Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.FluorobenzenesParturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.SepharoseElectrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.

Procedure for calibrating the Technicon Colorimeter I. (1/29)

We describe a rapid method for calibrating the Technicon AutoAnalyzer colorimeter I. Test solutions of bromphenol blue are recommended for the calibration, in preference to solutions of potassium dichromate, based on considerations of the instrument's working range and of the stray light characteristics of the associated filters.  (+info)

Guidance for selecting the measurement conditions in the dye-binding method for determining serum protein: theoretical analysis based on the chemical equilibrium of protein error. (2/29)

A methodology for selecting the measurement conditions in the dye-binding method for determining serum protein has been studied by a theoretical calculation. This calculation was based on the fact that a protein error occurs because of a reaction between the side chains of a positively charged amino acid residue in a protein molecule and a dissociated dye anion. The calculated characteristics of this method are summarized as follows: (1) Although the reaction between the dye and the protein occurs up to about pH 12, a change in the color shade, called protein error, is observed only in a pH region restricted within narrow limits. (2) Although the apparent absorbance (the absorbance of the test solution measured against a reagent blank) is lower than the true absorbance indicated by the formed dye-protein complex, the apparent absorbance correlates with the true absorbance with a correlation coefficient of 1.0. (3) At a higher dye concentration, the calibration curve is more linear at a higher pH than at a lower pH. Most of these characteristics were similarly observed experimentally in the reactions of BPB, BCG and BCP with human and bovine albumins. It is concluded that in order to ensure the linearity of the calibration curve, the measurement should be performed at a higher dye concentration and sufficiently high pH where the detection sensitivity is satisfied.  (+info)

Microfluidic large-scale integration. (3/29)

We developed high-density microfluidic chips that contain plumbing networks with thousands of micromechanical valves and hundreds of individually addressable chambers. These fluidic devices are analogous to electronic integrated circuits fabricated using large-scale integration. A key component of these networks is the fluidic multiplexor, which is a combinatorial array of binary valve patterns that exponentially increases the processing power of a network by allowing complex fluid manipulations with a minimal number of inputs. We used these integrated microfluidic networks to construct the microfluidic analog of a comparator array and a microfluidic memory storage device whose behavior resembles random-access memory.  (+info)

Preparation of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) specimens for histological studies. (4/29)

Phlebotominae sand fly specimens were prepared for histological and physiological studies. Different fixatives were tested on sectioned and whole bodied adult females in order to obtain good fixation and provide satisfactory penetration of the embedding media. All fixed specimens were infiltrated (up to seven days under 5 C) and embedded in hydroxyethyl metacrylate. Two-three m sections were stained, mounted in Canada balsam and observed by light microscopy. Best results were achieved when whole bodied insects were double fixed in Bouin's and Carnoy's fluids (4 h/2 h) and stained in Hematoxilin/Eosin or fixed in calcium formaldehyde and stained in mercury bromophenol blue.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an aflatoxin degradation enzyme from Pleurotus ostreatus. (5/29)

Nineteen fungi were tested for their ability to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). An extracellular enzyme from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus showed afaltoxin-degradation activity detected by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). An enzyme with this activity was purified by two chromatographies on DEAE-Sepharose and Phenyl-Sepharose. The apparent molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Optimum activities were found in the pH range between 4.0 and 5.0 and at 25 degrees C. Also, degradation activity of several dyes in the presence of H2O2 was tested, resulting in the detection of bromophenol blue-decolorizing activity. Based on these data, we suggest this enzyme is a novel enzyme with aflatoxin-degradation activity. Fluorescence measurements suggest that the enzyme cleaves the lactone ring of aflatoxin.  (+info)

Delivery of several forms of DNA, DNA-RNA hybrids, and dyes across human sclera by electrical fields. (6/29)

PURPOSE: Iontophoresis has been used for drug delivery across the cornea for many years. We sought to test whether small charged dyes and DNA can be transferred across human sclera by an electric field. METHODS: Full-thickness human scleral fragments were embedded vertically in an agarose gel and positioned to completely span individual gel lanes. The scleral fragments were located approximately 1 cm downstream from the gel wells. DNA or dyes were loaded into the wells and electrophoresis was carried out at about 3.3 V/cm for approximately 2 h per run. Movement of DNA and dyes through the agarose and sclera was measured with either digital time-lapse photography or through DNA extraction and purification from the gel. SYBR green stain was used as a sensitive method to detect DNA. RESULTS: Digital time-lapse photography of agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that two dyes, xylene cyanol and bromphenol blue, passed through the sclera in the presence of an electric field. Xylene cyanol was driven through the sclera virtually unimpeded except for some spreading of the dye. Bromphenol blue was slowed markedly by the sclera, but it too eventually passed through the tissue. Small DNAs, including a single stranded 51-mer and a double hairpin 68-mer oligonucleotide, passed through the sclera as detected by SYBR green staining. Linear double stranded DNAs ranging from 50 bp to 12,000 bp passed through the sclera. The larger the DNA, the slower the rate of passage through the sclera, and the greater the band spreading. pEGFP-1 (a 3 kb plasmid) passed through the sclera but was accompanied by a great amount of band spreading. Following completion of the initial electrophoresis run, the plasmid DNA was extracted from the smeared bands in the agarose distal to the sclera and re-run on a second gel without sclera. The initially smeared plasmid bands resolved into 2 distinct bands after extraction and purification and matched well with control plasmid bands. CONCLUSIONS: Charged molecules such as xylene cyanol, bromphenol blue, and DNAs ranging from 51 bp oligonucleotides to a 3 kb plasmid can be driven across human sclera by an electric field and directly detected. Passage of plasmids was efficient, but the plasmid bands were diffuse after transit. This technique offers promise as a noninvasive DNA delivery tool, where gene therapy can be accomplished by small RNA or DNA synthetic oligonucleotides, larger double stranded fragments, or even plasmids.  (+info)

Theoretical analysis concerning the characteristics of a dye-binding method for determining serum protein based on protein error of pH indicator: effect of buffer concentration of the color reagent on the color development. (7/29)

In the dye-binding method based on protein error of a pH indicator, the color development has been reported to be markedly affected by the buffer concentration of the color reagent. In this study, the author analyzed this phenomenon by a theoretical calculation based on the chemical equilibrium of protein error. The calculation was performed on the assumption that both the dissociated dye anion and the anion contained in the buffer solution react with protein, forming a dye-protein complex and an anion-protein complex, respectively. The calculated results were compared with those obtained by the experiments using bromophenol blue, bromocresol green and bromocresol purple that are employed widely for determining the human serum albumin concentration clinically. The calculated results of this method are summarized as follows: (1) the color development decreases with the increase in the concentration of the anion contained in the buffer solution; (2) the calibration curve is more linear in the higher concentration of the anion than in the lower one. These calculated results agreed well with the experimental ones. From these results, it was concluded that the change in the color development by the buffer concentration of the color reagent is due to the change in the concentration of the buffer anion.  (+info)

An evaluation of novel vital dyes for intraocular surgery. (8/29)

PURPOSE: To evaluate systematically the staining characteristics and safety of potential new dyes for intraocular surgery. METHODS: Six dyes were included in the investigation: light green SF (LGSF) yellowish, E68, bromophenol blue (BPB), Chicago blue (CB), rhodamine 6G, rhodulinblau-basic 3 (RDB-B3). All dyes were dissolved and diluted in a balanced saline saline solution. The light-absorbing properties of each dye were measured at a concentration of 0.05% between 200 and 1000 nm. Staining characteristics were examined by staining lens capsule tissue and epiretinal membranes (ERMs), removed intraoperatively, with dye concentrations of 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.05%. Enucleated porcine eyes (postmortem time, 9 hours) were also stained. Dye-related toxicity was evaluated by a colorimetric test (MTT) measuring the inhibition of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation (ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells, passages 3-6). Cell viability was also quantified based on a two-color fluorescence cell-viability assay. Dyes were investigated in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. RESULTS: All dyes investigated in this study stained human lens capsules, removed intraoperatively; ERMs, peeled during macular pucker surgery; and enucleated porcine eyes, depending on the concentration applied. The long-wavelength absorption maximum of the dyes was within the range of 527 to 655 nm at concentrations of 0.05%. Rhodamine G6 and RDB-B3 showed adverse effects on ARPE-19 cell proliferation at a concentration of 0.2% and were excluded from further investigation in primary RPE cells. The remaining four dyes showed no toxic effect on ARPE-19 and primary RPE cell proliferation at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. Cell viability was affected by LGSF yellowish (0.2%) and CB (0.2% and 0.02%). Two dyes (E68 and BPB) showed no relevant toxicity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic evaluation of dyes for intraocular use seems mandatory. In this study four dyes were identified with effective staining characteristics, with two of these dyes having no detectable toxic effect on RPE cells in vitro.  (+info)

