Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Bronchial DiseasesBronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Tracheal DiseasesCarcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Tracheal NeoplasmsHemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Tracheal StenosisTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsTracheobronchomegaly: A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Plasma Cell Granuloma, Pulmonary: A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Solanum glaucophyllum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that causes CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (CALCITRIOL).Evans Blue: An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Actinomycosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Esophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Receptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Medicine in ArtSRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pleural DiseasesMaximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.

Role of retinoid receptors in the regulation of mucin gene expression by retinoic acid in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. (1/4704)

To investigate which retinoid receptors are critical in the regulation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) of the mucin genes MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells, we used pan-RAR-, pan-RXR- and RAR- isotype (alpha, beta and gamma)-selective agonists and RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective antagonists (RAR is RA receptor and RXR is retinoid X receptor). RAR-, RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective agonists strongly induced mucin mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner, while the RARbeta-selective retinoid only weakly induced mucin gene expression at very high concentrations (1 microM). The pan-RXR-selective agonist by itself did not induce mucin gene expression, but acted synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of the pan-RAR agonist. A retinoid with selective anti-activator-protein-1 activity only marginally induced mucin gene expression. The RARalpha antagonist strongly inhibited mucin gene induction and mucous cell differentiation caused by RA and by the RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective retinoids. In contrast, the RARgamma antagonist only weakly inhibited RARalpha-selective-retinoid-induced mucin gene expression, but completely blocked mucin gene expression induced by the RARgamma-selective retinoid. Our studies indicate that RARalpha is the major retinoid receptor subtype mediating RA-dependent mucin gene expression and mucous cell differentiation, but that the RARgamma isotype can also induce mucin genes. Furthermore these studies suggest that RARbeta is probably not (directly) involved in RA-induced mucin gene expression.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/4704)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (3/4704)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (4/4704)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Alterations of Rb pathway (Rb-p16INK4-cyclin D1) in preinvasive bronchial lesions. (5/4704)

Lung cancer results from a stepwise accumulation of genetic and molecular abnormalities with unknown temporal relationships to precursor bronchial lesions. In a search for biomarkers of malignant progression, we analyzed the expression of the tumor suppressor gene Rb and of the proteins regulating its phosphorylation and function in G1 arrest, p16INK4A and cyclin D1, in preinvasive bronchial lesions accompanying cancer in 75 patients, in comparison with similar lesions in 22 patients with no cancer history. Rb was constantly expressed in preinvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ (CIS). In contrast, p16 expression was lost in moderate dysplasia (12%) and in CIS (30%) in patients with lung cancer. p16 loss occurred exclusively in patients who displayed loss of p16 expression in their related invasive carcinoma. Loss of p16 expression was not seen in nine patients with dysplasia but no cancer progression. Cyclin D1 overexpression was seen in hyperplasia and metaplasia (6%), mild dysplasia (17%), moderate dysplasia (46%), and CIS (38%) in patients with cancer but was lost in 5% of the patients during the process of invasion; it was also observed in patients with no cancer progression (14%). Our results indicate that Rb protein function can be invalidated before invasion through alteration of the Rb phosphorylation pathway, by p16 inhibition, and/or by cyclin D1 overexpression and suggest a role for p16 and cyclin D1 deregulation in progression of preinvasive bronchial lesions to invasive carcinoma.  (+info)

Differential responses of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells to receptor-selective retinoids. (6/4704)

Using an in vitro lung carcinogenesis model consisting of normal, premalignant, and malignant human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, we analyzed the growth inhibitory effects of 26 novel synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- and retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoids. RAR-selective retinoids such as CD271, CD437, CD2325, and SR11364 showed potent activity in inhibiting the growth of either normal or premalignant and malignant HBE cells (IC50s mostly <1 microM) and were much more potent than RXR-selective retinoids. Nonetheless, the combination of RAR- and RXR-selective retinoids exhibited additive effects in HBE cells. As the HBE cells became progressively more malignant, they exhibited decreased or lost sensitivity to many retinoids. The activity of the RAR-selective retinoids, with the exception of the most potent retinoid, CD437, could be suppressed by an RAR panantagonist. These results suggest that: (a) RAR/RXR heterodimers play an important role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of most retinoids in HBE cells; (b) CD437 may act through an RAR-independent pathway; (c) some of the RAR-selective retinoids may have the potential to be used in the clinic as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancer; and (d) early stages of lung carcinogenesis may be responsive targets for chemoprevention by retinoids, as opposed to later stages.  (+info)

Penetration of meropenem in lung, bronchial mucosa, and pleural tissues. (7/4704)

Lung, bronchial mucosa, and pleural tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing lung surgery 1 to 5 h after administration of 1 g of meropenem. The mean (range) peak concentrations of meropenem were 3.9 (0.2 to 8.2), 6.6 (3.0 to 13.3), and 2.8 (0.6 to 7.8) mg/kg of tissue, respectively, exceeding the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for most respiratory pathogens.  (+info)

Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of twitching motility. (8/4704)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an important human pathogen. The production of several virulence factors by P. aeruginosa is controlled through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. We have obtained evidence that both the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are also required for type 4 pilus-dependent twitching motility and infection by the pilus-specific phage D3112cts. Mutants which lack the ability to synthesize PAI-1, PAI-2, or both autoinducers were significantly or greatly impaired in twitching motility and in susceptibility to D3112cts. Twitching motility and phage susceptibility in the autoinducer-deficient mutants were partially restored by exposure to exogenous PAI-1 and PAI-2. Both twitching motility and infection by pilus-specific phage are believed to be dependent on the extension and retraction of polar type 4 pili. Western blot analysis of whole-cell lysates and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of intact cells were used to measure the amounts of pilin on the cell surfaces of las and rhl mutants relative to that of the wild type. It appears that PAI-2 plays a crucial role in twitching motility and phage infection by affecting the export and assembly of surface type 4 pili. The ability of P. aeruginosa cells to adhere to human bronchial epithelial cells was also found to be dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system. Microscopic analysis of twitching motility indicated that mutants which were unable to synthesize PAI-1 were defective in the maintenance of cellular monolayers and migrating packs of cells. Thus, PAI-1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining cell-cell spacing and associations required for effective twitching motility.  (+info)

*Bronchus

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus. These are the widest and ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ... The left main bronchus departs from the trachea at a greater angle than that of the right main bronchus. The right bronchus is ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the ...

*Eparterial bronchus

The eparterial bronchus (right superior lobar bronchus) is a branch of the right main bronchus given off about 2.5 cm from the ... The eparterial bronchus is the only secondary bronchus with a specific name apart from the name of its corresponding lobe. This ... This branch supplies the superior lobe of the right lung and is the most superior of all secondary bronchi. It arises above the ... The Bronchi and Their Divisions" MedEd at Loyola Grossanatomy/dissector/practical/thorax/thorax10.html. ...

*Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

... (BALT) is a tertiary lymphoid structure and it is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid ... While it is normal component of lungs and bronchus in rabbits or pigs, in mice or humans it appears only after infection or ... "Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is not present in the normal adult lung but in different diseases." Pathobiology ... BALT is found along the bifurcations of the upper bronchi directly beneath the epithelium and generally lying between an artery ...

*Papaverine

Müller-Schweinitzer E, Hasse J, Swoboda L (1993). "Cryopreservation of human bronchi". J Asthma. 30 (6): 451-7. doi:10.3109/ ...

*Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage

Blood can usually be detected in the trachea or bronchi for 1-3 days after an episode of EIPH, but may be present for up to a ... BAL may be performed using a BAL tube, which allows fluid to be added to and removed from the bronchi, or may be performed ... Approximately 43 to 75% of horses have blood in the trachea and bronchi following a single post-race endoscopic examination. In ... Endoscopy EIPH is most commonly diagnosed by endoscopic examination of the trachea and larger bronchi, with the optimal timing ...

*Progesterone

Bronchi are widened and mucus regulated. (PRs are widely present in submucosal tissue.) Progesterone acts as an ...

*Hyaline cartilage

... exists on the ventral ends of ribs; in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; and on the articulating surfaces of ...

*Tracheobronchomalacia

This condition can also affect the bronchi. There are two forms of this rare condition: primary TB and secondary TB. Primary TB ...

*Dictyocaulus

They lay eggs into the airways (bronchi). These eggs are coughed up and subsequently swallowed by the host. The eggs hatch into ...

*Adenoma

Bronchial adenomas are adenomas in the bronchi. They may cause carcinoid syndrome, a type of paraneoplastic syndrome. A ...

*Laryngotracheal stenosis

This can occur at the level of the larynx, trachea, carina or main bronchi. In a small number of patients narrowing may be ... Armstrong WB, Netterville JL (August 1995). "Anatomy of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 28 (4 ...

