Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Color of hair or fur.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.

Stereo- and regioselective radical cyclization of 6-(bromomethyl)dimethylsilyl-1',2'-unsaturated uracil nucleosides: synthesis of 1'-alpha-hydroxymethyl nucleosides. (1/17)

Mode of radicalcyclization (5-exovs. 6-endo) was investigated by using 6-(bromomethyl)dimethylsilyl derivatives of 1',2'-unsaturated uridine with an aim to develop a new stereoselective method for the introduction of an alpha-hydroxymethyl group at the anomeric position. Although the 2'-unsubstituted derivative underwent only 6-endo-cyclization, substrates bearing 2'-CO2Me or 2'-OBz group gave exclusively 5-exo-cyclized products with a high stereoselectivity.  (+info)

Fate of pentabrominated diphenyl ethers in soil: abiotic sorption, plant uptake, and the impact of interspecific plant interactions. (2/17)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are potentially harmful and persistent environmental pollutants. Despite evidence that soils are a major sink for PBDEs, little is known regarding their behavior in this medium. An environmentally relevant level of a commercial penta-BDE mixture (75 microg kg(-1)) was added to topsoil, and the extractability of three congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -100) was monitored over 10 weeks in planted and unplanted treatments. The extractability of each congener decreased rapidly in the experimental soil due largely to abiotic sorption to soil particles, which was demonstrated by low PBDE recovery from sterilized and dry soils. Monoculture plantings of zucchini and radish did not affect the recovery of PBDEs from soil. However, PBDE recovery from mixed species plantings was nearly 8 times higher than that of unplanted and monoculture treatments, indicating that interspecific plant interactions may enhance PBDE bioavailablity in soil. Evidence for competitive interactions between the two species was revealed by reduced shoot biomass of zucchini plants in mixed treatments relative to pots containing only zucchini. Both plant species accumulated PBDEs in root and shoot tissue (<5 microg kg(-1) plant tissue). PBDE uptake was higher in zucchini, and translocation of PBDEs to zucchini shoots was congener-specific. Our results suggest that although abiotic sorption may limit the potential for human exposure to PBDEs in soil, plants may increase the exposure risk by taking up and translocating PBDEs into aboveground tissues and by enhancing bioavailability in soil.  (+info)

Structure/reactivity relationships in the benzo[c]phenanthrene skeleton: stable ion and electrophilic substitution (nitration, bromination) study of substituted analogues, novel carbocations and substituted derivatives. (3/17)

A series of novel carbocations were generated by low-temperature protonation of substituted benzo[c]phenanthrenes, B[c]Phs, and their charge delocalization pathways were elucidated by NMR on the basis of the magnitude of Deltadelta13C values. It has been shown that the protonation regioselectivity is strongly controlled by methoxy and hydroxyl substituents, whose directive effects override methyl substitution effects. Regiocontrol by -OMe and -OH substituents, and its stronger influence relative to methyl groups, was also observed in the nitration and bromination reactions. Charge distribution modes in the regioisomeric protonated carbocations formed via parent B[c]Ph as well as in the benzylic carbocation formed via fjord-region epoxide ring opening were deduced by gauge-invariant atomic orbital density functional theory (GIAO-DFT) and from the natural population analysis (NPA)-derived changes in charges over CHs. These patterns were compared with those derived from NMR experiments in the substituted derivatives. NMR-based charge delocalization mapping provided insight into structure/activity relationships in the methylated and fluorinated B[c]Phs. Regioselectivities observed in the nitration and bromination reactions in representative cases are the same as those via protonations. Among a group of novel nitro and bromo derivatives synthesized in this study are examples, where the nitro group is introduced into the fjord region, for which the X-ray structure could be obtained in one case.  (+info)

Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of 3-bromoacetoxy calcidiol in high-risk neuroblastoma. (4/17)

The cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of 3-Bromoacetoxy Calcidiol (B3CD), a derivative of vitamin D3 precursor calcidiol, on human neuroblastoma (NB) cells were examined. NB, predominantly a tumor of early childhood, is the most common extracranial solid tumor. Despite aggressive treatments, survival for advanced stages remains low and novel treatment strategies are needed. B3CD-induced apoptosis in various neuroblastic cells via caspases-3 and -9 activation. B3CD upregulated mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, caused cytochrome c release, downregulated N-Myc expression and activated pro-survival marker Akt. Accordingly, B3CD treatment dose dependently reduced the viability of NB cells with IC50 values between 1 and 3 microm. The cytotoxicity of B3CD was significantly higher than for the calcemic parent-compound vitamin D3 (IC50 between 10 and 30 microm). Further studies revealed that B3CD treatment inhibits the proliferation of NB cells at low concentrations (IC50 between 30 and 100 nm). Cell cycle analysis showed a dramatic increase in the apoptotic sub-diploidal population along with a cell cycle block. In summary, the present study shows that B3CD is toxic to NB cells via suppression of cell proliferation and cell viability by caspase activation and regulation of survival signals. These results suggest that B3CD could be developed as a treatment for NB.  (+info)

Plasma concentrations of selected organobromine compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in postmenopausal women of Quebec, Canada. (5/17)

BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants, especially polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been widely used in North America, but little is known about the level of exposure of human populations to these compounds. OBJECTIVES: We set out to assess the internal exposure of postmenopausal Canadian women to selected organobromine compounds and to investigate factors associated with this exposure. METHODS: We measured concentrations of four PBDEs, one polybrominated biphenyl, and for comparative purposes, 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in plasma samples from 110 healthy postmenopausal women who were recruited at a mammography clinic in 2003-2004. RESULTS: PBDE-47 was the major PBDE congener, with a mean (geometric) concentration of 8.1 ng/g lipids and extreme values reaching 1,780 ng/g. By comparison, the mean concentration of the major PCB congener (PCB-153) was 41.7 ng/g and the highest value was 177 ng/g. PBDEs 47, 99, and 100 were strongly intercorrelated, but weaker correlations were noted with PBDE-153. As the sum of PBDEs (summation operatorPBDEs) increased, the relative contribution of PBDE-47 to the summation operatorPBDEs increased, whereas that of PBDE-153 decreased. PBDE-153 was the only brominated compound correlated to PCB-153. PBDE levels were not linked to any sociodemographic, anthropometric, reproductive, or lifestyle variables documented in the present study. Age and body mass index gain since the age of 18 years were significant predictors of PCB-153 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure to PBDE-47 likely occurs through direct contact with the penta-PBDE formulation, whereas exposure to PBDE-153 may originate in part from the food chain.  (+info)

Highly stereo- and regioselective synthesis of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes via 1-bromo-1-alkyne hydroboration-migratory insertion-Zn-promoted iodinolysis and Pd-catalyzed organozinc cross-coupling. (6/17)

Hydroboration of 1-bromo-1-alkynes with dibromoborane followed by addition of 3 or 4 equiv of Me2Zn provides an efficient and selective route to (Z)-2-alkenyldimethylboranes (3) or (Z)-2-alkenylmethylzincs (4), respectively, which have been successfully applied to one-pot Suzuki (B-I) or Negishi (Zn-I) coupling in some less demanding cases. However, in more demanding cross-coupling reactions, only the use of either (Z)-2-alkenyliodides (5) or the alkenylzincs prepared from lithiation and then zincation of 5 proves to be highly satisfactory (Zn-II or Zn-III protocol). On the contrary, the corresponding organoboron coupling under B-II or B-III protocol appears to be less satisfactory. Preliminary studies indicate that certain substituents proximal to trisubstituted alkenes seriously affect the course of the desired alkenylboron cross-coupling.  (+info)

Soluble 3',6-substituted indirubins with enhanced selectivity toward glycogen synthase kinase -3 alter circadian period. (7/17)

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Cross-coupling of aromatic bromides with allylic silanolate salts. (8/17)

