Bromoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses with a wide host range in crops and horticultural species. All viruses are readily transmitted by mechanical means and some by insects and pollen. The genera include: ALFAMOVIRUS; BROMOVIRUS; CUCUMOVIRUS; ILARVIRUS; and OLEAVIRUS.Pelargonium: A plant genus of the family GERANIACEAE. The common name of geranium is also used for the GERANIUM genus.Ilarvirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Plant Pathology: The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.Foot Rot: A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Nobel PrizeBook SelectionHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Enterovirus InfectionsCoxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)

Subcellular localization and in vivo identification of the putative movement protein of olive latent virus 2. (1/8)

The gene encoding the 36.5 kDa ('36K') nonstructural protein located on RNA3 of olive latent virus 2 (OLV-2) was cloned, expressed with the Escherichia coli pGEX-2T system and the purified protein used to raise a polyclonal antiserum. Immunoblot analysis of OLV-2-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants showed that the 36K protein accumulated in the early stages of infection and was associated with a subcellular fraction enriched in cytoplasmic membranes. In infected cells there were tubular structures, some containing virus-like particles, scattered in the cytoplasm or protruding from or penetrating the cell wall at the plasmodesmata. Immunogold labelling localized the 36K protein in the plasmodesmata of OLV-2-infected cells and showed it to be associated with virus-containing tubules. Leaf trichome cells of N. tabacum plants, transformed with a 36K-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct, revealed localized fluorescence in the cell walls, possibly due to association of the fusion protein with plasmodesmata. When the same 36K-GFP fusion protein was expressed in N. tabacum protoplasts, long tubular fluorescent structures protruded from the protoplast surface, suggesting that the 36K protein is responsible for tubule induction. The conclusion is drawn that this protein is likely to be the OLV-2 movement protein, mediating cell-to-cell virus movement, and that movement is by a tubule-guided mechanism.  (+info)

Translation of a nonpolyadenylated viral RNA is enhanced by binding of viral coat protein or polyadenylation of the RNA. (2/8)

On entering a host cell, positive-strand RNA virus genomes have to serve as messenger for the translation of viral proteins. Efficient translation of cellular messengers requires interactions between initiation factors bound to the 5'-cap structure and the poly(A) binding protein bound to the 3'-poly(A) tail. Initiation of infection with the tripartite RNA genomes of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and viruses from the genus Ilarvirus requires binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' end of the nonpolyadenylated viral RNAs. Moreover, infection with the genomic RNAs can be initiated by addition of the subgenomic messenger for CP, RNA 4. We report here that extension of the AMV RNAs with a poly(A) tail of 40 to 80 A-residues permitted initiation of infection independently of CP or RNA 4 in the inoculum. Specifically, polyadenylation of RNA 1 relieved an apparent bottleneck in the translation of the viral RNAs. Translation of RNA 4 in plant protoplasts was autocatalytically stimulated by its encoded CP. Mutations that interfered with CP binding to the 3' end of viral RNAs reduced translation of RNA 4 to undetectable levels. Possibly, CP of AMV and ilarviruses stimulates translation of viral RNAs by acting as a functional analogue of poly(A) binding protein or other cellular proteins.  (+info)

The brome mosaic virus RNA3 intergenic replication enhancer folds to mimic a tRNA TpsiC-stem loop and is modified in vivo. (3/8)

The genome of brome mosaic virus (BMV), a positive-strand RNA virus in the alphavirus-like superfamily, consists of three capped, messenger-sense RNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 encode viral replication proteins 1a and 2a, respectively. RNA3 encodes the 3a movement protein and the coat protein, which are essential for systemic infection in plants but dispensable for RNA3 replication in plants and yeast. A subset of the 250-base intergenic region (IGR), the replication enhancer (RE), contains all cis-acting signals necessary for a crucial, early template selection step, the 1a-dependent recruitment of RNA3 into replication. One of these signals is a motif matching the conserved box B sequence of RNA polymerase III transcripts. Using chemical modification with