*Respiratory tract

... bronchi. Each of these bronchi branch into secondary (lobar) bronchi that branch into tertiary (segmental) bronchi that branch ... lobar bronchus (diameter approximately 1 cm) segmental bronchus (diameter 4.5 to 13 mm)subsegmental bronchus (diameter 1 to 6 ... It branches off into two bronchial tubes, a left and a right main bronchus. The bronchi branch off into smaller sections inside ... It continues down the bronchi and bronchioles, which it completely encircles. Instead of hard cartilage, the bronchi and ...

*Lung cancer

Most cases arise in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi). Sixty to seventy percent have extensive disease (which ... Adler, I (1912). Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company. OCLC 14783544. OL ... If cancer growth blocks a short section of bronchus, brachytherapy (localized radiotherapy) may be given directly inside the ... Edwards, AT (1946). "Carcinoma of the Bronchus". Thorax. 1 (1): 1-25. doi:10.1136/thx.1.1.1. PMC 1018207 . PMID 20986395. ...

*Timeline of lung cancer

Adler, I (1912). Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company. OCLC 14783544. OL ...

*History of smoking

Adler I. Primary malignant growths of the lungs and bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green; 1912., cited in Spiro SG, Silvestri GA ... "Primary Malignant Growth of the Lung and Bronchi". (1912) New York, Longmans, Green. pp. 3-12. Reprinted (1980) by A Cancer ...

*Lung

The lobar bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi also known as segmental bronchi and these supply air to the further divisions of ... The trachea and bronchi have plexuses of lymph capillaries in their mucosa and submucosa. The smaller bronchi have a single ... The main or primary bronchi enter the lungs at the hilum and initially branch into secondary bronchi also known as lobar ... The bronchi in the conducting zone are reinforced with hyaline cartilage in order to hold open the airways. The bronchioles ...

*Germ layer

... bronchi, and air cells of the lungs; the urinary bladder and part of the urethra; and the follicle lining of the thyroid gland ...

*Gastrin-releasing peptide

Baraniuk JN, Lundgren JD, Shelhamer JH, Kaliner MA (1992). "Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) binding sites in human bronchi". ...

*Geotrichosis

Colonization of the bronchi can be associated with Candida albicans and usually occur with patients with chronic obstructive ... Geotrichum candidum grows in the lumen of the bronchi. The disease is characterized as an endobronchial infection. Bronchial ...

*Tracheal tumor

"Imaging of tumors of the trachea and central bronchi". Radiol. Clin. North Am. 47 (2): 227-41. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2008.11.010. ...

*Bronchomalacia

There is collapse of a main stem bronchus on exhalation. If the trachea is also involved the term tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) ... Bronchomalacia can best be described as a birth defect of the bronchus in the respiratory tract. Congenital malacia of the ... Bronchomalacia means 'floppiness' of some part of the bronchi. Patients present with noisy breathing and/or wheezing. ...

*Tuatara

The lungs have a single chamber and lack bronchi. Both species are sexually dimorphic, males being larger. Adult S. punctatus ...

*Bronchocele

A bronchocele is a segment of bronchus that is filled with mucus and completely enclosed so the mucus cannot drain out. This ... If there is no obstruction to the flow of mucus, it is called mucoid impaction of bronchus. Bronchocele results from ... obstruction of bronchus. Overproduction of mucus can also contribute. Obstruction could be from scarring, tumor, congenital ...

*Azzopardi phenomenon

Azzopardi JG (1959). "Oat-cell carcinoma of the bronchus". J Pathol Bacteriol. 78: 513-9. PMID 13795444. Warnock ML, McCowin MJ ...

