Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Adrenal Cortex HormonesRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Moxisylyte: An alpha-adrenergic blocking agent that is used in Raynaud's disease. It is also used locally in the eye to reverse the mydriasis caused by phenylephrine and other sympathomimetic agents. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1312)Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Status Asthmaticus: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.MoscowInterleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tracheobronchomalacia: A congenital or acquired condition of underdeveloped or degeneration of CARTILAGE in the TRACHEA and the BRONCHI. This results in a floppy non-rigid airway making patency difficult to maintain.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Radioimmunosorbent Test: Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mediastinal Emphysema: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Mice, Inbred BALB CPneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Respiratory Tract DiseasesPrednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Yoga: A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.JapanPulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Asthma, Aspirin-Induced: Asthmatic adverse reaction (e.g., BRONCHOCONSTRICTION) to conventional NSAIDS including aspirin use.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.ChromonesDiagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Bronchial DiseasesAdrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
... and activation and proliferation of airway fibroblasts, which are involved in airway remodelling. This theory is supported by ... Periostin in turn seems to partake in a number of asthma related problems, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation ... It has successfully completed a Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of asthma. Lebrikizumab blocks interleukin 13 (IL-13 ... Lebrikizumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody and an experimental immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of asthma ...
... mucus hypersecretion and airway remodelling which all contribute to airway obstruction. murine studies demonstrated that IL-13 ... Asthma and Immunology. In Press. Ingram JL, Kraft M (2012). "IL-13 in asthma and allergic disease: asthma phenotypes and ... IL-13 is mainly overexpressed in sputum, bronchial submucosa, peripheral blood and mast cells in the airway smooth muscle ... The deposition then influences the airway remodelling in asthmatic patients. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody IL-13 and IL-4 ...
In the airways of patients with asthma, the expression of adenosine receptors is upregulated. Adenosine receptors affect ... Persistently elevated concentrations of adenosine beyond the acute-injury phase leads to fibrotic remodelling. Extracellular ... bronchial reactivity, endothelial permeability, fibrosis, angiogenesis and mucus production. Purinergic signalling is involved ... Abnormal levels of ATP and adenosine are present in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The ...
Furthermore, mucosal bronchial biopsies conducted on patients with diseases such as asthma have been found to have higher ... This ultimately leads to airway remodelling and difficulty of breathing. Eosinophils can also cause tissue damage in the lungs ... and Role of Eosinophils in the Pathogenesis of Asthma". Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research. 4 (2): 68-79. ,access-date= ... Mouse models of asthma from OVA show a higher TH2 response. When mice are administered IL-12 to induce the TH1 response, the ...
Asthma - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Airway remodeling[change , change source]. Goblet cell hyperplasia. Airway remodeling may cause the body to make more mucous- ... bronchial hyperresponsivenes), airway edema (fluid in the airway), and mucus hypersecretion (too much mucous is made) as well ... Asthma attack[change , change source]. Asthma attack. 1.Inflammation causes the airway to swell. Making the airway narrow. 2. ... Not managing asthma properly can lead to airway remodeling and this can increase the risk of dying from an asthma attack.[ ...
"Soluble ADAM33 initiates airway remodeling to promote susceptibility for allergic asthma in early life". JCI Insight. 1 (11). ... This protein is a type I transmembrane protein implicated in asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Alternative splicing of ... "ADAM 33 and its association with airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthma". Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology ... "Association of the ADAM33 gene with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness". Nature. 418 (6896): 426-30. doi:10.1038/ ...
Moulton, D. E.; Goriely, A. (April 2011). "Possible Role of Differential Growth in Airway Wall Remodeling in Asthma" (PDF). ... of asthma or chronic bronchitis the human body responds to allergens or pollutants by flooding the bronchial tree and airway ... and noticeable airway remodeling consisting of stiffer airways and lost elasticity. Inflammation in a constricted cylinder, as ... Enduring the disease long term coupled with airway hyperresponsiveness (smooth muscle contraction or Bronchial ...
Asma bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax 58 (2): 163-74. PMC 1746582. PMID 12554904. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.2. ... "On bronchial asthma". British Medical Journal 2 (673): 600. PMC 2294647. PMID 20747287. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673.600. Cite uses ... Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (2007). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. ... Delacourt, C (June 2004). "Conséquences bronchiques de l'asthme non traité" [Bronchial changes in untreated asthma]. Archives ...
Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health
Investigation of novel procedural therapies for asthma and COPD Mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling ... airflow limitation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Further investigations have included studies of exercise and allergen- ... of bone-marrow derived hemopoietic stem cells in allergic asthma and COPD Immunobiology of allergic asthma Control of airway ... Population studies of asthma epidemiology and causation Studies of asthma management utilizing biomarkers of inflammation ...
OPN deficiency was also reported to protect against remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), again using a chronic ... Furthermore, it was recently demonstrated that OPN expression is upregulated in human asthma, is associated with remodeling ... Opn expression is also upregulated in lungs of mice with allergic airway inflammation. The secreted form of Opn (Opn-s) plays a ... OPN has also been reported to be increased in the sputum supernatant of smoking asthmatics, as well as the BALF and bronchial ...
Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). "Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... Boulet, LP; Laviolette, M (May-Jun 2012). "Is there a role for bronchial thermoplasty in the treatment of asthma?". Canadian ... Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms. ... Brittle asthma is a kind of asthma distinguishable by recurrent, severe attacks. Type 1 brittle asthma is a disease with wide ...
Pathophysiology of asthma
In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... airway remodeling', causes mucus producing cells to grow larger and produce more and thicker mucus, and the cell-mediated arm ... During an asthma episode, inflamed airways react to environmental triggers such as smoke, dust, or pollen and Blake nonsense. ... In both people with asthma and people who are free of the disease, inhaled allergens that find their way to the inner airways ...
Airway caliber in healthy and asthmatic subjects: effects of bronchial challenge and deep inspirations. J Appl Physiol 91: 506- ... Friction in airway smooth muscle: mechanism, latch, and implications in asthma. J Appl Physiol 81: 2703-2712, 1996. Bursac P, ... Cytoskeletal remodelling and slow dynamics in the living cell. Nat Mater 4: 557-571, 2005. Crandall SH. The role of damping in ... Airway caliber in healthy and asthmatic subjects: effects of bronchial challenge and deep inspirations. J Appl Physiol 91: 506- ...
According to the FDA, carvedilol should not be used in people with bronchial asthma or bronchospastic conditions. It should not ... current asthma symptoms) as it can block receptors that assist in opening the airways. Carvedilol may mask symptoms of low ... Reis Filho, JR; Cardoso, JN; Cardoso, CM; Pereira-Barretto, AC (June 2015). "Reverse Cardiac Remodeling: A Marker of Better ... but is thought to contribute to remodeling of the heart, improving upon its structure and function. In addition, carvedilol is ...
Thus, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Asthma is divided into two subgroups: atopic (extrinsic) and ... pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism leading to bronchial asthma. This is because the increase of ... As a result, inflammation and associated healing process leads to scar formation and tissue remodelling, which are symptoms ... It is known that non-atopic asthma has a more severe clinical course than atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma may be caused by ...
Acute inhalation injury
2011) Smad molecules expression pattern in human bronchial airway induced by sulfur mustard. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 10: ... sloughing of the airway and pulmonary epithelium, scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling. Bessac BF, Jordt ... which if left untreated can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. Currently, mechanical ventilation ... Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ...
氣喘 - 維基百科，自由的百科全書
Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?. Thorax. 2003, 58 (2): 163-74. PMC 1746582. PMID 12554904. doi:10.1136/thorax ... On bronchial asthma. British Medical Journal. November 1873, 2 (673): 600. PMC 2294647. PMID 20747287. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673. ... 氣喘（急性重症氣喘（英語：Acute severe asthma）. 阿司匹林誘發氣喘（英語：Aspirin-induced asthma）. 運動誘發氣喘（英語：Exercise-induced asthma）. 支氣管擴張症. 未指定分類. 支氣管炎 ... 氣喘（英語：asthma，又稱哮喘）是常見的氣
Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.2.163. PMC 1746582 . PMID ... On bronchial asthma". British Medical Journal. 2 (673): 600. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673.600. PMC 2294647 . PMID 20747287.. ... Asthma, COPD and bronchitis are just components of airway disease". European Respiratory Journal. 28 (2): 264-267. doi:10.1183/ ... Castro, M (2010 Apr). „Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel technique in the treatment of severe asthma". Therapeutic advances in ...