CMCT, kethoxal, DMS, DEPC, and lead, we probed the structure of the IGR in short, defined transcripts and in full-length RNA3 in vitro, in yeast extracts, and in whole yeast cells. Our results reveal a stable, unbranched secondary structure that is not dependent on the surrounding ORF sequences or on host factors within the cell. Functional 5' and 3' deletions that defined the minimal RE in earlier deletion studies map to the end of a common helical segment. The box B motif is presented as a hairpin loop of 7 nt closed by G:C base pairs in perfect analogy to the TpsiC-stem loop in tRNA(Asp). An adjacent U-rich internal loop, a short helix, and another pyrimidine-rich loop were significantly protected from base modifications. This same arrangement is conserved between BMV and cucumoviruses CMV, TAV, and PSV. In the BMV box B loop sequence, uridines corresponding to tRNA positions T54 and psi55 were found to be modified in yeast and plants to 5mU and pseudouridine. Together with the aminoacylated viral 3'-end, this is thus the second RNA replication signal within BMV where the virus has evolved a tRNA structural mimicry to a degree that renders it a substrate for classical tRNA modification reactions in vivo.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of Pelargonium zonate spot virus and its relationship with the family Bromoviridae. (4/8)

The complete sequence of the Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) genome was determined. It comprises 8477 nt, distributed in three positive-strand RNA species encoding four proteins. RNA-1 is 3383 nt long, with an ORF that encodes a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 108 419 Da (denoted protein 1a). This protein contains the conserved sequence motifs I-III of type I methyltransferases and the seven consensus motifs of the helicases of superfamily 1. RNA-2 is 2435 nt long and encodes a major polypeptide with a molecular mass of 78 944 Da (denoted protein 2a), which shows identity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA-3 is 2659 nt long and contains two major ORFs. The first ORF is located in the 5' portion of the genome and sequence comparison of the putative translation product revealed similarities with the 30K superfamily of virus movement proteins. The second ORF is located in the 3' half and encodes the viral coat protein, which is expressed via a subgenomic RNA, RNA-4. The transcription initiation site of RNA-4 maps to the intergenic region of RNA-3. The organization of the PZSV genome, including the primary structure of terminal non-coding regions, strongly suggests that this virus belongs to the family Bromoviridae. The overall biological and genomic characteristics of PZSV indicate affinities in diverging directions with one or other of the virus species in this family, thus enabling it to be considered as a possible representative of a new genus within the family Bromoviridae.  (+info)

The promiscuous evolutionary history of the family Bromoviridae. (5/8)

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Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato. (6/8)

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The nucleotide sequence of RNA1 and RNA2 of olive latent virus 2 and its relationships in the family Bromoviridae. (7/8)

The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA1 and RNA2 of olive latent virus 2 (OLV-2), a virus with quasi-spherical to bacilliform particles and a non-polyadenylated tripartite ssRNA genome, was determined. RNA1 consists of 3126 nucleotides and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) coding for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 102689 Da (p1a). RNA2 is also a monocistronic molecule, 2734 nt in length, coding for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 90631 Da (p2a). The translation products of RNA1 and RNA2 possess the motifs proper to helicase, methyltransferase (RNA1) and RNA polymerase (RNA2), suggesting that both are involved in the replication of the viral RNA. The similarities found between OLV-2 and members of the Bromoviridae in some properties and in the sequences of all genomic products (including p1a and p2a) are strongly indicative that it belongs in this family. OLV-2, however, did not show a direct relationship with any of the current genera in the family. Rather, it revealed homologies in diverging directions with one or other of the Bromoviridae genus, thus qualifying as the possible representative of a new taxon in this family.  (+info)

Ilarviruses encode a Cucumovirus-like 2b gene that is absent in other genera within the Bromoviridae. (8/8)