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16alpha-bromo-3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one: a synthetic adrenal hormone that reduced the incidence of tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections in AIDS patients
Chemical reaction systems are typically regarded as having the Markov property -- they lack memory and their evolution depends only on their current state. Under a not-too-restrictive set of conditions, Markov chains will have a stationary distribution: the basic requirement seems to be that any state be reachable from any other in a finite number of steps. This seems like something that will generally be true for chemical systems, at least on the lattice of stoichiometrically-compatible states ...
July 2000. Background. Until 1999, DWI provided the support services for the voluntary approval system for chemicals used in swimming pool treatment. Following the decision to terminate the voluntary approval system, this study was commissioned in response to unresolved concerns about the conditions of approval for products based on the organobromine compound BCDMH.. Bromine-based disinfectants were introduced during the 1970s and early 1980s for use in recreational pools following the governments recommendation for the discontinuation of the use of chlorine gas. At the time, the perceived benefits of bromine were the improved bactericidal efficiency of bromination over chlorination (due to the greater biological activity of bromamines over chloramines, produced by the combination of the halogen with nitrogenous pollution - ie. urine), and the reduced scale of pH correction required, although it was recognized that elemental bromine is hazardous and capsulated dosing systems were recommended ...
Solved Expert Answer to The first electron affinity value for oxygen is ___ and the second electron affinity value is ________. [A] Favorable (exothermic), favorabl
Also known as 1-Bromopropane and n-propylbromide, nPB is an organobromine compound thats widely used as a solvent in several industries. nPB works great for the right applications, but it has a major downside: its reputation as a human carcinogen and a cause of other health problems in those who regularly apply it. To help educate our customers on solvent selection, we take a look at some of the most commonly asked questions regarding nPB as a carcinogen.. What evidence shows that nPB is a cancer causing agent?. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) considers nPB to be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen [NTP 2013]. This assessment is based largely on animal studies in which rodents developed cancers of the lung, large intestine, and skin after being exposed to nPB in the air (i.e., nPB as a hazardous air pollutant). Evidence for nPB as a carcinogen is extrapolated from these studies and anticipated to have the same effect in humans.. How much nPB exposure does it take to cause ...
Terpenoid synthases produce a plethora of polycyclic natural products from only a few acyclic precursors. The mechanisms of these impressive enzyme-catalyzed polycyclization reactions have been discussed for decades, but a key unsanswered question is whether or not nonclassical carbocations - carbocations that contain delocalized 3-center 2-electron bonding arrays - are involved in these mechanisms. Nonclassical carbocations are common in nonpolar environments and have even been shown to persist in aqueous solution. It is reasonable, therefore, to think that they may also persist in enzyme active sites. In order to assess the stability of nonclassical carbocations in terpenoid synthase active sites, we are examining complexes of nonclassical species with small models of various protein residues - so-called theozymes. Some of the types of enzyme-nonclassical cation interactions that are possible are shown schematically above. We have so far shown that complexes between active site residues and ...
We present a detailed analysis of the anomalous carbocations: C2H5+ and C3H3+. This work involves (a) probing electronic structural properties, (b) ab initio dynamics simulations over a range of internal energies, (c) analysis of reduced dimensional potential surfaces directed along selected conformational t
View Notes - Lecture21outline from CHEM 0740 at Pittsburgh. I. Review Nucleophiles generally add to anomeric carbocations from the axial face This is a result of the anomeric effect that states that
Chemicals Exporter - We manufacturer of chemicals like bromobenxonitrile, Specialty and fine chemicals, Bromine compounds, Intermediates for bulk drugs and agrochemicals, Phase Transfer Catalysts, Intermediates for Pigments and Dyes, Organic / Inorganic Pigments, Food Colours and Dyes
Free Online Library: Comparison of methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from aerobic digest.(Report) by Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science; Science and technology, general Bromine compounds Cell research Cytogenetics Cytological research Education grants Environmental sciences Enzyme inhibitors Extraction (Chemistry) Comparative analysis Genetic aspects Methods Genetic research Genomic libraries Production processes Glycerin Glycerol Humic acid Humic acids Lysozyme Microbial colonies Polymerase chain reaction Protein denaturation Proteins Denaturation Ribosomal RNA Sewage Purification Research Sewage treatment Sludge Sodium tripolyphosphate Soil microbiology Wastewater Water pollution research Water quality Water treatment plants