LXA4 inhibits the-bronchial contracting action of LTC4 and relaxes pre-contracted bronchi in asthmatic individuals. Kaposi's ... Wan KS, Wu WF (2007). "Eicosanoids in asthma". Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 48 (6): 299-304. ... stimulate the bacteria-killing capacity of leukocytes and airway epithelial cells; b) block production of the pro-inflammatory ... "Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in patients with coronary artery disease and their potential for clot remodeling". ...
Pumu, kamusi elezo huru
Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). "Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... Thorowgood JC (November 1873). "On bronchial asthma". British Medical Journal 2 (673): 600. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673.600 . PMC ... Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (2007). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. ... Delacourt, C (June 2004). "Conséquencesbronchiques de l'asthme non traité [Bronchial changes in untreated asthma]". Archives de ...
Innate lymphoid cell
Oboki, Keisuke; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa (2011). "IL-33 and Airway Inflammation". Allergy, Asthma and ... bronchial asthma and autoimmune disease. ILCs can be divided based on the cytokines that they can produce, and the ... regulators and effectors of immunity and tissue remodeling". Nature Immunology. 12 (1): 21-27. doi:10.1038/ni.1962. PMID ... Further, allergic responses that resemble asthma-like symptoms have been induced in mice that lack T and B cells using IL-33. ...
Vascular endothelial growth factor
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Kauffman, HF (1 January 2003). "Immunopathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and airway remodeling". Frontiers ... Poorly-controlled asthma is a common finding, with a case series only finding 19% of ABPA patients with well-controlled asthma ... The antifungal aspect aims to reduce fungal causes of bronchial inflammation, whilst also minimising the dose of corticosteroid ... From 193 million asthma sufferers worldwide, ABPA prevalence in asthma is estimated between the extremes of 1.35-6.77 million ...
Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). „Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... Thorowgood JC (1 noiembrie 1873). „On bronchial asthma". British Medical Journal 2 (673): 600. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673.600. PMID ... a b Castro, M (1 aprilie 2010). „Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel technique in the treatment of severe asthma.". Therapeutic ... a b Shah, R (2012 May-Jun). „Chapter 14: Acute severe asthma (status asthmaticus).". Allergy and asthma proceedings : the ...
Human ALOX15 protein is highly expressed in circulating blood eosinophils and reticulocytes, cells, bronchial airway epithelial ... Neighbour H (2014). "Mechanisms of aspirin-intolerant asthma: identifying inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of asthma ... membrane remodeling, and cancer development/metastasis. Kelavkar and Badr (1999) described experiments yielding data that ... human allergen-induced asthma, aspirin-induced asthma, and perhaps other allergic diseases. In colorectal, breast, and kidney ...
Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway inflammation, and have important therapeutic implications in asthma. ... The release of cytokines causes many functions, such as airway remodeling, a characteristic of IL-17 responses. The increased ... IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... Overexpression of IL-17F gene in the airway of mice is associated with airway neutrophilia, the induction of many cytokines, an ...
... airway walls, blood vessels and interstitial spaces. The consequences of vessel and airway obstruction include chylous fluid ... Lung remodeling may be mediated by an imbalance between matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous ... The condition is often misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The first pneumothorax precedes the ... to destroy bronchial cartilage and arteriolar walls, and to occlude the lumen of pulmonary arterioles. There are two major cell ...
"Polymorphisms and haplotypes of acid mammalian chitinase are associated with bronchial asthma". American Journal of Respiratory ... Zhao J, Zhu H, Wong CH, Leung KY, Wong WS (July 2005). "Increased lungkine and chitinase levels in allergic airway inflammation ... For example, chitinases that are involved in maintenance, such as remodeling the cell wall, are constitutively expressed. ... Chitinases produced in the human body (known as "human chitinases") may be related in response to allergies, and asthma has ...
"Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.2.163. PMC 1746582 . PMID ... "On bronchial asthma". British Medical Journal. 2 (673): 600. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.673.600. PMC 2294647 . PMID 20747287.. Parameter ... Castro, M (2010 Apr). "Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel technique in the treatment of severe asthma". Therapeutic advances in ... Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (2007). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. ...
Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway inflammation, and have important therapeutic implications in asthma.[ ... The release of cytokines causes many functions, such as airway remodeling, a characteristic of IL-17 responses. The increased ... IL-17F is able to induce several cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial epithelial cells, vein endothelial ... Overexpression of IL-17F gene in the airway of mice is associated with airway neutrophilia, the induction of many cytokines, an ...
Expression of growth factors and remodelling of the airway wall in bronchial asthma. | Thorax
Expression of growth factors and remodelling of the airway wall in bronchial asthma. ... Expression of growth factors and remodelling of the airway wall in bronchial asthma. ... The relationship between airway wall thickness and growth factors in asthma has not been elucidated. METHODS: Bronchial biopsy ... BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is characterised by airway structural changes, including mucosal inflammatory infiltration and ...
Nutraceutical with Anti-Inflammatory Activity for the Management of Airway Remodeling in Bronchial Asthma: |i|Kalanchoe...
Nutraceutical with Anti-Inflammatory Activity for the Management of Airway Remodeling in Bronchial Asthma: Kalanchoe integra ... Bronchial asthma is a multi-factorial disease process with both genetic and allergic origin characterized by bronchial airway ... Pathophysiological parameters of bronchial asthma investigated include bronchial folds, bronchial wall thickness, alveoli, ... Fahy, J.V., Corry, D.B. and Boushey, H.A. (2000) Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary ...
Airway Remodeling in Asthma: Evaluation in 5 Consecutive Bronchial Generations by Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography |...
Airway Remodeling in Asthma: Evaluation in 5 Consecutive Bronchial Generations by Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. ... Airway Remodeling in Asthma: Evaluation in 5 Consecutive Bronchial Generations by Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography ... Airway Remodeling in Asthma: Evaluation in 5 Consecutive Bronchial Generations by Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography ... Airway Remodeling in Asthma: Evaluation in 5 Consecutive Bronchial Generations by Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography ...
Inhaled corticosteroids: effects on the airway vasculature in bronchial asthma | European Respiratory Society
Inhaled corticosteroids suppress airway inflammation and components of airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. In the ... Airway inflammation is a central feature of bronchial asthma. In addition to inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial ... THE AIRWAY VASCULATURE IN PATIENTS WITH ASTHMA,1?twb?,. In addition to serving as the source of nutrients to the bronchial wall ... Kumar SD, Emery MJ, Atkins ND, Danta I, Wanner A. Airway mucosal blood flow in bronchial asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998 ...
Therapeutic implication of genetic variants of IL13 and STAT4 in airway remodelling with bronchial asthma. - PubMed - NCBI
Therapeutic implication of genetic variants of IL13 and STAT4 in airway remodelling with bronchial asthma.. Nakamura Y1, Suzuki ... IL13; STAT4; airway remodelling; asthma; bronchial biopsy; genetic variation; single nucleotide polymorphisms ... In this study, 411 patients with bronchial asthma who were receiving ICSs and living in Japan were recruited, were genotyped, ... Therefore, using medications other than ICSs must be considered even during the initial treatment of bronchial asthma. These ...
Pulmonary microRNA profiles identify involvement of Creb1 and Sec14l3 in bronchial epithelial changes in allergic asthma |...
Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway ... Sec14-like 3 (Sec14l3) - a putative target of Creb1 - was down-regulated in both asthma models and in NHBE cells upon IL13 ... Finally, we propose that Creb1/Crtc1-3 and Sec14l3 could be important for early responses of the bronchial epithelium to Th2- ... induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and ...
Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors and angiogenesis in bronchial asthma. - PubMed - NCBI
Angiogenesis is a feature of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. The mechanism responsible for this angiogenesis is unknown ... provide evidence that VEGF may play an important role in angiogenesis and subsequent airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. ... Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors and angiogenesis in bronchial asthma.. Hoshino M1, ... Numbers of cells expressing VEGF mRNA inversely correlated with airway caliber (r = -0.83, P ,.01) and airway ...
Asthma Research | Asthma Research In Canada
Read more about Asthma research and Asthma research in Canada in the areas of early detection, education prevention, care and ... Bronchial thermoplasty and airway remodeling in severe asthma University of Calgary Alberta $11,500 ... Syk mediates airway remodelling in asthma University of Toronto/Toronto General Research Institute Ontario $50,000 ... Regulation of proteinase-activated receptor - 2 on airway epithelial cells in asthma University of Alberta Alberta $11,500 ...