We found that RNA 2 of the four ilarviruses sequenced to date encodes an additional conserved open reading frame (ORF), 2b, that overlaps the 3' end of the previously known ORF, 2a. A novel RNA species of 851 nucleotides was found to accumulate to high levels in plants infected with spinach latent virus (SpLV). Further analysis showed that RNA 4A is a subgenomic RNA of RNA 2 and encodes all of ORF 2b. Moreover, a protein species of the size expected for SpLV ORF 2b was translated in vitro from the RNA 4A-containing virion RNAs. The data support the suggestion that the SpLV 2b protein is translated in vivo. The 2b gene of ilarviruses, which is not encoded by alfamoviruses and bromoviruses, shares several features with the previously reported cucumovirus 2b gene; however, their encoded proteins share no detectable sequence similarities. The evolutionary origin of the 2b gene is discussed.  (+info)

Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is one of the members of Bromoviridae family, genus Ilarvirus. Host components that participate in the regulation of viral replication or cell-to-cell movement via plasmodesmata are still unknown. In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members are well characterized. Bromoviridae can be distinguished based on localization of their replication process in infected cells, cell-to-cell movement mechanisms, and plant-specific response reactions. Depending upon the genus,
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae. It has the potential and reputation of having the widest host range of any known plant virus including monocotyledons and dicotyledons, herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees. CMV is one of the major diseases in Capsicum annum (chilli).
Codoñer, F.M., Cuevas, J.M., Sánchez-Navarro, J.A., Pallás, V. and Elena, S.F.(2005) Molecular Evolution of the Plant Virus Family Bromoviridae Based on RNA 3 Encoded Proteins. Journal of Molecular Evolution 61: 697-705. ...
ID FR878080; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 640 BP. XX AC FR878080; XX DT 06-JUL-2011 (Rel. 109, Created) DT 06-JUL-2011 (Rel. 109, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple mosaic virus partial pol gene for polymerase, segment RNA 2, genomic DE RNA, isolate Apple Shimla 5 XX KW . XX OS Apple mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Bromoviridae; Ilarvirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-640 RA Lakshmi V.; RT ; RL Submitted (24-JUN-2011) to the INSDC. RL Technology (CSIR), Plant Virology, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource, PO RL Box no-6, Himachal Pradesh-176061, INDIA. XX RN [2] RA Lakshmi V., Hallan V., Verma R.R., Zaidi A.A.; RT "RNA 2 partial putative polymerase gene of Apple mosaic virus (1351-1990)"; RL Unpublished. XX DR MD5; 25600ebe5ec901724185e90f5ce6c2f0. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..640 FT /organism="Apple mosaic virus" FT /segment="RNA 2" FT /host="Malus x domestica" FT /isolate="Apple Shimla 5" FT /mol_type="genomic RNA" FT ...
A new pelargonium plant particularly distinguished by red flowers, an upright and compact growth habit, and strong branching, is disclosed.
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV commonly infects Bromus inermis (see Bromus) and other grasses, can be found almost anywhere wheat is grown, and thrives in areas with heavy foot or machinery traffic. It is also one of the few grass viruses that infects dicotyledonous plants; however, it primarily infects monocotyledonous plants, such as barley and others in the family Gramineae. BMV was first isolated in 1942 from bromegrass (Bromus inermis), had its genomic organization determined by the 1970s, and was completely sequenced with commercially available clones by the 1980s. The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses ...
INTRODUCTION A recent outbreak of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril] bud blight in Wenscelau Braz County, State of Paraná, Brazil, may be an indication of the occurrence of a virus disease. The outbreak occurred in an area close to a region where the presence of Tobacco streak virus (TSV), family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus, is historical. Preliminary evaluations using electron microscopy of infected leaves showed the presence of spherical particles. Additional studies proved that TSV was responsible for the problem. Although no resistance to this virus has been found in the soybean germplasm the disease has been controlled by delaying the sowing date (Almeida & Corso, 1991; Almeida et al., 1994). The TSV was identified in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) plants in Brazil in 1940 (Costa, 1945), and it is currently known to infect several cash crops such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), soybean, peanut (Arachis hypogaea ...
