia exposure leads to the development of lung injury and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) via involvement of nitric oxide ... Czövek, D., Peták, F., Donati, Y. et al. Prevention of hyperoxia-induced bronchial hyperreactivity by sildenafil and vasoactive ... Hyperoxia exposure leads to the development of lung injury and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) via involvement of nitric oxide ... Prevention of hyperoxia-induced bronchial hyperreactivity by sildenafil and vasoactive intestinal peptide: impact of preserved ...
Salvinorin A abrogated bronchial hyperreactivity and interleukin (IL)-13 production, without effect on pulmonary inflammation. ... Salvinorin A abrogated bronchial hyperreactivity and interleukin (IL)-13 production, without effect on pulmonary inflammation. ... In another set of experiments, mice were sensitized with OVA and both bronchial reactivity and pulmonary inflammation were ... Our study demonstrates that Salvinorin A inhibits airway hyperreactivity induced by sensitization by inhibition of LT ...
Airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in steroid naive children with intermittent and mild persistent asthma. Muge ... Evaluation of bronchial hyperreactivity with mannitol dry powder challenge test in a paediatric population with intermittent ... Relationship with nonspecific bronchial responsiveness and maximal airway narrowing. M J Alvarez, J M Olaguibel, B E García, A ... Exhaled nitric oxide--is it really a good marker of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma? I Tsujino, M Nishimura, A Kamachi ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial challenge testing was undertaken using the technique described by Cockcroft et al.16 In ... Bronchial hyperreactivity. The non-smoking group had a geometric mean (SD) methacholine PC20 of 0.76 (1.3) mg/ml at baseline ... Bronchial hyperreactivity was a criterion for entry into the study and, although not specific to the diagnosis of asthma, we ... Bronchial hyperreactivity data were log transformed before analysis and are reported as geometric mean and geometric SD. Two ...
Association of insulin resistance with bronchial hyperreactivity Association of insulin resistance with bronchial ... Adult , Asthma , Body Mass Index , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Epidemiologic Studies , Fasting , ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Respiratory Function Tests / Asthma / Bronchial Provocation ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Respiratory Function Tests / Asthma / Bronchial Provocation ...
"Bronchial Hyperreactivity and Spirometric Impairment in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis". Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 63 ... Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) may be present in rhinitics. The present study is aimed at evaluating a large group of subjects ... Seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial allergic rhinits, polysensitized patients, bronchial hyperreactivity, methacholine ... Bronchial hyperreactivity and spirometric impairment in patients with allergic rhinitis https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi. ...
5.2 Bronchial hyperreactivity. An unspecific bronchial hyperreactivity can be detected in almost all asthmatics. In case of the ... which is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory obstruction. 2 Etiology. The development of bronchial ... the hyperreactivity manifests as a very strong constriction of the bronchial tubes, and can be objectified by the methacholine ... of the pathophysiological processes of bronchial asthma. It develops through the shift of the bronchial lumen as a consequence ...
Bronchial Hyperreactivity. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. ... This is a Phase 3 study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Aridol bronchial challenge test to detect bronchial ... Ability of Aridol to Detect Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Suspected Asthmatics. The safety and scientific validity of this ... A new method for bronchial-provocation testing in asthmatic subjects using a dry powder of mannitol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med ...
Occupational lung diseases refers to the development of lung diseases from inhalational exposure that occurs at the work place. However, these lung diseases may also occur in environments other than work.
A study of the effects of inhaled frusemide on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic subjects Authors ... Citation: Farouk Abdel Kader , A study of the effects of inhaled frusemide on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic subjects, ... A study of the effects of inhaled frusemide on bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic subjects ...
Bronchial hyperreactivity: methods of study.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Bronchial Hyperreactivity Medicine & ... Bronchial hyperreactivity: methods of study.",. abstract = "The authors evaluated bronchial hyperreactivity comparing two ... A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity: methods of study. ... A comparison between different methods for detecting bronchial hyperreactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity : methods of study. ...
