The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.
A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Surgery performed on the lung.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that causes CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (CALCITRIOL).
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.

Role of retinoid receptors in the regulation of mucin gene expression by retinoic acid in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. (1/4704)

To investigate which retinoid receptors are critical in the regulation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) of the mucin genes MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells, we used pan-RAR-, pan-RXR- and RAR- isotype (alpha, beta and gamma)-selective agonists and RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective antagonists (RAR is RA receptor and RXR is retinoid X receptor). RAR-, RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective agonists strongly induced mucin mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner, while the RARbeta-selective retinoid only weakly induced mucin gene expression at very high concentrations (1 microM). The pan-RXR-selective agonist by itself did not induce mucin gene expression, but acted synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of the pan-RAR agonist. A retinoid with selective anti-activator-protein-1 activity only marginally induced mucin gene expression. The RARalpha antagonist strongly inhibited mucin gene induction and mucous cell differentiation caused by RA and by the RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective retinoids. In contrast, the RARgamma antagonist only weakly inhibited RARalpha-selective-retinoid-induced mucin gene expression, but completely blocked mucin gene expression induced by the RARgamma-selective retinoid. Our studies indicate that RARalpha is the major retinoid receptor subtype mediating RA-dependent mucin gene expression and mucous cell differentiation, but that the RARgamma isotype can also induce mucin genes. Furthermore these studies suggest that RARbeta is probably not (directly) involved in RA-induced mucin gene expression.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/4704)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (3/4704)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (4/4704)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Alterations of Rb pathway (Rb-p16INK4-cyclin D1) in preinvasive bronchial lesions. (5/4704)

Lung cancer results from a stepwise accumulation of genetic and molecular abnormalities with unknown temporal relationships to precursor bronchial lesions. In a search for biomarkers of malignant progression, we analyzed the expression of the tumor suppressor gene Rb and of the proteins regulating its phosphorylation and function in G1 arrest, p16INK4A and cyclin D1, in preinvasive bronchial lesions accompanying cancer in 75 patients, in comparison with similar lesions in 22 patients with no cancer history. Rb was constantly expressed in preinvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ (CIS). In contrast, p16 expression was lost in moderate dysplasia (12%) and in CIS (30%) in patients with lung cancer. p16 loss occurred exclusively in patients who displayed loss of p16 expression in their related invasive carcinoma. Loss of p16 expression was not seen in nine patients with dysplasia but no cancer progression. Cyclin D1 overexpression was seen in hyperplasia and metaplasia (6%), mild dysplasia (17%), moderate dysplasia (46%), and CIS (38%) in patients with cancer but was lost in 5% of the patients during the process of invasion; it was also observed in patients with no cancer progression (14%). Our results indicate that Rb protein function can be invalidated before invasion through alteration of the Rb phosphorylation pathway, by p16 inhibition, and/or by cyclin D1 overexpression and suggest a role for p16 and cyclin D1 deregulation in progression of preinvasive bronchial lesions to invasive carcinoma.  (+info)

Differential responses of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells to receptor-selective retinoids. (6/4704)

Using an in vitro lung carcinogenesis model consisting of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, we analyzed the growth inhibitory effects of 26 novel synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoids. RAR-selective retinoids such as CD271, CD437, CD2325, and SR11364 showed potent activity in inhibiting the growth of either normal or premalignant and malignant HBE cells (IC50s mostly <1 microM) and were much more potent than RXR-selective retinoids. Nonetheless, the combination of RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids exhibited additive effects in HBE cells. As the HBE cells became progressively more malignant, they exhibited decreased or lost sensitivity to many retinoids. The activity of the RAR-selective retinoids, with the exception of the most potent retinoid, CD437, could be suppressed by an RAR panantagonist. These results suggest that: (a) RAR/RXR heterodimers play an important role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of most retinoids in HBE cells; (b) CD437 may act through an RAR-independent pathway; (c) some of the RAR-selective retinoids may have the potential to be used in the clinic as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancer; and (d) early stages of lung carcinogenesis may be responsive targets for chemoprevention by retinoids, as opposed to later stages.  (+info)

Penetration of meropenem in lung, bronchial mucosa, and pleural tissues. (7/4704)

Lung, bronchial mucosa, and pleural tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing lung surgery 1 to 5 h after administration of 1 g of meropenem. The mean (range) peak concentrations of meropenem were 3.9 (0.2 to 8.2), 6.6 (3.0 to 13.3), and 2.8 (0.6 to 7.8) mg/kg of tissue, respectively, exceeding the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for most respiratory pathogens.  (+info)

Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of twitching motility. (8/4704)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an important human pathogen. The production of several virulence factors by P. aeruginosa is controlled through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. We have obtained evidence that both the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are also required for type 4 pilus-dependent twitching motility and infection by the pilus-specific phage D3112cts. Mutants which lack the ability to synthesize PAI-1, PAI-2, or both autoinducers were significantly or greatly impaired in twitching motility and in susceptibility to D3112cts. Twitching motility and phage susceptibility in the autoinducer-deficient mutants were partially restored by exposure to exogenous PAI-1 and PAI-2. Both twitching motility and infection by pilus-specific phage are believed to be dependent on the extension and retraction of polar type 4 pili. Western blot analysis of whole-cell lysates and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of intact cells were used to measure the amounts of pilin on the cell surfaces of las and rhl mutants relative to that of the wild type. It appears that PAI-2 plays a crucial role in twitching motility and phage infection by affecting the export and assembly of surface type 4 pili. The ability of P. aeruginosa cells to adhere to human bronchial epithelial cells was also found to be dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system. Microscopic analysis of twitching motility indicated that mutants which were unable to synthesize PAI-1 were defective in the maintenance of cellular monolayers and migrating packs of cells. Thus, PAI-1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining cell-cell spacing and associations required for effective twitching motility.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - TLR3-mediated synthesis and release of Eotaxin-1/CCL11 from human bronchial smooth muscle cells stimulated with double-stranded RNA. AU - Niimi, Kyoko. AU - Asano, Koichiro. AU - Shiraishi, Yoshiki. AU - Nakajima, Takeshi. AU - Wakaki, Misa. AU - Kagyo, Junko. AU - Takihara, Takahisa. AU - Suzuki, Yusuke. AU - Fukunaga, Koichi. AU - Shiomi, Tetsuya. AU - Oguma, Tsuyoshi. AU - Sayama, Koichi. AU - Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro. AU - Natori, Yukikazu. AU - Matsumoto, Misako. AU - Seya, Tsukasa. AU - Yamaya, Mutsuo. AU - Ishizaka, Akitoshi. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Respiratory infections with RNA viruses, such as rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus, are a major cause of asthma exacerbation, accompanied by enhanced neutrophilic and/or eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. We studied the effects of dsRNA synthesized during RNA virus replication, and of its receptor, TLR3, on the synthesis of eosinophilic chemokines in bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC). Synthetic dsRNA, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterisation of exosomes isolated by ultracentrifugation from human primary bronchial epithelial cells. AU - Downey, N.. AU - McGarvey, L.. AU - Martin, S.L.. AU - Crilly, A.. AU - Lundy, F.T.. N1 - Conference code: 7. PY - 2020/2/3. Y1 - 2020/2/3. N2 - Introduction: Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50-150 nm in size, which contain a range of proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs, and have been implicated in cell-cell communication. We have undertaken a study to investigate the functional role of exosomes in cell-cell cross talk between airway epithelial cells and sensory nerves with relevance to cough hypersensitivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Here we report on isolation and characterisation of exosomes from human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs).Methods:Exosomes were isolated from cell culture supernatant of PBECs using an ultracentrifugation protocol in line with recommendations from the International Society for Extracellular ...
The trachea (windpipe) divides into two main bronchi (also mainstem bronchi), the left and the right, at the level of the sternal angle. The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus. The right main bronchus subdivides into three segmental bronchi while the left main bronchus divides into two. The lobar bronchi divide into tertiary bronchi. Each of the segmental bronchi supplies a bronchopulmonary segment. A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung that is separated from the rest of the lung by a connective tissue septum. This property allows a bronchopulmonary segment to be surgically removed without affecting other segments. There are ten segments per lung, but due to anatomic development, several segmental bronchi in the left lung fuse, giving rise to eight. The segmental bronchi divide into many primary bronchioles which divide into terminal bronchioles, each of which then gives rise to several respiratory bronchioles, which go on to divide ...
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Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in lung carcinogenesis via carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines. In this study, we used benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the classic PAH compound and BEAS-2B cells, a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells, to investigate whether 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 3,4-DMF compared with resveratrol (RV) have chemopreventive properties in this cancer. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to [(3)H]BaP (1 microM) showed increasing binding to DNA up to 72 h of exposure, about 20-fold higher than that at 0.5 h exposure. BaP exposure also increased both CYP1A1/1B1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) enzyme activities with a maximum 10-fold increase at 48 h. BaP induced CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels maximally after 48 h. In contrast, although CYP1B1 mRNA was rapidly induced, its protein expression showed a very poor response. Simultaneous treatment with BaP and 5,7-DMF, 3,4-DMF or RV for 48 h inhibited BaP-DNA binding by , or ...
In this article, we provide an overview of the experimental workflow by the Lung and Particle Research Group at Cardiff University, that led to the development of the two in vitro lung models - the normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) model and the lung-liver model, Metabo-Lung™. This work was jointly awarded the 2013 Lush Science Prize. The NHBE model is a three-dimensional, in vitro, human tissue-based model of the normal human bronchial epithelium, and Metabo-Lung involves the co-culture of the NHBE model with primary human hepatocytes, thus permitting the biotransformation of inhaled toxicants in an in vivo-like manner. Both models can be used as alternative test systems that could replace the use of animals in research and development for safety and toxicity testing in a variety of industries (e.g. the pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetics, and food industries). Metabo-Lung itself is a unique tool for the in vitro detection of toxins produced by reactive metabolites. This 21st ...