*Foreign body aspiration

A foreign body in the bronchi usually causes a cough. In one study, peanuts were the most common obstruction. In addition to ...
The trachea (windpipe) divides into two main bronchi (also mainstem bronchi), the left and the right, at the level of the sternal angle. The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus. The right main bronchus subdivides into three segmental bronchi while the left main bronchus divides into two. The lobar bronchi divide into tertiary bronchi. Each of the segmental bronchi supplies a bronchopulmonary segment. A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung that is separated from the rest of the lung by a connective tissue septum. This property allows a bronchopulmonary segment to be surgically removed without affecting other segments. There are ten segments per lung, but due to anatomic development, several segmental bronchi in the left lung fuse, giving rise to eight. The segmental bronchi divide into many primary bronchioles which divide into terminal bronchioles, each of which then gives rise to several respiratory bronchioles, which go on to divide ...
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Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in lung carcinogenesis via carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines. In this study, we used benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the classic PAH compound and BEAS-2B cells, a model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells, to investigate whether 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 3,4-DMF compared with resveratrol (RV) have chemopreventive properties in this cancer. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to [(3)H]BaP (1 microM) showed increasing binding to DNA up to 72 h of exposure, about 20-fold higher than that at 0.5 h exposure. BaP exposure also increased both CYP1A1/1B1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) enzyme activities with a maximum 10-fold increase at 48 h. BaP induced CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels maximally after 48 h. In contrast, although CYP1B1 mRNA was rapidly induced, its protein expression showed a very poor response. Simultaneous treatment with BaP and 5,7-DMF, 3,4-DMF or RV for 48 h inhibited BaP-DNA binding by , or ...
In this article, we provide an overview of the experimental workflow by the Lung and Particle Research Group at Cardiff University, that led to the development of the two in vitro lung models - the normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) model and the lung-liver model, Metabo-Lung™. This work was jointly awarded the 2013 Lush Science Prize. The NHBE model is a three-dimensional, in vitro, human tissue-based model of the normal human bronchial epithelium, and Metabo-Lung involves the co-culture of the NHBE model with primary human hepatocytes, thus permitting the biotransformation of inhaled toxicants in an in vivo-like manner. Both models can be used as alternative test systems that could replace the use of animals in research and development for safety and toxicity testing in a variety of industries (e.g. the pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetics, and food industries). Metabo-Lung itself is a unique tool for the in vitro detection of toxins produced by reactive metabolites. This 21st ...
Trachea R. cranial lobar bronchus. R. middle lobar bronchus R. caudal lobar bronchus R. accessory lobar bronchus L. cranial lobar bronchus. L. caudal lobar bronchus. Return to Gross Anatomy
The subdivision of the lung is characterised by the branching of the bronchi: the bronchial tree. The main bronchi form the stem of the bronchial tree, which splits within the lung dichotomously. The right main bronchus is called bronchus principalis dexter, the left bronchus is called bronchus principalis sinister. The main bronchi are divided into lobar bronchi - right in three lobar bronchi: bronchi lobares superior, medius and inferior and left into the bronchi lobares superior and inferior. Thereafter, there follows further division into segmental bronchi - right 10, left 9 segmental bronchi. This is followed by subsegmental bronchi, the bronchioles and finally the bronchioli terminales. The conductive, air-transporting phase of the bronchial tree ends here. Thereafter follows the sectional formation, which serves for gas exchange and as the lung parenchyma in the narrow sense. These include the bronchioli respiratorii, the ductus alveolaris and sacculi alveolares. The respiratory ...
Looking for Respiratory bronchioles? Find out information about Respiratory bronchioles. any of the smallest bronchial tubes, usually ending in alveoli A small, thin-walled branch of a bronchus, usually terminating in alveoli Explanation of Respiratory bronchioles
Our previous study, consistent with others, has shown that the serum YKL-40 levels in asthmatics were significantly elevated and were associated with asthma severity. Although these studies raise the possibility that YKL-40 may influence asthma, the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in YKL-40-mediated IL-8 production from human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and analyzed the soluble factors (including IL-8) secreted by BEAS-2B exposed to YKL-40 that were responsible for increasing proliferation and migration of primary normal human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). We found BEAS-2B treated with YKL-40 resulted in a significant increase of IL-8 expression and release. Moreover, YKL-40 mediated phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, but not p38 in BEAS-2B. Transfection using a NF-κB-luciferase reporter also showed YKL-40 induced IL-8 at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, BEAS-2B pretreated with inhibitors of JNK, ERK or NF-κB decreased IL-8 ...
Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is an important neutrophil chemoattractant known to be elevated in the airways of cigarette smokers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a syndrome associated with chronic cigarette smoking. We examined the acute effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on IL-8 expression in normal human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC) and alveolar macrophages. CSE upregulates IL-8 mRNA levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner and such an effect was accompanied by IL-8 secretion into the extracellular medium. CSE-evoked elevation of IL-8 mRNA was mimicked by its component acrolein at concentrations (3-30µM) found in CSE. Both CSE and acrolein induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation which was accompanied by the phosphorylation of MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2), a known downstream substrate of the p38 MAPK. In both HBSMC and human alveolar macrophages, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or MK2 strongly ...
Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:01 AM Subject: [Histonet] Immunocytofluorescence on smooth muscle cells > Hello, > > > We are a new lab and we try to develop Immuno-cyto-fluorescence techniques > in the lab. > We are working with human bronchial smooth muscle cells. > I have currently a very big problem with all rabbit antibodies. All rabbit > antibodies (including IgG as isotype) give a non-specific signal, signal in > the nucleus and cytoplasm with very high intensity. There is no signal > between cells. > > This problem does not exist with Rat and mouse antibodies I have used. > > - I have tried different fixation methods (PFA 4%, acetone-methanol (1/1), > and kit like permeafix). > > - I have tried different blocking solution (Rabbit serum 2%, FBS 2%, Horse > serum and Universal blocker solution from Dako) without any results. > > - I have tried different diluents for my antibody (PBS 1X, PBS 1x-BSA 3%, > Dako diluents) > > - I have tried different permeabilization methods (saponin, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-8 gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells*. AU - Nakamura, H.. AU - Yoshimura, K.. AU - Jaffe, H. A.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The capacity of cells of the human bronchial epithelium to express the gene for interleukin-8 (IL-8) was evaluated in bronchial epithelium derived cell lines, HS-24 and BET-1A, using tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) as a model inflammatory stimulus. As in other epithelium, TNF markedly increased the level of the 1.8-kilobase IL-8 mRNA transcripts in both bronchial epithelial cell lines. In HS-24 cells, nuclear run-on analyses showed the IL-8 gene transcription rate was dramatically increased, more than 30-fold, after TNF stimulation. The half-life of IL-8 mRNA transcripts in these cells was approximately 40 min and did not change after TNF stimulation, suggesting that TNF up-regulated IL-8 gene expression mainly at the transcriptional level. DNase I hypersensitivity site mapping of chromatin DNA in ...
Right middle lobar bronchus aka Bronchus lobaris medius dexter in the latin terminology and part of structures of the trachea and the bronchi seen from the anterior and posterior views. Learn more now!
Cyclin D1 and other cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases to promote cell growth, and their overexpression has been associated with cell transformation and tumorigenesis (1 , 2) . In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Dragnev et al. (3) report that promoting proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, which results in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, is a mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and some other structurally unrelated agents. This research group has previously shown that RA prevents carcinogenic transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by causing G1 cell cycle arrest and triggering cyclin D1 degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (4, 5, 6) . In the present study, the authors demonstrate further that cyclin E is also targeted for degradation by RA treatment. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR), a nonclassical retinoid) and ...
In the lungs, air is diverted into smaller and smaller passages, or bronchi. Air enters the lungs through the two primary (main) bronchi (singular: bronchus). Each bronchus divides into secondary bronchi, then into tertiary bronchi, which in turn divide, creating smaller and smaller diameter bronchioles as they split and spread through the lung. Like the trachea, the bronchi are made of cartilage and smooth muscle. At the bronchioles, the cartilage is replaced with elastic fibers. Bronchi are innervated by nerves of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems that control muscle contraction (parasympathetic) or relaxation (sympathetic) in the bronchi and bronchioles, depending on the nervous systems cues. In humans, bronchioles with a diameter smaller than 0.5 mm are the respiratory bronchioles. They lack cartilage and therefore rely on inhaled air to support their shape. As the passageways decrease in diameter, the relative amount of smooth muscle increases.. The terminal ...
Abstract: Classical studies in embryology demonstrated that stroma is necessary for the proper specification and differentiation of epithelial tissues. Recently, it was shown that the stroma is involved in the homeostatic maintenance of adult tissues, and under pathologic conditions, promotes the development and progression of diseases such as cancer. Hence, pulmonary diseases such as asthma, fibr... read moreosis and cancer can be understood in the context of altered communications between the epithelial and stromal tissue compartments. Bronchi are the conducting airways of the lung. Bronchi trap and eliminate inhaled particles through the coordinated actions of mucus secretion and the beating of cilia. However, inhaled toxicants and carcinogens are linked to several broncho-pulmonary pathologies, including asthma and lung cancer, which is the single deadliest cancer in the United States; since most lung cancers are attributed to tobacco smoke, it is also one of the most avoidable of cancers. ...