*Bromophenol blue

... (115-39-9) Chemical Names and Synonyms. PubChem Compound. Bromphenol Blue - Compound Summary. https://pubchem. ... Bromophenol blue is also used as a dye. At neutral pH, the dye absorbs red light most strongly and transmits blue light. ... Bromophenol blue is structurally related to phenolphthalein (a popular indicator). Bromophenol blue is also used as a color ... Solutions of the dye, therefore, are blue. At low pH, the dye absorbs ultraviolet and blue light most strongly and appears ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... bromphenol blue MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.832.200 --- bromthymol blue MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.832.500 --- toluene 2,4- ... bromphenol blue MeSH D02.886.590.887.200 --- bromthymol blue MeSH D02.886.590.887.570 --- tosylarginine methyl ester MeSH ... evans blue MeSH D02.886.645.600.080.050.650.750 --- suramin MeSH D02.886.645.600.080.050.650.875 --- trypan blue MeSH D02.886. ... methylene blue MeSH D02.886.369.533 --- moricizine MeSH D02.886.369.550 --- nonachlazine MeSH D02.886.369.575 --- perazine MeSH ...
Often a side-effect of pregnancy, lots of moms need to have. gallbladder attack, these are decent rules to follow in the game of dietary life. Its simple, and yet we all struggle with it so much. Keep tempting foods out of the house, stay.. When you have an upset stomach from too much acid build up, Alka-Seltzer can act as a buffer. This experiment shows. it can feel upset. Alka-Seltzer is a buffer which keeps your stomach from being too acidic. This demonstration using bromphenol blue and vinegar, will show how Alka-Seltzer neutralizes stomach acid.. If you do NOT, you probably have low stomach acid. Stop the Thyroid Madness was one of the 2016 Winner Blogs. far below what we have to pay every month.. HCL Acid in Stomach , Healthy Eating , SF Gate - Once you start eating, your body produces a strong gastric acid called hydrochloric acid, or HCL, to begin the process of stomach digestion. During this process.. Introduction; Food is Complex and Contains Many Types of Molecules; Proteins ...
Proteins were separated by standard 2-DE. Briefly, the first dimension was performed in IPGphor™ (GE Healthcare, UK) isoelectric focusing (IEF) apparatus. Linear, 24 cm long, pH 4-7 Immobiline™ DryStrip gels (IPG-strips, GE Healthcare, UK) were rehydrated in the strip holders for 4 hours in 0.45 ml rehydration buffer containing 9 M urea, 2% (w/v) CHAPS, 0.5% (v/v) IPG-buffer pH 4-7, 1.2% (v/v) DeStreak™ reagent, a trace of bromophenol blue and 150 μg of total amount of protein. IEF was carried out at +20°C using following step-and-hold settings: 50 V, 8 h; 100 V, 1 h; 500 V, 1 h; 1000 V, 1 h; 2000 V, 1 h; 8000 V, until 95000 Vh was achieved. Then, the IPG-strips were incubated at room temperature in equilibration buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.8, 6 M urea, 30% (v/v) glycerol, 2% (w/v) SDS, a trace of bromophenol blue, and 10 mg/ml DTT) for 15 min and for another 15 min in the same buffer that contained 25 mg/ml of iodoacetamide instead of DTT. The second-dimension separation was performed ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Arbor \ Color Reagent B, 5ML \ X093-5ML for more molecular products just contact us
The denaturation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHC1) showed a single-step, two-state transition, when monitored by different probes such as intrinsic fluorescence at 338 and 333 nm after excitation at 280 and 295 nm respectively, UV difference spectral signal at 288 nm, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate (ANS) fluorescence at 470 nm after excitation at 380 nm, bromophenol blue (BPB)-induced difference spectral signal at 619 nm and A.,„„ of positive difference spectral signal of BPB-BSA complex. A comparison of the denaturation curves obtained with the above mentioned probes showed differences in the requirement of GdnHC1 concentration• for the transition to start and complete. The values for the mid-point of denaturation transition and free energy change associated with GdnHC1 denaturation (AG Du2o.) also varied from each other, using different probes ...
SDS-PAGE abnormalities in proteins near to front dye - posted in -Biochemistry-: Hi, I want to get some helps from all of you... I have done a lot of SDS-PAGE with strange migration of protein near to front dye. In a normal condition, the smallest protein marker should travel a bit slower than the protein samples migration indicator (bromophenol blue), i get a nice result last time (as shown in normal.png) but after i have prepared a new solution of acrylamide, the condition com...
1) Centrifuge sample containing hydrogels and crystal violet indicator 3 times (5 minutes, 13200 rpm) -Measure the absorbance of each supernatant to find the amount of CV that the hydrogels have absorbed 2) Prepare 2 more hydrogel solutions with the following indicators (these will be used to measure dye leakage as well as to monitor pH changes) a) methyl red (55μL) in 1.5 mL ethanol w/ 2mg hydrogels b) bromophenol blue (30μL) in 1.5 mL water w/ 2mg hydrogels ...
For whole cell protease treatment method, E. coli cells have been harvested, washed and resuspended in one ml Tris HCl. Proteinase K was additional to final concentrations in between 0. two mg mL 1 and 0. 5 mg mL 1 and cells had been incubated for one hour at 37 C. Digestion was stopped by washing the cells twice with Tris HCl containing 10% fetal calf serum and outer membrane proteins were ready as described over. For outer membrane proteins that have been applied for ac tivity assays, cells werent handled with Proteinase K. SDS Page Outer membrane isolates were diluted with sam ple buffer containing 4% SDS, 0. 2% bromophenol blue, 200 mM dithiothreitol and 20% glycerol boiled for 10 minutes and analyzed on 10% polyacrylamid gels. Proteins had been stained with Coomassie brilliant blue.. To correlate molecu lar masses of protein bands of curiosity, a molecular fat conventional was employed. Flow cytometer evaluation E. coli BL21 pAT kinase inhibitor MLN0128 LipBc cells were grown and ex ...
The ventricular tissues were suspended in 40 ml of ice-cold 10% tricholroacetic acid and homogenized with a tissue homogenizer (2 bursts, 30 s each). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min at 4°C, and protein content was determined using detergent-compatible protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, CA) with bovine serum albumin. The proteins were then put in a 3× sample buffer consisting of 0.2 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 4% sodium dodecylsulfate, 8 M urea, 0.1 M dithiothreitol, and 0.01% bromophenol blue. Equal amounts of protein per lane were loaded onto a 15% polyacrylamide gel and separated by electrophoresis at 30 mA/gel for 60 min with a running buffer containing 25 mm Tris, 192 mm glycine, and 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate. Molecular weight markers (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) were used in each gel. Proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene diflouride membrane (Immobilon-P; Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) at 36 V for 4 h using a transfer buffer ...
This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading buffer. Each lysate vial contains 0.1 mg lysate in 0.1 ml (1 mg/ml) of RIPA Buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH7.5, 250 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM NaF, 1% NP40). The loading buffer vial contains 0.5 ml 2X SDS Loading Buffer (125 mM Tris-Cl, pH6.8, 10% glycerol, 4% SDS, 0.002% Bromophenol blue, 100 mM DTT).. ...
You dont need the Kit - Just go to you local chemical store and get some concentrated HCL to make your soln, Bromophenol blue, and a 5 ml syringe or 5 ml pipet with pipet pump. I would go with the pipet since you will end up going throught a number of syringes. You can get the hardware on the internet but buy the chemicals local since they charge you an arm and a leg to ship chemicals. Thats what I did and it is all fairly basic. The hardest part is making the .01 M HCL soln - just follow girlmarks instructions poster earlier. Oh, a stiring rod helps too or a mag stirer if you want to get fancy ...
HEPG2SP (hepatoblastoma carcinoma derived cell line secreted proteins): Hundred ml of supernatant HEPG2 culture media were concentrated down to 100 l in a MicrosepTM Concentrators. The concentrated sample was mixed with 400 l of a solution containing urea (8 M), CHAPS (4% w/v), DTE (65 mM), Resolytes 3.5-10 (2 % v/v) and a trace of bromophenol blue. The whole final diluted HEPG2SP sample was used for in-gel sample rehydration. NAME=1001363,HL60 (promyelocytic leukemia cells): A monolayer culture of a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line was grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cells were rinsed once with DMEM without FCS and removed from the flask by incubating them with a solution containing trypsin (0.5 g/l) and EDTA (0.2 g/l). After 3 minutes, DMEM containing FCS was added into the flask to stop the action of the trypsin. The cells were detached from the surface of the flask by squirting the solution onto the cells. The suspension was ...
Whole-cell extracts were prepared from cultured cell monolayers as follows: the culture medium was drained off the cells, and the adherent cells were washed twice with ice-cold PBS. The cells were lysed with ice-cold modified RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 1% NP-40, 0.25% Na-deoxycholate, 150 mM NaCl, and 1 mM EDTA) containing protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich). The cell suspension was transferred into a centrifuge tube, left on ice, and vortexed every 5 minutes, for 15 minutes to lyse the cells. The lysate was then centrifuged at 14,000g in a precooled centrifuge for 15 minutes. The supernatant was collected and the concentration of protein in extracts was determined by using a protein assay concentrate (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Protein samples (10 μg) were dissolved in sample buffer (100 mM Tris [pH 6.8], 4% SDS, 20% glycerol, 0.02% bromophenol blue, and 50 μL/mL β-mercaptoethanol) at a concentration of 1:1. Samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE according to the method of Laemmli ...
Nucleic acid: RNA, single-stranded (G 22.8; A 26.4; C 30.3; U 20.5), with an apparent M. Wt of 2.2-2.6 x 106 in slab gel electrophoresis (Fig.6) under partially denaturing conditions as described by Gould (1981) (2.6% acrylamide, 0.17% methylene bisacrylamide, 7 M urea, 90 mM Tris-borate, 3 mM sodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate, pH 8.3) (G. Boccardo, unpublished data). Protein: Purified virus particles resuspended in 6 M urea, 2% (w/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate and 0.001% (w/v) bromophenol blue in 0.125 M Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, yielded electrophoretically homogeneous subunits (Fig.5) of M. Wt 2.1 x 104 (mean of 14 determinations, s.e. = 0.1 x 104) (G. Boccardo, unpublished data). M. N. Short (personal communication) calculated a M. Wt of 21,473 based on 204 amino acid residues (lys 5, his 1, arg 9, asp 14, thr 25, ser 17, glu 18, pro 17, gly 14, ala 27, half cys 2, val 8, met 1, ile 7, leu 24, tyr 3, phe 10, trp 2).. ...