Trachea R. cranial lobar bronchus. R. middle lobar bronchus R. caudal lobar bronchus R. accessory lobar bronchus L. cranial lobar bronchus. L. caudal lobar bronchus. Return to Gross Anatomy
The subdivision of the lung is characterised by the branching of the bronchi: the bronchial tree. The main bronchi form the stem of the bronchial tree, which splits within the lung dichotomously. The right main bronchus is called bronchus principalis dexter, the left bronchus is called bronchus principalis sinister. The main bronchi are divided into lobar bronchi - right in three lobar bronchi: bronchi lobares superior, medius and inferior and left into the bronchi lobares superior and inferior. Thereafter, there follows further division into segmental bronchi - right 10, left 9 segmental bronchi. This is followed by subsegmental bronchi, the bronchioles and finally the bronchioli terminales. The conductive, air-transporting phase of the bronchial tree ends here. Thereafter follows the sectional formation, which serves for gas exchange and as the lung parenchyma in the narrow sense. These include the bronchioli respiratorii, the ductus alveolaris and sacculi alveolares. The respiratory ...
Mathis C, Poussin C, Weisensee D, Gebel S, Hengstermann A, Sewer A, Belcastro V, Xiang Y, Ansari S, Wagner S, Hoeng J, Peitsch M.. Philip Morris International, Neuchatel, Switzerland. The exposition of cigarette smoke on Human AIR-100 tissues shows equivalent results in MMP-1 release, gene expression and microRNA profiles to in vivo smokers tissue.. Abstract. Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the ...
Looking for Respiratory bronchioles? Find out information about Respiratory bronchioles. any of the smallest bronchial tubes, usually ending in alveoli A small, thin-walled branch of a bronchus, usually terminating in alveoli Explanation of Respiratory bronchioles
Our previous study, consistent with others, has shown that the serum YKL-40 levels in asthmatics were significantly elevated and were associated with asthma severity. Although these studies raise the possibility that YKL-40 may influence asthma, the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in YKL-40-mediated IL-8 production from human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and analyzed the soluble factors (including IL-8) secreted by BEAS-2B exposed to YKL-40 that were responsible for increasing proliferation and migration of primary normal human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). We found BEAS-2B treated with YKL-40 resulted in a significant increase of IL-8 expression and release. Moreover, YKL-40 mediated phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, but not p38 in BEAS-2B. Transfection using a NF-κB-luciferase reporter also showed YKL-40 induced IL-8 at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, BEAS-2B pretreated with inhibitors of JNK, ERK or NF-κB decreased IL-8 ...
MatTeks Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (NHBE) provide an ideal serum-free culture system to study cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, drug
Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is an important neutrophil chemoattractant known to be elevated in the airways of cigarette smokers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a syndrome associated with chronic cigarette smoking. We examined the acute effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on IL-8 expression in normal human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC) and alveolar macrophages. CSE upregulates IL-8 mRNA levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner and such an effect was accompanied by IL-8 secretion into the extracellular medium. CSE-evoked elevation of IL-8 mRNA was mimicked by its component acrolein at concentrations (3-30µM) found in CSE. Both CSE and acrolein induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation which was accompanied by the phosphorylation of MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2), a known downstream substrate of the p38 MAPK. In both HBSMC and human alveolar macrophages, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or MK2 strongly ...
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:01 AM Subject: [Histonet] Immunocytofluorescence on smooth muscle cells > Hello, > > > We are a new lab and we try to develop Immuno-cyto-fluorescence techniques > in the lab. > We are working with human bronchial smooth muscle cells. > I have currently a very big problem with all rabbit antibodies. All rabbit > antibodies (including IgG as isotype) give a non-specific signal, signal in > the nucleus and cytoplasm with very high intensity. There is no signal > between cells. > > This problem does not exist with Rat and mouse antibodies I have used. > > - I have tried different fixation methods (PFA 4%, acetone-methanol (1/1), > and kit like permeafix). > > - I have tried different blocking solution (Rabbit serum 2%, FBS 2%, Horse > serum and Universal blocker solution from Dako) without any results. > > - I have tried different diluents for my antibody (PBS 1X, PBS 1x-BSA 3%, > Dako diluents) > > - I have tried different permeabilization methods (saponin, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-8 gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells*. AU - Nakamura, H.. AU - Yoshimura, K.. AU - Jaffe, H. A.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The capacity of cells of the human bronchial epithelium to express the gene for interleukin-8 (IL-8) was evaluated in bronchial epithelium derived cell lines, HS-24 and BET-1A, using tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) as a model inflammatory stimulus. As in other epithelium, TNF markedly increased the level of the 1.8-kilobase IL-8 mRNA transcripts in both bronchial epithelial cell lines. In HS-24 cells, nuclear run-on analyses showed the IL-8 gene transcription rate was dramatically increased, more than 30-fold, after TNF stimulation. The half-life of IL-8 mRNA transcripts in these cells was approximately 40 min and did not change after TNF stimulation, suggesting that TNF up-regulated IL-8 gene expression mainly at the transcriptional level. DNase I hypersensitivity site mapping of chromatin DNA in ...
Right middle lobar bronchus aka Bronchus lobaris medius dexter in the latin terminology and part of structures of the trachea and the bronchi seen from the anterior and posterior views. Learn more now!
The right lung accessory lobe lobar bronchus is the major airway within the right lung accessory lobe that starts at the division of the bronchus on the right side and ends at the point of its own subdivision into tertiary or segmental bronchi [ LG ...
Cyclin D1 and other cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases to promote cell growth, and their overexpression has been associated with cell transformation and tumorigenesis (1 , 2) . In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Dragnev et al. (3) report that promoting proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, which results in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, is a mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and some other structurally unrelated agents. This research group has previously shown that RA prevents carcinogenic transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by causing G1 cell cycle arrest and triggering cyclin D1 degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (4, 5, 6) . In the present study, the authors demonstrate further that cyclin E is also targeted for degradation by RA treatment. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR), a nonclassical retinoid) and ...
CD1d is a MHC I like molecule which presents glycolipid to natural killer T (NKT) cells, a group of cells with diverse but critical immune regulatory functions in the immune system. These cells are required for optimal defence against bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal infections, and control of immune-pathology and autoimmune diseases. CD1d is expressed on antigen presenting cells but also found on some non-haematopoietic cells. However, it has not been observed on bronchial epithelium, a site of active host defence in the lungs. Here, we identify for the first time, CD1D mRNA variants and CD1d protein expression on human bronchial epithelial cells, describe six alternatively spliced transcripts of this gene in these cells; and show that these variants are specific to epithelial cells. These findings provide the basis for investigations into a role for CD1d in lung mucosal immunity.
Hamartomas are benign tumor-like malformations which was originally described by Albrecht.1 Hamartomas of the lung can be pulmonary or endobronchially. A 37-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of progressive dyspnea. She had a 20 pack-year smoking history. Physical examination revealed decreased respiratory sounds in the left lung field. The chest X-ray showed atelectasis of the left lower lobe (Fig. 1a). Computed tomography revealed a 2cm×3cm×1.5cm homogeneous mass, obstructing the left lower bronchus. Rigid bronchocopy was done for diagnosis and treatment to maintain airway safety. A vegetating, pedunculated lesion covered with a normal bronchial epithelium was observed obstructing the entrance of the left main bronchus (Fig. 1c). Distal bronchus was observed to be patent. The tumor was extracted with the snare prob and cryotherapy was applied to the base of the tumor (Fig. 1d). Postoperatively, the dyspnea subsided and the atelectasis in the left lower lobe ...
In the lungs, air is diverted into smaller and smaller passages, or bronchi. Air enters the lungs through the two primary (main) bronchi (singular: bronchus). Each bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, then into tertiary bronchi, which in turn divide, creating smaller and smaller diameter bronchioles as they split and spread through the lung. Like the trachea, the bronchi are made of cartilage and smooth muscle. At the bronchioles, the cartilage is replaced with elastic fibers. Bronchi are innervated by nerves of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems that control muscle contraction (parasympathetic) or relaxation (sympathetic) in the bronchi and bronchioles, depending on the nervous systems cues. In humans, bronchioles with a diameter smaller than 0.5 mm are the respiratory bronchioles. They lack cartilage and therefore rely on inhaled air to support their shape. As the passageways decrease in diameter, the relative amount of smooth muscle increases.. The terminal ...
Abstract: Classical studies in embryology demonstrated that stroma is necessary for the proper specification and differentiation of epithelial tissues. Recently, it was shown that the stroma is involved in the homeostatic maintenance of adult tissues, and under pathologic conditions, promotes the development and progression of diseases such as cancer. Hence, pulmonary diseases such as asthma, fibr... read moreosis and cancer can be understood in the context of altered communications between the epithelial and stromal tissue compartments. Bronchi are the conducting airways of the lung. Bronchi trap and eliminate inhaled particles through the coordinated actions of mucus secretion and the beating of cilia. However, inhaled toxicants and carcinogens are linked to several broncho-pulmonary pathologies, including asthma and lung cancer, which is the single deadliest cancer in the United States; since most lung cancers are attributed to tobacco smoke, it is also one of the most avoidable of cancers. ...
3896 Purpose: To evaluate the oncogenic impact of p53 knockdown, mutant K-RASV12, mutant EGFR alone and their combination on tumorigenicity of a newly developed immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line. Background: Molecular analysis of lung cancer has revealed several genetic and epigenetic alterations in the multistep pathogenesis of lung cancer. However, little is known about the relative importance of each individual alteration on the tumorigenic process. One approach is to use a model system in which the contribution of each genetic alteration to lung tumorigenesis can be assessed individually and combinatorially. We have developed an in vitro model system using normal human bronchial epithelial cells that overexpress Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and human telomerase. Ectopic expression of these two genes enables the cells to bypass the growth inhibitory signals of the p16/Rb pathway and also replicative senescence induced by shortened telomeres. We manipulated this cell line (HBEC3), ...
