5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Radiosensitization of rat glioma with bromodeoxycytidine and adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase delivered by slow, rate-controlled positive pressure infusion. (1/9)

Infection of rat RT2 glioma cells in vitro with an adenovirus (ADV-TK) expressing herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) and subsequent exposure to 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine (BrdC), which is specifically incorporated into ADV-TK-infected cell DNA as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), results in significant radiosensitization (sensitizer enhancement ratio: 1.4-2.3) compared with Ad beta gal-infected cells. Cell killing correlated well with increased BrdU DNA incorporation and with apoptosis. Whereas radiation (4 Gy) alone was relatively ineffective in inducing apoptosis, treatment with HSV-TK/BrdC resulted in BrdC dose- (10-100 microM) and time-dependent (24-48 hours) increases, and the combination of the two treatments produced a synergistic response (1.5- to 2-fold). To investigate the effects of the ADV-TK/BrdC treatment in vivo, RT2 cells were grown as soft tissue tumors in Fischer 344 rats and conditions for virus infusion were optimized by altering the volume and rate of infusion using a rate-controlled positive pressure device. We found that relatively large volumes (100-150 microL) of virus delivered at rates of < or = 1 microL/minute were optimal and gave uniform and reproducible results. Using these optimal infusion conditions, we were able to achieve 40% adenovirus infection in the tumor. Infection of RT2 tumors with ADV-TK and continuous administration of BrdC from an osmotic pump resulted in significant (.001 < P < .009) tumor regression 6 days after radiation (30 Gy delivered as 2 x 5 Gy over 3 days) compared with controls. In situ staining of sectioned tumors with anti-BrdU antibody or by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracted and hydrolyzed tumor DNA confirmed that we obtained efficient and specific incorporation of BrdU into tumor cells. These results suggest that adenovirus-mediated delivery of HSV-TK in combination with BrdC and radiation can potentially be an efficient combination modality for the treatment of gliomas.  (+info)

Sequence-dependent formation of intrastrand crosslink products from the UVB irradiation of duplex DNA containing a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. (2/9)

The replacement of thymidine with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is well-known to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation and photoirradiation. We reported here the sequence-dependent formation of intrastrand crosslink products from the UVB irradiation of duplex oligodeoxynucleotides harboring a BrdU or its closely related 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine (BrdC). Our results showed that two types of crosslink products could be induced from d(BrCG), d(BrUG), d(GBrU), or d(ABrU); the C(5) of cytosine or uracil could be covalently bonded to the N(2) or C(8) of its neighboring guanine, and the C(5) of uracil could couple with the C(2) or C(8) of its neighboring adenine. By using those crosslink product-bearing dinucleoside monophosphates as standards, we demonstrated, by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), that all the crosslink products described above except d(G[N(2)-5]U) and d(G[N(2)-5]C) could form in duplex DNA. In addition, LC-MS/MS quantification results revealed that both the nature of the halogenated pyrimidine base and its 5' flanking nucleoside affected markedly the generation of intrastrand crosslink products. The yields of crosslink products were much higher while the 5' neighboring nucleoside was a dG than while it was a dA, and BrdC induced the formation of crosslink products much more efficiently than BrdU. The formation of intrastrand crosslink products from these halopyrimidines in duplex DNA may account for the photosensitizing effects of these nucleosides.  (+info)

Enzymatic basis for the selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus by 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine. (3/9)

5-Bromodeoxycytidine (BrdC) and 5-iododeoxycytidine, at a concentration of 100 mug/ml, effectively inhibit the replication of varicella-zoster (VZ) virus in tissue culture. No toxicity could be demonstrated in uninfected cells under the same conditions. Studies on the enzymatic basis for this selective inhibition were undertaken. Infection of human embryonic lung cell monolayers with VZ virus-infected cells results in the induction of thymidine (dT), deoxycytidine (dC), and BrdC kinase activities (which are increased 10-, 40-, and 60-fold, respectively) and in a 70-fold stimulation in the incorporation of 3H nucleotide (5-bromodeoxyuridylate) derived from BrdC into DNA. The thermal stability of the VZ virus-induced activities differs significantly from the activities induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 and those present in uninfected human embryonic lung cells. The VZ virus-induced dT, dC, and BrdC kinase are similarly affected by temperature and cofractionate upon Sephadex gel filtration, findings consistent with the hypothesis that these activities are the function of a single enzyme: a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase. The molecular weight, calculated on the basis of the elution pattern on Sephadex G-150, is 70,000. Kinetic studies, demonstrating that dT and dC competively inhibit the phosphorylation of BrdC, are consistent with the phosphorylation of these substrates at a common active site. Kinetic parameters include: KidT = 0.6 MUM; KidC = 60 muM; KmBrdC = 8.5 muM. In contrast to its relatively high affinity for the VZ virus-induced kinase, BrdC is a relatively poor substrate for the host kinases. Therefore, the basis for the selective inhibition of VZ virus by 5-halogenated analogues of dC is reflected in the induction of a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase with a high affinity for BrdC.  (+info)