The present invention relates to immunopharmacology and, more specifically, to a preparation controlling the T-system of immunity and to a method for producing the same.The preparation controlling the T-system of immunity is characterized by its content as the active principle, peptides with a molecular mass of from 1,500 to 6,000 Dalton having absorption maximum in UV-light at 280 and 275 nm and electrophoretic mobility in a polyacrylamide gel relative to bromophenol blue: 0.062-0.102; 0.156-0.236; 0.354-0.374; 0.382-0.422; 0.432-0.472; 0.485-0.545; 0.850-0.930.The method for producing the preparation according to the present invention comprises homogenization of a tissue of thymus gland in a solution of sodium chloride; the homogenizate is kept for 12-16 hours at a temperature of from 2.degree. to 6.degree. C., the residue is removed, thermolabile proteins are removed from the solution, peptides and proteins are precipitated and then dissolved and
You can indeed use the FFA as additional feedstock. I have done that too, I typically just mix the FFA 50/50 with the WVO and dewater/titrate/process. The key is making sure the FFA is clean enough to process. You really need to make sure that you get good separation, otherwise your FFA layer is polluted with salts. You can do a soap titration with bromophenol blue to figure out how much acid is need to completely nuetralize the FFA. I usually just take a few half liter samples, add different quantities of sulfuric and determine the winning amount. Typically 3%-5% by volume sulfuric ...
GAPDH from different species.. 1 x 1 mg vial, in 50% PBS, pH 7.4, 50% glycerol.. Antigen Standard is ready to use after reconstitution in distilled water.. The vial contains 5 µg of human GAPDH. Add 50 µl of water per vial and dissolve the pellet with gentle stirring. After dissolving centrifuge the vial briefly to collect all the liquid to the bottom of the vial.. 1 x 5 µg vial, lyophilized from protein solution in 62.5 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% sucrose, 1% 2-mercaptoethanol, 0.1% bromophenol blue. ...
Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems unit 8Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Equilibrium describes any condition or situation of balance. We recognize
Scientists have discovered that when cells are confronted with an invading virus or bacteria or exposed to an irritating chemical, they protect themselves by going off their DNA recipe
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
View Notes - Equilibrium 2010 from CHEM 152 at Pima CC. Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium Part 2: Chemical 2: Chemical Equilibrium David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson,
In this paper we describe an approach for teaching the relation between chemical equilibrium and free energy that is, according to our experience, very efficient and enlightening. This approach has a strong visual appeal and can be used at different levels, from simple presentation of the results as graphs of free energy versus reaction mixture composition, up to full derivation of formulas to find the equations of the curves ...
A remarkable nano-confinement entropic effect on chemical equilibrium (NCECE) was predicted by us using a novel lattice-gas based statistical-mechanical modeling.
It is shown that chemical equilibrium is reached both in homogeneous and heterogeneous area of composition of reactive mixture. The liquid - liquid equilibrium data for the surface of chemical equilibrium were obtained. The thermodynamic constants of chemical equilibrium at 303.15 and 313.15 K were determined. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. ...
25 μL of sample is required for each assay. Specimens, calibrators and controls are pre-diluted 1:21 prior to placing them in the test wells. Cut-off calibrator, controls and subject samples are diluted according to the specific test kit protocol, mixed briefly by vortex to assure good distribution of the sample in the diluent, and then transferred to the appropriately labeled wells and incubated. After washing the wells, conjugate is added with another incubation and wash step following. Substrate is added and allowed to incubate before the addition of stop/color reagent. The plates are read at an absorbance of 450 nm using a reference wavelength of 630 nm. EIA indices are calculated by hand using the formulas in the kit package insert. Data are recorded (1) as Positive (EIA index ≥ 1.10), Negative (EIA index ,0.90), or Equivocal (EIA index ≥ 0.90 to 1.09), and (2) as the exact numeric EIA index. The sensitivity of the assay is 96.6% and the specificity is 97.7%. ...
7). Eq (7) can be used to determine the amount of biomass required for any given initial dye concentration and for any desired amount of dye removal for any multistage system.. For a two stage batch sorption system, the design parameters are now explained. The design objective is to treat 50 L of basic red 9 solution of initial dye concentration 150 mg/L in the first stage. A series of equilibrium dye concentration from 140 mg/L to 10 mg/L in 10 decrements was considered in stage one of a two stage sorption system. The design plot which explains the amount of biomass needed in different two stage sorption systems are shown in Figure 3. The x-axis in Fig 3 represents the equilibrium concentration in the first stage of the two stage sorption system based on 10 mg/L of equilibrium dye concentration difference. In the sorption system number one, the design the objective is to reduce the initial dye concentration from 150 mg/L to 140 mg/L. Similarly in the sorption system 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, ...
In stoichiometry calculations, we assume that reactions run to completion. However, when a chemical reaction is carried out in a closed vessel, the system achieves equilibrium. Equilibrium occurs when there is a constant ratio between the concentration of the reactants and the products. Different reactions have different equilibria. Some may appear to be completely products, however, all reactions have some reactants present. A reaction may look "finished" when equilibrium is reached, but actually the forward and reverse reactions continue to happen at the same rate. A reverse reaction is when the written reaction goes from right to left instead of the forward reaction which proceeds from left to right. This is why equilibrium is also referred to as "steady state".. It is possible to write an equilibrium expression for a reaction. This can be expressed by concentrations of the products divided by the concentration of the reactants with the coefficients of each equation acting as exponents. It is ...
... , Jan 26, 2020 · Equilibrium Chemistry Class 11 Notes. These are Chemical Equilibrium revision notes of Equilibrium Chemistry Class 11 Notes. These notes provided for study purpose by ChemistryNotesInfo.com website. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM . Chemical reaction occur in one direction from reactant to products are termed as irreversible chemical reactions.
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Introduction. ________________ 2.0 Abstract: From the experiment, we become understand about dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier?s principle. Besides, we able to observe the change of an equilibrium when the concentration of a reactant or product is altered. We also know how to predict the effect of concentration changes on chemical equilibrium. This report shows, whenever a system in equilibrium is disturbed the system will adjust itself in such a way that the effect of the change will be reduced or moderated. Changing the concentration of a chemical will shift the equilibrium to the side that would reduce that change in concentration. The chemical system will attempt to partly oppose the change affected to the original state of equilibrium. In turn, the rate of reaction, extent, and yield of products will be altered corresponding to the impact on the system. The principle is used to manipulate the outcomes of reversible reactions, often to increase the yield of reactions. 3.0 Introduction: ...
022m. A colour camera recorded depth integrated images at 25 frames see more per second which were then time averaged over a period of 7 s. Fig. 4a shows an image of a jet containing passive dye and provides information about the depth integrated and time averaged dye concentration CDI(x,y)CDI(x,y). An inverse Abel transformation (Abel, 1826) was performed to reconstruct the axisymmetric form of the dye concentration through the jet using equation(17) C‾(x,z)=-1π∫r∞dC‾DIdmdmm2-r2.Fig. 4b shows the reconstructed concentration profile.. It has been known that the time averaged concentration field C‾ across the jet is approximately Gaussian (e.g. Morton et al. (1956), etc.) i.e. equation(18) C‾=C‾01+(2αy/b0)exp-λx2b2. The dilution at any location in the jet D(x,y)D(x,y) can be estimate by relating the centre line concentration C to the value at the nozzle C0C0 and radius b to the value that captures 95% of the jet fluid giving λ=log(1/0.05)≃3λ=log(1/0.05)≃3. This relationship ...
Two novel chemical sensing systems using thin organic films have been elaborated and compared, one involving well established colour reagents used with a novel piezo-optical transduction system and the other using alkylviologen films for molecular recognition of phenols, with transduction via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques. In the piezo-optical technique, chopped light absorbed by the thin sensing film deposited on piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is converted into heat by non-radiative decay. This expands the film, stressing the PVDF and generating an electric charge which is measured using a lock-in amplifier. The signal dependence on optical absorption length, thermal diffusion length, film uniformity and porosity, chopper frequency and amplifier phase synchronisation are reviewed. The design and selection of molecular receptors for phenols, and the fabrication of thin films suitable for SPR, are described together with results demonstrating response patterns to ...
Clonidine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent used for migraine prophylaxis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, menopausal flushing and Tourette syndrome. The quantity of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations must be within specific limits, in agreement with the respective label claim. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the conditions for two spectrophotometric methods for clonidine determination, based on the formation of the ion pair complex between clonidine hydrochloride and thymol blue/bromophenol blue. A Jasco UV-Vis 530 spectrophotometer was used for the analysis and the maxim absorbance was measured at 418 nm/448 nm against blank solution. After validation, the methods were used for quantification of clonidine hydrochloride in two commercial samples (tablets). The recovery of active substance varies between 98.06 and 100.13 % without interferences from the excipients.
0189] In order to allow for the use of an alkyl lithium in the synthetic route the 2-bromophenol of general formula 2 is protected. A large variety of phenol protecting groups that are stable in the presence of alkyl lithiums could be employed, for example those described in Wuts, P. G. M. and Greene, T. W., Greenes Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis 4th Ed., Wiley & Sons, 2007. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of this invention, the 2-bromophenol of general formula 2 is protected as a methyl ether, methoxymethyl ether (MOM ether) or methoxyethoxymethyl ether (MEM ether). Reaction conditions to achieve the desired phenol protection are described in Wuts, P. G. M. and Greene, T. W., Greenes Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis 4th Ed., Wiley & Sons, 2007. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of this invention, the methyl ether of general formula 8 (where P═CH3) is prepared by treatment of the 2-bromophenol of general formula 2 with potassium carbonate and iodomethane ...