3896 Purpose: To evaluate the oncogenic impact of p53 knockdown, mutant K-RASV12, mutant EGFR alone and their combination on tumorigenicity of a newly developed immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line. Background: Molecular analysis of lung cancer has revealed several genetic and epigenetic alterations in the multistep pathogenesis of lung cancer. However, little is known about the relative importance of each individual alteration on the tumorigenic process. One approach is to use a model system in which the contribution of each genetic alteration to lung tumorigenesis can be assessed individually and combinatorially. We have developed an in vitro model system using normal human bronchial epithelial cells that overexpress Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and human telomerase. Ectopic expression of these two genes enables the cells to bypass the growth inhibitory signals of the p16/Rb pathway and also replicative senescence induced by shortened telomeres. We manipulated this cell line (HBEC3), ...
Chronic inflammatory processes in the respiratory system such as bronchial asthma are characterised by airway wall remodelling with degradation and synthesis of interstitial matrix proteins and migration of bronchial epithelial cells.1,2 Degradation of collagen type IV is a critical step in the inflammatory disorganisation of the airway wall, and is mainly determined by the balance between matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Among them, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as TIMP-1, released from bronchial epithelial cells seem to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.3 MMP-9 is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid4 and bronchial tissue in patients with bronchial asthma,5,6 while the expression of TIMP-1 is increased to a lesser extent, thus shifting the balance towards matrix degradation in the airway wall. Various proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ...
Primary cells maintain physiological relevance and thus find increasing use in life science research and pharmaceutical drug discovery
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
NL20 (ATCC CRL-2503) is an immortalized, nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell line derived from normal bronchus taken from an accident victim at autopsy. The cell line was established by transfection with the origin of replication-defective SV40 large T plasmid, p129.
Background/Aims: Chemokine signaling from airway epithelium regulates macrophage recruitment to the lung in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. This study investigates the mechanism by which the a-melanocyte stimulating hormone-derived tripeptide, KPV, and the agonist of the dominant melanocortin receptor in airway epithelium (MC3R), ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), suppress inflammation in immortalised human bronchial airway epithelium. Methods: TNFa and rhino syncitial virus (RSV)-evoked nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) signaling was measured in immortalised human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) in response to KPV and ?MSH. Cellular and systemic inflammatory signaling was measured by NF?B reporter gene and chemokine (IL8, eotaxin) secretion, respectively. Results: KPV and ?MSH evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of NF?B, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, IL8 and eotaxin secretion. The KPV effect was associated with its nuclear import, I?Ba stabilisation and suppressed nuclear ...
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of HIV patients. However, the incidence of non-AIDS associated lung comorbidities, such as COPD and asthma, and that of opportunistic lung infections have become more common among this population. HIV proteins secreted by the anatomical HIV reservoirs can have both autocrine and paracrine effects contributing to the HIV-associated comorbidities. HIV has been recovered from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, alveolar macrophages, and intrapulmonary lymphocytes. We have recently shown that ex-vivo cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial brushings from human subjects express canonical HIV receptors CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected with HIV. Together these studies suggest that the lung tissue can serve as an important reservoir for HIV. In this report, we show that TGF-β1 promotes HIV latency by upregulating a transcriptional repressor BLIMP-1. Furthermore, we identify miR-9-5p as an important
Synonyms for bronchus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bronchus. 1 synonym for bronchus: bronchial tube. What are synonyms for bronchus?
anatomy of lung bronchi,lung anatomy segmental bronchi,lung bronchi anatomy,lung bronchial anatomy,right lung bronchi anatomy,Boem.me
Bronchial asthma often starts in early childhood. Clinical manifestation of the disease is likely due to inflammatory processes in the airways initiated by various stimuli. Developed remodelling is regularly observed in the bronchial mucosa of adult asthmatics but we still lack information about its onset and latter development with the natural course of the disease. In this study, we analysed histological findings in bronchial biopsies obtained from very young children (under 4 yr of age). We hypothesized that initial undetectable changes in the airway epithelium of children predisposed to asthma may be one of the first mechanisms leading to morphological changes in the bronchial mucosa. ...
The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure.
Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, amp Lungs Bronchi and Bronchial Tree. In the mediastinum, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into the right and
NL20 (ATCC CRL-2503) is an immortalized, nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell line derived from normal bronchus taken from an accident victim at autopsy. The cell line was established by transfection with the origin of replication-defective SV40 large T plasmid, p129. NL20 cells at passage 183 were inoculated into nude mice and a small slowly growing subcutaneous tumor developed from a minor clone in this otherwise stable cell line.
The trachea, or wind pipe, divides into two main bronchi, which further divide several more times into smaller bronchioles, forming the bronchial tree that feeds air into the lungs. In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with or without accompanying accumulation of lung secretions.
4-stage cross-section of the bronchus demonstrating the tissue changes occurring in asthma and chronic bronchitis. 4-stages: normal bronchus, hypersecretion of the mucous gland, swelling with lymphoid aggregations and smooth-muscle spasm.
Lung bronchus cross-section, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This longitudinal freeze-fracture has exposed the inner epithelial surface of a bronchus (pink). The different ciliated and secretory cells are just visible. The bronchus is surrounded by pale pink lung tissue consisting mainly of alveolar elements (alveoli). Two blood vessels (orange lumens) are at upper left and top right. Magnification: x150 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C004/7743
Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. The bronchi are a part of the respiratory tract that act as an extension of...
In this study, we set out to evaluate methods to delay cell senescence while maintaining plasticity/differentiation potential in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. This is important as these cells have a key role to play in respiratory disease warranting further research. However, such primary cells are isolated from patients by invasive procedures and have limited lifespan ex vivo. We have developed two lentiviral systems that enabled us to elevate the expression of polycomb protein BMI‐1 and importantly suppress p16 levels in cells containing these genetic modifications. Extensive characterization over 12 months demonstrated that cells expressing higher levels of BMI‐1 have (1) increased viability, (2) an extended number of cell divisions, (3) maintain basal epithelial morphology, (4) maintain plasticity, that is, the ability to form a differentiated pseudostratified air-liquid interface model, and (5) importantly maintain a normal karyotype. These data suggest that the cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Requirement for both JAK-mediated PI3K signaling and ACT1/TRAF6/TAK1- dependent NF-κB activation by IL-17A in enhancing cytokine expression in human airway epithelial cells. AU - Huang, Fei. AU - Kao, Cheng Yuan. AU - Wachi, Shinichiro. AU - Thai, Philip. AU - Ryu, Jisu. AU - Wu, Reen. PY - 2007/11/15. Y1 - 2007/11/15. N2 - Through DNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR verification, we have identified additional IL-17A-inducible genes-IL-19, CXCL-1, -2, -3, -5, and -6 - in well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells. These genes, similar to previously described human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and CCL-20, were induced by a basolateral treatment of IL-17A, and regulated by PI3K signaling and NF-κB activation. For PI3K signaling, increases of cellular PIP 3 and phosphorylation of downstream molecules, such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) (S9), were detected. Induced gene expression and HBD-2 promoter activity were attenuated by LY294002, p110α ...
Bronchial epithelium. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a cultured bronchial epithelial cell. The respiratory epithelium is composed of a mixed population of ciliated, nonciliated, and mucous-secreting cells from proximal to distal airways. In vitro models ( cell culture) using primary cells and cell lines are essential for understanding the function and pathophysiology of these cells in diseases such as asthma. Magnification: x 2000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C022/6437
The assessment and airway planning of patients with airway pathology can be challenging as the current bedside airway assessment tools are often inadequate due to their low sensitivity and...
Bronchus: …the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus into the airways. The inflamed, mucus-clogged airways act as a one-way valve-i.e., air is inspired but cannot be expired. The obstruction of airflow may resolve spontaneously or with treatment.
The best selection of royalty free bronchus vector images, graphics and stock illustrations. Download 8+ bronchus vector images in EPS and JPG format.
The goal of this project was to realise a realistic but simplified 3D model of a human Bronchus to be used for medical engineering purposes. The model was modelled in Autodesk Maya and refined in ZBrush, where the texture work was also produced. Secondly the 3D model was adjusted to be used within Unity 3D to allow compatibility with the software used by engineers for live testing ...
Mycobacteria are antibiotic-resistant microbes that are often implicated in lung infections. To fight them, the body activates interferon and other immune proteins, but scientists werent sure how the process worked
ICD-10 C34.31 is malignant neoplasm of lower lobe, right bronchus or lung (C3431). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for neoplasms.
On slicing, the left lung contained a diffuse white mass with an ill-defined edge; as you can see on the image. The mass had started to occlude the main bronchus of the left lung but could not be seen to arise directly from the bronchus ...
Kenya Airways may be shut any moment from now, following the insertion performance based leave clause for its Nigerian staff, The Nation gathered on Monday. The
Bacteria: A type of single-celled organism without a nucleus. Bile: An alkaline fluid produced in the liver to aid digestion and the breaking down of food molecules. Biomass: The mass of living organisms in a certain area. Biodegradable: A substance that will be broken by natural processes. Bladder: A muscular sac that contains and ejects urine. Brain: The organ that coordinates the actions and responses of the body. Bronchiole: A small branch of bronchus which connects a bonchus to the alveoli. Bronchus: A tube that connects the trachea to the lungs.. ...
hyparterial definition: Situated below an artery; applied especially into the branches of this bronchi offered down underneath the point where in fact the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.; Situated…
RT-PCR for IL-8 (A), IL-6 (B), HOX1 (C), and COX2 (D) relative to GAPDH in unexposed NHBE cells. RNA for all proteins significantly changed with differentiation
Human 3D respiratory system models, including sinus and bronchus models, allow medical professionals to discuss lung conditions with their patients.