Electron affinity is the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to an atom or ion in the gas phase. For example, when an electron ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Can post-error dynamics explain sequential reaction time patterns?. AU - Goldfarb, Stephanie. AU - Wong-Lin, KongFatt. AU - Schwemmer, Michael. AU - Leonard, Naomi. AU - Holmes, Philip. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We investigate human error dynamics in sequential two-alternative choice tasks. When subjects repeatedly discriminate between two stimuli, their error rates and reaction times (RTs) systematically depend on prior sequences of stimuli. We analyze these sequential effects on RTs, separating error and correct responses, and identify a sequential RT tradeoff: a sequence of stimuli which yields a relatively fast RT on error trials will produce a relatively slow RT on correct trials and vice versa. We reanalyze previous data and acquire and analyze new data in a choice task with stimulus sequences generated by a first-order Markov process having unequal probabilities of repetitions and alternations. We then show that relationships among these stimulus sequences and the ...
Superhalogens belong to a class of molecules that not only mimic the chemistry of halogen atoms but also possess electron affinities that are much larger than that of chlorine, the element with the highest electron affinity in the periodic table. Using BO,sub,2,/sub, as an example and the synergy between density functional theory-based calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments we demonstrate another unusual property of superhalogens. Unlike halogens, whose ability to accept an electron falls upon dimerization, B,sub,2,/sub,O,sub,4,/sub,, the dimer of BO,sub,2,/sub,, has an electron affinity larger than that of the BO,sub,2,/sub, building block. This ability of (BO,sub,2,/sub,),sub,2,/sub, and subsequent, higher oligomers (BO,sub,2,/sub,),sub,n,/sub, (n = 3 and 4), to retain their superhalogen characteristics can be traced to the enhanced bonding interactions between oxygen and boron atoms and due to the delocalization of the charge of the extra-electron over the terminal oxygen ...
Positive ion data are generally listed under the corresponding neutral species. With the exception of electron affinity data, negative ion data are provided under an entry for the anion. This means that if you want positive ion data, you must search for the neutral species, and if you want negative ion data you must search for the anion. This potentially confusing situation is a legacy of the format in which the data were collected and the fact that many of the anions in the database do not have corresponding neutral species. In those cases where the corresponding neutral is known, any electron affinity data will be listed under the neutral species, since the electron affinity may be considered a property of the neutral species. Heat of acidity data and heat of clustering data are considered Reaction Thermochemistry Data and are shown under the anion. In addition to the data described above, a link to search for appearance potential reactions with a product with the same formula as the current ...
Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2719-2723: Proton Sandwiches: Nonclassical Carbocations with 4-Coordinate Protons. This article was highlighted in the Science Concentrates section of the May 2, 2005 issue of C&EN.. Bojin, M. D.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 4810-481: Nonclassical Carbocations as C-H Hydrogen Bond Donors Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6172-6179: Theoretical Studies of Farnesyl Cation Cyclization: Pathways to Pentalenene. Hong, Y. J.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 4601-4604: Which is More Likely in Trichodiene Biosynthesis: Hydride or Proton Transfer?. Gutta, P.; Tantillo, D. J. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1069-1071: A Promiscuous Proton in Taxadiene Biosynthesis?. Willenbring, D.; Tantillo, D. J. Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 2008, 78, 723-731 (Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal 2007, 51, 49-55): Mechanistic Possibilities for Oxetane Formation in the Biosynthesis of Taxols D Ring. Lodewyk, M. W.; Gutta, P.; ...
that lack lone pairs).. The best way to explain this is simply through pictures. Check out these functional groups.. If you look closely in each case you should notice the positive charge of the carbocation adjacent to either a full or partial positive charge on a neighboring substituents. This is true whether the neighbor is a group like CF3 or for aldehydes, nitro groups, sulfones, or many other groups containing atoms more electronegative than carbon.. The first to note with all of these electron withdrawing groups is that none of the groups contain an atom with a lone pair directly bonded to the carbocation. This is important! Most people would consider halogens such as F, Cl, Br, and I to be electron withdrawing groups due to their electronegativity, but in fact all of these groups help to stabilize positive charges. Why? Because each of these atoms have lone pairs which can be donated to the carbocation, which is a stabilizing interaction.. ...
Aldrich-209538; 4-Fluorobenzyl bromide 0.97; CAS No.: 459-46-1; Synonyms: alpha-Bromo-4-fluorotoluene; 1-Bromomethyl-4-fluorobenzene; Linear Formula: FC6H4CH2Br; Empirical Formula: C7H6BrF; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