To know the exact diagram represent the effect of catalysis on chemical equilibrium, I searched on experimental data but I cant find suitable data. so I consider a hypothetical reversible first -order reaction in each direction where $$\ce{ A ,=, B}$$ I choose those two equations for reversible first- order reaction to calculate the concentrations of product and reactant at a different time: $$\ce{[A]}=\frac{k_b +K_fe^{-(k_f+k_b)t} }{k_f+k_b}{[A]_0}$$ $$\ce{[B]}=\frac{k_f -K_fe^{-(k_f+k_b)t} }{k_f+k_b}{[A]_0}$$. Starting with A at a concentration$[A]_0={0.6}$ and the values of the rate constants of uncatalayzed reaction are $k_f=3s^{-1}$ and $k_b=1s^{-1}$. and the values of the rate constants of catalayzed reaction are $k_f=6s^{-1}$ and $k_b=2s^{-1}$. I did the calculation using excel sheet and draw the graph of concentration Vs time : ...
Equilibrium chemistry is concerned with systems in chemical equilibrium. The unifying principle is that the free energy of a system at equilibrium is the minimum possible, so that the slope of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate is zero. This principle, applied to mixtures at equilibrium provides a definition of an equilibrium constant. Applications include acid-base, host-guest, metal-complex, solubility, partition, chromatography and redox equilibria. A chemical system is said to be in equilibrium when the quantities of the chemical entities involved do not and cannot change in time without the application of an external influence. In this sense a system in chemical equilibrium is in a stable state. The system at chemical equilibrium will be at a constant temperature, pressure (or volume) and composition. It will be insulated from exchange of heat with the surroundings, that is, it is a closed system. A change of temperature, pressure (or volume) constitutes an external ...
Le Chateliers Principle can be used to predict how a change in condition affects a chemical equilibrium. Essentially, if there is a change in either the concentration of reactants/products, temperature, volume or pressure, the chemical system will try to respond by counteracting this change and establishing a new chemical equilibrium. This principle can be illustrated in the Haber process:. N2 + 3H2 ,-, 2NH3. For example, if the concentration of NH3 decreased suddenly, the system would try to counteract this change by increasing the concentration of the product. It can do this by shifting the equilibrium of the reaction to the right, by essentially using more reactants to turn into product.. Such a principle can and has been manipulated in chemical industries, such as in the above example, to improve the yield of a certain product. So by removing NH3 continuously, the chemical equilibrium will respond to this by generating more ammonia. This ammonia is then removed, and the system generates ...
The BD OneFlow™ ALOT (Acute Leukemia Orientation Tube) is a pre-configured single-dose, ready-to-use 8-color reagent. Two tubes, one containing the cytoplasmic markers (C tube) and one containing the surface markers (S tube), provide a single-test.. The BD OneFlow ALOT is intended for flow cytometric immunophenotyping of aberrant immature populations of hematopoietic cells (lymphoid and non-lymphoid lineage) in bone marrow and peripheral blood as an aid in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-lymphoid acute leukemia.. As a screening tube, the BD OneFlow ALOT can guide the need for further analysis in combination with panel(s) specifically designed for the classification of different forms of B, T and myeloid acute leukemias.. The BD OneFlow ALOT is available in the 10 test/box size (4 pouches of 5 tubes each: 2 pouches of S tubes and 2 pouches of C tubes).. Dark red color-coded boxes, pouches and tubes allow for easy visual identification.. The reagent composition is shown ...
Attempts have been made to synthesise a novel siloxane-containing dicyanate ester, 1,3-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane, commencing from 4-bromophenol or 4-methoxyphenol. Most of these syntheses have involved the use of a Grignard reaction to form a disiloxane group, followed up subsequent cleavage of an alkyl-protecting group to yield a free phenol. Several different ethers have been attempted, but none was successful. The extreme susceptibility of the aryl silicon-carbon bond to cleavage under acidic conditions has been demonstrated by these reactions. A novel phosphazene-containing dicyanate ester, 1,3-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)-1,3,5,5-tetraphenoxycyclotriphosphazene has been successfully synthesised in a four-step procedure with an overall yield of ca. 35%. The cyanate ester has been characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, thermomechanical analysis (TMA), 1H, 13C and 13P NMR spectroscopy, and Fourier-Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...
The solubility of a two-component, H 2 O+CO 2 fluid in silicate liquids was modeled by assuming mechanical, thermal, and chemical equilibrium between the fluid and liquid phases. The liquid phase was treated as a 12-component (10 major oxides+H 2 O+CO 2 ) mixture, and its thermodynamic properties were calculated on the basis of a regular and non-isometric mixing equation for the excess Gibbs free energy. The mole fractions of the exsolved and dissolved water and carbon dioxide were calculated on the basis of two chemical equilibrium and two mass-balance equations expressing the conservation of the exsolved and total mass of volatiles. The model was then calibrated by processing nearly 1000 experimental H 2 O and CO 2 solubility determinations from the literature in natural and synthetic silicate liquids covering a wide range of pressure-temperature-composition conditions. The results show that the present model predicts with reasonable accuracy the solubility of water and carbon dioxide in ...
Chapter Two LeChatlelier -- I thought that the earths climate was in a stable equilibrium -- like a chemical equilibrium. I am a chemist, and it was natural to see the world that way. In chemistry there is a concept called Le Chateliers principle which holds that a chemical system will alter itself to re-establish equilibrium. Last year, I heard a climate change denier make such an argument . (Here is a more sophisticated version.) At the time I thought the same, I thought more CO2 in the air, would mean faster growing forests and more algae in the sea. The biosphere would moderate the increase. As Time passed scientists tested one source of CO2 absorption after another, and nothing is fast enough. There are still people fertilizing the sea to increase CO2 absorption, but the best data shows the algae are eaten by other animals before they sink to the bottom of sea and leave the biosphere. Lets remember ocean fertilization though, because it is a Geoengineering Idea ...
A continuation of either CHE 129 or 131, introducing the fundamental principles of chemistry, including substantial illustrative material drawn from the chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biochemical systems. The principal topics covered are stoichiometry, the states of matter, chemical equilibrium and introductory thermodynamics, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, electron structure and chemical bonding, and chemical periodicity. The sequence emphasizes basic concepts, problem solving, and factual material. It provides the necessary foundation for students who wish to pursue further coursework in chemistry. This sequence is inappropriate for students who have completed two or more years of chemistry in high school; such students should take CHE 141, 142. Three lecture hours and one 80-minute workshop per week. May not be taken for credit in addition to CHE 142.. Prerequisite: C or higher in CHE 129 or CHE 131; or C or higher in CHE 125 and D or higher in CHE 129 or CHE 131. Pre- or ...
Course concepts include: thermochemical changes; electrochemical changes; chemical equilibrium focusing on acid-base systems; and chemical reactions of select classes of organic compounds. Energy changes and safety are emphasized ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal CDC42BPB antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-CDC42BPB antibodies.
Good news about Don Martin, Mad is releasing a deluxe two volume set of Don Martins work. It is being released October 23 and according to the info I have it will contain all of the work Martin created for Mad over the course of 30 years. Both volumes will be over 1000 pages of material so for all of us Don Martin fans it is something to look forward to. Thank you Greg ...
Buy Dye Decolorization from Reliable China Dye Decolorization suppliers.Find Quality Dye Decolorization Toys & Hobbies,Mother & Kids,Home & Garden,Feather, and more on Aliexpress.com
An aqueous solution containing 0.00005 to 0.2 mol/l of copper ion and 0.0001 to 1.0 mol/l of nitrate ion is effective to detect phosphorus segregates in a metallic material, particularly cast steel. Segregated phosphorus can be detected by etching a surface of steel to be tested, attaching test paper onto the steel surface, applying the aqueous solution to the paper, maintaining the paper in contact with the steel surface until stains appear, and removing the paper from the steel surface. A red print is obtained when the solution is pH 6 or higher. A blue print is obtained by following the above steps, and further treating the paper with a color reagent containing molybdate ion, and then with a reducing agent.
D7058 - 04(2014) Standard Test Method for Determination of the Red Dye Concentration and Estimation of Saybolt Color of Aviation Turbine Fuels and Kerosine Using a Portable Visible Spectrophotometer , aviation turbine fuel, kerosine, red dye concentration, Saybolt color, visible spectrometry,
The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 μg/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels, and early embryo development. The aim was also to investigate the extent to which TBP was metabolised to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in dietary exposed zebrafish, and the amounts of TBP and TBA found in offspring. After 6 weeks of exposure, we found about 3% of the daily dose of TBP in adult fish and the mean concentration of TBA was 25-30% of the TBP concentration. TBP and TBA were detected in offspring with ...
For the reaction between hydrogen and iodine suppose a mole of hydrogen and b moles of iodine are mixed in a scaled bulb at 444ºC in the boiling sulphur for some time. The equilibrium mixture is then cooled and the bulbs are opened in the solution of NaOH. Let the amount of hydrogen consumed at equilibrium be x moles which means that the amount of hydrogen left at equilibrium is a-x moles. Since 1 mole of hydrogen reacts with 1 mole of iodine o form two moles of hydrogen iodide hence the amount of iodine used is also x moles so its moles at equilibrium are b-x and the moles of hydrogen iodide at equilibrium are 2x ...
