A family of RNA plant viruses with a wide host range in crops and horticultural species. All viruses are readily transmitted by mechanical means and some by insects and pollen. The genera include: ALFAMOVIRUS; BROMOVIRUS; CUCUMOVIRUS; ILARVIRUS; and OLEAVIRUS.
A plant genus of the family GERANIACEAE. The common name of geranium is also used for the GERANIUM genus.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type species of genus Mastrevirus, family GEMINIVIRIDAE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.

Subcellular localization and in vivo identification of the putative movement protein of olive latent virus 2. (1/8)

The gene encoding the 36.5 kDa ('36K') nonstructural protein located on RNA3 of olive latent virus 2 (OLV-2) was cloned, expressed with the Escherichia coli pGEX-2T system and the purified protein used to raise a polyclonal antiserum. Immunoblot analysis of OLV-2-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants showed that the 36K protein accumulated in the early stages of infection and was associated with a subcellular fraction enriched in cytoplasmic membranes. In infected cells there were tubular structures, some containing virus-like particles, scattered in the cytoplasm or protruding from or penetrating the cell wall at the plasmodesmata. Immunogold labelling localized the 36K protein in the plasmodesmata of OLV-2-infected cells and showed it to be associated with virus-containing tubules. Leaf trichome cells of N. tabacum plants, transformed with a 36K-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct, revealed localized fluorescence in the cell walls, possibly due to association of the fusion protein with plasmodesmata. When the same 36K-GFP fusion protein was expressed in N. tabacum protoplasts, long tubular fluorescent structures protruded from the protoplast surface, suggesting that the 36K protein is responsible for tubule induction. The conclusion is drawn that this protein is likely to be the OLV-2 movement protein, mediating cell-to-cell virus movement, and that movement is by a tubule-guided mechanism.  (+info)

Translation of a nonpolyadenylated viral RNA is enhanced by binding of viral coat protein or polyadenylation of the RNA. (2/8)

On entering a host cell, positive-strand RNA virus genomes have to serve as messenger for the translation of viral proteins. Efficient translation of cellular messengers requires interactions between initiation factors bound to the 5'-cap structure and the poly(A) binding protein bound to the 3'-poly(A) tail. Initiation of infection with the tripartite RNA genomes of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and viruses from the genus Ilarvirus requires binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' end of the nonpolyadenylated viral RNAs. Moreover, infection with the genomic RNAs can be initiated by addition of the subgenomic messenger for CP, RNA 4. We report here that extension of the AMV RNAs with a poly(A) tail of 40 to 80 A-residues permitted initiation of infection independently of CP or RNA 4 in the inoculum. Specifically, polyadenylation of RNA 1 relieved an apparent bottleneck in the translation of the viral RNAs. Translation of RNA 4 in plant protoplasts was autocatalytically stimulated by its encoded CP. Mutations that interfered with CP binding to the 3' end of viral RNAs reduced translation of RNA 4 to undetectable levels. Possibly, CP of AMV and ilarviruses stimulates translation of viral RNAs by acting as a functional analogue of poly(A) binding protein or other cellular proteins.  (+info)

The brome mosaic virus RNA3 intergenic replication enhancer folds to mimic a tRNA TpsiC-stem loop and is modified in vivo. (3/8)