Murine mammary FM3A carcinoma cells transformed with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene are highly sensitive to the growth-inhibitory properties of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and related compounds. (4/9)

Murine mammary carcinoma (FM3A TK-/HSV-1 TK+) cells, which are thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient but have been transformed with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) TK gene are inhibited in their growth by (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU), (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU) and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxycytidine (BVDC) at 0.5, 0.5 and 0.8 ng/ml, respectively; i.e., a concentration 5000 to 20 000-fold lower than that required to inhibit the growth of the corresponding wild-type FM3A/0 cells. Hence, transformation of tumor cells with the HSV-1 TK gene makes them particularly sensitive to the cytostatic action of BVDU and related compounds.  (+info)

Potentiation of halogenated pyrimidine radiosensitizers in human carcinoma cells by beta-lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran- 5,6-dione), a novel DNA repair inhibitor. (5/9)

3,4-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naptho[1,2,-b]pyran-5,6-dione (beta-lapachone) is a novel DNA repair inhibitor. It was tested for synergistic X-ray-induced lethality in combination with several halogenated pyrimidine radiosensitizers. Logarithmic-phase growing human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were allowed to incorporate pyrimidine analogues for 48 h (approximately two cell doublings) and then were X-irradiated and subjected to various posttreatments. beta-Lapachone synergistically increased the dose enhancement ratios (DERs) of all analogues screened, with the exception of the 2'-chloro derivative of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. For example, following 5-bromodeoxycytidine sensitization an X-ray DER value of 1.87 +/- 0.04 at 1% survival was increased to 3.51 +/- 0.42 due to a 4-h post-X-irradiation exposure to 4 microM beta-lapachone. Do and Dq values for halogenated pyrimidine-sensitized human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cells were decreased 1.4- to 5.4-fold and 1.4- to 4.0-fold, respectively. beta-Lapachone had little effect upon the cytotoxicities of unirradiated human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cells whether or not they were previously exposed to any of the halogenated pyrimidine radiosensitizers. beta-Lapachone treatment following X-irradiation of cells that had not incorporated a pyrimidine analogue exhibited DER values of 1.38 +/- 0.05 and 1.40 +/- 0.01 at 10 and 1% survival levels, respectively. beta-Lapachone enhanced the radiosensitization of deoxycytidine analogues to a greater extent than the structurally related deoxyuridine analogues. Greater DERs and lower Do and Dq values were found for deoxycytidine than for deoxyuridine analogue radiosensitizers following beta-lapachone treatment. This agent may improve presently used radiation therapies and enhance proposed strategies which utilize deoxycytidine analogue radiosensitization together with protection of normal tissues by tetrahydrouridine to achieve tumor-selective radiotherapy.  (+info)

Incorporation of 5-bromodeoxycytidine in the adenovirus 2 replication origin interferes with nuclear factor 1 binding. (6/9)

We have studied the binding of nuclear factor 1 (NFI), a human sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, to a DNA fragment substituted in vitro with 5-bromodeoxycytidine (5-BrdC). Even at low substitution grades binding of NFI to its recognition sequence was considerably lower than with the unsubstituted control fragment. We developed a procedure to cleave substituted DNA specifically at a BrdC residue and searched for contacts between NFI and 5-BrdC residues by an interference assay. Surprisingly, no specific contacts were found in or near the recognition sequence. It appeared instead that interference was inversely related to the distance of a 5-BrdC residue from the NFI binding site. Models to explain these results, including a possible sliding mechanism, are discussed.  (+info)

Hemimethylated duplex DNAs prepared from 5-azacytidine-treated cells. (7/9)