MicroRNA-19a enhances proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells by targeting TGFβR2 gene in severe asthma. | Sigma-Aldrich
Bronchial epithelium is considered a key player in coordinating airway wall remodeling. In mild asthma, the epithelium is ... Allergic asthma is characterized by inflammation and airway remodeling. ... MicroRNA-19a enhances proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells by targeting TGFβR2 gene in severe asthma.. [I Haj-Salem, R ... Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated by bronchoscopy from bronchial biopsies of healthy donors and patients ...
Inflammatory Disease Processes and Interactions with Nutrition | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core
90Fahy, JV, Corry, DB & Boushey, HA (2000) Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Curr Opin Pulmonary Med 6, 15-20. ... 92Fujisawa, T (2005) Role of oxygen radicals on bronchial asthma. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 4, 505-509. ... 77Ray, A & Cohn, L (1999) Th2 cells and GATA-3 in asthma: new insights into the regulation of airway inflammation. J Clin ... 35Hargreave, FE & Parameswaran, K (2006) Asthma, COPD and bronchitis are just components of airway disease. Eur Respir J 28, ...
Final Report | Biological Assessment of the Toxicity of PM and PM Components | Research Project Database | Grantee...
... and asthma. Hallmarks of asthma include airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway remodeling. Particulate ... In vivo Effects of PM exposure in a Murine Model of Asthma Recently published results by our group (Wang and Moreno-Vinasco et ... Differentiated and non-differentiated airway cells; ROS; particulate matter, murine models; cardiopulmonary functions; carotid ... Overview and summary: Previously, we have utilized human bronchial epithelium and human lung endothelium to evaluate PM-induced ...
... is a chronic, episodic disease of the airways, which is best viewed as a syndrome. ... Bronchial Asthma Online Medical Reference - including diagnostic evaluation and experimental therapies. Authored by Mani S. ... Whether airway hyperresponsiveness is a symptom of airway inflammation or airway remodeling, or whether it is the cause of long ... Although much progress has been made in our understanding of bronchial asthma in recent years, asthma remains a commonly ...
Gao WY[au] - PubMed - NCBI
The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates allergic airway remodelling in the rat | European Respiratory Society
The chronicity of bronchial asthma is attributed to persistent airway inflammation and to a variety of structural changes, or ... Effect of EGFR blockade on allergen-induced airway epithelial remodelling. Allergic airway remodelling involves phenotypic ... Henderson WR Jr, Tang LO, Chu SJ, et al. A role for cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model. Am J ... Pepe C, Foley S, Shannon J, et al. Differences in airway remodeling between subjects with severe and moderate asthma. J Allergy ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Occupational asthma; Airway hyperresponsiveness; Workplace allergens; Immune mechanisms; Airway remodeling; Oxidative stress; ... Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Bronchial-asthma; Pathology; Pathogenesis; Immune- ... Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the most common forms of work-related lung disease in all industrialized nations. The ...
Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Is a Determinant of CD4 T Cell-Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Communication through Membrane...
Bronchial smooth muscle remodeling involves calcium-dependent enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in asthma. J. Exp. Med. 204: ... The three As in asthma - airway smooth muscle, airway remodeling & angiogenesis. Open Respir. Med. J. 9: 70-80. ... Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells drive airway smooth muscle remodeling in experimental asthma. J. Clin. Invest. 115: 1580-1589. ... Airway smooth muscle cell proliferation is increased in asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 164: 474-477. ...
DEK-targeting aptamer DTA-64 attenuates bronchial EMT-mediated airway remodelling by suppressing TGF-β1/Smad, MAPK and PI3K...
DTA-64 may be a new therapeutic option for the management of airway remodelling in asthma patients.. © 2020 The Authors. ... DEK-targeting aptamer DTA-64 attenuates bronchial EMT-mediated airway remodelling by suppressing TGF-β1/Smad, MAPK and PI3K ... mediated airway remodelling in mice and human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic ... NextDetection of interleukin-8 on microgapped dual electrodes for measuring asthma complication. ...
Smooth-muscle-derived WNT5A augments allergen-induced airway remodelling and Th2 type inflammation - Research database -...
NF-KAPPA-B, BRONCHIAL THERMOPLASTY, WINGLESS HOMOLOG, GENE-EXPRESSION, CELLS, ASTHMA, MACROPHAGES, WNT-5A, ACTIVATION, ... Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic inflammation and structural changes in the airways. The airway ... Smooth-muscle-derived WNT5A augments allergen-induced airway remodelling and Th2 type inflammation. Koopmans, T., Hesse, L., ... Our findings imply a pro-inflammatory role for smooth muscle-derived WNT5A in asthma, resulting in increased airway wall ...
Table of Contents - June 30, 2009, 106 (26) | PNAS
Structural changes in the bronchial mucosa of young children at risk of developing asthma - Berankova - 2013 - Pediatric...
Heinz Fehrenbach, Christina Wagner, Michael Wegmann, Airway remodeling in asthma: what really matters, Cell and Tissue Research ... Developed remodelling is regularly observed in the bronchial mucosa of adult asthmatics but we still lack information about its ... Bronchial asthma often starts in early childhood. Clinical manifestation of the disease is likely due to inflammatory processes ... Structural changes in the bronchial mucosa of young children at risk of developing asthma. Authors. *. Katarina Berankova,. * ...
9781475708103 - Current Review of Asthma
1 Epidemiology.- 2 Costs of Asthma.- 3 The Pathogenesis of Bronchial Asthma.- 4 Airway Remodeling in Asthma.- 5 Asthma ... "The Pathogenesis of Bronchial Asthma," written from 30 years of experience treating patients with asthma. This book is an ... Treatment of Asthma.- 15 Inhaled Corticosteroids and Their Use in Asthma.- 16 Short- and Long-acting Bronchodilators in Asthma ... 7 Sinusitis and Asthma.- 8 The Role of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asthma.- 9 Bronchitis and Asthma.- 10 Respiratory ...
Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma.
... been the discovery that airway inflammation is not confined to severe asthma but also characterizes mild and moderate asthma. ... Inflammation in asthma may be the result of a ... advance in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma ... The consequences of airway remodeling in asthma may include incompletely reversible airway narrowing, bronchial ... Airway remodeling in asthma thus may predispose persons with asthma to asthma exacerbations and even death from airway ...
Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 59
In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate ... Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are ... Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. ... Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory airway diseases in other species but not the cat. ...
Role of Inhaled Steroids in Vascular Airway Remodelling in Asthma and COPD
In chronic obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), changes in bronchial ... Role of Inhaled Steroids in Vascular Airway Remodelling in Asthma and COPD. Alfredo Chetta and Dario Olivieri ... Consequently, pharmacological control of bronchial vascular remodelling may be crucial for symptom control in asthma and COPD. ... is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of airway vascular remodelling, both in asthma and COPD. The inhibition of VEGF ...
... AsthmaClassification & external resources ICD-10 J45. ICD-9 493 OMIM 600807 DiseasesDB 1006 MedlinePlus 000141 eMedicine ... In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. ... Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). "Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax 58 (2): 163-74. PMID 12554904.. ... Bronchial asthma: scope of the problem. Retrieved on 2005-08-23.. *^ World Health Organization. WHO: Asthma. Retrieved on 2007- ...
Pathology of Sudden Natural Death: Overview, Terminology, Medical Examiner Role and Autopsy Indications
... chronic changes in longstanding asthma include airway remodeling with fibrosis, muscular hypertrophy in the bronchial walls, ... In asthma-related deaths, the lungs may appear hyperinflated; rib notches may be seen indented into the pleural surfaces ... Asphyxia: Mechanical airway obstruction (café coronary); laryngeal edema from infection (epiglottitis), anaphylaxis, neoplasm, ... Histologic features characteristic of status asthmaticus are acute airway edema and thick, cellular mucus plugs blocking small ...
Severe bronchial asthma in children: a review of novel biomarkers used | JAA
Some markers useful for monitoring therapy and assessing airway remodeling in the disease are also discussed. A review of the ... Severe asthma or therapy-resistant asthma in children is a heterogeneous disease that affects all age-groups. Given its ... However, there appears to be a huge diagnostic gap in severe asthma, as there is no single test yet that accurately determines ... We also highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in severe asthma, in order to show the basis for the novel ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodelling. ... However, the effect of AST on asthma remains unclear. In the present study, in the murine model of asthma, the airway ... Our findings indicate that AST treatment inhibits ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by modulating the key master switches ... It is well known that menopause could worsen age-related ventricular concentric remodeling following estrogen (E2) deficiency. ...
Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma | Science...
Diminished sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) expression contributes to airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. ... The relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation: Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: Its measurement ... Ca2+ homeostasis and structural and functional remodelling of airway smooth muscle in asthma. Thorax 65, 547-552 (2010).. ... CaSR expression in human and mouse airways is increased during asthma. In human bronchial biopsies and in mouse interlobular ...
HyperreactivityAbstractHyper-responsivenessEosinophilsHuman bronchialAllergic asthmaConstrictionMechanismsBiopsyInfiltrationExacerbationPathogenesis of asthmaProliferationRespiratoryEosinophilicSubepithelial fibrosisStimuliEpithelial Cells in AsthmaEpidemiologyThickening of the airway wallBronchospasmBasement membraneChronic inflammationAnti-inflammatoryInduceMechanismPatients with asthmaImmunologyHyperplasiaDiagnosisHypersecretionBiopsiesCultured bronchial epithelialPhenotypesPrevalence of asthmaCorticosteroidsFibrosisPersistent airway inflammationMucousTissueInflammation in asthmaHyperresponsiveness to methacholinePulmonaryPathophysiology of AsthmaStructural changesDysfunctionAllergenInflammatory CellsExtracellular matrixAirflow limitationLower airwayAllergy
- The vascular actions of corticosteroids contribute to controlling clinical symptoms of asthma primarily by influencing airway calibre in the lung periphery and airway hyperreactivity. (ersjournals.com)
- This locus contains the ORMDL3 gene, which is an allergen and cytokine (IL-4/IL-13)-inducible gene implicated in epithelial cell remodeling and sphingolipid metabolism to affect bronchial hyperreactivity. (merckmanuals.com)
- Mast cell numbers did not differ in healthy controls, patients with mild asthma or rhinitis with or without bronchial hyperreactivity. (lu.se)
- Cough variant asthma (CVA) is defined as a phenotype of asthma, which characterized by cough as the sole symptom and airway hyperreactivity (AHR) [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
- The pathogenesis includes activation of inflammatory cells, induction of hyperreactivity in airways, synthesis of allergen-specific antibodies, and remodeling of airway tissues. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- We have previously shown that intranasal administration of an HDM extract (5 d/wk for 5 wk) elicits robust Th2-polarized airway inflammation and remodeling that is associated with increased airway hyperreactivity. (nih.gov)
- Notably, TGF-beta neutralization exacerbated the eosinophilic infiltrate and led to increased airway hyperreactivity. (nih.gov)
- During the course of the inflammation, a bronchial hyperreactivity occurs. (lecturio.com)
- in addition, bronchial hyperreactivity and (chronic) bronchial inflammation. (lecturio.com)
- Based on these findings, it is considered that the release of inflammatory mediators, such as endothelin-1, as well as adhesion molecules, through enhancing the migration of inflammatory cells as well as interactions with other cytokines essential in asthma, may contribute to the exacerbation of asthmatic inflammation in the airways and bronchial hyperreactivity after exercise. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mechanism of bronchial hyperreactivity in allergic rhinitis patients. (lsh.is)
- Exposure to ambient airborne PM was shown to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress, airway hyper-responsiveness, airway remodeling , and exacerbation of chronic inflammation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The airway inflammation and remodelling together likely explain the clinical manifestations of asthma that is demonstrated by complicated respiratory manifestations in which wheeze occurring secondary to bronchoconstriction in the setting of airway hyper-responsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. (scirp.org)
- The inflammation also causes an associated increase in existing bronchial hyper-responsiveness to a variety of stimuli. (bmj.com)
- The distinctive features of the disease are airway hyper-responsiveness to a variety of stimuli, airway inflammation, and remodeling [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- At the same time the numbers of eosinophils and fibroblasts were assessed and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), and insulin like growth factor (IGF) I in the bronchial mucosa was examined by immunostaining. (bmj.com)
- There was a significantly higher number of eosinophils in the airways of the asthmatic subjects than in the healthy subjects (EG1 + cells: 52.0 versus 2.0/mm2, EG2 + cells: 56.0 versus 1.5/mm2). (bmj.com)
- Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role-in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
- These cytokines promote the accumulation of eosinophils and mast cells in the asthmatic airway. (pnas.org)
- In all forms of asthma mast cells and eosinophils appear to be the key effector cells of the inflammatory response. (admit-online.info)
- The pathogenic characteristics of allergic asthma are associated with airway inflammation and infiltration of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and T helper type 2 lymphocytes along with the production of isotype-specific IgE ( 40 ). (physiology.org)
- According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Expert Report 3 (EPR3) - Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma, asthma is defined as "a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role: in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory infiltrates in the bronchial wall including eosinophils, and elevated serum immunoglobulin-E (IgE) levels in allergic patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To understand type 2 asthma and its mechanistic pathways, we focus on innate lymphoid cells, T-helper 2 cells, eosinophils, IgE, and associated cytokines. (reachmd.com)
- Eosinophils showing piece-meal degranulation were commonly observed in allergic asthma. (lsh.is)
- In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. (nature.com)
- Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated by bronchoscopy from bronchial biopsies of healthy donors and patients with mild and severe asthma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- and 6) to characterize signaling mechanisms of PM-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and ROS burden in human bronchial epithelial cells. (epa.gov)
- Methods: An IL-6TS gene signature obtained from air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-6 and sIL-6R was used to stratify lung epithelial transcriptomic data (Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes [U-BIOPRED] cohorts) by means of hierarchical clustering. (diva-portal.org)
- The aim of the present study was to investigate Der f1, an allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, which may result in the death of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. (nih.gov)
- Further, the stabilizing effect of Kalanchoe sp on mast cell degranulation, suggests that Kalanchoe species are suitable candidates for allergic asthma therapy. (scirp.org)
- Allergic asthma is characterized by inflammation and airway remodeling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The EGFR has been implicated in goblet cell differentiation in a murine model of allergic asthma 26 . (ersjournals.com)
- Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are fundamental hallmarks of allergic asthma that are accompanied by increases in certain polycations, such as eosinophil cationic protein. (sciencemag.org)
- In particular, among T h 2-predominant phenotypes, the most prevalent endotype is the allergic asthma. (frontiersin.org)
- Apart from classical childhood-onset allergic asthma, late-onset eosinophilic asthma is now one of the best-defined phenotypes ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In non-allergic asthma, although the cellular pathomechanism is different, most of the mediators remain the same, with main variations including IL-17 and PGD 2 . (frontiersin.org)
- It is now believed that both chronic airway inflammation and remodeling contribute significantly to airway dysfunction and clinical symptoms in allergic asthma. (nih.gov)
- For example, up to 40% of patients with severe allergic asthma do not gain adequate disease control despite the addition of omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds IgE. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- IL-13 shares structural similarities with IL-4, and it has been clearly demonstrated that it is important in the effector pathways critical in the inflammatory response in murine models of allergic asthma ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the case of allergic asthma, only a few minutes after coming into contact with a corresponding allergen, the production of IgE antibodies begins. (lecturio.com)
- In the case of non-allergic asthma, the immunological process is similar but without a triggering allergen. (lecturio.com)
- Allergic asthma is a syndrome that results when a genetically susceptible individual is exposed to specific allergens that trigger airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and airway remodeling. (aappublications.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate epithelial damage in allergic and non-allergic asthma at the ultrastructural level. (lsh.is)
- Bronchial biopsies obtained from patients with allergic asthma (n=11), non-allergic asthma (n=7), and healthy controls (n=5) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. (lsh.is)
- Degranulating mast cells were more often observed in allergic asthma. (lsh.is)
- Goblet cell hyperplasia was only found in allergic asthma. (lsh.is)
- In allergic asthma the lamina densa was irregular with focal thickening. (lsh.is)
- While there was always a tendency for changes (epithelial damage, desmosomes, degranulating mast cells, basal lamina) to be more extensive in allergic asthma compared to non-allergic asthma, there was no significant difference between the two groups in this respect. (lsh.is)
- The airway constriction responds to bronchodilators . (bionity.com)
- Further models of "disease"-on-a-chip include modeling the effects of cigarette smoke, including inflammation, oxidative stress, airway remodeling , and ECM deposition, using a smoking machine, as well as airway constriction in asthma and immunotherapy of cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this setting, inducible signaling pathways the airway mucosa play a central role in the initiation of airway inflammation through production of antimicrobial peptides (defensins), cytokines, chemokines and arachidonic acid metabolites that coordinate the complex processes of vascular permeability, cellular recruitment, mucous hyper-secretion, bronchial constriction and tissue remodeling. (springer.com)
- A rise in cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) may serve as a shared signal transduction element that causes bronchial constriction and bronchial wall thickening in asthma. (elsevier.com)
- In this study, we examined whether capacitative Ca 2+ entry (CCE) induced by depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores was involved in agonist-mediated bronchial constriction and bronchial smooth muscle cell (BSMC) proliferation. (elsevier.com)
- These results suggest that upregulated TRPC1 expression, increased Isoc, enhanced CCE, and elevated [Ca 2+ ] cyt may play important roles in mediating bronchial constriction and BSMC proliferation. (elsevier.com)