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (SNSV) is an economically important viral pathogen that infects Fragaria and Rubus spp. SNSV was first identified in the 1950s and early studies indicated that SNSV was a strain of Tobacco streak virus (TSV). Recently, it was shown that SNSV was a distinct virus based on molecular characterization (2). Currently, SNSV is a tentative member of the Ilarvirus genus in the Bromoviridae family. In 2008, a small sampling survey for SNSV was done in Heilongjiang Province of China, and 15 strawberry samples were collected from symptomless strawberries in a home garden that had more than 5 years of strawberry cultivation history. Total nucleic acid was extracted from strawberry leaflets by modified cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide methods (3). Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was operated with the published primer pair CPbeg F/CPend R (2). Amplified DNA fragments with the predicted size were obtained only in one strawberry sample, which was further cloned and sequenced. The ...
Propagation Using Cuttings. Propagation of Scented Pelargoniums from seeds is a difficult task. You can take the stem cuttings from the main stem which are 3-4 inches long and with at least four leaf nodes for rooting. Remove the leaves from the bottom quarter of the stem cutting and plant them in well-drained rooting medium. Keep the medium moist till the stem gets rooted. Transplant to the growing medium and set them out, when there is no danger from the frost.. Pruning. You can make the pelargonium plant look full and bushy by pinching or pruning the plant occasionally. When the plant grows large to reduce the stems just prune it back. The best time to prune these plants is during spring. Pruning in spring will give the plant enough time to set new buds and produce flowers.. The Best Fertiliser For Scented Pelargoniums. These plants require very less feeding and low fertiliser levels to improve the fragrance of the leaves. Potted plants may require some excess feeding than the one grown in ...
Dear Sir. Your criticisms are profoundly interesting to me.2 A downright good objection or difficulty is very nearly as interesting as a favourable fact.- Your Review always struck me as very able (though I am not now quite so much shaken by some remarks as I was at first)3 & I have given some few of your objections in a new German edition.4 Very sincere thanks for the Pelargonium leaves.5 I shd. certainly rank this as a case of true correlation; because the parts are homologous & it seems to me inherently probable that parts, which are quite alike in an early stage of development on the same individual would be apt to be similarly affected by the unknown causes of variation. If you will look at my discussion in Ch. V. Origin (p. 162-164 3d. Edit) you will see that I expressly guard against the assumption that parts going together throughout whole classes are necessarily correlated.6 But I now see that I ought more plainly to have said that "correlation of growth" contains a most heterogenious ...
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the causal agents of viral diseases that infected mint (Mentha spp.). CMV is a member of the cucumovirus genus in Bromoviridae family. The virus is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner.During growing season 2007-2008, leaf samples from plants of mint fields with symptoms of viral disease were collected in mint fieldas in Tehran province. The polyclonal antibodies were used to the samples by DAS-ELISA . Some of the tested samples, showed positive reaction against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) specific antibody. Some of the positive samples which are mechanically inoculated on test plants.Some leaf samples from mint plants with symptoms of yellows and mosaic were showed positived reaction against cucumber mosaic virus specific antibody.To confirm the identify of the virus detected using a specific primer pair of CMV which amplify part of coat protein of CMV . A fragment about 700bp was amplified in Immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase
ID JX857635; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 302 BP. XX AC JX857635; XX DT 18-NOV-2012 (Rel. 114, Created) DT 18-NOV-2012 (Rel. 114, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Alfalfa mosaic virus isolate LZ1 coat protein gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Alfalfa mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Bromoviridae; Alfamovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-302 RA Zhaohui W., Keqin H.; RT "Identification of viral pathogens inducing Medicago sativa mosaic disease RT in Zhangye Gansu"; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-302 RA Zhaohui W., Keqin H.; RT ; RL Submitted (22-SEP-2012) to the INSDC. RL Central Laboratory of Technical Center, Gansu Exit-Entry Inspection and RL Quarantine Bureau, No. 2168, Nanhe Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730010, China XX DR MD5; 6cbfd4060891d7958346d37c49178c70. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..302 FT /organism="Alfalfa mosaic virus" FT /host="Medicago sativa" FT /isolate="LZ1" FT /mol_type="genomic RNA" FT /country="China" FT ...