The following content is provided under a Creative Commons license. Your support will help MIT OpenCourseWare continue to offer high quality educational resources for free. To make a donation or view additional materials from hundreds of MIT courses, visit MIT OpenCourseWare at ocw.mit.edu. PROFESSOR: So lets start with some of the things we learned last time. So there are two things that were important. We learned that the chemical potential for a species is the Gibbs free energy for that species divided by the number of moles, this is Gibbs free energy per mole. We learned that the pressure dependence of the Gibbs free energy gives you the pressure dependence for the chemical potential. That its equal to the chemical potential at one bar for an ideal gas plus RT log p. We also learned that a species will want to go to minimize its chemical potential, and we saw that for the cell bursting in salt, in distilled water. Or an ice cube melting at a temperature greater than 0 degrees. And what we ...
We develop a model of chemical equilibrium mixtures containing the elements H, C, F. We show that the shock response of a wide variety of molecular and polymeric fluorocarbons can be modeled as a chemical equilibrium mixture of a small number of dissociation product molecules. HF is known to strongly associate in the supercritical fluid phase. We predict that such an association also occurs under shock conditions.
Make your classroom electrifying with activities and information spanning chemistry and physics content. Everything from equilibrium to electricity and reactions to rocketry at your fingertips.. ...
Make your classroom electrifying with activities and information spanning chemistry and physics content. Everything from equilibrium to electricity and reactions to rocketry at your fingertips.. ...
For some reactions, the equilibrium constant is very large, in which case nearly all of the reactant chemical is turned into products, such as when paper is burned. For other reactions, it is very small, which results in very little products being formed. If the equilibrium constant is close to 1, a mixture of both products and reactants is expected at equilibrium.. When chemists talk about equilibrium constants, they call reactions with large K values favorable and reactions with small K values unfavorable. It is important to note, however, these terms are not judgements about the value or usefulness of a particular chemical reaction. In fact, some very important reactions are actually "unfavorable"; one such example is the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen gas (Haber process), which has a rather small equilibrium constant.. Understanding how chemical equilibriums work is important as it helps in understanding how a reaction happens. It allows chemists to calculate how much ...
Balanced chemical equations can now be applied to the concept of chemical equilibrium, the state in which the reactants and products experience no net change over time. This occurs when the forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates. The equilibrium constant is used to determine the amount of each compound that present at equilibrium. Consider a chemical reaction of the following form:. \[ aA + bB \rightleftharpoons cC + dD\]. For this equation, the equilibrium constant is defined as:. \[ K_c = \dfrac{[C]^c [D]^d}{[A]^a [B]^b} \]. The activities of the products are in the numerator, and those of the reactants are in the denominator. For Kc, the activities are defined as the molar concentrations of the reactants and products ([A], [B] etc.). The lower case letters are the stoichiometric coefficients that balance the equation.. An important aspect of this equation is that pure liquids and solids are not included. This is because their activities are defined as one, so plugging them into ...
Effective generation of chemical reactive species in thermal plasmas has been required in the field of material processing and waste treatment. The effect of oxygen injection into argon induction plasmas was investigated by numerical analysis without chemical equilibrium assumptions. Reaction kinetics rates of the dissociation and recombination of oxygen as well as the ionization were taken into account. The transport properties were estimated using higher-order approximation of the Chapman-Enskog method for required accuracy. Oxygen dissociation and heat flux to a torch wall can be controlled by oxygen injection location. Therefore, suitable oxygen injection needs to be chosen according to the application requirement. The present modeling would give more precise information and provide the guidance for the rational design of new material processing with effective reactive gas injection into plasmas.. ...
A continuation of either CHE 129 or 131, introducing the fundamental principles of chemistry, including substantial illustrative material drawn from the chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biochemical systems. The principal topics covered are stoichiometry, the states of matter, chemical equilibrium and introductory thermodynamics, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, electron structure and chemical bonding, and chemical periodicity. The sequence emphasizes basic concepts, problem solving, and factual material. It provides the necessary foundation for students who wish to pursue further coursework in chemistry. This sequence is inappropriate for students who have completed two or more years of chemistry in high school; such students should take CHE 141, 142. Three lecture hours and one 80-minute workshop per week. May not be taken for credit in addition to CHE 152. This course has been designated as a High Demand/Controlled Access (HD/CA) course. Students registering for HD/CA courses for the ...
country where they normally reside. Hailbronner (2003:26); Bauböck (2005:8). In Germany, Art. 5, para. 1 ... , Sentence 1 EGBGB [Introductory Law of the German Civil Code] governs this case, which is why German courts ... language. Cf. Section 10, para. 1 nos. 5 and 6 German Citizenship Act. Second, there are no empirical Weiter... ...
Loudwolf : POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE - ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - FINE ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - FLOAT ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - COURSE AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AMMONIUM PERSULFATE AMMONIUM SULFATE ASCORBIC ACID BORIC ACID BROMOPHENOL BLUE CALCIUM CARBONATE CALCIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM NITRATE CALCIUM PHOSPHATE - TRIBASIC CITRIC ACID COPPER SULFATE DEXTRIN FERRIC CHLORIDE FERROUS SULFATE GLYCERIN GRAPHITE IRON OXIDE - BLACK IRON OXIDE - RED LUGOLS IODINE - 2% LUGOLS IODINE - 5% MAGNESIUM SULFATE - ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE - HEPTAHYDRATE MANGANESE DIOXIDE MANGANESE SULFATE METHYL RED MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE OXALIC ACID PCB ETCHANT PHENOLPHTHALEIN POTASSIUM ALUM POTASSIUM CARBONATE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE POTASSIUM IODATE POTASSIUM IODIDE POTASSIUM NITRATE POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE SURVIVAL PACKS AMMONIUM ALUM NICKEL CHLORIDE POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE - MONOBASIC PROPYLENE GLYCOL ROCHELLE SALT SODIUM ACETATE - ANHYDROUS SODIUM BICARBONATE SODIUM BORATE - DECAHYDRATE SODIUM CARBONATE SODIUM CITRATE SODIUM
Different batches of bromocresol green were used in a study of several modifications of the bromocresol green method for serum albumin. No major batch variation was observed. Lyophilized animal sera and a certain batch of lyophilized human sera, however, responded differently from a pool of fresh human sera when the method was modified. These phenomena should be taken into accuont in calibration procedures and in quality assessment ...
The report generally describes sodium bromocresol green, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Sodium Bromocresol green market situation is
Pretreatment of a serum or plasma sample with ascorbate oxidase removed interfering ascorbate and allowed the determination of cholesterol to be carried out by a current enzymatic cholesterol method available in kit form. The Cobas-Fara was programmed to carry out pretreatment of the sample with ascorbate oxidase before addition of the cholesterol colour reagent.. ...
Press Release issued Apr 23, 2015: Clinical analyzer is a laboratory instrument used to analyze the concentration of analytes such as metabolites, proteins, electrolytes, and drugs in serum and plasma sample. It is also used to analyze blood components including white blood cells and red blood cells. It helps in diagnosis of various diseases such as cancer, HIV, diabetes, hepatitis, and kidney disorders. Various measurement technological methods including colorimetric testing, photometric testing, latex agglutination, and ion-selective potentiometry are used to analyze samples of blood serum, urine, and plasma. Photometric testing is the most common method used for verifying intensity through clinical analyzer. It uses sample mixed with a reagent for the production of color reaction and to further determine the concentration of volume that passes through photometer. Colorimetric testing is a method used to determine the presence of any chemical substance in a sample with the help of a color reagent.
Separation of 2-Nitrophenol; Pentachlorophenol; 2-Bromophenol; Phenol; 4-Nitrophenol; 3-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol; 2,4-Dichlorophenol; 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol; 2-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol; 2,4-Dimethylphenol; 2-Chlorophenol
0019]Suitable blocking group precursors which come into consideration for the preparation of the partially blocked polyisocyanates are e.g. active methylene compounds such as malonic acid esters (dimethyl malonate, diethyl malonate, t-butyl methyl malonate, di-t-butyl malonate, isopropylidene malonate), aceto-acetates (ethyl acetoacetate), β-diketones (2,4-pentanedione) and cyanoacetates; bisulfites, such as sodium bisulfate; phenols, such as 4-nitrophenol, 4-bromophenol, 2- or 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, methyl salicylate, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, 2-ethylhexyl hydroxybenzoate, 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol, 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-nonylphenol and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid; pyridinols, such as 3-hydroxypyridine, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-chloro-3-pyridinol and 2- and 8-quinlinols; thiophenols, such as thiophenol; mercaptopyridines, such as 2-mercaptopyridine; alcohols, such as 2-ethylhexyl alcohol, 2-octylalcohol, n-butyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, cyclohexyl ...
Quantum chemistry, a subfield of physical chemistry especially concerned with the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems, provides tools to determine how strong and what shape bonds are,[2] how nuclei move, and how light can be absorbed or emitted by a chemical compound.[3] Spectroscopy is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Another set of important questions in chemistry concerns what kind of reactions can happen spontaneously and which properties are possible for a given chemical mixture. This is studied in chemical thermodynamics, which sets limits on quantities like how far a reaction can proceed, or how much energy can be converted into work in an internal combustion engine, and which provides links between properties like the thermal expansion coefficient and rate of change of entropy with pressure for a gas or a liquid.[4] It can frequently be used to assess whether a ...