- Corticosteroids are now known to exert their effects on the airway vasculature through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. (ersjournals.com)
- In contrast, nongenomic actions are mediated by rapid cellular mechanisms, and induce transient vasoconstriction in the airway, thereby reversing inflammatory hyperperfusion. (ersjournals.com)
- In this review article, recent advances into the understanding of cellular mechanisms and the clinical implications of the interaction of inhaled corticosteroids and the airway vasculature in asthma are reviewed. (ersjournals.com)
- Recent advances in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms responsible for these vascular abnormalities may ultimately lead to new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- We sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying increased vascularity, and we examined the mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors (flt-1 and flk-1) within bronchial biopsy specimens from asthmatic patients and normal control subjects. (nih.gov)
- Pathogenesis and disease mechanisms of occupational asthma. (cdc.gov)
- Although these studies raise the possibility that YKL-40 may influence asthma, the mechanisms remain unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
- We also highlight the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in severe asthma, in order to show the basis for the novel biomarkers. (dovepress.com)
- Although biomarkers specific to different severe asthma phenotypes have been identified, progress in their utility remains slow, because of several disease mechanisms, the variation of biomarkers at different levels of inflammation, changes in relying on one test over time (eg, from sputum eosinophilia to blood eosinophilia), and the degree of invasive tests required to collect biomarkers, which limits their applicability in clinical settings. (dovepress.com)
- This comprehensive review will explore the known mechanisms that are associated with remodeling of the vasculature in a variety of critical asthma presentations. (springer.com)
- We highlight how these mechanisms can contribute to some the severe presentations of influenza infection in patients with a history of asthma. (springer.com)
- Asthma results from a combination of genetic susceptibility including epigenetic mechanisms and a deleterious environment. (ersjournals.com)
- The underlying immunopathological mechanisms of asthma lead to chronic airway inflammation resulting in number of consequences for the bronchi. (frontiersin.org)
- The authors agree that CVA and classic asthma have the same pathophysiological and immunological mechanisms, so CVA is considered a precursor of classic asthma [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (intechopen.com)
- 18 The intestinal milieu is an integral factor in asthma development through several mechanisms, including mucosal immunity, 19 production of immunoglobulins E (IgE) and A (IgA), 20 and modulation of allergic reactions to antigens. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
- Infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) have a high risk of developing bronchial asthma in childhood, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (biologists.org)
- They have the capacity to secrete a wide range of preformed and newly generated mediators that act on airways directly or indirectly through neural mechanisms. (admit-online.info)
- Novel findings on genetic variation in genes regulating lung growth and remodeling in early childhood shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to chronic asthma. (ovid.com)
- Asthma is a heterogenous disease characterized by multiple phenotypes driven by different mechanisms. (springer.com)
- i) epidemiology, genetic, epigenetic and environmental risk factors in asthma and allergy, (ii) Prevention of asthma and allergy, (iii) pathogenetic mechanisms in the development and persistence of asthma and allergy and (iv) prevalence and diagnosis of food allergy. (southampton.ac.uk)
- To date, the mechanisms underlying bronchial epithelial cell damage and death by common allergens remain largely unknown. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Although we understand the basic clinical features of asthma, the links between symptoms, physical signs, and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still being delineated. (springer.com)
- Inhaled allergens are thought to be processed by two mechanisms in asthmatic airways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Regarding asthma pathophysiology, while there's frequently overlap and interplay between elements of smooth muscle dysfunction, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling, asthmatics can have different predominant pathophysiologic mechanisms at play - that seemingly can flare independently of one another. (reachmd.com)
- Horvath G, Vasas S, Wanner A. Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma-associated airway hyperperfusion through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. (viamedica.pl)
- METHODS: Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 21 asthmatic patients and eight healthy subjects and the basement membrane thickness was measured by light microscopy and electron microscopy. (bmj.com)
- In addition to inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial wall 1 , histological analysis of endobronchial biopsy specimens and new methods of blood flow measurements have revealed prominent alterations of the tracheobronchial (airway) vasculature in patients with asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- Tremendous progress has been made in our fundamental understanding of asthma pathogenesis by virtue of invasive research tools such as bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, airway biopsy, and measurement of airway gases, although the cause of airway inflammation remains obscure. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- Molecular phenotyping was based on transcriptional profiling of epithelial brushings, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial biopsy specimens. (diva-portal.org)
- Loss of BEC integrity is a hallmark of asthma pathogenesis ( 4 ), and sloughing of BECs has been found in bronchial biopsy samples from patients with mild to severe asthma ( 5 , 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- A light microscopic study on BAL and bronchial biopsy. (lsh.is)
- BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is characterised by airway structural changes, including mucosal inflammatory infiltration and subepithelial collagen deposition, that may represent the morphological basis for the chronicity of the disease. (bmj.com)
- Histologic evaluations of the airways in a typical patient reveal infiltration with inflammatory cells, narrowing of airway lumina, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial denudation, and mucus plugs. (medscape.com)
- 6 Typical histopathological findings of asthma, including airway remodeling (epithelial shedding and basement membrane thickening), eosinophilic infiltration, T-helper cell involvement, and IL-5 production are present in both asthma and CRSwNP, suggesting similar physiopathological processes. (dovepress.com)
- Airway inflammation is one of the pathophysiological characteristics of asthma, which is mediated through infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells, and eosinophilic and neutrophilic granulocytes in the airway wall. (ersjournals.com)
- This cell infiltration subsequently leads to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and, in the case of chronic inflammation, persistent changes of the airways, i.e. airway remodelling [ 3 , 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the thickening of the subepithelial layer in bronchial asthma is due to an increase in fibroblasts, and that the thickness of the subepithelial collagen appears to be linked to an increase in bronchial responsiveness and exacerbation of clinical manifestations. (bmj.com)
- An acute exacerbation of asthma is referred to as an asthma attack . (bionity.com)
- Chest radiographic imaging (see the images below) is an important tool in the examination of patients with an exacerbation of asthma , but patients should not be left waiting in the treatment room for a radiograph before treatment. (medscape.com)
- Ambient airborne PM generally contains fungal spores and pollen, which have been associated with exacerbation of asthma. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although clinical data shows much beneficial effects of biological therapies in terms of reduction of exacerbation rates, improvement of lung functions, asthma control and patients' quality of life, little is known on the effects of these monoclonal antibodies on AR-a key clinical trait of long-term asthma management. (frontiersin.org)
- The result of this Task Force was a uniform definition of asthma severity, control and exacerbation [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- A randomized, controlled trial of high dose, inhaled budesonide versus oral prednisone in patients discharged from the emergency department following an acute asthma exacerbation. (viamedica.pl)
Pathogenesis of asthma8
- Because the pathogenesis of asthma has not been clearly identified, only symptom control can be achieved with the current treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, further clarification of the pathogenesis of asthma and searching for more effective treatments are the hot topics of research at present. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a powerful regulator of both the tissue repair and inflammatory responses, and numerous experimental and clinical studies suggest that it may play an integral role in the pathogenesis of asthma. (nih.gov)
- The pathogenesis of asthma can be classified as acute or chronic. (physiology.org)
- This newly identified connection of the Der f1 allergen with BEC damage and inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. (spandidos-publications.com)
- This article reviews the potential role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of asthma, the efficacy and safety of lebrikizumab in humans, and progress in patient selection for lebrikizumab therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Despite a growing number of studies, the precise pathogenesis of asthma still remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because current research approaches to asthma cannot sufficiently describe the relationship and individual relevance of genetic and environmental factors in the development of airway disease in children, a holistic research approach that incorporates new genomic technologies with better exposure data is necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of asthma. (aappublications.org)
- The major structural and functional changes related to the airway circulation include the proliferation of blood vessels (angiogenesis) 2 - 4 , increased blood flow 5 , 6 , increased microvascular permeability 7 , 8 , and oedema formation in the airway wall 9 . (ersjournals.com)