The genome of brome mosaic virus (BMV), a positive-strand RNA virus in the alphavirus-like superfamily, consists of three capped, messenger-sense RNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 encode viral replication proteins 1a and 2a, respectively. RNA3 encodes the 3a movement protein and the coat protein, which are essential for systemic infection in plants but dispensable for RNA3 replication in plants and yeast. A subset of the 250-base intergenic region (IGR), the replication enhancer (RE), contains all cis-acting signals necessary for a crucial, early template selection step, the 1a-dependent recruitment of RNA3 into replication. One of these signals is a motif matching the conserved box B sequence of RNA polymerase III transcripts. Using chemical modification with CMCT, kethoxal, DMS, DEPC, and lead, we probed the structure of the IGR in short, defined transcripts and in full-length RNA3 in vitro, in yeast extracts, and in whole yeast cells. Our results reveal a stable, unbranched secondary structure that is not dependent on the surrounding ORF sequences or on host factors within the cell. Functional 5' and 3' deletions that defined the minimal RE in earlier deletion studies map to the end of a common helical segment. The box B motif is presented as a hairpin loop of 7 nt closed by G:C base pairs in perfect analogy to the TpsiC-stem loop in tRNA(Asp). An adjacent U-rich internal loop, a short helix, and another pyrimidine-rich loop were significantly protected from base modifications. This same arrangement is conserved between BMV and cucumoviruses CMV, TAV, and PSV. In the BMV box B loop sequence, uridines corresponding to tRNA positions T54 and psi55 were found to be modified in yeast and plants to 5mU and pseudouridine. Together with the aminoacylated viral 3'-end, this is thus the second RNA replication signal within BMV where the virus has evolved a tRNA structural mimicry to a degree that renders it a substrate for classical tRNA modification reactions in vivo.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of Pelargonium zonate spot virus and its relationship with the family Bromoviridae. (4/8)

The complete sequence of the Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) genome was determined. It comprises 8477 nt, distributed in three positive-strand RNA species encoding four proteins. RNA-1 is 3383 nt long, with an ORF that encodes a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 108 419 Da (denoted protein 1a). This protein contains the conserved sequence motifs I-III of type I methyltransferases and the seven consensus motifs of the helicases of superfamily 1. RNA-2 is 2435 nt long and encodes a major polypeptide with a molecular mass of 78 944 Da (denoted protein 2a), which shows identity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA-3 is 2659 nt long and contains two major ORFs. The first ORF is located in the 5' portion of the genome and sequence comparison of the putative translation product revealed similarities with the 30K superfamily of virus movement proteins. The second ORF is located in the 3' half and encodes the viral coat protein, which is expressed via a subgenomic RNA, RNA-4. The transcription initiation site of RNA-4 maps to the intergenic region of RNA-3. The organization of the PZSV genome, including the primary structure of terminal non-coding regions, strongly suggests that this virus belongs to the family Bromoviridae. The overall biological and genomic characteristics of PZSV indicate affinities in diverging directions with one or other of the virus species in this family, thus enabling it to be considered as a possible representative of a new genus within the family Bromoviridae.  (+info)

The promiscuous evolutionary history of the family Bromoviridae. (5/8)

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Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato. (6/8)

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The nucleotide sequence of RNA1 and RNA2 of olive latent virus 2 and its relationships in the family Bromoviridae. (7/8)

The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA1 and RNA2 of olive latent virus 2 (OLV-2), a virus with quasi-spherical to bacilliform particles and a non-polyadenylated tripartite ssRNA genome, was determined. RNA1 consists of 3126 nucleotides and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) coding for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 102689 Da (p1a). RNA2 is also a monocistronic molecule, 2734 nt in length, coding for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 90631 Da (p2a). The translation products of RNA1 and RNA2 possess the motifs proper to helicase, methyltransferase (RNA1) and RNA polymerase (RNA2), suggesting that both are involved in the replication of the viral RNA. The similarities found between OLV-2 and members of the Bromoviridae in some properties and in the sequences of all genomic products (including p1a and p2a) are strongly indicative that it belongs in this family. OLV-2, however, did not show a direct relationship with any of the current genera in the family. Rather, it revealed homologies in diverging directions with one or other of the Bromoviridae genus, thus qualifying as the possible representative of a new taxon in this family.  (+info)

Ilarviruses encode a Cucumovirus-like 2b gene that is absent in other genera within the Bromoviridae. (8/8)