mint scented leaf pelargonium aka scented geraniums, buy perfumed plants with confidence from the UKs original and 1st online organic scented pelargonium specialist nursery. mail order jumbo starter plants not baby plugs, select from 130 types
Ivy pelargonium response to media containing sewage sludge and potato pulp | Agnieszka Zawadzinska, Piotr Salachna | Agricultural Journals
After five years of growing and propagating Pelargoniums I still cannot identify each variety we stock by its flower. There are some obviously differences and some are exquisitely distinct in their features but I still feel much more confident when presented with a leaf to name rather than any flower.. This could be due to many years of overwintering Woottens collection, painstakingly removing every leaf in the winter and revisiting each plant every week to check for Botrytis or death. No sooner have you worked your way around the collection of 500+ plants that a week has passed and you start again. It is often said that a job in horticulture is always about the passion rather than the money!. But my knowledge of leaf identification is also down to working with a genus that gives us the largest foliage diversity in the plant world. Some have petite silver round leaves, some are huge and furry. Others are sword shaped or spiky or even fern like. Even in the regal group there are clear ...
100 types scented geraniums pelargonium geranium plantsbypost jumbo size, plug plants, geranium cuttings, scented leaves herbs for recipes
Cheerio series are seed-raised, zonal pelargoniums bearing single flowers in white or shades of pink, red, or violet, in clusters. This plant is commonly c
Multibloom Series are seed-raised, zonal pelargoniums bearing abundant single flowers in white or shades of pink or red, some with white eyes. Flowering ov
Today I watered the plants in one greenhouse and removed yellowing leaves. I have also taken out the growing tips of the cuttings I potted up before I went on holiday. I like to do this about a week after potting on the cuttings, but this time it has had to wait until now. To take the tips out I use a short green cane sharpened to point and just nip the tiny growing tip from the plant. This is to make the plant produce side shoots. I will go over the plants again next week to check I have taken all the tip out. At the same time I removed a few flowers that were beginning to form. I dont want them to flower just yet ...
Latent viruses replicate on a small scale even when they are not reactivated. This is something overlooked by many in the medical field today. As stated by Dr. Hanan Polansky, the latent EBV virus microcompetes with human genes for limited genetic resources, and as a result, can drive the human genes to malfunction, and cause disease ...
A team of researchers from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), recently tested if idiopathic headshaking in horses could be similar to a condition in humans--trigeminal nerve pain caused by the reactivation of a latent virus.
Pelargonium Cold Relief is a traditional herbal medicinal product used to relieve the symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections including the common cold.
Clinical Question: Can Pelargonium sidoides extract decrease symptoms of acute bronchitis?. Setting: Outpatient (any). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (double-blinded). Synopsis: Pelargonium sidoides, also known as kalwerbossie or the folk remedy Rabassam, is used in several countries. This study evaluated its effect in 468 adults with acute bronchitis of less than two days duration. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms. Patients with asthma, previous treatment with antibiotics, or suspected pneumonia were excluded. Allocation to treatment group was concealed from the enrolling investigators.. Patients were given placebo drops or an extract of the roots of Pelargonium sidoides. The patients were instructed to take 30 drops three times daily 30 minutes before or after a meal for seven days. Acetaminophen also was allowed. Symptoms were evaluated using the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS), for which the investigator evaluated patients for cough, sputum production, rales/rhonchi, ...