Effect of ammonia, sulfide and acetate (representing VFAs in general) on microorganisms living at alkaline pH and chemical equilibrium of ammonia sulfide and ac
In the market of High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps there is a gradual shift from traditional high-pressure plasma light sources based on single-metal emitters (e.g. high pressure sodium and high pressure mercury lamps) towards high-pressure plasma light sources with multiple plasma components. In the last group especially metal-halide lamps with improved energy efficiency and light-technical properties are becoming increasingly important. Since these plasmas are more complex in terms of the plasma chemistry and physics, an improved understanding is needed. In this article a model will be presented for the energy balance of metal-halide lamps. The model includes several submodels, including radiation models for optically thick and optically thin radiation, 2-D radiation transport, a model for the chemical equilibrium reactions between the different components in the plasma, heat conductivity and electrical conductivity, and a 1-D numerical solution of the Elenbaas-Heller equation. As an ...
In this online course, learn in-depth knowledge of general, organic and analytic chemistry through topics such as chemical equilibrium and chromatography.
* found in: Biocolor gel loading dye, Five minute reversible stain, Rapid Coomassie Stain, Acridine Orange, Hemi (Zinc Cl), Bromocresol, Loading Dye Base,..
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant C4BPB. C4BPB (AAH05378, 1 a.a. ~ 251 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. (H00000725-A01) - Products - Abnova
Contrary to previous reports (Peretz et al., 1994a; Ranganathan et al., 1994), in the present study substantial rises in Ca2+ were reliably detected in Ca2+-free solutions. Previous failure to detect significant rises may have been attributable to the dyes acting as Ca2+ buffers (both studies used higher dye concentrations) or [in the case of Ranganathan et al. (1994)] less intense stimulation, or because measurements were always made from an already partially stimulated condition. Although the present results initially seemed to indicate substantial release of Ca2+ from internal stores, when Na+ was replaced with NMDG, the light-induced Ca2+ rise was virtually abolished, leaving a residual signal of ,20 nm. This suggests that most of the measured rise was not attributable to release from internal stores, but was probably attributable to a shift in the Na/Ca exchange equilibrium caused by Na+ influx.. It is of some interest to inquire how much Ca2+would be required to generate an increase of 20 ...
A natural bromophenol found in seaweeds, 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB), has been shown to possess antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDB protects skin cells subjected to oxidative stress. The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione-related enzymes and the cell survival of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) was investigated. BDB treatment increased the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione synthesizing enzymes and enhanced the production of reduced glutathione in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, BDB activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and promoted its localization into the nucleus by phosphorylating its up-stream signaling proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B. Thus, BDB increased the production of reduced glutathione and established cellular protection against oxidative stress via an Nrf2-mediated pathway.
Chemistry, by its very nature, is concerned with change. Substances with well defined properties are converted by chemical reactions into other substances with different properties. For any chemical reaction, chemists try to find out (а) the feasibility of a chemical reaction which can be predicted by thermodynamics (as you know that a reaction with AG < 0, at constant temperature and pressure is feasible); (б) extent to which a reaction will proceed which can be determined from chemical equilibrium; (c) speed of a reaction i.e., time taken by a reaction to reach equilibrium. In addition to the feasibility and extent, it is equally important to know the rate and the factors controlling the rate of a chemical reaction for its complete understanding. For example, which parameters determine as to how rapidly food gets spoiled ? How to design a rapidly setting material for dental filling ? Or what controls the rate at which fuel burns in an auto engine ? All these questions can be answered by the ...
Mark S. Cracolice Edward I. Peters www.cengage.com/chemistry/cracolice Chapter 18 Chemical Equilibrium Mark S. Cracolice • The University of Montana Collision Theory of Reactions Collision Theory of Gas-phase Reactions A chemical reaction can occur only when two molecules collide with a kinetic energy at least equal to certain energy Ea , called activation energy of the reaction. The success of a collision also depends the relative orientation of molecules. This direction-dependence is called the steric requirement of the reaction. Collision Theory of Reactions Chemical reaction is the overall effect of collisions between reacting molecules a) Sufficient energy proper orientation b) Proper orientation not sufficient energy c) Sufficient energy poor orientation Collision Theory of Reactions A conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy occurs during formation of an intermediate complex that can either go on to form products or fall apart into the unchanged reactants. This can be shown by a ...
A prototype direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack has been designed and built at Newcastle University, based on a flow bed design developed with the aid of a flow visualization study and fluid flow modelling. In addition, a series of engineering models have been developed that predict the stack voltage, fluid distribution from the stack manifolds, the overall system pressure, the chemical equilibrium in both anode and cathode flow beds and the thermal management of the stack. The results of this work are presented in terms of an overall engineering model that incorporates all the aforementioned models. The initial steady state performance data of the prototype stack presented was obtained as a result of our experience of scaling up the system to achieve the designed power outputs.. ...
Heres my experience as a chemistry major (so it may not be the same). I took AP chemistry in high school and had a very easy time with it. In college, I had the option to skip the first semester of introductory chemistry, but I chose to take the honors version of the Into. chemistry course. Although some of the course was review from AP chemistry, I found that I learned a great deal from the course, even in areas which I had studied previously. First, professors connected old concepts from the AP courses to concepts that would be covered in more advanced courses (e.g. connecting the concept of chemical equilibrium to thermodynamics and ultimately statistical mechanics). Second, the honors course discussed a little about current research in physical chemistry and tools in physical chemistry research, which is something I did not learn about in high school. Furthermore, even when the material reviewed concepts that I had learned previously, the professors tested me much more rigorously on the ...
PromoCells Cell Proliferation Assay Kit II (BrdU) detects incorporated BrdU using a mouse anti-BrdU antibody. An anti-mouse HRP-linked secondary antibody is used to detect the anti-BrdU antibody bound to BrdU, which is followed by addition of TMB (a HRP substrate). The extent of color development is proportional to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into the cells and can be used directly as an indicator of cell proliferation. Compared to other cell proliferation assays, this kit detects only the proliferating cells and not the seeded cells. This highly sensitive, non-radioactive kit detects as less as 50-100 proliferating cells. ...
Separation of 2-Chlorophenol; 2,4-Dichlorophenol; 2,4,6-Tribromophenol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol; 2,4-Dinitrophenol; Pentafluorophenol; 2-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol; Pentachlorophenol; 4-Nitrophenol; 2-Bromophenol; 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol; 2,3,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol; 4-Methylphenol, analytical standard; 2,4-Dimethylphenol; 2-Nitrophenol; 3-Methylphenol, analytical standard; Phenol; 2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol; 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol; 2,6-Dichlorophenol; 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol
The Cotehardie may be worn by female Warriors who have gained twenty-six or more Insights. The stomach of the armor is handcrafted hollow steel burnished with color, while the bodice and skirt are made of leather. The Plain Cotehardie is crafted by the Mundanes with bittersweet, paola nut, and spirulina. The four dyes available at various other locations require significant Aisling labor. The Mileth variant is dyed with capsic bark, chicory, and hyssop. The Rucesion variant is dyed with angelica and spirulina. The Suomi variant is dyed with hyssop and paola nut. The Loures variant is dyed with angelica, trigonelle and paola nut and spirulina.. ...
Infusate warming apparatus comprises a housing defining an internal cavity. A lossy asymmetric transmission line is situated in the housing which transmission line includes an elongated electrical conductor having opposite ends and a conduit for conducting infusate which is highly absorptive to electromagnetic energy of a first frequency through the housing in close proximity to the conductor. A connector extends into the housing for coupling an external electromagnetic signal of the first frequency to one end of the conductor so as to subject the infusate to an energy field which heats the infusate. A temperature sensor for sensing the infusate temperature and controlling the signal to maintain a constant infusate delivering temperature is also disclosed.
For gas injection, the injected gas is never in chemical equilibrium with the oil in place which will lead to spatial variations in the interfacial tension and the amount of oil held by capillary forces. These types of capillary variations are also likely to occur in VAPEX displacements. We are currently using experiments, simulation, and analytic calculations to understand the complex roles capillarity, gravity, compositional changes, and diffusion play in these compositional gravity drainages.. ...
Industrial development in the Border region of Mexico and Texas depends on the availability and quality of water; several industries require high quality process water. Reverse osmosis systems achieve that quality, but high concentrations of silica in the local water supplies limit the recovery. Silica is problematic in membrane systems due to its complicated chemistry. Silica may induce both scaling and fouling, causing decline in the water production rate, reduced water product quality and permanent damage to membranes. The objective of this research was to develop pretreatment strategies for RO systems subject to silica fouling and scaling. To accomplish this objective required a thorough investigation of processes to remove silica prior to membrane treatment with softening and adsorption/precipitation. This investigation included chemical equilibrium modeling of possible treatment schemes, and subsequent bench-scale batch experiments of the most promising treatments identified by that ...
