Bromotrichloromethane: A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane produces about three times the degree of liver microsomal lipid peroxidation as does carbon tetrachloride.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Ficusin: A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Methoxsalen: A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2C03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Undaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE, in the family Alariaceae, native to Japan, Korea, and China. The edible SEAWEED Undaria pinnatifida is also called wakame.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Inventors: Persons or entities that introduce a novel composition, device, or process, as well as improvements thereof.New JerseyRosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.MaleimidesCycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.

Covalent alteration of the prosthetic heme of human hemoglobin by BrCCl3. Cross-linking of heme to cysteine residue 93. (1/9)

Recent studies have shown that a protein-bound heme adduct formed from the reaction of BrCCl3 with myoglobin was due to bonding of the proximal histidine residue through the ring I vinyl of a heme-CCl2 moiety. The present study reveals that BrCCl3 also reacts with the heme of reduced human hemoglobin to form two protein-bound heme adducts. Edman degradation and mass spectrometry provided evidence that these protein-bound heme adducts were addition products in which heme-CCL2 or heme-CCl3 were bound to cysteine residue 93 of the beta-chain of hemoglobin. It appeared that the cysteine residue was bonded regiospecifically to the ring I vinyl group of the altered heme moiety, because the nonprotein-bound products of the reaction included the beta-carboxyvinyl and alpha-hydroxy-beta-trichloromethylethyl derivatives of the ring I vinyl moiety of heme. The absorption spectra of the protein-bound adducts in both the oxidized and reduced states were highly similar to those described for hemichromes, which are thought to be involved in the formation of Heinz bodies and subsequent red cell lysis.  (+info)

Bromotrichloromethane hepatotoxicity. The role of stimulated hepatocellular regeneration in recovery: biochemical and histopathological studies in control and chlordecone pretreated male rats. (2/9)

It has been shown that BrCCl3 is a more potent hepatotoxin than CCl4. Pretreatment with nontoxic dietary levels of chlordecone (CD) results in amplification of BrCCl3 hepatotoxicity. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the histopathological alterations during a time course after a low dose of BrCCl3 alone and in combination with dietary CD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on 10 ppm dietary CD or normal diet for 15 days. On day 16, they received a single ip dose (30 microliters/kg) of BrCCl3 in corn oil (CO) vehicle or corn oil alone. Blood and liver samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hr for serum enzymes and histopathological examination, respectively. Serum enzymes (SDH, ALT, AST) were significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated in rats receiving the CD + BrCCl3 combination in comparison to BrCCl3 alone. For 48 hr, a continuous increase in serum enzyme activities was detected in rats treated with CD + BrCCl3 combination, but not in the rats receiving other treatments (ND + BrCCl3, ND + CO, or CD + CO). The most extensive hepatolobular necrosis was observed in rats treated with the CD + BrCCl3 combination. Thirty-six hr after the administration of BrCCl3 to rats maintained on normal diet, high mitotic activity was observed, which continued through 72 hr resulting in complete restoration of hepatolobular structure. In contrast, rats receiving the combination of CD + BrCCl3 exhibited minimal and belated hepatomitotic activity for a short period of time, resulting in progressive hepatic failure, culminating in animal death. In conclusion, hepatotoxicity of a low dose of BrCCl3 alone appeared to be overcome via stimulated hepatocellular regeneration and hepatolobular restoration. CD appears to amplify BrCCl3 hepatotoxicity via interference with this hormetic mechanism, permitting a progressive and continued hepatic injury leading to complete hepatic failure, culminating in animal death.  (+info)

Histological evidence for dissociation of lipid peroxidation and cell necrosis in bromotrichloromethane hepatotoxicity in the perfused rat liver. (3/9)