Patients with advanced cancers of the stomach, bronchus, colon, ovary or breast were treated with ascorbate. The purpose of the study was to determine if the survival times differ with respect to the organ affected by the cancer. Variables. ...
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes commonly occurs in human cancers via increasing DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications at gene promoters. However, little is known about how pathogenic environmental factors contribute to cancer development by affecting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we reported that both hypoxia and nickel (an environmental carcinogen) increased global histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in cells through inhibiting a novel class of iron- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of histone demethylase JMJD1A by hypoxia and nickel could lead to repression/silencing of JMJD1A-targeted gene(s). By using Affymetrix GeneChip and ChIP-on-chip technologies, we identified Spry2 gene, a key regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, as one of the JMJD1A-targeted genes in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Both hypoxia and nickel exposure ...
Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells have been serially passaged in serum-free medium. This serum-free model was employed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mM) on multiplication and morphology of the cells. The responses were analysed in terms of growth kinetics, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. Culturing of the cells in high Ca2+ (1.0-2.0 mM) medium stimulated cell multiplication characterized by increased colony forming efficiency, greater number of cells per colony and cell population doublings per day. Additionally, the high Ca2+ concentrations induced proliferation in cultures grown to confluency in low Ca2+ (0.1 mM) medium. Cells propagated in low Ca2+ medium consisted of relatively heterogeneous cell populations, with most cells staining positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent. Ultrastructurally the cells exhibited secretory vesicles and microvilli on their surfaces, small desmosomes and intercellular interdigitation ...
Looking for online definition of respiratory bronchioles in the Medical Dictionary? respiratory bronchioles explanation free. What is respiratory bronchioles? Meaning of respiratory bronchioles medical term. What does respiratory bronchioles mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel Ca2+ influx pathway activated by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Kume, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Takeda, Naoya. AU - Iwata, Susumu. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - In response to mechanical stretch, airway smooth muscle exhibits various cellular functions such as contraction, proliferation, and cytoskeletal remodeling, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stretch of airway smooth muscle cells increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] i) by activating stretch-activated (SA) nonselective cation channels. A single uniaxial stretch (3 s) was given to human bronchial smooth muscle cells cultured on an elastic silicone membrane. After the mechanical stretch, a transient increase in [Ca2+]i was observed. The [Ca 2+]i increase was significantly dependent on stretch amplitude. The ...
Arguably the simplest way to achieve one-lung ventilation is through deliberate bronchial intubation with a standard endotracheal tube. If this is used as a blind technique, the tube is most likely to go down the right main bronchus, as the course of the right main bronchus is more in line with the trachea than the course of the left, which comes off at the carina at a bigger angle.. [drawing]. This technique has several drawbacks: When a standard ETT is used to intubate the right main bronchus, the tube cuff is very likely to occlude the right upper lobe bronchus. So in addition to isolating the left lung this technique can inadvertently also isolate a significant part of the right lung. A second disadvantage is that left main bronchus intubation is not reliably achieved when this technique is used blindly. A fiberoptic scope is therefore frequently necessary to place a tube into the left main bronchus.. ...
Age-related changes of the dopamine nerve fibres of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) were investigated in male Wistar rats of 3 months (young), and 24 months (old/aged). Dopamine histofluorescence techniques have been used, associated with image analysis for the detection of dopamine nerve fibres. In young rats, white, fluorescent nerve fibres supply BALT. This tissue is innervated by a delicate network of nerve fibres rich in varicosities. In old rats these fluorescent nerve fibres are strongly reduced. Moreover, dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stained using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The BALT of young rats possesses a higher number of D1a and D1b receptors, while, in the old rats, these receptors are strongly reduced. The possible significance of reduced dopamine neurotransmission in BALT of aged rats is discussed.
CFBE41o- 4.7 WT-CFTR Human CF Bronchial Epithelial Cell Line CFBE41o- 4.7 WT-CFTR human CF bronchial epithelial cell line may be used to study the relationship between CFTR mRNA expression and Cl transport function. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Low-grade, small cell lymphoma/Primary pulmonary lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) (B-cell type). Low-grade, B-cell lymphomas are believed to be derived from cells of the marginal zone of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. These cell spend their lives in BALT, regional lymph nodes, and the blood where they may visit other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue before "homing" to BALT (see diagram).. ...
Lymphocytes from LN and spleen of 3-4-mo-old NOD mice were labeled by incubating 2 × 107 cells/ml with 0.8 μg/ml TRITC in labeling medium (50% RPMI 1640, 48.5% HBSS, and 1.5% BCS) at 37°C for 15 min (19). Similarly, rat LN and spleen lymphocytes were labeled with 4 μM CFSE as described previously for TRITC (20). The cells were centrifuged through BCS, washed, and resuspended in transfer medium (DMEM with 10 mM Hepes, and 1% BCS).. To block endothelial adhesion molecules, each host mouse received 500 μg intravenously of anti-endothelial adhesion molecule or control mAb, followed 30 min later by 5 × 107 TRITC-labeled mouse cells intravenously. To block lymphocyte adhesion molecules, TRITC-labeled mouse cells were treated with 10 μg/ml anti-lymphocyte adhesion molecule or control mAb on ice for 10 min; 5 × 107 mouse cells and 108 CFSE-labeled rat cells were transferred intravenously into each host. The rat cells, which do not react with the anti-mouse lymphocyte adhesion molecule mAbs used ...
List of 10 disease causes of Tracheobronchial airway obstruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Tracheobronchial airway obstruction.
The avian lung has a highly sophisticated morphology with a complex vascular system. Extant data regarding avian pulmonary angioarchitecture are few and contradictory. We used corrosion casting techniques, light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the development, topography, and distribution of the parabronchial vasculature in the chicken lung. The arterial system was divisible into three hierarchical generations, all formed external to the parabronchial capillary meshwork. These included the interparabronchial arteries (A1) that ran parallel to the long axes of parabronchi and gave rise to orthogonal parabronchial arteries (A2) that formed arterioles (A3). The arterioles formed capillaries that participated in the formation of the parabronchial mantle. The venous system comprised six hierarchical generations originating from the luminal aspect of the parabronchi, where capillaries converged to form occasional tiny infundibular venules (V6) around ...
Li, J., Patterson, M., Chew, W. L., Cho, S-H., Gilmour, I., Oliver, T., ... Liedtke, W. (2011). TRPV4-Mediated calcium-influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 784 - 793. ...
Bronchi are tube like structures that allow air to be transported from the surrounding atmosphere to the lung. The respiratory system (airways) consists of the trachea (essentially a large bronchi) that branch off into smaller and smaller bronchi before reaching the most distal lung alveoli, where oxygen can be transferred to the blood. The respiratory bronchus is lined by respiratory epithelium comprising an admixture of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, goblet cells (mucin producing cells also termed mucous cells) and basal cells that function as progenitor cells for both the ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells. Ciliated cells are about five times more numerous than goblet cells in the central airways and the ratio of ciliated cells increases in the smaller and peripheral bronchi (bronchioles) as the goblet cells diminish. The basal cells are more abundant in the proximal airways, where they form more or less, a continuous layer and gradually diminish in number in peripheral ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Adenosine deaminase RNA-specific B1 (ADARB1), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme, has been found to play an essential role in the development of cancer. However, the specific function of ADARB1 in lung cancer, especially in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), is still not fully understood and requires further study. In our study, integrative bioinformatics were used to analyze the detailed function of ADARB1 in LUAD. By conducting bioinformatics analyses of several public databases, such as Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), GE-mini, and Oncomine, we found significantly decreased ADARB1 expression in LUAD cells and tissues. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot showed lower ADARB1 expression in H358 and A549 LUAD cells compared to human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells. Wound Healing Assay indicated that knockdown ADARB1 could promote LUAD cell metastasis. By using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter tool, we found that downregulation of ADARB1 was related to shorter first ...
This work was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing tumor from normal bronchial tissue. A rapid NIR Raman system was used for tissue Raman studies. High-quality Raman spectra in the 700-1800 cm-1 range can be acquired from human bronchial tissues in vitro. Raman spectra differed significantly between normal and malignant tumor tissue, with tumors showing increased nucleic acid, tryptophan, phenylalanine signals and decreased phospholipids, proline, and valine signals than normal tissue. Raman spectral shape differences between normal and tumor tissue were also observed particularly in the spectral ranges of 1000-1100, 1200-1400, and 1500-1700 cm-1, which are related to the protein and lipid conformations and CH stretching modes in nucleic acids. The ratio of Raman intensities at 1445 cm-1 to 1655 cm-1 provided good differentiation between normal and malignant bronchial tissue, suggesting that NIR Raman spectroscopy may have a significant potential for the ...
Medical information, Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus. Definition of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, symptoms of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, treatment of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus, and prevention of Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus. Exams and Tests Adenocarcinoma of the bronchus.
Looking for online definition of bronchus segmentalis in the Medical Dictionary? bronchus segmentalis explanation free. What is bronchus segmentalis? Meaning of bronchus segmentalis medical term. What does bronchus segmentalis mean?
Lin, H., Li, H., Cho, H.-J., Bian, S., Roh, H.-J., Lee, M.-K., Kim, J. S., Chung, S.-J., Shim, C.-K. and Kim, D.-D. (2007), Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers as an in vitro model for airway drug transport studies. J. Pharm. Sci., 96: 341-350. doi: 10.1002/jps.20803 ...
The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways. Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles are confusingly named, as they are not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles th...