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes discovered that an enzyme called SMYD2 could be a new therapeutic target for flushing out the HIV that hides in infected individuals. Overcoming this latent virus remains the most significant ...
EN] Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBp52 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
Pelargonium species contribute significantly to the health care of a large population in the Southern African region, as part of a long-standing medical system intimately linked to traditional healing practices. Most notably, extracts of the roots of P. sidoides have commonly been applied for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea but only occasionally for respiratory complaints. Clinical trials have shown that a modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of P. sidoides extracts (EPs® 7630) is an efficacious treatment for disorders of the respiratory tract, for example bronchitis and sinusitis. It should be noted that EPs® 7630 is the most widely investigated extract and therefore is the focus of this review. In order to provide a rationale for its therapeutic activity extracts have been evaluated for antibacterial activity and for their effects on non-specific immune functions. Only moderate direct antibacterial capabilities against a spectrum of bacteria, including Mycobacteria strains, have been noted.
The first species of Pelargonium known to be cultivated was Pelargonium triste, a native of South Africa. It was probably brought to the botanical garden in Leiden before 1600 on ships which stopped at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1631, the English gardener, John Tradescant the elder, bought seeds from Rene Morin in Paris and introduced the plant to England. The name Pelargonium was introduced by Johannes Burman in 1738, from the Greek πελαργός /pelargós/ (=stork), because part of the flower looks like a storks beak ...
myhome-spu-bolding-ee4560-assignments-lab-31-qpsk-demodulation. EFFECT OF GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS) LEAF EXTRACT ON HEPATIC AND RENAL FUNCTIONS IN ...
This topic contains 45 study abstracts on Cold: Common indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Echinacea, Probiotics, and Pelargonium sidoides
Taxonomy Note: Pelargonium roseum and Pelargonium graveolens are synonyms (different Latin names, same oil) To learn more about the latin names used for essential oils, read this blog post. Subtle Properties (vibrational and energetic): Geranium essential oil, regardless of the species, corresponds to the second chakra and therefore is wonderful for supporting our creativity and supports new beginnings. It nourishes the feminine energy in all of us. A great affirmation to use with this oil is "I am creative and nurturing and I act with wisdom and love.". Blends well with: Lemon, Pine and Frankincense. A Recipe Using Geranium ...
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Commonly known as a mosquito plant, Pelargonium x citrosum is actually a cross-bred scented geranium. It reaches an average height of 2 to 3 feet and spreads to about the same diameter. The lemony ...
and heading home.... with my bag of scented pelargoniums from Fibrex Nurseries - lemon, attar of roses, orange, pine and peppermint...
Bakker, F.T., Culham, A., Hettiarachi, P., Touloumenidou, T., Gibby, M., 2004. Phylogeny of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Taxon 53, 17-28 ...
Umcka Cold+Flu Berry Chewable Tablets combines Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) 1X and Alpha CF into one great-tasting, non-drowsy, multi-action cold and flu formula. The delicious, convenient tablets are easy to pack and carry with you, so you c
The study will conduct with 4 comparative groups orally treated with YHD001 dose level 1(t.i.d.), YHD001 dose level 2(t.i.d.), pelargonium sidoides extract 9mL(t.i.d.) or Placebo for 7 days.. The treatments will be assigned randomly to patients (n=116) with acute or chronic bronchitis. ...
The study will conduct with 4 comparative groups orally treated with YHD001 dose level 1(t.i.d.), YHD001 dose level 2(t.i.d.), pelargonium sidoides extract 9mL(t.i.d.) or Placebo for 7 days.. The treatments will be assigned randomly to patients (n=116) with acute or chronic bronchitis. ...