Chronic inflammatory processes in the respiratory system such as bronchial asthma are characterised by airway wall remodelling with degradation and synthesis of interstitial matrix proteins and migration of bronchial epithelial cells.1,2 Degradation of collagen type IV is a critical step in the inflammatory disorganisation of the airway wall, and is mainly determined by the balance between matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Among them, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as TIMP-1, released from bronchial epithelial cells seem to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.3 MMP-9 is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid4 and bronchial tissue in patients with bronchial asthma,5,6 while the expression of TIMP-1 is increased to a lesser extent, thus shifting the balance towards matrix degradation in the airway wall. Various proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ...
At this years SOT two events will highlight ISABs 3D Cell culturing system XposeALI. An exhibitor hosted session on Monday 14 March in Room 211 (1200 - 1300) will demonstrate XposeALIs work on the inflammatory and toxic effects of cells exposed to airborne particles, and its possibilities when studying nanoparticles. Karolinska Institutet Assoc. Prof Lena Palmberg will share how her team has successfully used XposeALI in its work on nanoparticles in air pollution.. On Tuesday 15 March, 1300-1500 Lena Palmberg hosts a poster session on advanced 3D-models developed with human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) for exposure to nanoparticles: 3D Cell and Organ-on-a-Chip Models.. XposeALI allows for the exposure of lung cells using respirable size aerosols via the PreciseInhale system. This combination of aerosol capability and 3D-models with primary bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) makes the system exceptionally precise, providing close mimicking of ...
Reports of cavitary lung cancer are not uncommon, and the cavity generally contains either dilated bronchi or cancer cells. Recently, we encountered a surgical case of cavitary lung cancer whose cavity tended to enlarge during long-term follow-up, and was found to be lined with normal bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinoma cells.. Keywords: cavitary lung cancer, surgery, histology, bronchial epithelium, traction bronchiectasis. ...
Primary cells maintain physiological relevance and thus find increasing use in life science research and pharmaceutical drug discovery
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Tobacco smoke exposure is the strongest aetiological factor associated with lung cancer. In this study, using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), we comprehensively examined the effect of active smoking by comparing the transcriptomes of clinical specimens obtained from current, former and never smokers, and identified genes showing both reversible and irreversible expression changes upon smoking cessation. Twenty-four SAGE profiles of the bronchial epithelium of eight current, twelve former and four never smokers were generated and analyzed. In total, 3,111,471 SAGE tags representing over 110 thousand potentially unique transcripts were generated, comprising the largest human SAGE study to date. We identified 1,733 constitutively expressed genes in current, former and never smoker transcriptomes. We have also identified both reversible and irreversible gene expression changes upon cessation of smoking; reversible changes were
NL20 (ATCC CRL-2503) is an immortalized, nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell line derived from normal bronchus taken from an accident victim at autopsy. The cell line was established by transfection with the origin of replication-defective SV40 large T plasmid, p129.
Background/Aims: Chemokine signaling from airway epithelium regulates macrophage recruitment to the lung in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. This study investigates the mechanism by which the a-melanocyte stimulating hormone-derived tripeptide, KPV, and the agonist of the dominant melanocortin receptor in airway epithelium (MC3R), ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), suppress inflammation in immortalised human bronchial airway epithelium. Methods: TNFa and rhino syncitial virus (RSV)-evoked nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) signaling was measured in immortalised human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) in response to KPV and ?MSH. Cellular and systemic inflammatory signaling was measured by NF?B reporter gene and chemokine (IL8, eotaxin) secretion, respectively. Results: KPV and ?MSH evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of NF?B, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, IL8 and eotaxin secretion. The KPV effect was associated with its nuclear import, I?Ba stabilisation and suppressed nuclear ...
Bronchial are all the airway tubes in the lungs, bronchus are the larger tubes from the trachea, bronchi are the many branches and bronchiole
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of HIV patients. However, the incidence of non-AIDS associated lung comorbidities, such as COPD and asthma, and that of opportunistic lung infections have become more common among this population. HIV proteins secreted by the anatomical HIV reservoirs can have both autocrine and paracrine effects contributing to the HIV-associated comorbidities. HIV has been recovered from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, alveolar macrophages, and intrapulmonary lymphocytes. We have recently shown that ex-vivo cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial brushings from human subjects express canonical HIV receptors CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected with HIV. Together these studies suggest that the lung tissue can serve as an important reservoir for HIV. In this report, we show that TGF-β1 promotes HIV latency by upregulating a transcriptional repressor BLIMP-1. Furthermore, we identify miR-9-5p as an important
The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract, and accommodate the bronchial airways when they branch from the trachea. The bronchial airways terminate in alveoli, the lung parenchyma (the tissue in between), and veins, arteries, nerves, and lymphatic vessels.[3][11] The trachea and bronchi have plexuses of lymph capillaries in their mucosa and submucosa. The smaller bronchi have a single layer of lymph capillaries, and they are absent in the alveoli.[12] All of the lower respiratory tract including the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles is lined with respiratory epithelium. This is a ciliated epithelium interspersed with goblet cells which produce mucus, and club cells with actions similar to macrophages. Incomplete tracheal rings of cartilage and smaller plates of cartilage in the bronchi, keep these airways open.[13] Bronchioles are too narrow to support cartilage and their walls are of smooth muscle, and this is largely absent in the narrower respiratory bronchioles which are mainly just ...
SLC26A9 does not contribute to airway Cl- secretion and is not essential for lung health under physiological conditions. We first compared lung morphology and ion transport properties in native bronchial tissues from naive wild-type and Slc26a9-/- mice. Consistent with previous immunolocalization studies (8, 15), Slc26a9 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in bronchi from naive wild-type mice (Supplemental Figure 1; supplemental material available online with this article; doi: 10.1172/JCI60429DS1). Morphological evaluation demonstrated that the conducting airways and alveolar airspaces were structurally normal and that lungs of Slc26a9-/- mice did not show evidence of spontaneous lung disease (Figure 1, A and B). To determine whether SLC26A9 contributed to constitutive Cl- secretion in native airway epithelia, as previously described for cultured HBE cells (11), we first compared bioelectric properties of freshly excised bronchial tissues from wild-type and Slc26a9-/- mice under HCO3--free ...
Synonyms for bronchus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bronchus. 1 synonym for bronchus: bronchial tube. What are synonyms for bronchus?
anatomy of lung bronchi,lung anatomy segmental bronchi,lung bronchi anatomy,lung bronchial anatomy,right lung bronchi anatomy,Boem.me
Bronchial asthma often starts in early childhood. Clinical manifestation of the disease is likely due to inflammatory processes in the airways initiated by various stimuli. Developed remodelling is regularly observed in the bronchial mucosa of adult asthmatics but we still lack information about its onset and latter development with the natural course of the disease. In this study, we analysed histological findings in bronchial biopsies obtained from very young children (under 4 yr of age). We hypothesized that initial undetectable changes in the airway epithelium of children predisposed to asthma may be one of the first mechanisms leading to morphological changes in the bronchial mucosa. ...
The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure.
Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, amp Lungs Bronchi and Bronchial Tree. In the mediastinum, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into the right and
NL20 (ATCC CRL-2503) is an immortalized, nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell line derived from normal bronchus taken from an accident victim at autopsy. The cell line was established by transfection with the origin of replication-defective SV40 large T plasmid, p129. NL20 cells at passage 183 were inoculated into nude mice and a small slowly growing subcutaneous tumor developed from a minor clone in this otherwise stable cell line.
The trachea, or wind pipe, divides into two main bronchi, which further divide several more times into smaller bronchioles, forming the bronchial tree that feeds air into the lungs. In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with or without accompanying accumulation of lung secretions.
The anterior bronchus sign refers to the appearance of the anterior segmental bronchus of the upper lobes as seen on a frontal chest radiograph. Gross anatomy The anterior segment bronchus of the upper lobes courses anteriorly and laterally. Wh...
4-stage cross-section of the bronchus demonstrating the tissue changes occurring in asthma and chronic bronchitis. 4-stages: normal bronchus, hypersecretion of the mucous gland, swelling with lymphoid aggregations and smooth-muscle spasm.
Lung bronchus cross-section, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This longitudinal freeze-fracture has exposed the inner epithelial surface of a bronchus (pink). The different ciliated and secretory cells are just visible. The bronchus is surrounded by pale pink lung tissue consisting mainly of alveolar elements (alveoli). Two blood vessels (orange lumens) are at upper left and top right. Magnification: x150 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C004/7743
Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. The bronchi are a part of the respiratory tract that act as an extension of...
Another word for bronchi. Find more ways to say bronchi, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the worlds most trusted free thesaurus.
In this study, we set out to evaluate methods to delay cell senescence while maintaining plasticity/differentiation potential in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. This is important as these cells have a key role to play in respiratory disease warranting further research. However, such primary cells are isolated from patients by invasive procedures and have limited lifespan ex vivo. We have developed two lentiviral systems that enabled us to elevate the expression of polycomb protein BMI‐1 and importantly suppress p16 levels in cells containing these genetic modifications. Extensive characterization over 12 months demonstrated that cells expressing higher levels of BMI‐1 have (1) increased viability, (2) an extended number of cell divisions, (3) maintain basal epithelial morphology, (4) maintain plasticity, that is, the ability to form a differentiated pseudostratified air-liquid interface model, and (5) importantly maintain a normal karyotype. These data suggest that the cell ...
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes commonly occurs in human cancers via increasing DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications at gene promoters. However, little is known about how pathogenic environmental factors contribute to cancer development by affecting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we reported that both hypoxia and nickel (an environmental carcinogen) increased global histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in cells through inhibiting a novel class of iron- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of histone demethylase JMJD1A by hypoxia and nickel could lead to repression/silencing of JMJD1A-targeted gene(s). By using Affymetrix GeneChip and ChIP-on-chip technologies, we identified Spry2 gene, a key regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, as one of the JMJD1A-targeted genes in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Both hypoxia and nickel exposure ...
Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells have been serially passaged in serum-free medium. This serum-free model was employed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mM) on multiplication and morphology of the cells. The responses were analysed in terms of growth kinetics, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. Culturing of the cells in high Ca2+ (1.0-2.0 mM) medium stimulated cell multiplication characterized by increased colony forming efficiency, greater number of cells per colony and cell population doublings per day. Additionally, the high Ca2+ concentrations induced proliferation in cultures grown to confluency in low Ca2+ (0.1 mM) medium. Cells propagated in low Ca2+ medium consisted of relatively heterogeneous cell populations, with most cells staining positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent. Ultrastructurally the cells exhibited secretory vesicles and microvilli on their surfaces, small desmosomes and intercellular interdigitation ...
Looking for online definition of respiratory bronchioles in the Medical Dictionary? respiratory bronchioles explanation free. What is respiratory bronchioles? Meaning of respiratory bronchioles medical term. What does respiratory bronchioles mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel Ca2+ influx pathway activated by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Kume, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Takeda, Naoya. AU - Iwata, Susumu. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - In response to mechanical stretch, airway smooth muscle exhibits various cellular functions such as contraction, proliferation, and cytoskeletal remodeling, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stretch of airway smooth muscle cells increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] i) by activating stretch-activated (SA) nonselective cation channels. A single uniaxial stretch (3 s) was given to human bronchial smooth muscle cells cultured on an elastic silicone membrane. After the mechanical stretch, a transient increase in [Ca2+]i was observed. The [Ca 2+]i increase was significantly dependent on stretch amplitude. The ...
The trachea (windpipe) divides at the carina into two main or primary bronchi, the left bronchus and the right bronchus. The carina of the trachea is located at the level of the sternal angle and the fifth thoracic vertebra (at rest). The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus,[3] its mean length is 1.09 cm.[4] It enters the root of the right lung at approximately the fifth thoracic vertebra. The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung-the superior, middle and inferior lobe. The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it. About 2 cm from its commencement it gives off a branch to the superior lobe of the right lung, which is also called the eparterial bronchus. Eparterial refers to its position above the right pulmonary artery. The right bronchus now passes below the ...
The trachea (windpipe) divides at the carina into two main or primary bronchi, the left bronchus and the right bronchus. The carina of the trachea is located at the level of the sternal angle and the fifth thoracic vertebra (at rest). The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus,[3] its mean length is 1.09 cm.[4] It enters the root of the right lung at approximately the fifth thoracic vertebra. The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung-the superior, middle and inferior lobe. The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it. About 2 cm from its commencement it gives off a branch to the superior lobe of the right lung, which is also called the eparterial bronchus. Eparterial refers to its position above the right pulmonary artery. The right bronchus now passes below the ...
Arguably the simplest way to achieve one-lung ventilation is through deliberate bronchial intubation with a standard endotracheal tube. If this is used as a blind technique, the tube is most likely to go down the right main bronchus, as the course of the right main bronchus is more in line with the trachea than the course of the left, which comes off at the carina at a bigger angle.. [drawing]. This technique has several drawbacks: When a standard ETT is used to intubate the right main bronchus, the tube cuff is very likely to occlude the right upper lobe bronchus. So in addition to isolating the left lung this technique can inadvertently also isolate a significant part of the right lung. A second disadvantage is that left main bronchus intubation is not reliably achieved when this technique is used blindly. A fiberoptic scope is therefore frequently necessary to place a tube into the left main bronchus.. ...
Age-related changes of the dopamine nerve fibres of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were investigated in male Wistar rats of 3 months (young), and 24 months (old/aged). Dopamine histofluorescence techniques have been used, associated with image analysis for the detection of dopamine nerve fibres. In young rats, white, fluorescent nerve fibres supply BALT. This tissue is innervated by a delicate network of nerve fibres rich in varicosities. In old rats these fluorescent nerve fibres are strongly reduced. Moreover, dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stained using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The BALT of young rats possesses a higher number of D1a and D1b receptors, while, in the old rats, these receptors are strongly reduced. The possible significance of reduced dopamine neurotransmission in BALT of aged rats is discussed.
CFBE41o- 4.7 WT-CFTR Human CF Bronchial Epithelial Cell Line CFBE41o- 4.7 WT-CFTR human CF bronchial epithelial cell line may be used to study the relationship between CFTR mRNA expression and Cl transport function. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Low-grade, small cell lymphoma/Primary pulmonary lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) (B-cell type). Low-grade, B-cell lymphomas are believed to be derived from cells of the marginal zone of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. These cell spend their lives in BALT, regional lymph nodes, and the blood where they may visit other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue before homing to BALT (see diagram).. ...
Lymphocytes from LN and spleen of 3-4-mo-old NOD mice were labeled by incubating 2 × 107 cells/ml with 0.8 μg/ml TRITC in labeling medium (50% RPMI 1640, 48.5% HBSS, and 1.5% BCS) at 37°C for 15 min (19). Similarly, rat LN and spleen lymphocytes were labeled with 4 μM CFSE as described previously for TRITC (20). The cells were centrifuged through BCS, washed, and resuspended in transfer medium (DMEM with 10 mM Hepes, and 1% BCS).. To block endothelial adhesion molecules, each host mouse received 500 μg intravenously of anti-endothelial adhesion molecule or control mAb, followed 30 min later by 5 × 107 TRITC-labeled mouse cells intravenously. To block lymphocyte adhesion molecules, TRITC-labeled mouse cells were treated with 10 μg/ml anti-lymphocyte adhesion molecule or control mAb on ice for 10 min; 5 × 107 mouse cells and 108 CFSE-labeled rat cells were transferred intravenously into each host. The rat cells, which do not react with the anti-mouse lymphocyte adhesion molecule mAbs used ...
List of 10 disease causes of Tracheobronchial airway obstruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Tracheobronchial airway obstruction.
The avian lung has a highly sophisticated morphology with a complex vascular system. Extant data regarding avian pulmonary angioarchitecture are few and contradictory. We used corrosion casting techniques, light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the development, topography, and distribution of the parabronchial vasculature in the chicken lung. The arterial system was divisible into three hierarchical generations, all formed external to the parabronchial capillary meshwork. These included the interparabronchial arteries (A1) that ran parallel to the long axes of parabronchi and gave rise to orthogonal parabronchial arteries (A2) that formed arterioles (A3). The arterioles formed capillaries that participated in the formation of the parabronchial mantle. The venous system comprised six hierarchical generations originating from the luminal aspect of the parabronchi, where capillaries converged to form occasional tiny infundibular venules (V6) around ...
An increasing number of studies using primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) have reported intrinsic differences in the expression of several genes between cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors. The stability of gene expression by primary BECs with increasing cell passage number has not been well characterized. To determine if expression by primary BECs from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children of selected genes associated with airway remodeling, innate immune response, immunomodulatory factors, and markers of differentiated airway epithelium, are stable over increasing cell passage number, we studied gene expression patterns in passages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 BECs from asthmatic (n = 6) and healthy (n = 6) subjects that were differentiated at an air-liquid interface. RNA was harvested from BECs and RT-PCR was performed for TGFβ1, TGFβ2, activin A, FSTL3, MUC5AC, TSLP, IL-33, CXCL10, IFIH1, p63, KT5, TUBB4A, TJP1, OCLN, and FOXJ1. Expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, activin A, FSTL3, MUC5AC,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multipotent capacity of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. AU - Delgado, Oliver. AU - Kaisani, Aadil A.. AU - Spinola, Monica. AU - Xie, Xian Jin. AU - Batten, Kimberly G.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Wright, Woodring E.. AU - Shay, Jerry W.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple compartmentally restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and repair, much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. Translating the murine stem cell model to humans is hindered by anatomical differences between species. Here we show that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) display characteristics of multipotent stem cells of the lung. These HBECs express markers indicative of several epithelial types of the adult lung when experimentally tested in cell culture. When cultured in three different three-dimensional (3D) systems, subtle changes in the microenvironment result in unique responses including the ability of HBECs to ...
Bitter tastants can activate bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and thus initiate the relaxation of airway smooth muscle cells, which have great potential in the development of novel asthma therapy. However, recent study shows that canonical bitter substance denatonium induces apoptosis of bronch...
Li, J., Patterson, M., Chew, W. L., Cho, S-H., Gilmour, I., Oliver, T., ... Liedtke, W. (2011). TRPV4-Mediated calcium-influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 784 - 793. ...
Bronchi are tube like structures that allow air to be transported from the surrounding atmosphere to the lung. The respiratory system (airways) consists of the trachea (essentially a large bronchi) that branch off into smaller and smaller bronchi before reaching the most distal lung alveoli, where oxygen can be transferred to the blood. The respiratory bronchus is lined by respiratory epithelium comprising an admixture of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, goblet cells (mucin producing cells also termed mucous cells) and basal cells that function as progenitor cells for both the ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells. Ciliated cells are about five times more numerous than goblet cells in the central airways and the ratio of ciliated cells increases in the smaller and peripheral bronchi (bronchioles) as the goblet cells diminish. The basal cells are more abundant in the proximal airways, where they form more or less, a continuous layer and gradually diminish in number in peripheral ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Adenosine deaminase RNA-specific B1 (ADARB1), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme, has been found to play an essential role in the development of cancer. However, the specific function of ADARB1 in lung cancer, especially in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), is still not fully understood and requires further study. In our study, integrative bioinformatics were used to analyze the detailed function of ADARB1 in LUAD. By conducting bioinformatics analyses of several public databases, such as Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), GE-mini, and Oncomine, we found significantly decreased ADARB1 expression in LUAD cells and tissues. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot showed lower ADARB1 expression in H358 and A549 LUAD cells compared to human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells. Wound Healing Assay indicated that knockdown ADARB1 could promote LUAD cell metastasis. By using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter tool, we found that downregulation of ADARB1 was related to shorter first ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Th17-related cytokine expression is increased in the bronchial mucosa of stable COPD patients. AU - Magno, Francesca. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background: There is an increased number of activated Tl lymphocytes in the bronchial mucosa of stable COPD patients but are absent studies on Th17 cells and their effector cytokines.Objectives: To investigate the expression of retinoic orphan receptor(ROR)C2,interleukin(IL)-17A,IL-17F,IL-21,IL-22 and IL-23 in bronchial biopsies frompatients with stable COPD of different severity(stage 2 to 4)compared withage-matched control subject(smokers with normal lung function and lifelongnon-smokers).Methods: The expression of RORC2,IL-17A,IL-17F,IL-21,IL-22 and IL-23was measured in the bronchial mucosa using immunohistochemistry and/or realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Results: The number of IL-22+ and IL23+ immunoreactive cells is increasedin the bronchial epithelium of stable COPD compared with control groups. Inaddition, the ...