- MicroRNA-19a enhances proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells by targeting TGFβR2 gene in severe asthma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The purpose of our study was to determine the role of miRNAs in regulating proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells obtained from severe asthmatic subjects in comparison with cells obtained from mild asthmatics and healthy controls. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Functional studies based on luciferase reporter and Western blot assays suggest that miR-19a enhances cell proliferation of BEC in severe asthma through targeting TGF-β receptor 2 mRNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The effects of an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor inhibitor, AG1478, and a cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast, on epithelial and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation in vivo in response to repeated OVA challenge were tested. (ersjournals.com)
- Over-proliferation of airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) is one of the important contributors to airway remodeling in asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Shenmai injection (SMI) on the proliferation of the rat ASMC in asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- SMI may prevent asthma-induced ASMC over-proliferation probably by inhibiting the expression of TRPV1 channel, which regulates the intracellular calcium concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, there had no report on the effect of SMI on ASMC proliferation in asthma and its underlying mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, similar increases in smooth muscle mass, collagen synthesis and proliferation occurred in both airways and adjacent large vessels, a phenomenon tentatively explained by a spill-over of inflammatory mediators released in the adjacent bronchial tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Proliferation of airway smooth muscles is predominantly caused by cell hypertrophy expressed in a nearly two-fold increase of smooth muscle cells in asthmatics. (admit-online.info)
- Smooth muscle proliferation may also drive airway fibrosis directly by transition of myocytes to fibromyocytes or indirectly by cytokine generation. (admit-online.info)
- Periostin in turn seems to partake in a number of asthma related problems, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and activation and proliferation of airway fibroblasts, which are involved in airway remodelling. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also suggested that ET-1 influences asthmatic inflammation, provoking concentration and proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle cells and subepithelial fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- This phenomenon is related to enhanced proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells, elevated extracellular matrix protein secretion and an increased number of myofibroblasts. (infona.pl)
- Respiratory viruses and asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- Asthma is a chronic condition involving the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed , and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus , often in response to one or more triggers. (bionity.com)
- In some individuals asthma is characterized by chronic respiratory impairment. (bionity.com)
- Bronchial asthma is a highly prevalent chronic respiratory disease that is seriously hazardous to human health. (biomedcentral.com)
- Asthma is a chronic and heterogenic respiratory tract disorder with a high global prevalence. (frontiersin.org)
- Asthma is a chronic, heterogeneous and inflammatory respiratory condition characterized by shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness. (frontiersin.org)
- Autopsy reports suggest 2 phenotypes of severe asthma: one that is characterized by intense airway inflammation with mucus plugging, and the other by severe bronchoconstriction causing respiratory failure in the absence of significant airway inflammation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The diagnosis of asthma becomes more likely when respiratory symptoms are recurrent or associated with an extrinsic trigger, such as cold air, exercise or activity, or allergens or irritants. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- For non-allergic, intrinsic asthma , the following trigger factors may play a role: respiratory infection (infectious asthma), acetylsalicylic acid/NSAIDs (analgesic asthma syndrome), noxious inhaled agents, gastroesophageal reflux , as well as cold air and physical or mental stress. (lecturio.com)
- Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous respiratory condition which can be mimicked by a wide range of pathologies including upper airways stenosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we report a challenging case characterized by the contemporaneous presence of a common disease, asthma, together with a rare respiratory disease, idiopathic tracheal stenosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Due to a lack of improvement an electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were performed, which were normal, and she was subsequently sent for respiratory consultation to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- An asthma attack with respiratory distress. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Asthma is a common respiratory tract disease that manifests as an allergic and inflammatory process in children. (medsci.org)
- Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- Further, phenotypes are distinguished as either eosinophilic asthma or non-eosinophilic ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The authors now suggest that CVA is present with airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation of central and peripheral airways and bronchodilator responsive coughing without typical manifestation of asthma such as wheezing or dyspnea. (intechopen.com)
- Pathologically, CVA shares common features such as eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling changes with classic asthma. (intechopen.com)
- Results In the short-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline decreased allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in peribronchial areas, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness. (ac.be)
- There have also been other studies in asthmatics that found weak relationships between FEV1 and airway inflammation along with poor correlation between airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and airway eosinophilic inflammation. (reachmd.com)
- For a long time, asthma was regarded as a chronic type 2 T helper (Th2) cell-driven disease with eosinophilic airway inflammation [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
- IL-13 and other cytokines produced during T helper type 2 cell-driven allergic inflammation contribute to airway epithelial goblet cell metaplasia and may alter epithelial-mesenchymal signaling, leading to increased subepithelial fibrosis or hyperplasia of smooth muscle. (pnas.org)
- IL-13 is a T-helper (Th2) cell-derived cytokine implicated in inflammatory responses in asthma, including serum immunoglobulin-E synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, and subepithelial fibrosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The inflammation of asthma leads to an associated increase in the existing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to a variety of stimuli.Although the absolute minimum criteria to establish a diagnosis of asthma are not widely agreed on, the presence of airway hyper-reactivity can be regarded as a sine qua non for patients with current symptoms and active asthma. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- In several airway pathologies, including asthma, increased thickness of ASM bundles as a result of hyperplasia and hypertrophy may account for excessive airway narrowing in response to various stimuli ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Clinical manifestation of the disease is likely due to inflammatory processes in the airways initiated by various stimuli. (wiley.com)
- Asthma is a disease of diffuse airway inflammation caused by a variety of triggering stimuli resulting in partially or completely reversible bronchoconstriction. (merckmanuals.com)
- Besides the potential to conduct high-throughput pre-clinical screening of new drugs, this model allows the controlled study of pro-asthma stimuli including viral infection and pollen, smoke, and particulate exposure. (seattlechildrens.org)
- 1 On the other hand, asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lower airways involving episodic breathlessness and wheezing, with airway hyperresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, with a prevalence of 5%-10% in the general population. (dovepress.com)
- Given this definition, asthma may present in a variety of ways that vary by age, severity, co-morbidities, triggering stimuli, and ability to detect BHR. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- In comparison to healthy people, the airways of patients with asthma react more sensitive to various stimuli. (lecturio.com)
Epithelial Cells in Asthma3
- Taken together, our findings show that airway epithelial cells in asthma have a distinct activation profile and identify direct and cell-autonomous effects of corticosteroid treatment on airway epithelial cells that relate to treatment responses and can now be the focus of specific mechanistic studies. (pnas.org)
- Dysfunction of airway epithelial cells in asthma is thought to contribute to activation of innate immune responses, perpetuation of adaptive immune responses, increased mucus production, and production of mediators that may influence the underlying mesenchyme ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Attachment of columnar airway epithelial cells in asthma. (lsh.is)
- This review of asthma for the practicing clinician summarizes these developments, including an update on the definition of asthma, its epidemiology, natural history, cause, and pathogenesis. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- Since the introduction of the "United Airway Disease" concept, 4 a large body of evidence from clinical epidemiology, pathophysiology, histology, and treatment outcomes has correlated asthma and CRSwNP. (dovepress.com)
Thickening of the airway wall1
- TI is contraindicated in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease in whom it causes acute bronchospasm. (eurekaselect.com)
- Acute asthma is reflected in the immediate type of reactivity hallmarked by histamine release, airway reactivity, and bronchospasm ( 3 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
- With BHR, bronchospasm is easily initiated in response to various triggers and is likely the result of underlying chronic airway inflammation. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- It also can be confusing for patients to hear they have "exercise-induced asthma" (a chronic disease) when in truth they only have "exercise-induced bronchospasm" (a transient problem). (aafp.org)
- We thank Dr. Hermansen for raising the issue of the differences between exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). (aafp.org)
- Reticular basement membrane thickening and deposition of matrix components below is a consistent finding in asthma. (admit-online.info)
- Airway inflammation, basement membrane thickening and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma. (admit-online.info)
- The assumption of thickening of the reticular basement membrane being a prerequirement for chronic asthma is questioned but development of airway responsiveness is a significant factor. (ovid.com)
- Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic inflammation and structural changes in the airways. (rug.nl)