Bromotrichloromethane (CBrCl3)-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation and cell necrosis were studied histologically and biochemically, using isolated perfused livers from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by fuchsin staining of the liver slices and release of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) into the perfusate; necrosis was assessed by trypan blue uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. A good correlation was observed between the Schiff-positive reaction and TBARS release under various experimental conditions, supporting the validity of the fuchsin staining method for histological detection of lipid peroxidation. Lobular localization of lipid peroxidation and necrosis was as follows: Under high oxygen supply (95% O2-saturated buffer), infusion of CBrCl3 caused the Schiff-positive reaction in the pericentral to midzonal hepatocytes, irrespective of the direction of perfusion, but did not produce necrosis. Under low oxygen supply (20% O2) with retrograde perfusion, dissociation of lipid peroxidation and necrosis was observed, i.e., trypan blue uptake in the periportal zones and Schiff-positive staining in the pericentral hepatocytes. Thus, lipid peroxidation by itself may have a relatively minor role in the development of CBrCl3-induced acute hepatic cell death.  (+info)

Comparative antioxidant effectiveness of dietary beta-carotene, vitamin E, selenium and coenzyme Q10 in rat erythrocytes and plasma. (4/9)

Five groups of five weanling rats were each fed a Torula yeast-based diet either unsupplemented or supplemented with 30 mg beta-carotene/kg, 30 IU vitamin E/kg, 1 mg selenium/kg or 30 mg coenzyme Q10/kg. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are sensitive indicators of liver damage. The former enzyme was lower (P less than 0.01) in the vitamin E-, selenium- and beta-carotene-supplemented groups than in the unsupplemented control group, and the latter enzyme was lower in the vitamin E- and selenium-supplemented groups, suggesting a relatively equal effectiveness of these three antioxidants against liver damage. Erythrocytes were tested for protection against uninduced oxidative damage or that induced by 1 mmol/L bromotrichloromethane (BrCl3C) by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), hemoglobin, hemolysis, protein precipitation, alanine release and several enzyme activities. In untreated erythrocytes, selenium, beta-carotene and coenzyme Q10 exhibited protection by lowering (P less than 0.05) TBARS and alanine release, but only vitamin E protected against hemolysis. In BrCl3C-treated erythrocytes, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene protected by decreasing (P less than 0.05) protein precipitation, whereas selenium and beta-carotene decreased alanine release. The results of this study suggested that, in a manner analogous to vitamin E and selenium, beta-carotene and coenzyme Q10 function as antioxygenic nutrients.  (+info)

Metabolism-based covalent bonding of the heme prosthetic group to its apoprotein during the reductive debromination of BrCCl3 by myoglobin. (5/9)

The reductive metabolism of BrCCl3 by ferrous myoglobin leads to the alteration of the prosthetic heme to form products that can be dissociated from the protein and to those that are irreversibly bound to the protein. The major dissociable or soluble heme metabolites have recently been characterized. In this study, the irreversibly bound heme product was characterized by Edman degradation, amino acid analysis, and electronic absorption and mass spectrometry of peptides derived from the altered protein. It was found that the prosthetic heme was modified by a CCl2 moiety derived from BrCCl3 and was covalently bound to histidine residue 93, the normal proximal ligand to the heme-iron. The data are consistent with a mechanism by which the trichloromethyl radical reacts with the heme to form an intermediate that either can alkylate the proximal histidine residue or form soluble metabolites. The covalent bonding of the heme prosthetic moiety to the apoprotein likely leads to a change in the tertiary structure of the protein that may be responsible for its altered catalytic activity as well as its enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis. Similar processes may account, at least in part, for the covalent alteration of the heme prosthetic group of other hemoproteins caused by xenobiotics and endogenous substrates.  (+info)

Damage to DNA concurrent with lipid peroxidation in rat liver slices. (6/9)

Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were evaluated in liver slices incubated for 2 h at 37 degrees C with 1 mM-t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), 1 mM-BrCCl3 or 50 microM-ferrous iron. t-BOOH induced the greatest amount of damage to DNA and increased the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Both phenomena depended on the incubation time. Ferrous iron induced both DNA damage and TBARS production, and BrCCl3 did not induce significant DNA damage and was the weakest TBARS inducer. Butylated hydroxytoluene at 1 mM inhibited both DNA damage and TBARS production. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in liver slices were correlated, indicating that these events were concurrent.  (+info)

Carbon tetrachloride, bromotrichloromethane and ethanol acute intoxication. New chemical evidence for lipid peroxidation in rat tissue microsomes. (7/9)

Second-derivative spectroscopy was used to determine the conjugated-diene shift that measures the extent of the first step of lipid peroxidation after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), bromotrichloromethane (BrCCl3) and ethanol intoxication. The conjugated-diene signal was recorded in the second-derivative spectra as a minimum peak at 233 nm. The use of this method enabled us to show that, under our experimental conditions, CCl4- and BrCCl3-dependent conjugated-diene formation in rat liver microsomes is not dose-dependent and increases linearly with time up to 3h. Proportionality was not obtained between the second-derivative-spectroscopy method, and the thiobarbituric acid and difference-spectra methods. In addition, whereas the thiobarbituric acid and difference-spectra methods gave positive results at zero time, second-derivative spectroscopy showed no evidence of formation of conjugated dienes under the same experimental conditions. Intoxication with ethanol was shown by the appearance of the conjugated-diene signal in liver microsomes 24 h after the administration of the toxin. Intoxication with either of the haloalkanes or ethanol did not give rise to any similar peak in lung and brain microsomes. The results obtained are discussed.  (+info)

Structure of the novel heme adduct formed during the reaction of human hemoglobin with BrCCl3 in red cell lysates. (8/9)

It was previously shown that the reductive debromination of BrCCl3 to trichloromethyl radical by human hemoglobin leads to formation of dissociable altered heme products, two of which are identical to those formed from myoglobin and one which is novel. In this study, we have elucidated the structure of this novel adduct with the use of mass spectrometry, as well as 1H and 13C NMR as a substitution product of a -C(Cl) = CCl2 moiety for a beta-hydrogen atom on the prosthetic heme's ring I vinyl group. From studies with the use of 13C-enriched BrCCl3, it was determined that the added carbon atoms were derived from 2 eq of BrCCl3. A mechanism that involves multiple reductive events and a radical cation heme intermediate is proposed. Consistent with this mechanism, cellular reductants were found to selectively enhance the amount of this novel dissociable heme adduct. These studies reveal fine differences between myoglobin and hemoglobin in the accessibility of reactive intermediates to the ring I vinyl group, as well as the potential importance of cellular reductants on the course of heme alteration.  (+info)