This work was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing tumor from normal bronchial tissue. A rapid NIR Raman system was used for tissue Raman studies. High-quality Raman spectra in the 700-1800 cm-1 range can be acquired from human bronchial tissues in vitro. Raman spectra differed significantly between normal and malignant tumor tissue, with tumors showing increased nucleic acid, tryptophan, phenylalanine signals and decreased phospholipids, proline, and valine signals than normal tissue. Raman spectral shape differences between normal and tumor tissue were also observed particularly in the spectral ranges of 1000-1100, 1200-1400, and 1500-1700 cm-1, which are related to the protein and lipid conformations and CH stretching modes in nucleic acids. The ratio of Raman intensities at 1445 cm-1 to 1655 cm-1 provided good differentiation between normal and malignant bronchial tissue, suggesting that NIR Raman spectroscopy may have a significant potential for the ...
BACKGROUND. Asthma is a complex disease with multiple phenotypes that may differ in disease pathobiology and treatment response. Interleukin 33 (IL33) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with asthma. IL33 levels are elevated in sputum, and bronchial biopsies of asthma patients. The functional consequences of IL33 asthma SNPs remain unknown.. OBJECTIVE. We studied whether IL33 SNPs associate with asthma-related phenotypes and with IL33 expression in lung or bronchial epithelium. We investigated the effect of increased IL33 expression on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) function.. METHODS. Association between IL33 SNPs (Chr9: 5,815,786-6,657,983) and asthma phenotypes (Lifelines/DAG/GASP cohorts) and between SNPs and expression (lung tissue, bronchial brushes, HBECs) was done using regression modelling. Lentiviral overexpression was used to study IL33 effects on HBECs.. RESULTS. 161 SNPs spanning the IL33 region associated with one or more asthma ...
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a principal cause of acute and chronic failure of lung allografts. However, mechanisms mediating this oftentimes fatal complication are poorly understood. Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. Using a retransplantation model, we show that selective depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and AMR, which was associated with complement deposition and destruction of airway epithelium. AMR was dependent on graft infiltration by B and T cells. Depletion of graft-resident Foxp3+ T lymphocytes resulted in prolonged interactions between B and CD4+ T cells within transplanted lungs, which was dependent on CXCR5-CXCL13. Blockade of CXCL13 as well as inhibition of the CD40 ligand and the ICOS ligand suppressed DSA production and prevented AMR. Thus, we ...
Medical information, Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus. Definition of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, symptoms of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, treatment of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, and prevention of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus. Exams and Tests Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus.
Looking for online definition of bronchus, cancer of in the Medical Dictionary? bronchus, cancer of explanation free. What is bronchus, cancer of? Meaning of bronchus, cancer of medical term. What does bronchus, cancer of mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of capacitative Ca2+ entry in bronchial contraction and remodeling. AU - Sweeney, Michele. AU - McDaniel, Sharon S.. AU - Platoshyn, Oleksandr. AU - Zhang, Shen. AU - Yu, Ying. AU - Lapp, Bethany R.. AU - Zhao, Ying. AU - Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.. AU - Yuan, Jason X.J.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway obstruction by bronchospasm and bronchial wall thickening due to smooth muscle hypertrophy. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) may serve as a shared signal transduction element that causes bronchial constriction and bronchial wall thickening in asthma. In this study, we examined whether capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) induced by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores was involved in agonist-mediated bronchial constriction and bronchial smooth muscle cell (BSMC) proliferation. In isolated bronchial rings, acetylcholine (ACh) induced a transient contraction in the ...
To characterize the inflammatory process in the bronchial glands of smokers with chronic sputum production, we examined lobar bronchi from 18 subjects undergoing lung resection for localized pulmonary lesions, all with a history of cigarette smoking. Nine of the subjects had symptoms of chronic bron …
Activity of superoxide dismutase in guinea pigs bronchi in late periods of experimental allergic alveolitis development and their correction with thiotriazolin
Lin, H., Li, H., Cho, H.-J., Bian, S., Roh, H.-J., Lee, M.-K., Kim, J. S., Chung, S.-J., Shim, C.-K. and Kim, D.-D. (2007), Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers as an in vitro model for airway drug transport studies. J. Pharm. Sci., 96: 341-350. doi: 10.1002/jps.20803 ...
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The tracheobronchial tree is the macroscopic framework of the respiratory system. The trachea bifurcates into two branches, the right main stem bronchus and left main stem bronchus. Many branchings continue down to the bronchioli, which allow air to diffuse into the alveoli, the site of actual gas exchange. Because the bronchial tree is filled with air, it has negative density on CT. Typical CT values of the bronchial lumen are in the range -1000 H.U. to -900 H.U. Because of the partial volume effect, the CT value becomes higher as the branches become thinner. To segment the tracheobronchial tree from chest CT examinations, the basic method involves tracing the negative-density regions from the trachea, which can be easily identified, in the direction from the center to the peripheral. There are several methods for extracting bronchial regions. These methods can be classified into two categories: (a) the region-growing-based method and (b) the machine learning-based method. In the category (a), ...
The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways. Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles are confusingly named, as they are not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles th...
Floreani AA, Heires AJ, Welniak LA et al. (1998). Expression of receptors for C5a anaphylatoxin (CD88) on human bronchial epithelial cells: enhancement of C5a-mediated release of IL-8 upon exposure to cigarette smoke.. J. Immunol. 160 (10): 5073-81. PMID 9590258. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link) ...
The purpose of our studies was to examine differentiation-dependent expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) isoforms in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In the presence of retinoic acid (RA) the cultures differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium. When cultured in RA-depleted media, the cultures differentiated into a squamous epithelium. In the absence of RA the cultures did not express 15-LO or either of the PGHS isoforms. The PGHS-1 isoform was not expressed in RA-sufficient cultures, but both PGHS-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were strongly expressed, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was produced during the predifferentiation phase. No PGHS-2 expression or PGE2 could be detected in fully differentiated mucociliary cultures. 15-LO showed the opposite expression pattern: neither mRNA nor protein were detected during the predifferentiation stage, but both were strongly expressed once mucous differentiation had occurred. Cytosolic ...
Diabetic Mouse Tracheal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the tracheal and bronchial tissues of Diabetic (db/db) mice. Diabetic Mouse Stomach Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml. The method we use to isolate primary epithelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. Cells are incubated with EpCAM-1 (CD326) antibody, following the application of magnetic beads pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification of gene expression of the small airway epithelium in response to cigarette smoking. AU - Harvey, Ben Gary. AU - Heguy, Adriana. AU - Leopold, Philip L.. AU - Carolan, Brendan J.. AU - Ferris, Barbara. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - The earliest morphologic evidence of changes in the airways associated with chronic cigarette smoking is in the small airways. To help understand how smoking modifies small airway structure and function, we developed a strategy using fiberoptic bronchoscopy and brushing to sample the human small airway (10th-12th order) bronchial epithelium to assess gene expression (Affymetrix HG-U133A and HG-133 Plus 2.0 array) in phenotypically normal smokers (n = 16, 25 ± 7 pack-years) compared to matched nonsmokers (n = 17). Compared to samples from large (second to third order) bronchi, the small airway samples had a higher proportion of ciliated cells, but less basal, undifferentiated, and secretory cells, and contained ...
This study is the first to analyse the soluble factors secreted by the bronchial epithelium after exposure to isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) that are responsible for increasing migration and proliferation of primary normal human bronchial smooth musc
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cytoprotective mechanism that alleviates the protein-folding burden in eukaryotic organisms. Moderate activation of UPR is required for maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and profoundly contributes to tumorigenesis. Defects in UPR signaling are implicated in the attenuation of various malignant phenotypes including cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as angiogenesis. This suggests UPR as a promising target in cancer therapy. The pharmacological effects of the plant Scindapsus cf. hederaceus on human cancer cell lines is not understood. In this study, we identified an ethyl acetate extract from Scindapsus cf. hederaceus (SH-EAE), which markedly altered the protein expression of UPR-related genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Treatment with the SH-EAE led to the dose-dependent suppression of colony forming ability of both H1299 and H460 cells, but not markedly in normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. SH-EAE
ICD-10-PCS code 0BN48ZZ for Release Right Upper Lobe Bronchus, Via Natural or Artificial Opening Endoscopic is a medical classification as listed by W
By the start of the fifth week, the left and right main bronchi have begin to form, initially as buds at the terminal end of ... The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage ... The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing ... In birds, the trachea runs from the pharynx to the syrinx, from which the primary bronchi diverge. Swans have an unusually ...
ISBN 978-0-323-04582-7. "Bronchi, Bronchial Tree & Lungs". SEER Training Modules. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... "The trachea and the stem bronchi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Saladin KS (2007). Anatomy and ...
Candidiasis of the Bronchi; Candidiasis of the Lungs; Kaposi's Sarcoma; Pneumonia; Tuberculosis; Stab Wound in the Belly; and ...
Müller-Schweinitzer E, Hasse J, Swoboda L (1993). "Cryopreservation of human bronchi". J Asthma. 30 (6): 451-7. doi:10.3109/ ...
Retrieved 2015-02-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). "Bronchi, Bronchial Tree & Lungs". nih.gov. Retrieved 17 ...
Blood can usually be detected in the trachea or bronchi for 1-3 days after an episode of EIPH, but may be present for up to a ... BAL may be performed using a BAL tube, which allows fluid to be added to and removed from the bronchi, or may be performed ... Approximately 43 to 75% of horses have blood in the trachea and bronchi following a single post-race endoscopic examination. In ... EIPH is most commonly diagnosed by endoscopic examination of the trachea and larger bronchi, with the optimal timing for ...