Worldwide limestone filtration is used in many treatment plants for the conditioning and (re)mineralization of drinking water to increase concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3−, pH and saturation index, thereby improving the quality of the water regarding corrosion control, buffering and taste. Typical applications include (very) soft groundwater with (very) low alkalinity and desalinated water. In Norway, some plants use a product made of ground natural limestone, called micronized CaCO3 slurry (MCCS), which is dosed as slurry of fine particles (1-2 μm) into the raw water. In this study the potential of MCCS as an alternative to limestone filtration was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the dissolution kinetics of MCCS and other CaCO3-products, including natural limestone grains and two precipitated CaCO3 powders. As expected from theory, the dissolution kinetics are strongly influenced by the particle size of the CaCO3 and the driving force towards the chemical equilibrium. ...
Vital dyes and light sources for chromovitrectomy: comparative assessment of osmolarity, pH, and spectrophotometry.: Vital dyes showed variable osmolarity and p
As with all plants, nitrogen plays a major role in fruit and tree growth. Fruit color development can be limited by the presence of too much nitrogen. Fruit
Contrary to previous reports (Peretz et al., 1994a; Ranganathan et al., 1994), in the present study substantial rises in Ca2+ were reliably detected in Ca2+-free solutions. Previous failure to detect significant rises may have been attributable to the dyes acting as Ca2+ buffers (both studies used higher dye concentrations) or [in the case of Ranganathan et al. (1994)] less intense stimulation, or because measurements were always made from an already partially stimulated condition. Although the present results initially seemed to indicate substantial release of Ca2+ from internal stores, when Na+ was replaced with NMDG, the light-induced Ca2+ rise was virtually abolished, leaving a residual signal of ,20 nm. This suggests that most of the measured rise was not attributable to release from internal stores, but was probably attributable to a shift in the Na/Ca exchange equilibrium caused by Na+ influx.. It is of some interest to inquire how much Ca2+would be required to generate an increase of 20 ...
Fast delivery of CDC42BPB knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
please help the newbie. building a fireplace mantle from pine. the whole surface was scrub planed for texture , then grained was raised then knocked down. i sprayed transtint waterbased dye on it. let it dry a day then two coats of bullseye dewaxe...
Appendixes . This part provides troubleshooting of ELISA kit with means of cause-solution table ELISA high background, often means excessive color development or high ELISA TroubleShooting Guide High background. LOEWE® Biochemica At the same time, negative samples can exhibit high background reactions. High Background/ Non-specific Color Development, Non-specific The KPL ELISA Technical Guide is a continuation of the series of guides and information from KPL to help However, if high background persists, adding. 1. 2). 5) in wells that have no antigen. Check the amount of antibody suggested. 2. 4-0. ELISA - Troubleshooting aspects. Troubleshooting for Common Lab Applications ELISA TroubleShooting High backgrounds can result from extended incubation periods or incubation at make it our first priority to provide high quality products to the research ELISA Troubleshooting Guide . A common cause of high background in ELISA is an overly. All tags ELISA ELISA troubleshooting tips practical solutions ...
Ammonia separation from water by membrane contactor was simulated on transient state and compared with experimental data. Aqueous low concentrated solution of ammonium with high pH has been pumped inside the hydrophobic hollow fibers, acid solution in the outside part. The system is in closed loop configuration. In order to simulate the separation process, equations were developed considering radial and axial diffusion and convection with a well-developed parabolic velocity profile. The model proposed shows minimal deviations when is compared against experimental data. This study shows that the most important parameters to control during the operation are the flow rate and the pH, mainly the last one, due to high dependence in chemical equilibrium of ammonium reaction to ammonia.. ...
Ammonia separation from water by membrane contactor was simulated on transient state and compared with experimental data. Aqueous low concentrated solution of ammonium with high pH has been pumped inside the hydrophobic hollow fibers, acid solution in the outside part. The system is in closed loop configuration. In order to simulate the separation process, equations were developed considering radial and axial diffusion and convection with a well-developed parabolic velocity profile. The model proposed shows minimal deviations when is compared against experimental data. This study shows that the most important parameters to control during the operation are the flow rate and the pH, mainly the last one, due to high dependence in chemical equilibrium of ammonium reaction to ammonia.. ...
In this "clicker case," a three-year-old girl gets into the medicine cabinet and ingests an unknown number of aspirin tablets. Her brother calls 911 and the girl is taken to a nearby hospital, where she is treated. The case is used to discuss the Law of Mass Action, chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constants, pH, and weak acids and buffers in the context of medical management of a life-threatening emergency. It is called a "clicker" case because it is designed to be presented in a class that uses personal response systems, or "clickers." The case is presented via a series of PowerPoint slides (~400KB) punctuated by multiple-choice questions, which the students answer using their clickers. It could be adapted for use without these technologies. The case is suitable for use in an introductory biology course where integration with biologically relevant chemistry is an important course objective. It could also be used in a chemistry course.. ...
The suns rays are the ultimate source of almost every motion which takes place on the surface of the earth. By their heat are produced all winds, and those disturbances in the electric equilibrium of the atmosphere which give rise to the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism. By their vivifying action vegetables are elaborated from inorganic matter, and become in their turn the support of animals and of man, and the sources of those great deposits of dynamical efficiency which are laid up for human use in our coal strata. By them the waters of the sea are made to circulate in vapor through the air, and irrigate the land, producing springs and rivers. By them are produced all disturbances of the chemical equilibrium of the elements of nature which, by a series of compositions and decompositions, give rise to new products, and originate a transfer of materials. Even the slow degradation of the solid constituents of the surface, in which its chief geological changes consist, and their diffusion among ...
Florida sandy soils are susceptible to phosphorus (P) loss from an agricultural or animal production system into nearby water bodies via surface or subsurface pathways. Leaching is a predominant mode of P transport from these soils. Chemical equilibrium models often use the P bonding strength (Langmuir KL) or the Freundlich coefficient (KF) to predict P release from a soil. If KL or KF can be obtained from an oxalate or a soil test solution, it would offer an easy means of obtaining "K" for modeling. Phosphorus LEAching from Soil to Environment (PLEASE) is a simple P loss predictive model based on P sorption mechanism in a soil and its potential movement into surface water. Our objective was to relate the P saturation ratio (PSR) to isotherm parameters based on the hypothesis that KL or KF will be related to the PSR as determined from P, Fe and Al concentrations in an oxalate solution. Isotherms were constructed on soil samples collected from A, E and Bt horizons of a manure-impacted dairy ...
A system for performing an intraparenchymal drug infusion including a pump device, a delivery tube, a sensor, and a processor. The tube is fluidly coupled to the pump device, establishing an infusate pathway from the pump to an infusate exit port of the delivery tube. The sensor is positioned to sense a parameter indicative of pressure in the infusate pathway. Finally, the processor is programmed to generate information indicative of infusate delivery effectiveness of a drug infusion procedure based upon information from the sensor. In some embodiments, the processor generates a net infusion pressure profile, such as a pressure-time curve, and prompts display of the pressure profile to a neurosurgeon for subsequent evaluation of infusate delivery effectiveness.
Informed color selection can have a significant impact on patients and caregivers alike, according to Jeremy Cramer of Hueforia, the color development team of compounder RTP Co. (Winona, MN). He discussed medical applications for colored thermoplastics during a webinar today.
Fourteen strains of |i|Pleurotus ostreatus|/i| (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (Agaricales s.l.) were investigated as possible producers of biologically active substances. A...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil sequestration and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. AU - Atochin, D. N.. AU - Fisher, D.. AU - Demchenko, I. T.. AU - Thom, S. R.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - A rat model of reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was developed to assess the role of neutrophils and prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on cerebral injury. Blood flow to the ipsilateral caudate putamen nucleus was reduced by approximately 50% during 2 h of arterial occlusion, but unaffected on the contralateral side. Neutrophil accumulation in brain was documented as myeloperoxidase concentration, which was elevated in both ipsilateral and contralateral cerebral hemispheres at 1 and 46 h after occlusion/reperfusion. HBO2 administered before ischemia at 2.8 atm abs for 45 min, as well as antibody-induced neutropenia, reduced neutrophil accumulation, functional neurologic deficits, and cerebral infarct volume. These data ...
The Kagum may be worn by female Rogues who have gained ninety-seven or more Insights. The short, full-sleeved blouse and close-fitting leather trousers are constructed with special pockets for holding secrets and smoke bombs. The Plain Kagum is crafted by the Mundanes with hyssop, spirulina, and capsic bark. The four dyes available at various other locations require significant Aisling labor. The Suomi variant is dyed with capsic bark, spirulina, hyssop and paola nut. The Rucesion variant is dyed with capsic bark, spirulina, angelica, paola nut and bittersweet. The Loures variant is dyed with hyssop, trigonelle, paola nut, spirulina, angelica and capsic bark.. Unfortunately at this writing, the Mundanes in Mileth are being very secretive about the dyes used to create that variant. If anyone consulting this manual has worked with them to create a Mileth Kagum, please contact Raeven or Maiala to add your knowledge to this manual.. ...