MgSO, and distilled I0.897 g, crude product (25%), b.p. = 100 (bath temp.)/lO torr]. Redistillation afforded chemically pure (R)-( +)-(3)having [a], = 3.43 (c= 8.4, C6H6) corresponding to 16% enantiomeric excessr41. + Received: September 8, 1980 [ Z 758 IE] German version: Angew. Chem. 93,481 (1981) CAS Registry numbers: @-(-)-1, 77495-38-6; (2). 77495-39-7; R (J ( +)-3, 3082-64-2; P h C H d H Z , 100-42-5; BrCCI,, 75-62-7; [( -)-dioplRhCI, 61 113-00-6 The reaction of bromotrichloromethane with styrene in 2 :1 ethanol-benzene, in the presence of an optically active phosphane-rhodium complex [(-)-diop]RhClf3I (0.30 mmol) at 80°C for 18 h, gave the 1 :1-adduct ( I ) in 26% yield. The adduct (1) showed an optical rotation of [a],= -22.5 ( C = 10.7, C6H6) which corresponded to , 32% enantiomeric excess and (4-configuration. The enantiomeric excess and the absolute configuration were determined in the following way using a sample of ( I ) with [a],= - 11.3 (c= 10.3, C6&) obtained in a separate ...
Due to the high likelihood of use of concomitant medications by patients being treated for cocaine abuse, it is important to understand the potential for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions for any agent being considered for use as a therapy for this condition. The DA reuptake blocker GBR12909 is a promising cocaine antagonist (Tella et al., 1996). Important metabolism-based pharmacokinetic issues need to be considered prior to the widespread clinical testing of this cocaine antagonist.. GBR12909 has previously been suggested to be extensively metabolized in man presumably due to a saturable first-pass metabolism (Ingwersen et al., 1993). The reported Cmax obtained at steady state during oral dosing of 125 mg of vanoxerine (GBR12909) in 14 healthy male volunteers was 0.24 ± 0.09 μM. The in vitro metabolism of GBR12909 has not been studied previously in tissues from any species. We studied the metabolism of GBR12909 via cytochrome P450 in vitro in human liver microsomes, heterologously ...
Haimbio (Ph. D. Hong Yeoul Kim, CEO), a research and development bio firm has recently received the Award by the head of Health and Welfare Committee in Korean National Assembly and the 3rd Global Power Brand Award.. Starvanip® has a rather unique and universal technology platform oriented for new paradigm of anti-cancer drug. This differentiates from existing anti-cancer drugs by the effects; i.e., - inhibiting the generation of Cancer Energy source, so inducing the apoptosis, the death of cancer cell. In doing so, this is anticipated to dramatically improve the side effects such as damaging normal cell and to further reduce toxicity accompanied by existing anti-cancer therapies. Last but not the least, the firm insists to augment the low rate of curing and to target wider range of cancer types.. With the tests on not only animals but also patient derived cells and organoid, the pre-clinical efficacy and safety have been secured. In duration of this pre-clinical phase, the firm has tested and ...
Egbert, M. D., Barandiaran, X. E., & Di Paolo, E. A. (2012). Behavioral metabolution: The adaptive and evolutionary potential of metabolism-based chemotaxis. Artificial Life, 18(1), 1-25. doi:10.1162/artl_a_00047. Abstract We use a minimal model of metabolism-based chemotaxis to show how a coupling between metabolism and behavior can affect evolutionary dynamics in a process we refer to…
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) donne libre accès en ligne à des archives numériques fiables et permanentes qui contiennent le texte intégral de publications de recherches évaluées par des pairs en santé et en sciences de la vie. Il fait fond sur PubMed Central (PMC), les archives numériques gratuites des National Institutes of Health (NIH) des États-Unis qui proviennent de revues biomédicales et sur les sciences de la vie, et il est membre du réseau élargi PMC International (PMCI).