The bronchi contained abundant gas. The lungs fairly voluminous. The right lung showing extensive collapse at the base. Liver ...
bronchus. Bronchoscopy. lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart- ...
... bronchi. Each of these bronchi branch into secondary (lobar) bronchi that branch into tertiary (segmental) bronchi that branch ... lobar bronchus (diameter approximately 1 cm) *segmental bronchus (diameter 4.5 to 13 mm)[7] *subsegmental bronchus (diameter 1 ... It branches off into two bronchial tubes, a left and a right main bronchus. The bronchi branch off into smaller sections inside ... It continues down the bronchi and bronchioles, which it completely encircles. Instead of hard cartilage, the bronchi and ...
... and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi (1 to 6 ... The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi. Second only in diameter to the trachea (1.8 ... 16). The primary bronchi enter the lungs to become the intrapulmonary bronchi, which give off a set of parallel branches called ... as well as into the dorsobronchi, but not into the ventrobronchi (Fig. 18). This is due to the bronchial architecture which ...
The lobar bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi also known as segmental bronchi and these supply air to the further divisions of ... The main or primary bronchi enter the lungs at the hilum and initially branch into secondary bronchi also known as lobar ... The trachea and bronchi have plexuses of lymph capillaries in their mucosa and submucosa. The smaller bronchi have a single ... Each bronchus branches into bronchioles.[33] The branching is a result of the tip of each tube bifurcating.[32] The branching ...
The main bronchi also known as the primary bronchi, in each lung, which are the left and right bronchus, give rise to secondary ... These in turn give rise to tertiary bronchi (tertiary meaning "third"), known as segmental bronchi. The segmentary bronchi ... The respiratory bronchioles are the narrowest airways of the lungs, 0.5 mm across.[2] The bronchi divide many times before ... These are histologically distinct from the bronchi in that their walls do not have hyaline cartilage and they have club cells ...
Right side: (superior to inferior) Eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and inferior pulmonary vein ... The root is formed by the bronchus, the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary veins, the bronchial arteries and veins, the pulmonary ... Left Side: (superior to inferior) Pulmonary artery, bronchus and inferior pulmonary vein. ... and the bronchus and bronchial vessels are located posteriorly. ...
Bronchi are widened and mucus regulated. (PRs are widely present in submucosal tissue.) Progesterone acts as an ...
These bronchi in turn form secondary (lobar) bronchi; three on the right and two on the left (reflecting the number of lung ... Tertiary bronchi form from secondary bronchi. While the internal lining of the larynx originates from the lung bud, its ... which enlarge at the beginning of the fifth week to form the left and right main bronchi. ...
This condition can also affect the bronchi. There are two forms of this condition: primary TBM and secondary TBM. Primary TBM ...
They lay eggs into the airways (bronchi). These eggs are coughed up and subsequently swallowed by the host. The eggs hatch into ...
Bronchial adenomas are adenomas in the bronchi. They may cause carcinoid syndrome, a type of paraneoplastic syndrome. A ...
Wilks, Samuel (1857). "Ossific deposits on larynx, trachea and bronchi". Trans. Path. Soc. Lond. 8: 88. "Library and Archive ...
"Cellular events in the bronchi in mild asthma and after bronchial provocation." American Review of Respiratory Disease 139, no ... "Subepithelial fibrosis in the bronchi of asthmatics." The Lancet 333, no. 8637 (1989): 520-524. https://www.mrinz.ac.nz/staff/ ...
This can occur at the level of the larynx, trachea, carina or main bronchi. In a small number of patients narrowing may be ... Armstrong WB, Netterville JL (August 1995). "Anatomy of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 28 (4 ...
For nasal mucosa, sinuses, bronchi, and lungs. This group includes: Flunisolide Fluticasone furoate Fluticasone propionate ...
Most cases arise in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi). Sixty to seventy percent have extensive disease (which ... Adler I (1912). Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company. OCLC 14783544. OL ... If cancer growth blocks a short section of bronchus, brachytherapy (localized radiotherapy) may be given directly inside the ... Edwards AT (March 1946). "Carcinoma of the bronchus". Thorax. 1 (1): 1-25. doi:10.1136/thx.1.1.1. PMC 1018207. PMID 20986395. ...
... bronchi, and alveoli of the lungs; the bladder and part of the urethra; and the follicle lining of the thyroid gland and thymus ... the epithelial parts of the trachea and bronchi, the lungs, the thyroid, and the parathyroid. The mesoderm germ layer forms in ...
It includes the trachea, bronchi, and the lungs. It is essentially a fixed system, so does not change for each individual ...
The insertion of a tracheal tube can cause an infection in the trachea which then colonises and spreads to the bronchi. If ... The infection begins in the trachea where it colonises and spreads to the bronchi. The characteristic increased sputum produced ... Tracheobronchitis is inflammation of the trachea and bronchi. It is characterised by a cough, fever, and purulent (containing ...
Increased diameter ratio of segmental arteries to bronchi. This finding in three or four lobes, in the presence of a dilated ...
... or that a bronchus has collapsed, obscuring more distal (lower) bronchi from view. Chest x-ray is the initial imaging technique ... If a bronchus is torn all the way around, the lung may collapse outward toward the chest wall (rather than inward, as it ... The bronchi split into smaller branches and then to bronchioles that supply air to the alveoli, the tiny air-filled sacs in the ... The trachea and bronchi form the tracheobronchial tree. The trachea is situated between the lower end of the larynx and the ...
Adler, I. A. (1980). "Primary Malignant Growth of the Lung and Bronchi". CA Cancer J Clin. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 30 ...
bronchi. The air we breathe in enters the lungs through the windpipe. From there it is conducted through the branching ... structure of airways (bronchi), which become finer and finer, to the pulmonary vesicles (alveoli). The exchange between oxygen ...
The lobar bronchus is the major airway within the respiratory tree that starts by division of the principal bronchi on both ... These plates give structural support to the bronchus and maintain the patency of the lumen. ... lobar bronchus. Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0002183 Copy ... bronchus http://amigo.geneontology.org/amigo/term/GO:0060482 ] ... distally connected to some segmental bronchus. *part of some ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Bronchi Mereprine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Bronchi Mereprine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Bronchi Mereprine. Bronchi Mereprine may be available in the countries listed below. ... Ingredient matches for Bronchi Mereprine. Bromhexine. Bromhexine hydrochloride (a derivative of Bromhexine) is reported as an ...
Bronchi, Trachea, NosePharynxMore Than Just a PipeGas Laws and BreathingVolumes and Volumes I know, I know, breathing always ... Anatomy and Physiology: Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, Nose. Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, Nose. Anatomy and Physiology. *The Respitory ... This region consists of the nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. This anatomical dead space limits ... Bronchi, Trachea, NoseAnatomy and PhysiologyThe Respitory SystemLungs, ...
... the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus ... In human respiratory system: The trachea and the stem bronchi. The right main bronchus has a larger diameter, is oriented more ... side branches from the right bronchus and one from the left. These branches and the blind ends of the two parent bronchi ... In respiratory disease: Diseases of the major bronchi. The major bronchi can become the seat of chronic inflammation, as in ...
The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus, also known as the primary ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ... The left main bronchus departs from the trachea at a greater angle than that of the right main bronchus. The right bronchus is ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the ...
The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus. ... Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air travels into ... Primary bronchi are located in the upper portion of the lungs, with secondary bronchi near the center of the lungs. Tertiary ... The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus. The bronchi become smaller the ...
The chances of having multiple foreign bodies in the same bronchus or in both the bronchi are not remote. Babies presenting ... Bilateral foreign body bronchus Foreign body aspiration (FBA) Foreign body (FB) bronchoscopy ... Here we want to share our experience in managing 7 cases of bilateral foreign body bronchus. ... with foreign bodies in bilateral bronchus have graver prognosis than the babies with unilateral foreign bodies. ...
3D bronchi models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR ...
The eparterial bronchus (right superior lobar bronchus) is a branch of the right main bronchus given off about 2.5 cm from the ... The eparterial bronchus is the only secondary bronchus with a specific name apart from the name of its corresponding lobe. The ... This branch supplies the superior lobe of the right lung and is the most superior of all secondary bronchi. It arises above the ... Anatomy photo:19:17-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Pleural Cavities and Lungs: The Bronchi and Their Divisions" ...
The bronchi are a part of the respiratory tract that act as an extension of... ... Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. ... At the end of the trachea are a right bronchus and a left bronchus. These bronchi play a major role within the conducting zone ... Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. The ...
The right lung accessory lobe lobar bronchus is the major airway within the right lung accessory lobe that starts at the ... division of the bronchus on the right side and ends at the point of its own subdivision into tertiary or segmental bronchi [ LG ... right lung accessory lobe lobar bronchus. Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0004896 Copy ...
1990) Bronchus- und Pleuratumoren durch Arbeitsstoffe. In: Konietzko N., Costabel U., Bauer P.C. (eds) Lunge und Arbeitswelt. ...
The left main bronchus (primary) is one of the air passage ways into the lungs. ...
The bronchi are structurally similar to the trachea, as they are divisions from it. The bronchi are lined with the same type of ... Bronchi. Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air ... The secondary bronchi continue to branch off to form the tertiary bronchi, which are further divided into terminal bronchioles. ... Once inside the lungs, each bronchus is further divided into five smaller, secondary bronchi, which provide air to the lobes of ...
Learn about Bronchi-Shield ORAL for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage ... Bronchi-Shield ORAL. This page contains information on Bronchi-Shield ORAL for veterinary use.. The information provided ... Bronchi-Shield ORAL. This treatment applies to the following species:. *Dogs. Company: Elanco US Bordetella Bronchiseptica ... Bronchi-Shield ORAL Caution. This product is designed for oral administration. Do not vaccinate dogs parenterally. Store in the ...
The left lower lobe bronchus (secondary) is one of the air passage ways into the lungs. ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Histology of Bronchus in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s ... Histology of Bronchus. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Histology of Bronchus in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Cross-section of bronchus showing histological structure of inner wall. Orientation drawing (left) shows location of bronchus. ...