You may also wish to search for items by Lifschitz. 8 matching references were found. Lifschitz, C.; Bergmann, E.D.; Pullman, B., The ionization potentials of biological purines and pyrimidines, Tetrahedron Lett., 1967, 4583. [all data] Tiernan, T.O.; Hughes, B.M.; Lifschitz, C., Electron affinities from endothermic negative ion charge transfer reactions. II. O2, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 5692. [all data] Hughes, B.M.; Lifschitz, C.; Tiernan, T.O., Electron affinities from endothermic negative-ion charge-transfer reactions. III. NO, NO2, S2, CS2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and C2H, J. Chem. Phys., 1973, 59, 3162. [all data] Wu, R.L.C.; Tiernan, T.O.; Lifschitz, C., A long-lived excited state of O3-: Evidence from collision induced dissociation, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1977, 51, 211. [all data] Lifschitz, C.; Wu, R.L.C.; Tiernan, T.O.; Terwillinger, D.T., Negative Ion - Molecule Reactions of Ozone and Their Implications on the Thermochemistry of O3-, J. Chem. Phys., 1978, 68, 1, 247, ...
A method of preparing a resinous system, and the resinous system produced by the method is described whereby 30 moles of formaldehyde, 2 moles catalyzing acid, 2 moles triethanolamine, and 12 moles of urea are sequentially reacted to provide an aqueous resinous solution. The resinous solution will cure at room temperature or upon application of heat, permitting its use as or in coatings, adhesives, and the like.
A hydride shift is a rearrangement of atoms in which an unstable carbocation is transformed into a more stable one. Carbocations are ions with positively charged carbon atoms and are often found in...
Nakagawa, Shigeki; Wei, Lan; Song, Won Min; Higashi, Takaaki; Ghoshal, Sarani; Kim, Rosa S.; Bian, C. Billie; Yamada, Suguru; Sun, Xiaochen; Venkatesh, Anu; Goossens, Nicolas; Bain, Gretchen; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Koh, A. P.; El-Abtah, Mohamed; Ahmad, Noor B.; Hoshida, Hiroki; Erstad, Derek J.; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Lee, Youngmin; Yu, Ming-Lung; Chuang, Wan-Long; Dai, Chia-Yen; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo; Mahajan, Milind; Nair, Venugopalan D.; Lanuti, Michael; Villanueva, Augusto; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Iavarone, Massimo; Colombo, Massimo; Llovet i Bayer, Josep Maria; Subramanian, Aravind; Tager, Andrew M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Baumert, Thomas F.; Schwartz, Myron E.; Chung, Raymond T.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Zhang, Bin; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Hoshida, Yujin; Precision Liver Cancer Prevention Consortium ...
Scientists in the US and China have invented a way to encapsulate teams of enzymes in a thin polymer shell. This enables the enzymes to carry out a series of sequential reactions
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electron affinities, gas phase acidities, and potential energy curves. T2 - Benzene. AU - Jalbout, A. F.. AU - Trzaskowski, B.. AU - Chen, E. C.M.. AU - Chen, E. S.. AU - Adamowicz, Ludwik. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - The experimental electron affinities of benzene, Ea(Bz), 0.4 to -4.8 eV, are evaluated. Multiple negative ion states are proposed to account for different electron affinities. The semi-empirical procedure known as configuration interaction or unrestricted orbitals to relate experimental quantities to self-consistent field values by estimating electron correlation (CURES-EC) has several advantages: (i) supports multiple Ea(Bz), (ii) supports the Ea(phenyl) and the D(C-H,Bz), (iii) supports the gas phase acidity of benzene from the latter, (iv) predicts the singlet-triplet split for the phenyl anion of 1.2(2) eV, and (v) predicts the existence of an excited quartet state of the benzene anion with an E a(Bz), -2.5(2) eV. Nine ionic Morse curves are calculated from ...
Organobromine compounds have a wide range of uses in the chemical industry, which vary from petrol additives and drilling fluids to dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals. The production of these compounds under more environmentally and industrially friendly conditions is desirable. In this work the ability of y-alumina and montmorillonite K10 to adsorb bromine onto the surface, and the ability of these adsorbed species to enhance bromination reactions, are investigated. These investigations include the bromination of the supports using, dibromomethane, hydrogen bromide and dibromine. The action of each of these individual reagents upon the supports results in its own distinct adsorbed bromine species on the surface. These investigations also include the hydrobromination of alkenes and the Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction (bromination of the carbon a to the carboxylic acid group). The alkenes chosen for this work include 1,9-decadiene and butenes, as these give rise to both liquid and gas phase ...
Bromine, from ancient Greek, meaning stench, is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen.. Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline salts, analogous to table salt. The high solubility of bromide ions has caused its accumulation in the oceans, where it is abundantly available. Commercially, the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China.. Elemental bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. One of the major uses of bromine is as a water purifier/disinfectant in swimming pools and hot tubs. Another key use of bromine compounds is in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals: Brominated substances are important ingredients of many over-the-counter and prescription drugs, including analgesics, sedatives, and antihistamines.. Elestors storage systems incorporate a number of parallel and independent ...