- Pathobiologically, asthma is characterized by a complex chronic inflammation that causes airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- At present, it mainly focuses on inflammation, immune response changes and airway remodeling caused by abnormal subepithelial myofibroblasts and chronic inflammation. (biologists.org)
- Evidence-based practice guidelines have been disseminated with a goal of encouraging more frequent use of anti-inflammatory therapy to improve asthma outcomes. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- The use of bronchodilators started in 1901, but it was not until the 1960s that the inflammatory component of asthma was recognized, and anti-inflammatory medications were added to the regimens. (bionity.com)
- 21 Lactic acid-forming bacteria specifically induce production of interluekin-10 (IL-10), 22 an anti-inflammatory mediator, illustrating their role in asthma prevention. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
- Although IL-13 is associated primarily with the induction of airway disease, it also has anti-inflammatory properties. (wikipedia.org)
- Once the diagnosis of asthma was confirmed, the combination of the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid fluticasone and the rapid-acting bronchodilator formoterol in a single inhaler effectively controlled the patient's symptoms, confirming the favorable efficacy and safety profile which are reflected in the recommendations of the international guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Physical training as an airway anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma could potentially be a non-invasive, easily available, affordable, and healthy treatment modality. (biomedcentral.com)
- Diagnosing patients with asthma and initiating anti-inflammatory therapy still can be associated with stigmas, inability to enter military professions, and changes of insurance premiums. (aafp.org)
- Female 6-8 week old Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) sensitized five times with ovalbumin (OVA) (d7, d14, d28, d42 and d56) (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, USA) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and challenged two times (d70 and d71) with 1% OVA aerosol to induce allergic airway inflammation. (nature.com)
- In vivo exposure of infant rats to EPFRs demonstrates their ability to induce airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, a hallmark of asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- may not be due to the elevation of the PGP peptide but could actually be caused by the effects of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in asthma, which are known to induce bronchoconstriction, airway remodeling, goblet cell activation, and mucus production ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- 6 Challenging the nose with allergens will induce the influx of inflammatory cells in the lower airways and vice versa. (bmj.com)
- These enzymes are required to induce aggression of parenchymal inflammatory cells into the airway lumen, where they are then cleared. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanism of the growth response of muscle is quite uncertain, although several descriptive studies of growth factor expression in human airway tissues have been reported 14 - 16 and many growth factors have been demonstrated to have mitogenic effects on ASM in culture 17 - 20 . (ersjournals.com)
- Mast cells infiltrate the bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) in asthmatic patients, but the mechanism of mast cell adhesion is still unknown. (wiley.com)
- Interestingly, this is also a mechanism of corticosteroid therapy for alleviating asthma symptoms. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
- With the increasing incidence of IUGR, the pathogenesis and physiological mechanism of bronchial asthma have been continuously recognized and updated. (biologists.org)
- However, the molecular mechanism of bronchial asthma in IUGR children is not clear. (biologists.org)
- Mechanism of airway inflammation in asthma. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, we hypothesized that pyroptosis may act as a pathogenic mechanism contributing to inflammatory injury of airway epithelia. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Anderson SD, Daviskas E (2000) The mechanism of exercise-induced asthma is. (springer.com)
- 2. Langdeau JB, Boulet LP. Prevalence and mechanism of development of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness in athletes. (aafp.org)
Patients with asthma7
- and 3) the interactions of corticosteroids and airway blood vessels by which inflammatory changes of the airway vasculature can be reversed in patients with asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- To this extent, there has been much emphasis on early diagnosis and longitudinal care of patients with asthma, along with ensuring adherence to recommended therapies. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- In addition, editor Dr. Michael A. Kaliner contributes his own chapter, entitled "The Pathogenesis of Bronchial Asthma," written from 30 years of experience treating patients with asthma. (wisepress.com)
- Reversibility of airflow limitation may be incomplete in some patients with asthma. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- As the authors state, "80 to 90 percent of patients with asthma also have EIB. (aafp.org)
- A study reported that CD34+/IL-5+ cells could be found in patients with asthma [ 4 ]. (medsci.org)
- Reduced desmosomal contact may be an important factor in the epithelial shedding observed in patients with asthma. (lsh.is)
- The chronicity of bronchial asthma is attributed to persistent airway inflammation and to a variety of structural changes, or remodelling, that includes smooth muscle and goblet cell hyperplasia. (ersjournals.com)
- It is known that hyperplasia of smooth muscle in animal models 9 - 11 and both hyperplasia and hypertrophy in airway specimens from human subjects 12 , 13 contribute to the increase in ASM mass. (ersjournals.com)
- Both of these factors are, therefore, plausible candidates for the ASM hyperplasia in asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- Goblet cell and submucosal gland cell hyperplasia are consistently found in the airways of asthmatics. (admit-online.info)
- Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
- MCD mice exhibit reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, less goblet cell hyperplasia and lower inflammatory cytokine levels, and this effect is reversed by injecting wild type MCs into the MCD mice. (worldallergy.org)
- In the long-term exposure model, inhaled doxycycline significantly decreased the extent of glandular hyperplasia, airway wall thickening, smooth muscle hyperplasia and subepithelial collagen deposition which are well recognized features of airway remodeling. (ac.be)
- BACKGROUND: There is a need for biomarkers for diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prognosis for asthma in cats. (biomedsearch.com)
- Current Review of Asthma comprises up-to-date information related to the field of asthma diagnosis and treatment. (wisepress.com)
- 5 Asthma Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis. (wisepress.com)
- Nevertheless, CT scans can demonstrate a number of findings that support the diagnosis of asthma. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis may be confirmed with a bronchial wash or a bronchial alveolar lavage. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- The diagnosis of asthma is based on evidence of variable airflow limitation tested with spirometry and a positive bronchodilation reversibility test. (intechopen.com)
- Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-Summary Report 2007. (medscape.com)
- Diagnosis and management of work-related asthma: American College Of Chest Physicians Consensus Statement. (medscape.com)
- He has contributed to national and international guidelines, including the European guidelines for asthma and allergy prevention and National Institute of Health (US) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Assessment of BHR in adults is much easier than it is in children, and BHR is often the basis on which the diagnosis of asthma is made. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The consequences of airway remodeling in asthma may include incompletely reversible airway narrowing, bronchial hyperresponsivenesss, airway edema, and mucus hypersecretion. (biomedsearch.com)
- We know that the basic features of asthma include episodic airways inflammation, airways hyperresponsiveness, and mucous hypersecretion. (springer.com)
- In this study, we analysed histological findings in bronchial biopsies obtained from very young children (under 4 yr of age). (wiley.com)
- Most of our knowledge of remodeling in asthma emanates from studies of bronchial biopsies involving the large airways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ultrastructure of bronchial biopsies obtained by fibroscopy during a remission between crises in asthmatic adults]. (lsh.is)
Cultured bronchial epithelial1
- In conclusion, several biomarkers remain useful in recognizing various asthma phenotypes. (dovepress.com)
- Asthma could be defined more as a syndrome characterized by several different phenotypes [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
- At present, it remains unclear if BT benefits all asthma phenotypes or if BT has any effect on airway inflammation and remodeling. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We sought to determine whether associations in this region are specific to particular asthma phenotypes and specific to ORMDL3. (meta.org)
- We examined associations between 244 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) plus 13 previously identified asthma-related SNPs in the region between 34 and 36 Mb on chromosome 17 and early wheezing phenotypes, doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopy at 7½ years, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness and lung function at 8½ years in 7045 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort study. (meta.org)
Prevalence of asthma3
- The prevalence of asthma has increased continuously since the 1970s, and the WHO estimates that 235 million people worldwide are affected. (merckmanuals.com)
- The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis is increasing worldwide. (bmj.com)
- Accurate determination of the prevalence of asthma is difficult, however, because clinicians and researchers use many definitions of the disorder. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Inhaled corticosteroids suppress airway inflammation and components of airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. (ersjournals.com)
- Corticosteroids are the most effective drugs to suppress airway inflammation, mainly by downregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins 22 , 23 . (ersjournals.com)
- In addition, corticosteroids seem to reverse components of the asthma-induced structural changes (airway remodelling), including the increased vascularity of the bronchial wall 24 . (ersjournals.com)
- The rapid effects of corticosteroids have also been demonstrated in the airway vasculature in recent years 29 , 30 . (ersjournals.com)
- Inhaled corticosteroids suppress airway inflammation, which is responsible for asthma-associated changes of the airway vasculature. (ersjournals.com)
- 15 Inhaled Corticosteroids and Their Use in Asthma. (wisepress.com)