A small histopathological study of SARS and influenza autopsies compared to rejected for transplantation lungs. There is some speculation on the popular procoagulopathic nature of the panvirus, based on expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2.There might be a collateral stimulus for lung preservation in organ retrieval ...
This site is not optimized for Internet Explorer 8 (or older).. Please upgrade to a newer version of Internet Explorer or use an alternate browser such as Chrome or Firefox.. ...
In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with ... divides into two main bronchi, which further divide several more times into smaller bronchioles, forming the bronchial tree ... In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with ... It is hoped that x-rays will reveal characteristic abnormalities in the bronchi that are related to this disease, but that is ...
The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus, also known as the primary ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the ... The secondary bronchi divide further into tertiary bronchi, (also known as segmental bronchi), each of which supplies a ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ...
Laser treatment for carcinoma of the bronchus. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 286 :12 ... Good palliation was obtained in just over half the cases of partial obstruction of the trachea or main bronchus, but best ... A total of 34 patients with carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with argon gas or neodynium yttrium aluminium garnet crystal ... Laser treatment in carcinoma of the bronchus is essentially palliative and is suitable for only a few patients. Patients ...
Learn how to pronounce bronchi in English with native pronunciation. bronchi translation and audio pronunciation ... bronchi example in a phrase My cousin has calcium deposits in his bronchi, a condition called broncholithiasis. * My cousin has ... bronchi pronunciation Pronunciation by russell00 (Male from Australia) 0 votes Good Bad ... Can you pronounce it better? Or with a different accent? Pronounce bronchi in English ...
Bronchus - A large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary ... Bronchus - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May ... Medical Word - Bronchus. Ans : A large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung. ...
Bronchi-Shield III intranasal vaccine protects dogs against Adenovirus Type 2 (respiratory disease), Parainfluenza and ... Bronchi-Shield® III is designed for intranasal use only. Do not vaccinate dogs parenterally.. A very small percentage of ... Bronchi-Shield® III contains modified live virus and avirulent live culture. Recommended for the vaccination of healthy dogs ... Bronchi-Shield® III offers broad Canine Cough protection. *Prevents Canine Adenovirus Type 1 (Hepatitis), Adenovirus Type 2 ( ...
Find more ways to say bronchi, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the worlds most ... BRONCHI. Their size varies with that of the bronchi in which they are formed. ... Parts of the lungs have been removed to show the branching of the air tubes or bronchi which pass into them. ... Benzoic acid is also excreted by the bronchi and tends to disinfect and stimulate the bronchial mucous membrane. ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Bronchi-Shield ORAL is for the vaccination of healthy dogs and puppies eight weeks of age or older as an aid in the prevention ... Bronchi-Shield® ORAL is for the vaccination of healthy dogs and puppies eight weeks of age or older as an aid in the prevention ... Bronchi-Shield® ORAL prevents Canine Bordetella Bronchiseptica. *Recommended for the vaccination of healthy dogs eight weeks of ...
... To view these resources with no ads, please Login or Subscribe (and help support our site).. The trachea through which ... air passes on the way to the lungs, splits to become two bronchi, one entering each lung. ...
  • The trachea and major bronchi of the human lungs. (britannica.com)
  • These branches and the blind ends of the two parent bronchi indicate the future plan of the lungs, with three right lobes and two left lobes. (britannica.com)
  • Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Primary bronchi are located in the upper portion of the lungs, with secondary bronchi near the center of the lungs. (healthline.com)
  • The left main bronchus (primary) is one of the air passage ways into the lungs. (innerbody.com)
  • The trachea extends from the neck and divides into two main bronchi that divide to the lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Foreign objects breathed into the lungs often end up in the right bronchus, as it is larger than the left. (healthline.com)
  • Once inside the lungs, each bronchus is further divided into five smaller, secondary bronchi, which provide air to the lobes of the lungs. (healthline.com)
  • The trachea , or wind pipe, divides into two main bronchi, which further divide several more times into smaller bronchioles, forming the bronchial tree that feeds air into the lungs. (petmd.com)
  • Your veterinarian will also take x-ray images of the chest, respiratory tract, and bronchial tubes, which may or may not show abnormalities in the architecture of the lungs, including dilatation of the bronchi. (petmd.com)
  • A bronchus is a passage or airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the widest and enter the lungs at each hilum , where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi or segmental bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • It passed through the bronchi without stimulating the glottis, and produced no uneasy sensations in the lungs. (thesaurus.com)
  • Parts of the lungs have been removed to show the branching of the air tubes or bronchi which pass into them. (thesaurus.com)
  • pl. bronchi) Either of the two tubes branching from the lower end of the trachea and forming the main airways to and from the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bronchi (one Bronchus ) are the large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Without the bronchi, air would never get into the lungs, and oxygen would never get into our bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic bronchitis, also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occurs when the mucous membranes of the bronchi (the airways that transport oxygen from the trachea to the lungs) become inflamed. (petmd.com)
  • The bronchi (singular: bronchus) are the airways that lead from the trachea into the lungs, and then branch into smaller bronchioles. (verywellhealth.com)
  • A bronchus is either of the two major branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • These bronchi, in turn, travel to each of the lungs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Due to the angle at which the bronchi enter the lungs, fluids that are aspirated (breathed in) are more likely to enter the right lung. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Some of these involve other regions of the lungs, and others are restricted to the main bronchus and small bronchi. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Asthma is an illness characterized by constriction of the bronchi, which in turn interferes with the passage of air from the environment to the alveoli of the lungs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • A bronchus (plural bronchi , adjective bronchial ) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs . (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, we show that Foxp3+ T cells formed aggregates in rejection-free human lung grafts and accumulated within induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of tolerant mouse lungs. (jci.org)
  • Tumors of the Bronchi, Lungs, and Pleura. (annals.org)
  • Branches of segmental bronchi to the bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods: Human bronchi were isolated from resected lungs and TAS2R transcripts were assessed with RT-qPCR. (ersjournals.com)
  • Dr. Paige has divided the book into five sections: - the first deals with diseases of the Trachea, the second deals with diseases of the Bronchi, the third - diseases of the Lungs, the fourth - diseases of the Pleura, and the fifth - diseases of the Mediastinum. (bjainbooks.com)
  • In the respiratory system, the right and left main stem bronchi are present and will eventually connect the trachea, or windpipe, with the lungs. (ehd.org)
  • The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina , supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. (radiopaedia.org)
  • the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus into the airways. (britannica.com)
  • Together, the trachea and the two primary bronchi are referred to as the bronchial tree . (healthline.com)
  • Benzoic acid is also excreted by the bronchi and tends to disinfect and stimulate the bronchial mucous membrane. (thesaurus.com)
  • NL20 ( ATCC CRL-2503 ) is an immortalized, nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell line derived from normal bronchus taken from an accident victim at autopsy. (atcc.org)
  • CK 10 was expressed only in early squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus, and CK 17 in varying quantity in hyperplastic, preneoplastic and cancerous lesions of the bronchial mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • adventitia covers the outer bronchial wall, which connects the bronchus to the surrounding lung tissues. (getbodysmart.com)
  • During follow-up, the patient complained of recurrent haemoptysis and bronchoscopy revealed an accessory bronchial orifice containing blood residues that arose from the medial wall of the bronchus intermedius. (eurorad.org)
  • Right main bronchus is supplied by one single right bronchial artery 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Rupprecht H, Rumenapf G, Petermann H, Gunther K. Transthoracic bronchial intubation in a case of main bronchus disruption. (springer.com)
  • A vegetating, pedunculated lesion covered with a normal bronchial epithelium was observed obstructing the entrance of the left main bronchus ( Fig. 1 c). (archbronconeumol.org)
  • The bronchi become smaller the closer they get to the lung tissue and are then considered bronchioles . (healthline.com)
  • In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with or without accompanying accumulation of lung secretions. (petmd.com)
  • The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus, [3] its mean length is 1.09 cm. [4] It enters the root of the right lung at approximately the fifth thoracic vertebra . (wikipedia.org)
  • The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi ), which deliver oxygen to the three lobes of the right lung-the superior, middle and inferior lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 2 cm from its commencement it gives off a branch to the superior lobe of the right lung, which is also called the eparterial bronchus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The left bronchus has no eparterial branch , and therefore it has been supposed by some that there is no upper lobe to the left lung, but that the so-called upper lobe corresponds to the middle lobe of the right lung . (wikipedia.org)
  • The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung-the superior and the inferior lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • This branch supplies the superior lobe of the right lung and is the most superior of all secondary bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • It divides into smaller bronchi to enter the three lobes of the right lung. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Specifically, the smaller bronchus that enters the right middle lobe of the lung is most 'accessible' to aspiration, and aspiration pneumonia often occurs in the right middle lobe. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It, in turn, divides into two lobar bronchi which enter the two lobes of the left lung. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Some lung cancers arise in the walls of the bronchi, especially tumors such as small cell lung cancer and squamous cell lung cancer . (verywellhealth.com)
  • There are ten segments per lung, but due to anatomic development, several segmental bronchi in the left lung fuse, giving rise to eight. (wikidoc.org)
  • A bronchus is one of the two passages (bronchi) that branch from the trachea (windpipe) and each lead to a lung. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A person with adenocarcinoma of the bronchus has a growth of abnormal cells that line the air passages inside the lung. (freemd.com)
  • There are two types of adenocarcinoma that occur in the lung: adenocarcinoma of the bronchus and bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma . (freemd.com)
  • There was no lung tissue surrounding the bronchus. (eurorad.org)
  • Lung and bronchi. (canstockphoto.com)
  • Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi , which further divide into tertiary segmental bronchi supplying the bronchopulmonary segment . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The top four major sites of cancer were prostate, female breast, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum. (urotoday.com)
  • The average annual, age-adjusted incidence rate was higher in the US than Oklahoma for prostate cancer, but higher in Oklahoma for female breast, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancer sites. (urotoday.com)