Sage green leaves edged in cream possess a rich rose scent with fruity overtones that is distinctly fresh and invigorating. A neat, yet robust habit, finely cut leaves and dusty pink flowers add to its charm.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
...New research published in BioMed Centrals open access journal BMC ... Pelargoniums (Geraniums and Storkbills) have been cultivate...In a collaborative project researchers from the Instituto de Biologa ...The modified DNA was injected into Pelargonium zonale cells by ...,No,more,sneezing,,allergen-free,house,plants,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Bakker, F.T., Culham, A., Hettiarachi, P., Touloumenidou, T., Gibby, M., 2004. Phylogeny of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Taxon 53, str. 17-28 ...
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It is the only Alfamovirus of the Bromoviridae family. In 1931 Weimer J.L. was the first to report AMV in alfalfa (Medicago ...
Familie Bromoviridae. *Genus Alfamovirus. *Genus Anulavirus. *Genus Bromovirus (früher Tricornavirus). *Genus Cucumovirus, mit ...
雀麦花叶病毒科 Bromoviridae. *杯状病毒科 Caliciviridae ...
雀麦花叶病毒科 Bromoviridae. *杯状病毒科 Caliciviridae ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Pelargonium serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Anulavirus Amazon lily mild mottle virus Pelargonium zonate spot ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 19 species in ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Ilarvirus American plum line pattern virus Apple mosaic virus ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently six species in ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Bromovirus Broad bean mottle virus Brome mosaic virus Cassia ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently only one ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus Viruses in Alfamovirus have ...
... (BlShV) is an Ilarvirus belonging to the Bromoviridae family. The Bromoviridae family contains single- ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Cucumovirus Cucumber mosaic virus Gayfeather mild mottle virus ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Olive trees serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one ... species in this genus: the type species Olive latent virus 2. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: ...
The virus is in the family Bromoviridae and genus Ilarvirus. Synonyms of PNRSV include European plum line pattern virus, hop B ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Asparagus ...
"Anulavirus, a proposed new genus of plant viruses in the family Bromoviridae." Arch Virol. 2005 Feb;150(2):407-11.. ... Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) is a plant pathogenic virus, classified in the bromoviridae family, genus Anulavirus ...
... (PDV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It causes dwarfism of leaves on certain prune ...
... (PSV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. It is a member of the genus Cucumovirus , the ...
... (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. It is the type member of the plant virus ...
... (EMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Elm ...
... (TAV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ...
... (ApMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It is named after its symptoms that were ...
Some viral families, such as the Bromoviridae instead opt to have multipartite genomes, genomes split between multiple viral ...
... (TAMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database ...
... (CLRV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae. It infects a wide range of valuable ...
... (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilavirus. It has a wide host ...
... family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. BMV commonly infects Bromus inermis (see Bromus) and other grasses, ...
Bromoviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 33 species in this family, divided ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus Genus: Anulavirus Amazon lily ... Viruses in Bromoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and bacilliform geometries. The diameter is around 26-35 nm. ...
In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members are well characterized. Bromoviridae can be ... is one of the members of Bromoviridae family, genus Ilarvirus. Host components that participate in the regulation of viral ... In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members are well characterized. Bromoviridae can be ... Keywords: Bromoviridae; plant-virus interactions; plant defense response; Prune dwarf virus; replication process; systemic and ...
The genome is organized as depicted in Figure 2A.Bromoviridae and consists of three functional molecules of 3126 nt (RNA1, ... Particles up to 85 nm in length occasionally are present (Figure 1D.Bromoviridae). ... RNAs do not have a straightforward relationship with those of members of any of the current genera in the Bromoviridae, the ...
2.2.4. (+)ssRNA Viruses: Bromoviridae. Bromoviridae is a family of viruses with worldwide distribution that naturally infects ... Bromoviridae possess a tripartite linear (+)ssRNA genome [75], approximately 8 kb in length [76]. RNA1 and RNA2 encode RdRp 1a ... Members of the genera Cucumovirus and Ilarvirus have an additional overlapping ORF [75]. Members of the family Bromoviridae ... Sztuba-Solińska, J.; Bujarski, J.J. Insights into the single-cell reproduction cycle of members of the family Bromoviridae: ...