We found that RNA 2 of the four ilarviruses sequenced to date encodes an additional conserved open reading frame (ORF), 2b, that overlaps the 3' end of the previously known ORF, 2a. A novel RNA species of 851 nucleotides was found to accumulate to high levels in plants infected with spinach latent virus (SpLV). Further analysis showed that RNA 4A is a subgenomic RNA of RNA 2 and encodes all of ORF 2b. Moreover, a protein species of the size expected for SpLV ORF 2b was translated in vitro from the RNA 4A-containing virion RNAs. The data support the suggestion that the SpLV 2b protein is translated in vivo. The 2b gene of ilarviruses, which is not encoded by alfamoviruses and bromoviruses, shares several features with the previously reported cucumovirus 2b gene; however, their encoded proteins share no detectable sequence similarities. The evolutionary origin of the 2b gene is discussed.  (+info)

Bromoviridae is a family of positive-strand RNA viruses that infect plants. The name "Bromoviridae" comes from the type genus Brome mosaic virus (BMV), which was first isolated from brome grass. Viruses in this family have tripartite, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by aphids in a nonpersistent manner.

The genome of Bromoviridae viruses is divided into three segments (RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3) that encode different proteins. RNA1 and RNA2 encode the replicase protein, which is responsible for replication of the viral RNA. RNA3 encodes the movement protein, which facilitates cell-to-cell movement of the virus, and the coat protein, which protects the viral RNA and is involved in transmission by aphids.

Bromoviridae viruses cause a variety of symptoms in plants, including mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and necrosis. They are important pathogens of many crops, including vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. Control measures for Bromoviridae viruses include the use of resistant plant varieties, cultural practices to reduce aphid populations, and chemical control of aphids.

"Pelargonium" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is the name of a genus of flowering plants, commonly known as geraniums, which are often used in horticulture but do not have direct relevance to medical terminology or practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ilarvirus" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or in virology. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. Ilarviruses are actually a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, and they primarily infect plants. They are not associated with human or animal diseases. If you have any other questions or if there's a specific concept related to virology or medicine that you'd like me to clarify, please let me know!

Bromovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Picornavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, primarily aphids. They infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. The genus Bromovirus includes several important plant pathogens, including Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Maize streak virus (MSV) is a plant pathogenic virus that belongs to the family Geminiviridae and genus Mastrevirus. It is the causative agent of Maize streak disease, which is one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize crops in sub-Saharan Africa. The virus is transmitted by the leafhopper vector Cicadulina mbila and has a single-stranded DNA genome encapsidated in twinned icosahedral particles. MSV infection can result in significant yield losses, stunted growth, and reduced grain quality of maize plants.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "malignant catarrh" is not a widely recognized or currently used medical diagnosis. The term "catarrh" was historically used to describe inflammation of the mucous membranes, particularly in the nose and throat, which can cause excessive mucus production. However, the term "malignant" is typically used to describe conditions that are cancerous or have the potential to become cancerous.

The combination of these two terms, "malignant catarrh," was sometimes used in historical medical literature to refer to severe and persistent respiratory tract infections or inflammation, which could potentially lead to more serious complications. However, this term is not commonly used in modern medicine due to its lack of specificity and the existence of more precise diagnostic terminology.