  • Over the course of 14 years from 1999-2012, the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer, female breast cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and colon and rectum cancer decreased over time nationally and in Oklahoma. (urotoday.com)
  • Tertiary bronchi are located near the bottom of these organs, just above the bronchioles. (healthline.com)
  • The secondary bronchi continue to branch off to form the tertiary bronchi, which are further divided into terminal bronchioles. (healthline.com)
  • The secondary bronchi divide further into tertiary bronchi , (also known as segmental bronchi ), each of which supplies a bronchopulmonary segment . (wikipedia.org)
  • The tertiary bronchi divide further in another three branchings known as 4th order, 5th order and 6th order segmental bronchi which are also referred to as subsegmental bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bronchi divide first into lobar bronchi, and then tertiary bronchi called segmental bronchi, followed by three more generations of progressively smaller bronchi (fourth, fifth, and sixth subsegmental bronchi). (verywellhealth.com)
  • The lobar bronchi divide into tertiary bronchi . (wikidoc.org)
  • trachea (windpipe) by its main bronchus (large air passageway) and with the heart by the pulmonary arteries. (britannica.com)
  • The bronchi are a part of the respiratory tract that act as an extension of the windpipe. (reference.com)
  • The trachea (windpipe) divides at the carina into two main or primary bronchi , the left bronchus and the right bronchus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea (windpipe) divides to form the right and left main bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea (windpipe) divides into two main bronchi (also mainstem bronchi ), the left and the right, at the level of the sternal angle . (wikidoc.org)
  • They could not negotiate the ventilating bronchoscope (instrument used for foreign body removal from bronchus) because of the narrow windpipe and the oxygen level of the child was going down quickly. (orissadiary.com)
  • The lobar bronchus is the major airway within the respiratory tree that starts by division of the principal bronchi on both sides and ends at the point of its own subdivision into tertiary or segmental bronchi[GO]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The eparterial bronchus (right superior lobar bronchus) is a branch of the right main bronchus given off about 2.5 cm from the bifurcation of the trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number designates the secondary lobar bronchus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • [1] [2] The bronchi when too narrow to be supported by cartilage are known as bronchioles . (wikipedia.org)
  • The segmental bronchi divide into many primary bronchioles which divide into terminal bronchioles , each of which then gives rise to several respiratory bronchioles , which go on to divide into 2 to 11 alveolar ducts . (wikidoc.org)
  • The transplanted bronchus was constructed using cartilage cells derived from the patient's own stem cells. (britannica.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage is present in the bronchi, surrounding the smooth muscle layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the main bronchi, the cartilage forms C-shaped rings like those in the trachea , while in the smaller bronchi, hyaline cartilage is present in irregularly arranged crescent-shaped plates and islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cartilage and mucous membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to those in the trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, the bronchi are made up of cartilage that gives them stability and prevents their collapse. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The bronchi are made up of smooth muscles with walls of cartilage giving them stability. (verywellhealth.com)
  • There is hyaline cartilage present in the bronchi, present as irregular rings in the larger bronchi (and not as regular as in the trachea), and as small plates and islands in the smaller bronchi. (wikidoc.org)
  • The model depicts in colorful representation all bronchus features including cartilage, mucous glands and plug, spiraling smooth muscles, fibroelastic connective tissue, and epithilial layers. (boreal.com)
  • The model includes: cartilage, mucous glands and plug, spiraling smooth muscles, and the fibroelastic connective tissue and epithelial layers of the bronchus. (3bscientific.com)
  • Mechanically generated cigarette smoke and ambient air were injected into dichotomous ducts and geometrically preserved human bronchi in a fashion simulating typical smoking technique. (sciencemag.org)
  • We addressed the expression and relaxant effect of TAS2Rs in human bronchi. (ersjournals.com)
  • Conclusion: The stimulation of TAS2Rs expressed in human bronchi induces a marked relaxation. (ersjournals.com)
  • Our results demonstrate the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and neutral endopeptidases in LPS-induced BHR of the human bronchi, associated with an upregulation of TRPV1 and release of NKA. (ovid.com)
  • Tracheal bronchus, also referred to as bronchus suis or pig's bronchus, is a rare tracheobronchial anomaly in which an ectopic bronchus arises from the lateral wall of the trachea above the carina and supplies the entire upper lobe or a segment of the upper lobe. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The eparterial bronchus is the only secondary bronchus with a specific name apart from the name of its corresponding lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, an ACB is incidentally detected and characteristically arises from the medial wall of the proximal third of the bronchus intermedius, almost directly opposite to the origin of the right upper lobe bronchus and before the origin of the superior segmental bronchus to the right lower lobe and of the middle lobe bronchus [1]. (eurorad.org)
  • It gives rise to three lobar bronchi, initially bifurcating into right upper lobe bronchus and bronchus intermedius 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Bronchus intermedius further divides into right middle lobe and lower lobe bronchi 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Front view of cartilages of larynx , trachea and bronchi . (wikipedia.org)
  • The major bronchi can become the seat of chronic inflammation, as in chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis. (britannica.com)
  • When the bronchi become swollen due to irritants or infection, bronchitis results and makes breathing more difficult. (healthline.com)
  • Bronchitis sufferers also tend to have much more mucus and phlegm than someone without inflamed bronchi. (healthline.com)
  • A number of different medical conditions can affect the bronchi, ranging from bronchitis to aspiration, to bronchospasm with asthma. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Both acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis are an inflammation of the tissue of the bronchi. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Bronchitis is defined as inflammation of the bronchi. (wikidoc.org)
  • The existence of dilated bronchi filled with inspissated mucus complicating asthma or obstructive bronchitis has recently been reported. (annals.org)
  • Bronchiectasis or acute human suppurative bronchitis with dilated bronchi filled with pus, H&E stain. (gettyimages.com)
  • Demonstrating the tissue changes that occur to the bronchus in asthma and chronic bronchitis, this high quality anatomical model shows the bronchus, split into a four stage cross-section. (habdirect.co.uk)
  • The 4 piece Bronchus model is a four stage cross-section of the bronchus demonstrating the tissue changes occurring in asthma and chronic bronchitis. (3bscientific.com)
  • Asthma is hyperreactivity of the bronchi with an inflammatory component, often in response to allergens . (wikidoc.org)
  • From there it is conducted through the branching structure of airways (bronchi), which become finer and finer, to the pulmonary vesicles ( alveoli ). (nih.gov)
  • In this study we have characterized the interaction between the LAMA, tiotropium bromide, and the LABA, olodaterol, on the contractile tone of human medium bronchi and small airways. (medworm.com)
  • These bronchi play a major role within the conducting zone of the respiratory system. (reference.com)
  • The bronchi are lined with the same type of mucus that lines the rest of the respiratory tract. (healthline.com)
  • The main bronchi have relatively large lumens that are lined by respiratory epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a case of tracheal bronchus diagnosed in the neonatal period, in which the term baby presented with respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn after birth, but no other congenital anomaly was found on further evaluation. (koreamed.org)
  • Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, and 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bronchi are structurally similar to the trachea, as they are divisions from it. (healthline.com)
  • The bronchi begin when the trachea divides to form the right and left main bronchi (the pleural of bronchus). (verywellhealth.com)
  • In the mediastinum , at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra , the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus, also known as the primary bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right bronchus now passes below the artery, and is known as the hyparterial branch which divides into the two lobar bronchi to the middle and lower lobes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller passageways until they terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli. (wikidoc.org)
  • The epithelium in the main bronchi contains goblet cells, which are glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cells that produce mucins, the main component of mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, glands in the bronchi secrete mucus, which plays an important function for the immune system, both isolating and inactivating pathologic microorganisms. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Shaw 1 first described this condition as mucoid impaction of the bronchi. (annals.org)
  • A bronchus damaged by tuberculosis (left) was repaired using a bioartificial tissue transplant (right). (britannica.com)
  • Your veterinarian will also take samples of tissue and fluid from the bronchi for laboratory evaluation. (petmd.com)
  • Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma (BALTOMA) is a rare subgroup of pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) comprising less than 1% of all cases. (hindawi.com)
  • They are usually low grade B-cell lymphomas and are considered to originate from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the bronchi. (hindawi.com)
  • Four sections of the bronchus rotate on a hinge pin to reveal the internal appearance of tissue deterioration from normal bronchus and hyper secretion of the mucous gland, to lymphoid aggregations and smooth muscle spasms. (boreal.com)
  • An enhancing soft tissue mass around the tip of the bronchus corresponds to collapsed vestigial parenchyma [2]. (eurorad.org)
  • Laser treatment for carcinoma of the bronchus. (bmj.com)
  • Laser treatment in carcinoma of the bronchus is essentially palliative and is suitable for only a few patients. (bmj.com)
  • A total of 34 patients with carcinoma of the bronchus were treated with argon gas or neodynium yttrium aluminium garnet crystal lasers. (bmj.com)
  • Cytokeratin expression in preneoplastic lesions and early squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchi. (biomedsearch.com)
  • KL 1 was detected in all regular and pathological mucosal epithelia, CK 4 in basal cells, squamous cell metaplasia, potentially preneoplastic changes and early squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The heterogeneous neo-expression of CK 10 in early squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus has to be emphasized. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It arises above the level of the right pulmonary artery, and for this reason is named the eparterial bronchus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It affects the bronchi but slightly, since it contains no volatile oil. (thesaurus.com)
  • The bronchi function as a passageway for air to travel from the mouth and trachea, down to the alveoli, and back out to the environment. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The model features the AirSim Paediatric Airway, Nasal Passage and internal anatomical detail down to the 4th generation Bronchi facilitating fibre optic bronchoscopy techniques. (spservices.co.uk)
  • Epithelial synthesis of tenascin at tips of growing bronchi and graded accumulation in basement membrane and mesenchyme. (nih.gov)
  • Each of the segmental bronchi supplies a bronchopulmonary segment . (wikidoc.org)
  • The left main bronchus is smaller in caliber but longer than the right , being 5 cm long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laminin is deposited in the basement membrane, starting at the tips and increasing along the shafts of growing primary and secondary bronchi. (nih.gov)
  • Four stages: normal bronchus, hypersecretion of the mucous gland, swelling with lymphoid aggregations and smooth-muscle spasm. (3bscientific.com)