UCQ-COmpOUndSare produced from those with aD-manno-stereochemistry and vice versa. l5 (- 0 (3) (4) Reagents: i, ROH, b a s e Scheme 3 a- Di-Q-alkylphosphorodithioc acids add to peracetylated glycals to give high yields of predominantly 2-deoxy-a-D-qlycosyl (6) adducts. g. can be obtained (Scheme , ) . I 6 Further in the area of glycosides 0 CH~OAC AcO A ,ji-&,,,, GMe CH~OAC -L--+ AcO 2H 2H R c x u ~ ~ . n c,(NeO),P(S)SH, b W , Ndtl~,McOc(,u, Ac20-Py (6) Scheme 4 of deoxysugars, methyl 2,6-dideoxy-a-D-arabIno * -hexopyranoside can be made readily from 2,6-dibromo-2,6-dideoxy-a-D-mannopyranosyl bromide by methanolysis followed ~y reductive debromination (Chapter 12). S ( m ~Abstl;, . 1988, 6816). C b , 1988, 669. Schmidt,J . Carbohydr. Chem.. 1988, 1, 435. Kumazawa, J . Am. (:hem. , 1988, JJ&, 7910. Kamikawa, Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 29, 1189. Riess,Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 2193. , 1988, 1op, 55 090). Yang, w e XuebaQ, 1988, G ,239 (Chem. , 1988, 190 679). Bioore. W&, 1987, 654 ( ! b D . Abst: . ...
UCQ-COmpOUndSare produced from those with aD-manno-stereochemistry and vice versa. l5 (- 0 (3) (4) Reagents: i, ROH, b a s e Scheme 3 a- Di-Q-alkylphosphorodithioc acids add to peracetylated glycals to give high yields of predominantly 2-deoxy-a-D-qlycosyl (6) adducts. g. can be obtained (Scheme , ) . I 6 Further in the area of glycosides 0 CH~OAC AcO A ,ji-&,,,, GMe CH~OAC -L--+ AcO 2H 2H R c x u ~ ~ . n c,(NeO),P(S)SH, b W , Ndtl~,McOc(,u, Ac20-Py (6) Scheme 4 of deoxysugars, methyl 2,6-dideoxy-a-D-arabIno * -hexopyranoside can be made readily from 2,6-dibromo-2,6-dideoxy-a-D-mannopyranosyl bromide by methanolysis followed ~y reductive debromination (Chapter 12). S ( m ~Abstl;, . 1988, 6816). C b , 1988, 669. Schmidt,J . Carbohydr. Chem.. 1988, 1, 435. Kumazawa, J . Am. (:hem. , 1988, JJ&, 7910. Kamikawa, Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 29, 1189. Riess,Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 2193. , 1988, 1op, 55 090). Yang, w e XuebaQ, 1988, G ,239 (Chem. , 1988, 190 679). Bioore. W&, 1987, 654 ( ! b D . Abst: . ...
trisaccharide-3-uloside 19[l is obtained, which, upon normal methyl branching reactions (MeLi, MeMgCI), gives the wrong, namely the D-arabino-configurated, terminal component (cf. [8]). Thus, a controlled branching reaction was necessary, which was first worked out for the monosaccharide. Reductive debromination (h, 91%) of 10 and subsequent oxidation (b, 75%) affords the deoxygenated 3-uloside 11 .Ish1 The methylene group can be introduced either by Wittig reaction (j,64%) to give 12171 or by Peterson olefination (k, 46%) to give the derivative 13.l7lAll attempts to carry out a Sharpless epoxidationlyl of the exocyclic allylic alcohol system of 13 were u n s u c c e ~ s f u l Apparently, .~~~~ the chiral elements in the saccharide derivatives 12 and 13 already direct the epoxidation with rn-chloroperbenzoic acid (1, 83%) completely stereospecifically to give the (3R)-configurated epoxides 14l7] and 15, respectively. Reductive opening of the epoxide results (c, 75%) in exclusive formation of ...
CRANBURY, N.J., Nov. 13, 2014-- Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a development stage company and leader in the growing field of cancer metabolism-based therapeutics, today announced that its lead compound CPI-613 has been chosen by Informa and Kantar Health as one of the 2014 Top 10 Most Interesting Oncology Projects to Watch. Steve Carchedi, Chief Executive...
CRANBURY, N.J., May 14, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a leader in the growing field of cancer metabolism-based therapeutics, today announced that data from a Phase I clinical trial of its proprietary first-in-class anticancer compound CPI-613 in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will be presented during a Poster Highlights Session at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting at McCormick Place, Chicago, IL, on May 31, 2014. The poster will be presented by Dr.
CRANBURY, N.J., March 12, 2014-- Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a leader in the growing field of cancer metabolism-based therapeutics, today announced that its first-in-class cancer metabolism targeted therapeutic, CPI-613, demonstrated the ability to inhibit tumor cell growth in the published studies.
Compiled By Jessica Oesterheld, M.D. This table is an abridged guide to PGPs. For an introduction to PGPs, click here. To appreciate the full benefits of this information, click here to get a free 30-day trial version of GeneMedRx. This metabolism-based drug interaction software predicts response to medication combinations with optional input of genetic variations.. Last Update: May 22, 2009 ...