Floreani AA, Heires AJ, Welniak LA et al. (1998). "Expression of receptors for C5a anaphylatoxin (CD88) on human bronchial epithelial cells: enhancement of C5a-mediated release of IL-8 upon exposure to cigarette smoke.". J. Immunol. 160 (10): 5073-81. PMID 9590258. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link) ...
The purpose of our studies was to examine differentiation-dependent expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) isoforms in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In the presence of retinoic acid (RA) the cultures differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium. When cultured in RA-depleted media, the cultures differentiated into a squamous epithelium. In the absence of RA the cultures did not express 15-LO or either of the PGHS isoforms. The PGHS-1 isoform was not expressed in RA-sufficient cultures, but both PGHS-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were strongly expressed, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was produced during the predifferentiation phase. No PGHS-2 expression or PGE2 could be detected in fully differentiated mucociliary cultures. 15-LO showed the opposite expression pattern: neither mRNA nor protein were detected during the predifferentiation stage, but both were strongly expressed once mucous differentiation had occurred. Cytosolic ...
Diabetic Mouse Tracheal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the tracheal and bronchial tissues of Diabetic (db/db) mice. Diabetic Mouse Stomach Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml. The method we use to isolate primary epithelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. Cells are incubated with EpCAM-1 (CD326) antibody, following the application of magnetic beads pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification of gene expression of the small airway epithelium in response to cigarette smoking. AU - Harvey, Ben Gary. AU - Heguy, Adriana. AU - Leopold, Philip L.. AU - Carolan, Brendan J.. AU - Ferris, Barbara. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - The earliest morphologic evidence of changes in the airways associated with chronic cigarette smoking is in the small airways. To help understand how smoking modifies small airway structure and function, we developed a strategy using fiberoptic bronchoscopy and brushing to sample the human small airway (10th-12th order) bronchial epithelium to assess gene expression (Affymetrix HG-U133A and HG-133 Plus 2.0 array) in phenotypically normal smokers (n = 16, 25 ± 7 pack-years) compared to matched nonsmokers (n = 17). Compared to samples from large (second to third order) bronchi, the small airway samples had a higher proportion of ciliated cells, but less basal, undifferentiated, and secretory cells, and contained ...
This study is the first to analyse the soluble factors secreted by the bronchial epithelium after exposure to isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) that are responsible for increasing migration and proliferation of primary normal human bronchial smooth musc
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cytoprotective mechanism that alleviates the protein-folding burden in eukaryotic organisms. Moderate activation of UPR is required for maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and profoundly contributes to tumorigenesis. Defects in UPR signaling are implicated in the attenuation of various malignant phenotypes including cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as angiogenesis. This suggests UPR as a promising target in cancer therapy. The pharmacological effects of the plant Scindapsus cf. hederaceus on human cancer cell lines is not understood. In this study, we identified an ethyl acetate extract from Scindapsus cf. hederaceus (SH-EAE), which markedly altered the protein expression of UPR-related genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Treatment with the SH-EAE led to the dose-dependent suppression of colony forming ability of both H1299 and H460 cells, but not markedly in normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. SH-EAE
Background. Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by episodic symptoms that are associated with functional alterations. It is well known that airways inflammation plays a basic role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and many autoptic and bioptic studies have shown that inflammation involves the entire bronchial tree, from proximal to distal airways. Many studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, are well represented in both the inner and the outer layer of the small airway walls, sometimes with a higher density in comparison with large airway walls.. Small airways are the most peripheral airways with an internal diameter , 2 mm and in this zone oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges take place. The contribution of small airways to the development of the clinical features and functional impairment in asthma is incompletely understood, probably due to the unavailability of definite noninvasive techniques for the study of small airways. Pathological changes ...
I Respiratory System. A. Functional divisions 1. Conducting structures - carry air to and from the lungs. 2. Respiratory units - exchange gases between air and blood. B. Anatomy of Conducting Structures. 1. pharynx. a. openings. b. swallowing. 2. larynx a. cartilages. b. vocal folds. 3. trachea. a. C - shaped cartilages. 4. primary bronchi. a. carina. b. right bronchus vs. left bronchus. 5. secondary (lobar) bronchi 6. tertiary (segmental) bronchi 7. terminal bronchioles. a. structural transitions from bronchi to bronchioles. C. Anatomy of Respiratory Units 1. gross anatomy: lungs. a. surface anatomy. b. pleura and pleural cavity. 1. pneumothorax. c. lobes -, segments --, lobules --, respiratory units --, alveolus. 2. microscopic anatomy: alveolus. a. wall thinness. b. Type II cells: surfactant 1. infant respiratory distress syndrome. c. dust cells. D. Surface area to volume ratio. 1. 5 lobes vs. 500 million alveoli. 2. structural principle. E. Disorders. 1. asthma. 2. COPD. II Pulmonary ...
The avian lung has a highly sophisticated morphology with a complex vascular system. Extant data regarding avian pulmonary angioarchitecture are few and contradictory. We used corrosion casting techniques, light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the development, topography, and distribution of the parabronchial vasculature in the chicken lung. The arterial system was divisible into three hierarchical generations, all formed external to the parabronchial capillary meshwork. These included the interparabronchial arteries (A1) that ran parallel to the long axes of parabronchi and gave rise to orthogonal parabronchial arteries (A2) that formed arterioles (A3). The arterioles formed capillaries that participated in the formation of the parabronchial mantle. The venous system comprised six hierarchical generations originating from the luminal aspect of the parabronchi, where capillaries converged to form occasional tiny infundibular venules (V6) around ...
Another name for Adenocarcinoma of the Bronchus is Adenocarcinoma of the Bronchus. What is adenocarcinoma of the bronchus? A person with adenocarcinoma ...
Alveoli (site of gas exchange). Upper respiratory tract/conducting zone. The conducting zone begins with the nares (nostrils) of the nose, which open into the nasopharynx (nasal cavity). The primary functions of the nasal passages are to: 1) filter, 2) warm, 3) moisten, and 4) provide resonance in speech. The nasopharynx opens into the oropharynx (behind the oral cavity). The oropharynx leads to the laryngopharynx, and empties into the larynx (voicebox), which contains the vocal cords, passing through the glottis, connecting to the trachea (wind pipe).. Lower respiratory tract/respiratory zone. The trachea leads down to the thoracic cavity (chest) where it divides into the right and left "main stem" bronchi. The subdivision of the bronchus are: primary, secondary, and tertiary divisions (first, second and third levels). In all, they divide 16 more times into even smaller bronchioles.. The bronchioles lead to the respiratory zone of the lungs which consists of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ...
Congenital bronchial atresia (CBA) is a rare congenital abnormality which usually presents incidentally in asymptomatic young male adults. It is caused by an interruption of a lobar, segmental or subsegmental bronchus with associated peripheral m...
The respiratory system is human actioning pointd on two rationales, pliable principle and exerciseal principle. The conducting part and the respiratory accord atomic anatomy 18 portion that divided on basis of the operative principle .The comp onents of the conducting portion argon nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles .while the components of the respiratory portion are respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. Each portion has his hold function that is related to what it is consist of .the functions of the conducting portion are to provide passageways for the duck soup , warm the air ,humidifies ,and trapping up and preventing darts as well microscopes from entering the lungs . the conducting portion decease from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles .the trachea is tube-like with 20 c-shaped cartilages. in parliamentary procedure to prevent the trachea from collapsing ,the cartilages were necessit ate .the wall of the trachea from inside is ...
Incidence of acute asthma, defined as the number of persons who develop asthma within a specific time period, is approximately % annually. Childhood asthma persists into adulthood in approximately 50% of cases. Those with symptoms persisting into the second decade of life usually have asthma throughout adulthood. Asthma prevalence is 6-10% (ie, million persons); one half of these cases are children (ie, 8-20% of all children). Overall, acute asthma represents about 2% of all ED visits Childhood asthma
This image shows the wall of a small bronchus, including a small segment of cartilage. Adjacent to the bronchus are several alveoli. Red blood cells are conspicuous in blood vessels, including alveolar capillaries. ...
Pekana! Bropert (previously Bronchi Pertu ) - BRONCHI-PERTU spag. syrup (pronounced bronkee-PAIR-too) For treatment of bronchial infections, asthma and whooping cough Name: BRONCHI(tis) PERTU(ssis) INDICATIONS BRONCHI-PERTU syrup is indicated for bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough and other infections of the breathing passageways. Istimulates excretion of toxins that cause symptoms such as a dry cough with stabbing pains and
The passing of Pecos Road and the coming of the trucks was on my mind today when I read two articles in the Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology about the harmful effects of living close to a busy freeway.. The first: Inhalation of diesel exhaust and allergen alters human bronchial epithelium DNA methylation, presents evidence that exposure to diesel particles and common environmental allergens, such as pollen and mold, can alter the DNA of the lung. This change can produce lasting effects on gene expression, cell function, and health. In other words, exposure to diesel particles can alter your DNA in such a way that you develop allergies or asthma, even if you, or your relatives, never had allergies before.. The number of people with allergies and asthma has increased significantly over the past several decades - a rise that has occurred almost exclusively in industrialized countries. Since exposure to air pollution is one of the factors that characterizes life in the developed countries, ...
We offer discount medical surgical supplies and instruments in the Cardiovascular Bronchus Clamps category, such as the Lees Bronchus Clamp 9 3/4 52-2382