- In patients with uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, an increase of MCTC was found in the bronchi and alveolar parenchyma. (lu.se)
- It is clinically very important to recognize CVA because long-term inhaled corticosteroids can significantly decrease the development of classic asthma in these patients. (intechopen.com)
- Historically, the predominant medical approach to asthma management has been through the use of medications such as corticosteroids, beta-agonists, leukotriene modifiers, anticholinergics, mast-cell stabilizers, methylxanthines, and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
- The beneficial effects of corticosteroids in asthma could relate to their ability to directly or indirectly decrease epithelial cell activation by inflammatory cells and cytokines. (pnas.org)
- By using airway epithelial cells in culture, we found that IL-13 increased expression of CLCA1 , periostin , and serpinB2 , an effect that was suppressed by corticosteroids. (pnas.org)
- Asthma is typically responsive to treatment with inhaled or oral corticosteroids ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- To explore epithelial cell dysfunction in asthma and the therapeutic actions of corticosteroids, we collected epithelial cells from human airways by using bronchoscopy and examined expression profiles on genome-wide microarrays. (pnas.org)
- Ward C, Walters H. Airway wall remodelling: the influence of corticosteroids. (admit-online.info)
- A number of important differential diagnoses, adherence and environmental issues should be considered when evaluating a child with suspected asthma, especially in very young children or when high doses of inhaled corticosteroids are required. (bmj.com)
- In a Phase II study performed in 219 adults with poorly controlled asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids (MILLY trial), lebrikizumab produced an improvement in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 5.5% compared with placebo at 12 weeks, but had no effects on other efficacy end points. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Rapid effects of inhaled corticosteroids in acute asthma: an evidence-based evaluation. (viamedica.pl)
- Replacement of Oral Corticosteroids With Inhaled Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Acute Asthma Following Emergency Department Discharge. (viamedica.pl)
Persistent airway inflammation1
- Bronchial asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and airway wall remodeling. (infona.pl)
- Rapid Expansion of Human Epithelial Stem Cells Suitable for Airway Tissue Engineering. (semanticscholar.org)
- Remodelling of airway tissue after bronchial inflammation is evident in RAO and human asthma. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- In the chronic stages of asthma, there is significant morbidity in lung structure leading to morphological destruction of lung tissue and airways. (physiology.org)
- It causes the tissue inside the airways to swell . (wikipedia.org)
Inflammation in asthma4
- Inflammation in asthma may be the result of a peculiar type of lymphocytic inflammation whereby Th2 lymphocytes secrete cytokines that orchestrate cellular inflammation and promote airway hyperresponsiveness. (biomedsearch.com)
- Allergic airway inflammation in asthma is orchestrated by T helper type 2 cells, which are defined by their secretion of a panel of cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. (pnas.org)
- T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes are thought to play a key role in the initiation and perpetuation of this airway inflammation in asthma ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, effects of physical training on airway inflammation in asthma are currently inconclusive. (biomedcentral.com)
Hyperresponsiveness to methacholine1
- Several gene variants identified in bronchial asthmatic patients are associated with a decrease in pulmonary function. (cdc.gov)
- In this study, 411 patients with bronchial asthma who were receiving ICSs and living in Japan were recruited, were genotyped, and underwent pulmonary function tests and fibreoptic examinations. (cdc.gov)
- Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in combustion-generated particulate matter (PM) are capable of inducing pulmonary pathologies and contributing to the development of environmental asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- Inflammation of pulmonary and bronchial small blood vessels may contribute significantly but silently to asthma pathobiology. (springer.com)
- Canada Research Chair in Airway DiseaseJames Hogg iCAPTURE centre for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary ResearchSt. (eurekaselect.com)
- Doppler OCT is being investigated as a means to provide imaging of the pulmonary vessels, and has been shown to be able to visualize even small bronchial vasculature in vivo . (medscape.com)
- We demonstrate that allergic airway inflammation in mice is accompanied by remodeling of small and mid-sized pulmonary blood vessels some distance away (at least 150 μm) from the allergen-exposed bronchi. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present findings suggest the possibility that allergic airway inflammation may cause such vascular remodeling as previously associated with lung inflammatory conditions involving a risk for development of pulmonary hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the current literature there are only a few descriptions of pulmonary vascular remodeling following allergic airway inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- In a previous paper [ 6 ], we reported that remodeling of the large pulmonary vessels was as prominent as the bronchial remodeling in a mouse model of airway allergic inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we report that vascular remodeling changes are also present in smaller extra-bronchial (pulmonary) solitary vessels, and include the occurrence of phenotypic changes in partially muscularized blood vessels and appearance of perivascular myofibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Coughing may also be caused by lungworms (regionally), heart failure (rare), chylothorax, pulmonary masses, ascarid larval migration or bronchial foreign bodies. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
- Studies of IL-13 transgenic mice lungs with IL-13Rα2 null loci indicated that IL-13Rα2 deficiency significantly augmented IL-13 or ovalbumin-induced pulmonary inflammation and remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
Pathophysiology of Asthma1
- The term "airway remodeling" in asthma refers to structural changes that occur in conjunction with, or because of, chronic airway inflammation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Repetitive cycles of injury and repair of BECs is a major factor in airway structural changes leading to remodelling of the airways ( 3 , 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- An endothelial dysfunction may be present both in asthma and in COPD. (hindawi.com)
- Conclusions: Local lung epithelial IL-6TS activation in the absence of type 2 airway inflammation defines a novel subset of asthmatic patients and might drive airway inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in these patients. (diva-portal.org)
- Allergen-induced airway epithelial and airway smooth muscle remodelling is mediated by cysteinyl leukotrienes via the cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor with downstream effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor axis. (ersjournals.com)
- The current authors hypothesised that allergen challenge increases the mass of ASM and airway goblet cell numbers through EGFR activation in vivo . (ersjournals.com)
- To test this hypothesis, a rat model of allergen-induced airway remodelling was used 9 - 11 , requiring only three allergen exposures for an increase in ASM mass to occur 33 . (ersjournals.com)
- 21 Allergen Immunotherapy in Asthma. (wisepress.com)
- In asthma, most of the rodent models require pre-sensitisation and reflect the allergen-induced acute situation [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- We previously observed that allergen-exposed mice exhibit remodeling of large bronchial-associated blood vessels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Effects of Interleukin-13 Blockade on Allergen-induced Airway Responses in Mild Atopic Asthma. (medscape.com)
- Background In this study, we assess the effectiveness of inhaled doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic displaying matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitory effects to prevent allergen-induced inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. (ac.be)
- Conclusion Doxycycline administered by aerosols decreases the allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and inhibits the development of bronchial remodeling in a mouse model of asthma by modulation of cytokines production and MMP activity. (ac.be)
- 2 The osmolarity theory 3 suggests that it is the heat lost during exercise and the rapid rewarming of the airways after exercise that causes a reactive hyperemia of the microvasculature and edema of the airways that sets up an osmotic gradient, which stimulates the release of proinflammatory substances from mast cell and other inflammatory cells. (aafp.org)
- Mixed with our previous information displaying that at 6Â months post-AVR only cellular hypertrophy regresses (30) , this study suggests that the timeline for cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix responses to afterload reduction are totally different, with remodeling of the extracellular matrix being slower. (dpvlib.org)
- Reeves S, Kolstad T, Lien T, … Debley J . Asthmatic airway epithelial cells differentially regulate fibroblast expression of extracellular matrix components . (seattlechildrens.org)
- Airflow limitation in asthma also results from oedematous swelling of the airway wall. (admit-online.info)
- Accordingly, a number of asthma and COPD initiatives were launched, including the development of standardized techniques for symptom assessment, airflow limitation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (wikipedia.org)
- 6 Allergy and Asthma. (wisepress.com)
- The holy grail of asthma and allergy research is to prevent their development in children. (southampton.ac.uk)
- He is also a consultant Physician at Southampton University Hospital Trust and Director of The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre in Isle of Wight. (southampton.ac.uk)
- His research is based within the Faculty of Medicine and at The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre on the Isle of Wight. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Consultant Physician , St. Mary's Hospital, Isle of Wight and Director of David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, Isle of Wight. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Asthma and allergy and major public health problems and their prevalence are increasing. (southampton.ac.uk)
- He oversees a programme of studies investigating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and epigenetic regulation in the development of asthma and allergy, using the longitudinally collected cohort data and samples. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Bochner BS, Busse WW (2005) Allergy and asthma. (springer.com)
- Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy leading to allergic inflammation is common among children with persistent asthma. (ersjournals.com)