Metabolic relationships between cells in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium are fundamental to retinal function, retinal disease and age-related vision loss and they may provide strategies for metabolism-based therapies.
Compiled By Jessica Oesterheld, M.D. This table is an abridged guide to UGTs. To appreciate the full benefits of this information, click here to get a free 30-day trial version of GeneMedRx. This metabolism-based drug interaction software predicts response to medication combinations with optional input of genetic variations.. Last Update: May 16, 2008 ...
Token Ring aims to wrap security around your finger CNET Im not sure I want my entire life on a ring I wear on my finger . But Token&...Read More ...
Just got home from work and made this quickie video for tonite. It took me about 10 minutes to rig my Dutch Quilt Clips to the 4 corners with very small nylon chord that I threaded thru the loops of amsteel in place of the steel rings I cut off bridge hammock when I did Professor Hammocks modification of a JacksRBetter BMBH UL bridge hammock. I wanted to show this new UQP that is the breathable version that 2Q & ZQ have been working on. They have made 2 sets of small nylon sewed on loops for
Im a good fighter etc in the ring I wont get any fight or flight adrenaline rush type thing but out in public when a random altercation starts happening I just feel like panicking or going schizo and killing someone Id rather just feel in control so that either the altercation can pass or I can deal with it with reasonable force... is there any way to train myself out of getting irate too quickly
Ved å godkjenne bruk av informasjonskapsler vil Jotun bruke dataene for å forbedre din brukeropplevelse samt analysere din brukeradferd. Vi bruker informasjonen til å analysere og tilby tilpasset markedsføring i andre kanaler. Her kan du lese mer om Jotuns bruk av informasjonskapsler og hvordan du kan endre innstillingene. ...
This is my phones ringtone; that is, every time my phone rings I hear this song. I put it on there when Shelby was listed - almost 5 months ago - to remind myself to hang on through this time in our lives. BUT, its hard. I know "easy" is not promised to us. Ever. I am struggling. My faith isnt going away; Im not mad at God; but I am asking God "where is this going?" For some things in our life its easy to sit back and listen for where He wants us to head; where we are to go - this is not one of those times. It is unbearable with this. Really. My child - although anyone who comes to visit is shocked at how well she appears - is dependent on her life continuing by getting a liver transplant. There is no getting better from here, only worse, without one. Really?!?!? "God, why are things this way?" I know what Jeremiah 29:11 (NRSV) says "For surely I know the plans I have for you, says the Lord, plans for your welfare and not for harm, to give you a future with hope." Sorry folks, that doesnt ...
for dear life and praying I wouldnt fall. My mom brought me back a few more times though, and during my third lesson something miraculous happened as I was trotting around the ring - I laughed. Just like that, I went from complete fear to feeling like I could conquer the world.
Im so sad I missed out on this smokey quarts ring by CC Skye Jewelry on Gilt Fuse today! It actually kinda reminds me of the Marni ring I fell for a few months back (but way cheaper ...
siroheme: the heme prosthetic group of the hemoprotein of E coli NADPH-sulfite reductase; reduces sulfite to sulfide or nitrite to ammonia; structure
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Looking for selective myocardial cell necrosis? Find out information about selective myocardial cell necrosis. 1. the death of one or more cells in the body, usually within a localized area, as from an interruption of the blood supply to that part 2. death of plant... Explanation of selective myocardial cell necrosis
what do you all have on your body? i wear a wedding ring, cheap functional watch, and a high school style class ring i was a businessman type...