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the normal range of quantitative CT in measuring the airway diameter at inspiration-expiration phase using 3D imaging in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: 68 healthy volunteers, including 42 males and 26 females, with the mean age of 49.3 (SD14.7) years, had undergone low-dose CT scan at full inspiration and the end of expiration. All CT scans were performed within the range from the lung apices to the diaphragm, at a tube potential of 120kVp and an effective mAs of 60. Afterwards, all CT images were analyzed using the 3D software (FUJIFILM Corporation SYNAPSE), and the airway tree was generated according to the automated region-growing technique, which was perpendicular to the cross section measurement of the segmental bronchus in bilateral lower lobes. Meanwhile, the imaging of segmental bronchus was classified as at inspiration and expiration phase in male group, and at inspiration and expiration phase in female group. Moreover, the Din-L and Din-S of the
Rynning, Iselin; Neca, Jiri; Vrbova, Kristyna; Libalova, Helena; Rossner, Pavel; Holme, Jørn Andreas; Gutzkow, Kristine Bjerve; Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Hruba, Eva; Skare, Øivind; Haugen, Aage; Topinka, Jan; Machala, Miroslav; Mollerup, Steen Kristen ...
Bronchitis is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the bronchi or air passages that transport air from the trachea to the lungs. Inflammation of the bronchi leads to the accumulation of mucus, which causes the blocking of the bronchial cells. The body then takes refuge in the cough mechanism to get rid of the accumulated mucus. Unfortunately, cough, while it gets rid of excess mucus, also makes the air passages more susceptible to infection. Moreover, if the infection continues, the tissues of the bronchi might get damaged ...
0916030018 This is a case of a central squamous carcinoma causing obstruction of the right mainstem bronchus and SVC requiring stents in both. This image tells the story of how tubular transport function is compromised by reduced size, and how size can be restored by modern technology. 0916030018 Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD size tracheobronchial tree SVC vein stent anatomy applied biology applied anatomy ...
1 of 2) Lung tissue may be removed to identify the primary and secondary bronchi. Note that the right primary bronchus is more vertical in orientation and wider in diameter than the left bronchus (Figure 19.8). With a model of the trachea and bronchi, study the branching of the right and left bronchi: Trachea ...
It consists of organs and tissues, which are fully provided for ventilation and breathing.The implementation of the gas exchange - the main component in the metabolism - are the functions of the respiratory system.The latter is responsible only for pulmonary (external) breath.It includes: 1. airways, consisting of the nose and its cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi.. nose and its cavity is heated, moisten and filter the air you breathe.Its purification is achieved by numerous stiff hairs and goblet cells with cilia.. The larynx is located between the root of the tongue and trachea.Its cavity mucosa divided in two folds.In the middle they are not completely fused.The gap between them is called the voice.. trachea originates from the larynx.In the thorax it is divided into the bronchi: right and left.. 2. Light a densely branched vessels, bronchioles and alveolar sacs.They begin a gradual division of the main bronchus on small size tubes, called bronchioles.Of these consist smallest structural ...
The present study aimed to compare the cellular pattern and structural changes in the airways of patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) with healthy controls. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from seven subjects with pSS and seven healthy controls. All the patients with pSS had increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. In the biopsies inflammatory cells, cytokine-producing cells, tenascin and laminin were visual zed by immunostaining. Patients with pSS had a higher number of neutrophils and mast cells than healthy controls, while the number of eosinophils was similar in the two groups. The number of IL-8-positive cells was higher in pSS butthe numbers of IL-4-and IL-5-positive cells were not significantly different between pSS and healthy controls. The numbers of T cells in patients with pSS were higher than in healthy controls, while the numbers of CD25-positive cells were similar to the healthy controls. The degree of epithelial integrity in patients with pSS was ...
Bronchial Epithelial Cell Medium-basal https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-3211-b https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
Definition of submucosa of bronchus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
One study in 35 adults allergic to fruits and vegetables Two to four percent of adults are allergic to foods of various kinds. For the first time, French pulmonologists have shown that these allergies are associated, in more than half of cases in adults, with changes in the bronchi. Between food allergies and asthma, the differences would be more tenuous ... Asthmatics have a more reactive digestive mucosa Food allergies are common. In young children, they often develop in
Radiological examination should never be omitted, but it must be recognized that a carcinoma can occur in one of the larger bronchi without any radiological change in the lung, provided there is insufficient obstruction to interfere with the free inflow and outflow of air to and from the lung beyond. In the majority of cases, however, a shadow will be evident on the film… Enlarged glands are almost invariably present, and it is by no means always easy to determine whether the enlargement is due to infection, secondary growth, or a combination of both. When the glands are enlarged by secondary growth, as is sometimes obvious, the ultimate prognosis is adversely affected, even when all visible glands are removed.1. Perhaps the most important advances in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer have come from better ability to stage patients accurately. The staging classification is extremely important because the correct stage provides both prognostic information and a framework for ...
Cats may acquire one or more conditions that cause the bronchi to become inflamed and hypersensitive to irritants, conditions which can narrow the airways to the point of making it difficult for the cat to breathe. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
China Human Larynx Trachea Bronchi Model, Find details about China Larynx Trachea Bronchi Model, Anatomical Larynx Trachea Bronchi Model from Human Larynx Trachea Bronchi Model - Zhangjiagang Deren Scientific Equipment Co., Ltd.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-like growth factor secretion in tracheobronchial epithelial cells by vitamin A. AU - Miller, Lisa. AU - Cheng, Ling Zhong. AU - Wu, Reen. PY - 1993/6/1. Y1 - 1993/6/1. N2 - Vitamin A deficiency of respiratory tract epithelium results in the phenomenon of squamous cell metaplasia. The mechanisms by which vitamin A regulates airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we focused on the effects of vitamin A (retinol) on growth of human and non-human primate tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells in culture. Retinol and its derivatives have little growth-stimulatory effect on TBE cells that are maintained in primary culture in a serum-free medium supplemented with 6 hormonal supple-ments: insulin, transferrin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), hydrocortisone, cholera toxin, and bovine hypothalamus extract. However, it was observed that retinol exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of TBE cell growth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ablated bronchial blood flow on survival rate and pulmonary function after burn and smoke inhalation in sheep. AU - Hamahata, Atsumori. AU - Enkhbaatar, Perenlei. AU - Hiroyuki, Sakurai. AU - Nozaki, Motohiro. AU - Traber, Daniel L.. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - The bronchial circulation plays a significant role in the pathophysiological changes of burn and smoke-inhalation injury. Bronchial blood flow markedly increases immediately after inhalational injury. This study examines whether the ablation of the bronchial artery attenuates pathophysiological changes and improves survival after burn and smoke-inhalational injury in an ovine model. Acute lung injury was induced by 40% total body surface-area third-degree cutaneous burn and cotton smoke inhalation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, ,40 °C) under deep anaesthesia. Twelve adult female sheep were divided into two groups: (1) sham (injured, non-ablated bronchial artery, n = 6); (2) ablation (injured, ablated bronchial ...
Risk factors for the development of BPF after pneumonectomy include anatomic, technical, and patient factors (Table 82-1).4,5 Right pneumonectomy is associated with a fourfold to fivefold higher incidence of BPF than left pneumonectomy, likely related to anatomic differences between the right and left mainstem bronchi.6 A right pneumonectomy stump has minimal mediastinal coverage of the bronchial stump compared with a left-sided stump, which retracts underneath the aorta into the mediastinum when properly fashioned (Fig. 82-1). The right mainstem bronchus is also oriented much more vertically than the left, which permits secretions to pool in the bronchial stump. Finally, the vascular supply to the left mainstem bronchus is augmented by direct vascular branches as the bronchus passes behind the aorta. The blood supply on the right travels from the trachea via local branches in the subcarinal space, which are often disrupted by dissection and lymph node removal. ...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-organ autosomal recessive disease of fluid-transporting epithelia, due to a mutation in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CFTR is a cAMP-regulated Cl-channel involved in various regulatory processes. Salt and water transport depend on CFTR and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), operating in concert with the paracellular pathway through the tight junctions (TJ). The ionic composition of the ASL has been assumed to be altered in CF, resulting in a fatal accumulation of viscous mucus in the airways.. ASL samples were collected from tracheal and nasal fluid in normal and transgenic CF mice and from the fluid covering the apical surface of normal bronchial cells (16HBE14o-) and a CF human bronchial cell line (CFBE41o-). Analysis of the elemental content of the ASL was performed by X-ray microanalysis. The ASL contained more Na and Cl in CFTR-deficient or DF508-CFTR-containing cells than in control cells with ...
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictors of radiolucent foreign body aspiration. AU - Mortellaro, Vincent E.. AU - Iqbal, Corey. AU - Fu, Roxanna. AU - Curtis, Heather. AU - Fike, Frankie B.. AU - St. Peter, Shawn D.. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Background Children frequently present for suspected foreign body aspiration, many have mild symptoms and/or negative radiographs raising the question of a radiolucent foreign body aspiration. Method Retrospective review of patients having bronchoscopy for suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration from 2000 to 2010 collecting demographics, history, hospital presentation, radiographic, and operative details. Pearsons correlation was used between event history, presentation, radiographic details and bronchoscopically identified foreign body with P value , 0.01. Results 138 patients, mean age 2.6 years, mean weight 15.6 kg, 68% male. Event symptoms: 81% witnessed events, 64% wheezing, 43% coughing, 39% choking, 6% stridor, and 0.7% lethargy. Hospital ...
During the course of this project, we witnessed the emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV is associated with severe respiratory disease and has an exceptionally high case fatality of approximately 40%. Initially, it was not known either how efficiently the MERS-CoV could replicate on the human airway epithelium or whether any measures were available to inhibit MERS-CoV replication in the human airway epithelium, indeed, even the nature of the target cell(s) was unknown. Since primary HAE-cultures were immediately at our command, we could participate in a number of international studies. We were the first to demonstrate that MERS-CoV can efficiently replicate on the primary human epithelium, which highlights its zoonotic potential (2).. Importantly, the treatment of MERS-CoV-infected HAE-cultures with interferon-alpha and interferon-lambda significantly reduced viral replication. Hence, this strategy opens up a therapeutic option for MERS-CoV patients ...