It is the only Alfamovirus of the Bromoviridae family. In 1931 Weimer J.L. was the first to report AMV in alfalfa (Medicago ...
Familie Bromoviridae. *Genus Alfamovirus. *Genus Anulavirus. *Genus Bromovirus (früher Tricornavirus). *Genus Cucumovirus, mit ...
Bromoviridae. Genus. Alfamovirus. Genus. Anulavirus. Genus. Bromovirus. Genus. Cucumovirus. Genus. Ilarvirus. Genus. Oleavirus ...
J. Family Bromoviridae. K. Family Comoviridae. L. Family Potyviridae. M. Family Tombusviridae. N. Family Sequiviridae. O. ... A. Family Bromoviridae. B. Family Comoviridae. C. Family Potyviridae. D. Family Tombusviridae. E. Family Sequiviridae. F. ...
Bromoviridae:. Alfamovirus. alfalfa mosaic virus. Plants. Ilarvirus. tobacco streak virus. Plants. Bromovirus. brome mosaic ...
Family: Bromoviridae Family: Closteroviridae Family: Luteoviridae Family: Potyviridae Family: Tombusviridae Family: ...
Familia: Bromoviridae Genus: Ilarvirus. Species: Elm mottle virus Name[edit]. Elm mottle virus ...
Blueberry shock virus (BlShV)-genus Ilarvirus; family Bromoviridae. Shoestring. Blueberry shoestring virus (BSSV)-genus ...
雀麦花叶病毒科 Bromoviridae. *杯状病毒科 Caliciviridae ...
雀麦花叶病毒科 Bromoviridae. *杯状病毒科 Caliciviridae ...
Viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; Bromoviridae; Bromovirus Species. Broad bean mottle virus, Brome mosaic ... The genus Bromovirus is one of five genera in the Bromoviridae family. It has a tripartite genome and an encapsidated ... Viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; Bromoviridae; Bromovirus. +. Viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no ...
Bromoviridae. Bromovirus. Bunyaviridae. Caulimoviridae. Caulimovirus. Circovirus. Cladosporium Coronavirus. Cystoviridae. ...
Bromoviridae. 1. Avian Infectious bursal disease virus, sub-viral particle. Birnaviridae. 1. ...
AMV is a phytopathogen that can lead to necrosis and yellow mosaics on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops ...
Bromoviridae. 3. Swine Vesicular Disease Virus. Picornaviridae. pT3. Poliovirus (Type 3, Sabin Strain)/Win51711 Complex. ...
Family Bromoviridae. *Family Caliciviridae - includes Norwalk virus. *Family Closteroviridae. *Family Comoviridae. *Family ...
Anulavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Bromoviridae. Pelargonium serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Bromoviridae Genus: Anulavirus Amazon lily mild mottle virus Pelargonium zonate spot ...
  • For example in the case of simple viruses such as Parvoviridae or Bromoviridae. (scripps.edu)
  • Oleavirus RNAs do not have a straightforward relationship with those of members of any of the current genera in the Bromoviridae , the closest homologue depending on which virus RNA is being compared. (ictvonline.org)
  • A remarkable similarity was demonstrated between the structure of CMV and that of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), another member of the Bromoviridae . (asm.org)
  • Incidence of Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV) on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Aragua State, Venezuela, and partial molecular characterization of a viral isolate/Incidencia del virus Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV) en caraotas (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en el estado Aragua, Venezuela, y caracterizacion molecular parcial de un aislamiento viral. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members are well characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • This work presents the above stages of the PDV life cycle in the context of current knowledge about other Bromoviridae members. (mdpi.com)
  • Codoner FM and Elena SF (2006) Evolutionary relationships among members of the Bromoviridae deduced from whole proteome analysis. (els.net)