The hypothesis that liver is the site of the previously demonstrated chlordecone alcohol formation in man was tested. Human bile obtained from chlordecone-poisoned factory workers contained substantial amounts of free chlordecone, but little free chlordecone alcohol. However, when the same bile specimens were pretreated with beta-glucuronidase before analysis by gas-liquid chromatography, large amounts of chlordecone alcohol appeared, accounting for 75% of total organochlorine compounds. Confirmation of the identity of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol was made by using gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas biliary chlordecone alcohol was present predominantly as its glucuronide conjugate (93%), chlordecone was excreted primarily as the unaltered compound (72%) with only a small portion conjugated with glucuronic acid (9%). The remaining fraction of the total chlordecone measured in bile appeared to be a stable polar metabolite resistant to beta-glucuronidase. This unidentified ...
Unfortunately, six months ago I took it to get cleaned by a jeweler, who informed me that the diamond ring I loved so much was a fake. I was shocked.. His parents are coming to visit next month. What shall I say when she doesnt see me wearing her ring? I dont want to seem like an ingrate and hurt her feelings, but at the same time I cant feel as proud of this ring as I once did and have stopped wearing it because I dont wish to go around accepting peoples compliments on it.. My husband says we will handle it when she visits and that surely she is unaware of the problem. Im disappointed with the situation (and in him too), but he doesnt seem to think its that big of a deal, saying a happy marriage is whats important, not a piece of jewelry. Advice? - Disappointed Dear Disappointed: My first recommendation is for you to get a second opinion from another jeweler - and bring your husband with you.. His mother should be told about this - it could have ramifications for her in other ways (she ...
Hepatic cirrhosis results from fibrous scarring mixed with hepatocellular regeneration in response to sustained inflammatory, toxic, metabolic, and congestive
Cant remember where I discovered the infallible 1-2-1 way to cook rice - might have been Delia Smith. Its so easy and Ive never under or overcooked rice since I found this method. Boil a kettle of water. Measure one cup full of rice (plain, basmati, Thai or wild rice with normal rice) in readiness, heat a little oil in a saucepan and put the rice in. Stir it to coat the grains and then add TWO cups of boiling water then salt to taste (if you use salt at all......thats where the final 1 in the 1-2-1 comes from, but I think were all cutting down on salt these days). Be careful when you add the boiling water to the rice as it will bubble and steam right away. Give it literally one quick stir. Cover the top of the pan with foil and jam the lid on to form a seal. Turn to the very lowest heat on the cooking ring - I use the smallest ring at this stage. Set timer for 20 minutes and then when the 20 minutes is up turn the heat off and let the rice stand for 5 or 10 minutes before removing the lid. ...
In combination with NOS3, each NOS1 and NOS2 have been uncovered to become S-nitrosated, but the evidence for dynamic regulation of Those people NOS isoforms by this process is fewer total[citation necessary]. Also, both of those NOS1 and NOS2 happen to be demonstrated to type ferrous-nitrosyl complexes of their heme prosthetic groups which could act partly to self-inactivate these enzymes under specified ailments[citation wanted]. The speed-restricting action with the production of nitric oxide might be The provision of L-arginine in some mobile types. This may be specially vital once the induction of NOS2 ...
... bromotrichloromethane; bromotriiodomethane; chlorotrifluoromethane; chlorotribromomethane; chlorotriiodomethane; ...
Bromotrichloromethane View Synonyms. View Structure. Description:. A potent liver poison. In rats, bromotrichloromethane ...
The third edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology presents entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals, and is updated to reflect current advances in the field. It contains new information on nanotoxicology, epigenetics, persistent organic pollutants, computational toxicology and bioinformatics, controversial chemicals, and much more.
In Step 3, sodium omadine is directly reacted with bromotrichloromethane. The resulting complex is directly reacted with the ...