Inflammatory Processes in the Airway of Asthmatics With Persistent Bronchial Hyperreactivity the period of treatment with ... inflammatory processes in the airway of moderate to severe persistent asthmatics who have persistent bronchial hyperreactivity ... inflammatory processes in the airway of moderate to severe persistent asthmatics who have persistent bronchial hyperreactivity ... Layout table for MeSH terms Asthma Bronchial Diseases Respiratory Tract Diseases Lung Diseases, Obstructive Lung Diseases ...
Asthma; Bronchial asthma; Reactive airway disease. SNOMED CT: Airway hyperreactivity (195967001); Asthmatic (195967001); ... Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and young adults. It is a complex genetic disorder with ... Asthma-related traits include clinical symptoms of asthma, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea; bronchial ... Additionally, dysphagia with esophageal strictures, sensorineural deafness, bronchial asthma and severe iron-deficiency anemia ...
We propose that prolonged bronchial hyperreactivity could follow early-life RSV negat … ... We propose that prolonged bronchial hyperreactivity could follow early-life RSV negative as well as RSV positive bronchiolitis ... Many infants with early-life RSV bronchiolitis have sustained bronchial hyperreactivity for many years after hospitalisation ...
Most bronchial Asthma attacks are caused by hyper-sensitivity of the victims to air-borne particles or Allergies to certain ... In asthma, there is a continuous state of hyperreactivity of the bronchi, during which exposure to a wide variety of bronchial ... Bronchial asthma is characterized by a tightening of the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes of asthma sufferers are hyper- ... What is the difference of bronchial asthma with asthma?. Bronchial asthma is a condition where the bronchial tubes are inflamed ...
Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and ... The presence of airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous ... In bronchial asthma, smooth muscle contraction in an airway is greater than that expected for its size if it were functioning ... Factors that can contribute to asthma or airway hyperreactivity may include any of the following:. * Environmental allergens ( ...
As the usual bronchial provocation tests with methacholine are rather cumbersome and time-consuming, an attempt has been made ...
  • Subsequent allergen challenge of mice injected with Tc1 cells (producing IFN-gamma but no IL-4) resulted in a neutrophilic airway inflammation without induction of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids reduces bronchial hyperresponsiveness and relieves airways obstruction in patients with asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Sixty-eight patients with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airways obstruction completed a previous study on 3 years of treatment with terbutaline, 500 microg qid, and BDP, 200 microg qid. (nih.gov)
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and bronchial hyperreactivity. (ugent.be)
  • We recruited one-hundred and eighty-nine allergic volunteers (mean age 19.5+/-1.4 y.o.) without history of respiratory symptoms, measured bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (0.3 to 10.0 mg/ml) and classified them into subjects with AHR and those without AHR according to a cutoff level of PC20 (8.0 mg/ml). (medscimonit.com)
  • These three components: chronic airways inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and enhanced bronchial reactivity form the basis of this current definition of asthma. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • Bronchial Fistula" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Specific deletion of CPEB2 in cholinergic neurons sufficiently caused increased apnea in neonatal pups and airway hyperreactivity in adult mice. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Asthma is a disease of the bronchial tubes (the "airways") that typically presents with "wheezing", a high-pitched whistling sound heard during breathing, especially when breathing out. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • In elaborating this definition, the American Thoracic Society introduced the characteristic of hyperreactivity of the airways as a feature that would usually (but not always) be present in asthma. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • Subsequently it has been proposed that this phenomenon of bronchial hyperreactivity might be the unifying mechanism underlying the range of disorders encompassed by the term asthma. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • However, it has been demonstrated that people with clinical asthma may have normal bronchial reactivity, that people without clinical asthma may have enhanced bronchial reactivity, and that there is a poor correlation between current asthma severity and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • As a result, while bronchial hyperreactivity may be present in many asthmatics, it is no longer considered to be synonymous with asthma. (globalasthmanetwork.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bronchial Fistula" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bronchial Fistula" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (sickkids.ca)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bronchial Fistula" by people in Profiles. (sickkids.ca)