Bromphenol Blue | The Merck Index OnlineBromphenol Blue | The Merck Index Online

Bromphenol Blue , Monograph containing literature references, physical and biological properties and relevant information ...
more infohttps://www.rsc.org/Merck-Index/monograph/m2724?q=unauthorize

Bromphenol Blue, Reagent Grade, 1 g | Carolina.comBromphenol Blue, Reagent Grade, 1 g | Carolina.com

Blue-black powder Notes: Sodium salt Storage Code: Green general chemical storage ... Bromphenol Blue, Reagent Grade, 1 g. Item # 849080 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Characteristic: Blue-black powder. Notes: Sodium salt. Storage Code: Green general chemical storage ... Characteristic: Blue-black powder. Notes: Sodium salt. Storage Code: Green general chemical storage ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/specialty-chemicals-b-c/bromphenol-blue-reagent-grade-1-g/849080.pr

Products in Solutions, B, Hach on Thomas ScientificProducts in Solutions, B, Hach on Thomas Scientific

Bromphenol Blue Indicator, 100ml Mdb Hach. pH indicator for acidity and alkalinity titrations Visual transition interval: pH ... Bromthymol Blue Indicator Powder Pillows Hach. pH indicator Visual transition interval: pH 6.0 (yellow)- pH 7.6 (blue) pk/100 ...
more infohttp://www.thomassci.com/nav/cat1/solutionsb/manufacturer/hach/0

Patent US4230601 - Calibrator composition based upon dialyzed blood serum - Google PatentsPatent US4230601 - Calibrator composition based upon dialyzed blood serum - Google Patents

phenolsulfophthalein dyes such as bromphenol blue. salicylates such as sodium salicylate and acetyl salicylate ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4230601?dq=7125605

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... wt/vol bromphenol blue). ApoC-III was isolated by preparative isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis (8 M urea; 7.5% ... and stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 250 (5). ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/8/1656

Dyes and Stains for Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis | Sigma-AldrichDyes and Stains for Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis | Sigma-Aldrich

... methylene blue, DAPI, acridine orange and others. We offer a wide range of dyes and loading buffers used for nucleic acid ... Bromphenol Blue sodium salt. B5525. Bromphenol Blue-Xylene Cyanole Dye solution. B3269. ... Methylene blue. SYBR® Green I. SYBR® Green II. Pyronin Y. DAPI. Acridine Orange. ... methylene blue, DAPI, acridine orange and others. The table helps identify the stains, which can be used for various nucleic ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/molecular-biology/nucleic-acid-electrophoresis-hybridization/dyes-and-stains.html

Water Testing Reagents - Hach | Camlab UKWater Testing Reagents - Hach | Camlab UK

Bromphenol Blue Indicator Solution 100ml £17.63 (exc. VAT) £21.16 (inc. VAT) 1 in range Details ...
more infohttps://www.camlab.co.uk/water-testing-reagents-hach-c3006.aspx

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... bromphenol blue; 50% [v/v] glycerol). Samples were then subjected to electrophoresis through 26-well 4% to 20% gradient Tris- ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/137/2/762

Bromophenol blue - WikipediaBromophenol blue - Wikipedia

Bromophenol blue (115-39-9) Chemical Names and Synonyms. PubChem Compound. Bromphenol Blue - Compound Summary. https://pubchem. ... Bromophenol blue is also used as a dye. At neutral pH, the dye absorbs red light most strongly and transmits blue light. ... Bromophenol blue is structurally related to phenolphthalein (a popular indicator). Bromophenol blue is also used as a color ... Solutions of the dye, therefore, are blue. At low pH, the dye absorbs ultraviolet and blue light most strongly and appears ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromophenol_blue

Difference between revisions of Lidstrom: SDS-PAGE - OpenWetWareDifference between revisions of "Lidstrom: SDS-PAGE" - OpenWetWare

Old school bromphenol blue dye. * dye overnight or cycles of 1 min @ power 6 in the microwave * microwave by Bos bench. Let it ... Bromphenol Blue. Is it important to degas my water + buffer + acrylamide mix before adding the APS and TEMED, as the manuals ... New school GelCode Blue Safe Protein Stain. * Product Info: * GelCode Blue Safe Protein Stain: A coomassie gel stain thats ... note: Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 differs from Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 by the addition of two methyl groups. We use ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Lidstrom:_SDS-PAGE&diff=762917&oldid=665534

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bromphenol blue. EMSA. electrophoretic mobility shift assay. ICB. inverted CCAAT box. MGB. minor groove binder. ... bromphenol blue (BFB). Bio-Rad high range SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis molecular mass standards were used as a ... 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (thiazolyl blue). bp. base pair(s). DTT. dithiothreitol. BFB. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/59/4/699

Restriction fragment length polymorphism | SpringerLinkRestriction fragment length polymorphism | SpringerLink

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Paper Towel Nick Translation Bromphenol Blue Restriction Fragment Length Poly These ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0951-9_24

Free GMAT Flashcards about chemistry amino acidFree GMAT Flashcards about chemistry amino acid

bromphenol blue, ponceau S, Coomassie brillant blue 250. What test measures the dye absorption by spectrophotometry as a shift ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-468664

Advanced glycation of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide motif modulates retinal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction.Advanced glycation of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide motif modulates retinal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction.

... bromphenol blue in 0.125 M Tris HCl). Protein from each sample and 10??l ProSieve? molecular weight marker (Cambrex Bioscience ... Cytosolic DHE exhibits blue fluorescence; however, once this probe is oxidized by O2- to 2-hyroethidium (2-HE) and ethidium it ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Advanced-glycation-Arg-Gly-Asp/19668595.html

PKCα promotes the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition and increases cancer cell invasiveness | BMC Cancer | Full TextPKCα promotes the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition and increases cancer cell invasiveness | BMC Cancer | Full Text

... bromphenol blue). For immunoblotting, samples were separated on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto nitrocellulose ... Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue dye exclusion method. Briefly, cells were seeded into two 3.5 mm dishes, the ... After 48 hours cells were trypsinized and diluted 1:1 in 0.4% sterile filtered trypan blue solution. The cells were incubated ... Viable cells appeared bright, dead cells were blue. Three independent experiments were performed, each time both sides of the ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-015-1347-1

The SH3/PH Domain Protein AgBoi1/2 Collaborates with the Rho-Type GTPase AgRho3 To Prevent Nonpolar Growth at Hyphal Tips of...The SH3/PH Domain Protein AgBoi1/2 Collaborates with the Rho-Type GTPase AgRho3 To Prevent Nonpolar Growth at Hyphal Tips of...

... bromphenol blue; 20% glycerol; 100 mM dithiothreitol). The extracts were separated on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ... Blue color indicates interaction. The quantitative determination of theβ -galactosidase activity is given in arbitrary units. ... Interaction was determined qualitatively based on blue coloration of colonies overlaid with X-Gal. This demonstrated an ...
more infohttps://ec.asm.org/content/5/10/1635

Frontiers | The alternative Medicago truncatula defense proteome of ROS-defective transgenic roots during early microbial...Frontiers | The alternative Medicago truncatula defense proteome of ROS-defective transgenic roots during early microbial...

... and a trace of bromphenol blue. 2D IEF SDS-PAGE was performed for the three infections and at four timepoints of harvesting by ... Proteins responsible for protein-protein interaction (14-3-3 like protein), ion binding (blue type copper domain) and NAD ... blue (type 1) copper protein (29 fold 5 h) involved in signal transduction as well as v-H(+)-ATPase subunit A (39 fold 5 h) ... Coomassie Brilliant Blue (BioRad) overnight and scanned on a UMAX Power Look III Scanner (UMAX Technologies, Fremont, CA, U.S.A ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00341/full

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Before gel electrophoresis, 1 μl of 5% bromphenol blue solution was added to each sample. ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/3/940

Difference between revisions of Lidstrom: SDS-PAGE - OpenWetWareDifference between revisions of "Lidstrom: SDS-PAGE" - OpenWetWare

Bromphenol Blue. Is it important to degas my water + buffer + acrylamide mix before adding the APS and TEMED, as the manuals ... note: Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 differs from Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 by the addition of two methyl groups. We use ... note: Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 differs from Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 by the addition of two methyl groups. We use ... note: Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 differs from Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 by the addition of two methyl groups. We use ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Lidstrom:_SDS-PAGE&diff=686346&oldid=661347

ColorimeterColorimeter

Methylene Blue (3). 50. LAM3654SC. Surfactants. 0.00-8.00. 0.75. Bromphenol Blue (3) ...
more infohttp://www.geneq.com/en/environment/water/quality-208/colorimeter-from-lamotte.html

iGEM REPORT: From Carbon Dioxide To Biofuel | PLOS CollectionsiGEM REPORT: From Carbon Dioxide To Biofuel | PLOS Collections

Most promising mediators to address this challenge are neutral red, bromphenol blue and cytochromes. To supply the cells with ...
more infohttps://blogs.plos.org/collections/igem-report-006/

High-throughput injection with microfluidics using picoinjectors | PNASHigh-throughput injection with microfluidics using picoinjectors | PNAS

To visualize the amount of fluid injected, we inject a solution of bromphenol blue aqueous at 5 mM concentration. We also ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/45/19163
  • Anionic surfactants are extracted with toluene and break up an ion pair, releasing bromphenol blue into a water layer. (ultimatewasher.com)
  • Add 0.04 g of bromphenol blue in 75 ml of DI water, then dilute to a final volume of 100 ml with DI water. (boreal.com)
  • A wide range of nucleic acid stains for polyacrylamide and agarose are available including Nancy-520, Ethidium bromide, SYBR ® Green I and II, methylene blue, DAPI, acridine orange and others. (sigmaaldrich.com)