... bromotrichloromethane; bromoform; carbon tetrachloride; carbon tetrabromide; N, N′-methylene- bis-acrylamide; ethylene glycol ... bromotrichloromethane; bromoform; carbon tetrachloride; carbon tetrabromide; N, N′-methylene- bis-acrylamide; ethylene glycol ... bromotrichloromethane; bromoform; carbon tetrachloride; carbon tetrabromide; glycidyl methacrylate; isocyanatoethel ... bromotrichloromethane; bromoform; carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrabromide. ...
A typical emulsion polymerization procedure involves the utilization of 3% bromotrichloromethane, based on monomers, as a chain ...
... halogen compounds such as bromotrichloromethane; or combinations thereof. Also, additional initiatorand/or catalyst may be ...
These solvents include, but are not limited to 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroform, bromotrichloromethane and benzene. ...
Part 2.- The heat of photochemical addition of bromotrichloromethane to vinyl acetate, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1959, 55, 268-271 ...
PROCESS FOR PREPARING BROMOTRICHLOROMETHANE. The present invention relates to a process for preparing bromotrichloromethane ...
F. P. Corongiu, M. Lai and A. Milia, Carbon tetrachloride, bromotrichloromethane and ethanol acute intoxication, Biochem. J. ...
About this Index: This index lists the names of all compounds found in the IR - Pollutants (Vapor Phase) - Bio‑Rad Sadtler spectral database. Bio-Rad is the world leader in spectral databases. They offer over 2.3 million high-quality IR, Raman, NIR, NMR, MS and UV-Vis spectra. Please visit our website for a complete listing. ...
Bromotrichloromethane. Butaldehyde; Butanal; Butryic aldehyde; Butyl aldehyde; Butyral. Butanal oxime; n-Butyraldoxime; ...
The Use of Bromotrichloromethane in Chlorination Reactions. S. G. Newman, C. S. Bryan, D. Perez, M. Lautens, Synthesis, 2011, ...
Journal Article] Ultrastrong gravity-induced unusual reactivity in radical addition of bromotrichloromethane to ethyl cinnamate ...
HK MTR Yau Ma Tei Station Bromotrichloro methane 溴代三氯甲烷 BTM yellow sign Sept-2013 Toxic.JPG 2,048 × 1,536; 2.35 MB. ...
The excess bromotrichloromethane is removed to give 450.0 g (84.5% yield) of crude product.. The infrared spectrum is ... To a 5-liter three-necked flask equipped as in Example 1 is added 3200 g (16.0 moles) of bromotrichloromethane which is heated ... The reaction mixture is stirred and refluxed for a total of 24 hours and then the excess bromotrichloromethane is removed under ... of bromotrichloromethane which is heated to reflux. Then a solution of 4.8 g of Vazo 64 in 792.0 g (6.0 moles) of allyl ...
Destruction of liver microsomal calcium pump activity by carbon tetrachloride and bromotrichloromethane. Biochem. Pharmacol., ...
The only apparent explanation of this is that bromotrichloromethane has a negative e-value in the Alfrey-Price Q-e Scheme. ... Velocity coefficients for the photochemical reaction between vinyl chloride and bromotrichloromethane have also been evaluated ... The photochemical reaction between vinyl acetate and bromotrichloromethane has been investigated dilatometrically. The ... to the velocity coefficient for propagation with increase in radical DP for the chain transfer of bromotrichloromethane with ...
... and in the urine of rats after administration of bromotrichloromethane and PBN. Bromotrichloromethane is metabolized by the ...
... bromotrichloromethane, benzotribromide, and similarly polyhalogenated hydrocarbon compounds in which at least three halogen ...
HALOCARBONS (e.g. bromotrichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, chlorotrifluoroethylene or tetrafluoroethylene) - may explode ...
Suitable chain transfer agents include carbon tetrachloride, bromoform, bromotrichloromethane, triphenyl methane, mercapto ...
Similarly, bromotrichloromethane in dichloromethane can be used for the Appel reaction of benzyl alcohols to form benzyl ... Stoichiometric bromotrichloromethane in acetonitrile can replace solvent quantities of carbon tetrachloride in the synthesis of ...
  • The objective of our study was to compare the information obtained through the use of three different urinary biomarkers of lipoperoxidation during the time course of a bromotrichloromethane (BrCCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats. (biomedsearch.com)