A sedative and mild hypnotic with potentially toxic effects.

Determination of (+)- and (-)-bromoisovalerylurea in sera of overdosed subjects. (1/10)

Bromoisovalerylurea (bromisovalum) is a sedative-hypnotic given orally as a racemic mixture of optical isomers (i.e., (+)- and (-)-enantiomer) and frequently taken in overdose in order to commit suicide. Sera from 16 overdosed subjects were analyzed for each enantiomer by high-performance liquid chromatography on chiral stationary phases. The (+)-enantiomer concentration was lower than the (-)-enantiomer concentration in all specimens, that is, the ratio of the (+)-enantiomer to the total concentration ranged from about 50% to 0%. The ratio of the (+)-enantiomer was continuously decreasing in each subject. The data indicate that the drug in gastrointestinal tract was absorbed into blood nonstereoselectively and that the drug in blood was eliminated stereoselectively. The enantioselective determination of this drug will give useful information on absorption and elimination.  (+info)

Relationship between glutathione content in liver and glutathione conjugation rate in the rat in vivo. Effect of buthionine sulphoximine pretreatment on conjugation of the two 2-bromoisovalerylurea enantiomers during intravenous infusion. (2/10)

The relationship between hepatic glutathione content and hepatic glutathione conjugation rate in the rat in vivo was investigated. As substrate for glutathione conjugation, racemic (R,S)-2-bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) was used which gives rise to the biliary excretion of two diastereoisomeric glutathione conjugates and the urinary excretion of two diastereoisomeric mercapturates. The excretion rate of the glutathione conjugate in bile reflects hepatic conjugation exclusively. An intravenous infusion of BIU was given and the excretion rates of the metabolites in bile and urine were determined. The glutathione concentration in the liver was followed by taking biopsies every hour. Glutathione was depleted by the infused substrate; in rats that were pretreated with the inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), the depletion of the glutathione content was more rapid. The rate of excretion of the glutathione conjugate in bile was plotted against hepatic glutathione content. These results indicate that the 'organ Km' for glutathione in the liver is approximately 0.5 mumol/g of liver, so that the hepatic glutathione conjugation rate is decreased only at severe glutathione depletion.  (+info)

Method for screening and quantitative determination of serum levels of salicylic Acid, acetaminophen, theophylline, phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital using liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry. (3/10)

We investigated a method for the simultaneous screening, identification, and quantitative determination of salicylic acid, acetaminophen, theophylline, barbiturates, and bromvalerylurea, drugs that frequently cause acute poisoning in Japan and therefore require rapid analysis for effective treatment in the clinical setting. The method employs liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) of solid-phase extracted serum samples. For LC/MS ionization, the electrospray-ionization method was used, with acetaminophen in the positive-ion mode, and salicylic acid, theophylline, phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, amobarbital, and o-acetamidophenol (internal standard) in the negative-ion mode, the base ions were used in each case for quantitative analysis. Quantitation was possible for the following sample concentration ranges: salicylic acid and acetaminophen, 100 to 5 microg/ml; theophylline, 100 to 0.5 microg/ml; and phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital, 100 to 1 microg/ml. Using full-scan mass spectrometry, the lower detection limits of 1 microg/ml for salicylic acid and acetaminophen, 0.1 microg/ml for theophylline, and 0.5 microg/ml for phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital were adequate for identifying acute poisoning. When each compound was added to serum to a final concentration of 5 microg/ml and solid-phase extraction was performed using Oasis HLB 1-cc (30-mg), the mean recovery rate of each compound was 89.2 to 96.1% (n=5), and the coefficients of variation of the intraday and interday assays were 3.55 to 6.05% (n=5) and 3.68 to 6.38% (n=5), respectively, which are acceptable. When this method of analysis was applied in testing the sera of a female patient who had consumed a large amount of an unknown commercial drug, salicylic acid and bromvalerylurea were identified, and the treatment strategy could be determined in accordance with the serum concentration of those drugs.  (+info)

Stereoselectivity in the urinary excretion of the mercapturates of (R-) and (S-) alpha-bromoisovalerylurea in man. (4/10)