Bronchi Mereprine - Drugs.comBronchi Mereprine - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Bronchi Mereprine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Bronchi Mereprine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Bronchi Mereprine. Bronchi Mereprine may be available in the countries listed below. ... Ingredient matches for Bronchi Mereprine. Bromhexine. Bromhexine hydrochloride (a derivative of Bromhexine) is reported as an ...
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bronchi - InformedHealth.org - NCBI Bookshelfbronchi - InformedHealth.org - NCBI Bookshelf

bronchi. The air we breathe in enters the lungs through the windpipe. From there it is conducted through the branching ... structure of airways (bronchi), which become finer and finer, to the pulmonary vesicles (alveoli). The exchange between oxygen ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279189/def-item/def300/

3D Bronchi Models | TurboSquid3D Bronchi Models | TurboSquid

3D bronchi models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR ...
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Bronchi Function, Definition & Anatomy | Body MapsBronchi Function, Definition & Anatomy | Body Maps

The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus. ... Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air travels into ... Primary bronchi are located in the upper portion of the lungs, with secondary bronchi near the center of the lungs. Tertiary ... The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus. The bronchi become smaller the ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/bronchi

Bronchus | anatomy | Britannica.comBronchus | anatomy | Britannica.com

... the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus ... In human respiratory system: The trachea and the stem bronchi. The right main bronchus has a larger diameter, is oriented more ... side branches from the right bronchus and one from the left. These branches and the blind ends of the two parent bronchi ... In respiratory disease: Diseases of the major bronchi. The major bronchi can become the seat of chronic inflammation, as in ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/bronchus

Trachea and Bronchi | CTSNetTrachea and Bronchi | CTSNet

This site is not optimized for Internet Explorer 8 (or older).. Please upgrade to a newer version of Internet Explorer or use an alternate browser such as Chrome or Firefox.. ...
more infohttps://www.ctsnet.org/tags/trachea-and-bronchi

What do the bronchi do? | Reference.comWhat do the bronchi do? | Reference.com

The bronchi are a part of the respiratory tract that act as an extension of... ... Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. ... At the end of the trachea are a right bronchus and a left bronchus. These bronchi play a major role within the conducting zone ... Bronchi help transport air to and from the lungs; they send oxygen to the lungs and allow carbon dioxide to exit the lungs. The ...
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Histology of BronchusHistology of Bronchus

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Histology of Bronchus in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s ... Histology of Bronchus. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Histology of Bronchus in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Cross-section of bronchus showing histological structure of inner wall. Orientation drawing (left) shows location of bronchus. ...
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Bilateral Foreign Body Bronchus | SpringerLinkBilateral Foreign Body Bronchus | SpringerLink

The chances of having multiple foreign bodies in the same bronchus or in both the bronchi are not remote. Babies presenting ... Bilateral foreign body bronchus Foreign body aspiration (FBA) Foreign body (FB) bronchoscopy ... Here we want to share our experience in managing 7 cases of bilateral foreign body bronchus. ... with foreign bodies in bilateral bronchus have graver prognosis than the babies with unilateral foreign bodies. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12070-018-1325-4

Bronchus - WikipediaBronchus - Wikipedia

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus, also known as the primary ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the ... The secondary bronchi divide further into tertiary bronchi, (also known as segmental bronchi), each of which supplies a ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronchus

Bronchi of the Chest Diagram & Function | Body MapsBronchi of the Chest Diagram & Function | Body Maps

The bronchi are structurally similar to the trachea, as they are divisions from it. The bronchi are lined with the same type of ... Bronchi. Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air ... The secondary bronchi continue to branch off to form the tertiary bronchi, which are further divided into terminal bronchioles. ... Once inside the lungs, each bronchus is further divided into five smaller, secondary bronchi, which provide air to the lobes of ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/chest-bronchi

Narrowed Bronchi in Dogs  | petMDNarrowed Bronchi in Dogs | petMD

In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with ... divides into two main bronchi, which further divide several more times into smaller bronchioles, forming the bronchial tree ... In bronchiectasis, bronchi are irreversibly dilated due to destruction of elastic and muscular components of airway walls, with ... It is hoped that x-rays will reveal characteristic abnormalities in the bronchi that are related to this disease, but that is ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/respiratory/c_dg_bronchiectasis

Bronchus - WikipediaBronchus - Wikipedia

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus, also known as the primary ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three secondary bronchi (also known as lobar bronchi), which deliver oxygen to the ... The secondary bronchi divide further into tertiary bronchi, (also known as segmental bronchi), each of which supplies a ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronchial_tubes

Intermediate bronchus definition | Drugs.comIntermediate bronchus definition | Drugs.com

Definition of intermediate bronchus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... intermediate bronchus. Definition: the portion of the right main bronchus between the upper lobar bronchus and the origin of ... Synonym(s): bronchus intermedius. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/intermediate-bronchus.html

Bronchi-Shield ORAL | Revival Animal HealthBronchi-Shield ORAL | Revival Animal Health

Bronchi-Shield ORAL is for the vaccination of healthy dogs and puppies eight weeks of age or older as an aid in the prevention ... Bronchi-Shield® ORAL is for the vaccination of healthy dogs and puppies eight weeks of age or older as an aid in the prevention ... Bronchi-Shield® ORAL prevents Canine Bordetella Bronchiseptica. *Recommended for the vaccination of healthy dogs eight weeks of ...
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Bronchi-Shield III | Revival Animal HealthBronchi-Shield III | Revival Animal Health

Bronchi-Shield III intranasal vaccine protects dogs against Adenovirus Type 2 (respiratory disease), Parainfluenza and ... Bronchi-Shield® III is designed for intranasal use only. Do not vaccinate dogs parenterally.. A very small percentage of ... Bronchi-Shield® III contains modified live virus and avirulent live culture. Recommended for the vaccination of healthy dogs ... Bronchi-Shield® III offers broad Canine Cough protection. *Prevents Canine Adenovirus Type 1 (Hepatitis), Adenovirus Type 2 ( ...
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Bronchus- und Pleuratumoren durch Arbeitsstoffe | SpringerLinkBronchus- und Pleuratumoren durch Arbeitsstoffe | SpringerLink

1990) Bronchus- und Pleuratumoren durch Arbeitsstoffe. In: Konietzko N., Costabel U., Bauer P.C. (eds) Lunge und Arbeitswelt. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-75356-5_1

Left Lower Lobe Bronchus (Secondary)Left Lower Lobe Bronchus (Secondary)

The left lower lobe bronchus (secondary) is one of the air passage ways into the lungs. ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/image_card06/card99.html

Allergic disease of the bronchi. | ThoraxAllergic disease of the bronchi. | Thorax

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/24/3/379.1

bronchi pronunciation: How to pronounce bronchi in Englishbronchi pronunciation: How to pronounce bronchi in English

Learn how to pronounce bronchi in English with native pronunciation. bronchi translation and audio pronunciation ... bronchi example in a phrase My cousin has calcium deposits in his bronchi, a condition called broncholithiasis. * My cousin has ... bronchi pronunciation Pronunciation by russell00 (Male from Australia) 0 votes Good Bad ... Can you pronounce it better? Or with a different accent? Pronounce bronchi in English ...
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Bronchus - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | MedindiaBronchus - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia

Bronchus - A large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary ... Bronchus - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May ... Medical Word - Bronchus. Ans : A large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung. ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/glossary/bronchus.htm

Bronchus & Esophagus Brachytherapy ApplicatorsBronchus & Esophagus Brachytherapy Applicators

Bronchus and. Esophagus Applicators. Elekta offers two advanced applicators for lung and other intraluminal brachytherapy ...
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The Bronchi: Anatomy and FunctionThe Bronchi: Anatomy and Function

The bronchi are the airways leading from the trachea to the lungs. Heres what to know about their structure, function, and ... The bronchi begin when the trachea divides to form the right and left main bronchi (the pleural of bronchus). These bronchi, in ... The bronchi divide first into lobar bronchi, and then tertiary bronchi called segmental bronchi, followed by three more ... Left main bronchus: The left bronchus is smaller and longer than the right main bronchus (approximately 5 cm or 1.5 inches.) It ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-the-bronchus-structure-function-and-conditions-2249066

Bronchus - wikidocBronchus - wikidoc

trachea (tracheal rings, carina) • bronchi • main bronchus (right, left) • lobar/secondary bronchi (eparterial bronchus) • ... The right main bronchus subdivides into three segmental bronchi while the left main bronchus divides into two. The lobar ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the ... The trachea (windpipe) divides into two main bronchi (also mainstem bronchi), the left and the right, at the level of the ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Bronchus

800px-Tertiary bronchus.JPG | Naked Scientists800px-Tertiary bronchus.JPG | Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists® 2000-2018 , The Naked Scientists® and Naked Science® are registered trademarks created by Dr Chris Smith. Information presented on this website is the opinion of the individual contributors and does not reflect the general views of the administrators, editors, moderators, sponsors, Cambridge University or the public at large. ...
more infohttps://www.thenakedscientists.com/files/images/800px-tertiarybronchusjpg-1
  • From there it is conducted through the branching structure of airways (bronchi), which become finer and finer, to the pulmonary vesicles ( alveoli ). (nih.gov)
  • When the bronchi become swollen due to irritants or infection, bronchitis results and makes breathing more difficult. (healthline.com)
  • Bronchitis sufferers also tend to have much more mucus and phlegm than someone without inflamed bronchi. (healthline.com)
  • A number of different medical conditions can affect the bronchi, ranging from bronchitis to aspiration, to bronchospasm with asthma. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The two bronchi are somewhat different in size and the angles they take, a characteristic that is important in conditions such as the aspiration of stomach contents or a foreign body. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The bronchi function primarily as passageways for air, but also play a role in immune function. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Good palliation was obtained in just over half the cases of partial obstruction of the trachea or main bronchus, but best results were obtained in lesions of the trachea or main carina. (bmj.com)
  • Smooth muscle is present continuously around the bronchi. (wikidoc.org)
  • Asthma is hyperreactivity of the bronchi with an inflammatory component, often in response to allergens . (wikidoc.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Histology of Bronchus in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)