Therefore, it would be difficult to provide a medical definition for "malignant catarrh" that is both accurate and relevant to current medical practice. If you have any concerns about respiratory symptoms or other health issues, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional who can provide a more personalized evaluation and diagnosis based on your specific situation.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bromoviridae. ICTV Report: Bromoviridae Viralzone: Bromoviridae (Articles with short ... Bromoviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are six genera in the family. The following genera ... "ICTV Report Bromoviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ... Bromoviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. PMID 31192783. " ...
"ICTV Report Bromoviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Report: Bromoviridae Viralzone: Anulavirus ( ... Anulavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Pelargonium serve as natural hosts. There are two species in this ... Bromoviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. PMID 31192783. " ...
"ICTV Report Bromoviridae". Lucas, R. W.; Larson, S. B.; McPherson, A. (2002). "The crystallographic structure of Brome mosaic ... Bromovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are six species in this ... PMID 11309487; PMCID: PMC33148 ICTV Report: Bromoviridae Viralzone: Bromovirus (Articles with short description, Short ... Bromoviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. PMID 31192783. "Viral Zone". ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are four species in this ... ICTV Report: Bromoviridae ICTVdb Virus Description Viralzone: Cucumovirus (Articles with short description, Short description ... "ICTV Report Bromoviridae". "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. ... Bromoviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. hdl:11586/301641. PMID 31192783 ...
"ICTV Report Bromoviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Report: Bromoviridae Viralzone: Oleavirus ( ... Oleavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Olive trees serve as natural hosts. There is only one species in ... Bromoviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. PMID 31192783. " ...
"Bromoviridae ~ ViralZone page". viralzone.expasy.org. Retrieved 2019-03-10. Allison R, Thompson C, Ahlquist P. Regeneration of ...
... is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 22 ... Data related to Ilarvirus at Wikispecies ICTV Report: Bromoviridae Viralzone: Ilarvirus (Articles with short description, Short ... "ICTV Report Bromoviridae". Bujarski, J; Gallitelli, D; García-Arenal, F; Pallás, V; Palukaitis, P; Reddy, MK; Wang, A; ICTV ... description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from April 2017, Articles with 'species' microformats, Bromoviridae, Virus genera) ...
... (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. This virus has a worldwide distribution and ... Bromoviridae". Journal of General Virology. 100 (8): 1206-1207. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001282. hdl:11586/301641. Boccard, Frédéric; ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Cucumber). ...
It is the only Alfamovirus of the family Bromoviridae. In 1931 Weimer J.L. was the first to report AMV in alfalfa (Medicago ...
... (BlShV) is an Ilarvirus belonging to the Bromoviridae family. The Bromoviridae family contains single- ...
The virus is in the family Bromoviridae and genus Ilarvirus. Synonyms of PNRSV include European plum line pattern virus, hop B ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Hop diseases, Rose diseases). ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Asparagus ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
"Anulavirus, a proposed new genus of plant viruses in the family Bromoviridae." Arch Virol. 2005 Feb;150(2):407-11. ICTVdB - The ... Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) is a plant pathogenic virus, classified in the Bromoviridae family, genus Anulavirus. * ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... (PDV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It causes dwarfism of leaves on certain prune ... "Molecular Biology of Prune Dwarf Virus-A Lesser Known Member of the Bromoviridae but a Vital Component in the Dynamic Virus- ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... (PSV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. It is a member of the genus Cucumovirus. The ...
... (TAV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. "ICTVdB Virus Description - 00.010.0.04.003 ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... (ApMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It is named after its symptoms that were ...
... (TAMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... (CLRV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It infects a wide range of valuable ... Bromoviridae, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... (EMoV) is a species of plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. Data related to Elm mottle virus at ... Bromoviridae, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
The following families are recognized: Bromoviridae Closteroviridae Endornaviridae Kitaviridae Mayoviridae Togaviridae ...
... (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilarvirus. It has a wide host ... Bromoviridae, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Soybean diseases). ...
... with tripartite-genomed viruses in the family Bromoviridae". Archives of Virology. 131 (3-4): 483-8. doi:10.1007/bf01378649. ...
Some viral families, such as the Bromoviridae instead opt to have multipartite genomes, genomes split between multiple viral ...
... family Bromoviridae, in the Alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV was first isolated in 1942 from bromegrass (Bromus inermis), had ...
Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Bromoviridae, All stub ...
Bromoviridae, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs). ...
... plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae Raspberry ringspot virus, plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae ...
... a plant virus of the family Bromoviridae Anterior medullary velum, a part of the structure of the brain Avian myeloblastosis ...
Family Alvernaviridae Family Astroviridae Family Barnaviridae Family Benyviridae Family Botourmiaviridae Family Bromoviridae ...

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