Duplex heavy-light (HL) DNAs synthesized in the presence of brdUrd and methylation inhibitors were separated from bulk cellular DNA by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and analysed for 5-methylcytosine (5mC) contents by HPLC. DNAs synthesized in the presence of 5 mM ethionine or 2 mg/ml cycloleucine were not detectably hypomethylated, was undermethylated with respect to control DNA. The heavy, or H-strand, in which up to 5% of the cytosine residues were replaced by intact 5-azacytosine, was undermethylated and the HL duplex DNA was therefore strand asymmetrically methylated. This duplex DNA served as an efficient substrate for a crude DNA methyltransferase preparation which transferred the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine specifically into cytosine residues within the hypomethylated H strand. Increasing levels of incorporated 5-azacytosine inhibited the action of the methyltransferase suggesting that incorporation of 5-azacytosine into DNA may be responsible for the inhibitory effect of 5-azacytidine on DNA methylation.  (+info)

Heritable fragile sites on human chromosomes. XI. Factors affecting expression of fragile sites at 10q25, 16q22, and 17p12. (8/9)

The fragile sites at 10q25, 16q22, and 17p12 can all be induced in lymphocyte culture by BrdU or BrdC added 6-12 hrs prior to harvest. Without induction, fra(10)(q25) is rarely expressed spontaneously, whereas fra(16)(q22) is frequently expressed spontaneously. Fra(17)(p12) is frequently expressed spontaneously but is probably expressed only after induction in some individuals. Distamycin A, netropsin, and Hoechst 33258 induced high levels of expression of fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(p12) but did not enhance expression of fra(10)(q25). The mechanisms of induction of fra(16)(q22) by BrdU and distamycin A appear to be different, since the time of induction by BrdU reaches a maximum about 12 hrs prior to harvest whereas induction by distamycin A requires much longer exposure. The fragile sites at 10q25 and 16q22 were both induced in fibroblast culture by BrdU. Fra(17)(p12) is accepted as a fragile site because preliminary studies show that it behaves similarly in lymphocyte culture to fra(16)(q22); however, there is only limited evidence for fragility at 17p12.  (+info)

Bromodeoxycytidine (also known as bromouridine or BrdU) is a synthetic nucleoside that is commonly used in molecular biology and medical research. It is similar in structure to the naturally occurring nucleoside deoxycytidine, but with the addition of a bromine atom and a hydrogen atom replacing one of the hydrogen atoms on the sugar molecule.

In medical research, BrdU is often used as a marker for cell proliferation or DNA synthesis. When cells are treated with BrdU and then exposed to ultraviolet light, the bromine atom in the BrdU molecule is cross-linked to the adjacent thymine base in the DNA strand. This allows researchers to detect and quantify the number of cells that have incorporated BrdU into their DNA during replication, providing information about the rate of cell division or DNA synthesis in a given tissue or organism.

BrdU has also been used clinically as an antiviral agent, particularly in the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. However, its use as an antiviral drug is limited by its potential toxicity and the availability of safer and more effective treatments.

Deoxyribonucleosides are chemical compounds that constitute the basic building blocks of DNA, one of the two nucleic acids found in cells. They consist of a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base (either adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine), and a phosphate group.

The nitrogenous base is attached to the 1' carbon atom of the deoxyribose sugar, forming a glycosidic bond. The phosphate group is linked to the 5' carbon atom of the deoxyribose sugar through an ester linkage, creating a phosphodiester bond with another deoxyribonucleoside.

When multiple deoxyribonucleosides are joined together through their phosphate groups, they form a polynucleotide chain, which is the backbone of DNA. The sequence of nitrogenous bases along this chain encodes genetic information that determines the characteristics and functions of living organisms.

Deoxyribonucleosides play a crucial role in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription. They are also used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of certain genetic disorders and cancer.

In medical terms, "bromides" refer to salts or compounds that contain bromine, a chemical element. Historically, potassium bromide was used as a sedative and anticonvulsant in the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, its use has largely been discontinued due to side effects such as neurotoxicity and kidney damage.

In modern medical language, "bromides" can also refer to something that is unoriginal, dull, or lacking in creativity, often used to describe ideas or expressions that are trite or clichéd. This usage comes from the fact that bromide salts were once commonly used as a sedative and were associated with a lack of excitement or energy.

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