1. alpha-Bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) is a racemic drug that is metabolized by glutathione conjugation. The urinary excretion of the separate diastereomeric mercapturates formed from (S)- and (R)-BIU in healthy young human volunteers was investigated. 2. A pronounced stereoselectivity was observed: the mercapturate formed from R-BIU was excreted with a t1/2 of 1.5 +/- 0.4 h, while that from S-BIU showed a t1/2 of 3.1 +/- 1.3 h. Moreover, 22.5 +/- 4.3 and 5.7 +/- 1.6% of the dose, respectively, was excreted as each mercapturate diastereomer in 24 h. 3. This is the first example of stereoselectivity in the elimination of a substrate for glutathione conjugation in man.  (+info)

Stereoselectivity of rat liver glutathione transferase isoenzymes for alpha-bromoisovaleric acid and alpha-bromoisovalerylurea enantiomers. (5/10)

The stereoselectivity of purified rat GSH transferases towards alpha-bromoisovaleric acid (BI) and its amide derivative alpha-bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) was investigated. GSH transferase 2-2 was the only enzyme to catalyse the conjugation of BI and was selective for the (S)-enantiomer. The conjugation of (R)- and (S)-BIU was catalysed by the isoenzymes 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4. Transferase 1-1 was less active, and no catalytic activity was observed with transferase 7-7. Isoenzymes 1-1 and 2-2 of the Alpha multigene family preferentially catalysed the conjugation of the (S)-enantiomer of BIU (and BI), whereas isoenzymes 3-3 and 4-4 of the Mu multigene family preferred (R)-BIU. The opposite stereoselectivity of conjugation of BI and BIU previously observed in isolated rat hepatocytes and the summation of activities of enzymes known to be present in hepatocytes on the basis of present data are in accord.  (+info)

Cerebellar atrophy due to chronic bromisovalum abuse demonstrated by computed tomography. (6/10)

Two patients with a severe cerebellar syndrome due to chronic bromisovalum usage are described. In both patients CT scan revealed severe cerebellar atrophy. The value of computed tomography in detecting irreversible cerebellar lesions due to bromisovalum is discussed.  (+info)

Cerebellar ataxia and peripheral neuropathy due to chronic bromvalerylurea poisoning. (7/10)

A patient with chronic bromvalerylurea poisoning showed cerebellar ataxia and peripheral neuropathy. The patient was a 42-year-old Japanese man who developed consciousness disturbance, diplopia, slurred speech, ataxia and gait disturbance after having taken bromvalerylurea for ten years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of the cerebellum and pontine tegmentum. An electrophysiological study revealed decreased motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude of compound muscle action potentials of the right tibial nerve. Histological findings of the left sural nerve indicated a slightly decreased large myelinated fiber diameter, which suggested chronic axonal damage.  (+info)

Chronic bromvalerylurea intoxication: dystonic posture and cerebellar ataxia due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug abuse. (8/10)

Nalon-Ace and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) containing bromvalerylurea (BVU) are sold as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and are obtainable without prescription in Japan. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed as having chronic BVU intoxication due to habitual use of Nalon-Ace. In addition to cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs well known in this condition, she showed an as yet non-described dystonic posture of the neck. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated concentration of serum organic bromide, iron deficiency anemia, and hyperchloremia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed definite cerebellar atrophy. We should consider the possibility of chronic BVU intoxication in peculiar neurological cases like ours.  (+info)

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149.02896 BROMISOVALUM BrC6H11N2O2 223.06774 BROMOCYCLOHEXANE BrC6H12 164.06348 BROMOPHENYLTRICHLOROSILANE BrC6H4Cl3Si ...
Ware RE, Davis BR, Schultz WH, Brown RC, Aygun B, Sarnaik S, Odame I, Fuh B, George A, Owen W, Luchtman-Jones L, Rogers ZR, Hilliard L, Gauger C, Piccone C, Lee MT, Kwiatkowski JL, Jackson S, Miller ST, Roberts C, Heeney MM, Kalfa TA, Nelson S, Imran H, Nottage K, Alvarez O, Rhodes M, Thompson AA, Rothman JA, Helton KJ, Roberts D, Coleman J, Bonner MJ, Kutlar A, Patel N, Wood J, Piller L, Wei P, Luden J, Mortier NA, Stuber SE, Luban NL, Cohen AR, Pressel S, Adams RJ. Hydroxycarbamide versus chronic transfusion for maintenance of transcranial doppler flow velocities in children with sickle cell anaemia-TCD With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (TWiTCH): a multicentre, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2016 Feb 13; 387(10019):661-70 ...
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