Lewis base-bridged intermetallic compounds comprising the reaction product of a transition metal alkoxide with a reducing metal having a higher oxidation potential than the transition metal in the presence of a Lewis base and said reaction product being associated by coordinate covalent bridges formed from the Lewis base and composed of donor atoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorous; and catalyst components and systems for the polymerization of alpha olefins.
About 90 % of all ozone is found in a layer high up in the stratosphere. Detecting trends in this layer and the atmospheres total ozone content requires confidence in the characteristics of monitoring instruments, assurance in their performance and robust calibration methods to ensure data accuracy. Precise measurements over many years will be needed to detect ozone recovery processes, which are expected to occur after restrictions in the use of chlorine and bromine compounds were imposed by the 1987 Montreal Protocol.. Established networks for monitoring total column ozone, which is the ozone in an imaginary column between ground level and the top of the atmosphere, rely on bulky, ageing, or proprietary instruments. Each network operates one or more master instruments to which all other network instruments are referred to ensure measurements inter-relate. However different instrument types yield small, but significant, differences in output data, hampering this process and impeding the merging ...
In this paper we show that the active interplay of nonlinear kinetics and transport phenomena in a chemical oscillator can be exploited to induce and control chaos. To this aim we use as a model system the ferroin-catalysed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction, which is known to evolve to character 2017 PCCP HOT Articles
Ion-implanted, shallow-energy, donor centres in diamond: the effect of negative electron affinity. Johan F. Prins Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 Gauteng, South Africa. 4 th International Conference on: Slideshow 111078 by Roberta
Our research interests involve the combined application of theory and experiment in structural-mechanistic studies. Our research work is centered on the generation and investigation of electron deficient carbocations by NMR spectroscopy, ab initio, DFT, IGLO and GIAO calculations. This include the structures of some of the most important carbocation intermediates, effects of heteroatoms on the stability of carbocations and their role in the electrophilic substitution reactions.. Our work is also concerned with the possible role of onium dications (superelectrophiles) in superacid catalyzed reactions. Some electrophiles, such as carboxonium ions, nitronium ion and related systems are capable of further interaction with Bronsted or Lewis superacids can be greatly activated in superacidic systems. Such further interactions produce superelectrophiles, which are highly reactive, energetic, high lying intermediates of dipositive nature. They are the de facto reactive intermediates (such as NO2H2+, ...
The ,-stabilized carbanion complexes [PhSO2CHCNNa·THF], 3, [t-BuSO2CHCNNa], 4, [PhSO2CHCNK], 5, [t-BuSO2CHCNK], 6, and [MeSO2CHCNLi·TMEDA], 7, have been synthesized via the metalation of the parent (organo)sulfonylacetonitriles by BuLi, BuNa, or BnK in THF solution (or THF/TMEDA in the case of 7). In addition, complexes 3 and 7 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses and have been found to adopt related structures in the solid state. Complex 7 is a molecular dimer containing a central 12-membered (OSCCNLi)2 ring core, with each metal rendered tetracoordinate by binding to a chelating TMEDA molecule. As found in related complexes, no direct carbanion to lithium contacts are present in the structure of 7. Complex 3 forms a polymeric cage structure composed of associated dimeric (OSCCNNa)2 rings, similar to those found in 7. The larger sodium cations, and the presence of only one THF molecule/metal, allow additional contacts with the anions, leading to hexacoordination at the ...
Two interesting questions are addressed in a focal-point computational study of t-butyl radical and the t-butyl anion from the Schaefer group.1 First, is the radical planar? EPR and PES studies from the 1970s indicate a pyramidal structure, with an inversion barrier of only 0.64 kcal mol-1. The CCSD(T)/cc-pCVTZ optimized structure of t-butyl radical shows it to be pyramidal with the out-of-plane angle formed by one methyl group and the other three carbons of 22.9°, much less than the 54.7° of a perfect tetrahedron. Focal point analysis give the inversion barrier 0.74 kcal mol-1, in outstanding agreement with experiment.. Second, what is the electron affinity (EA) of the t-butyl radical? Schleyer raised the concern that the alkyl anions may be unbound, and suggested that the electron affinity of t-butyl radical was -9.6 kcal mol-1; in other words, the anion is thermodynamically unstable. This focal-point study shows just how sensitive the EA is to computational method. The HF/CBS value of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isotope effects in dipole-bound anions of acetone. AU - Hammer, Nathan I.. AU - Compton, Robert N.. AU - Adamowicz, Ludwik. AU - Stepanian, Stepan G.. PY - 2005/4/22. Y1 - 2005/4/22. N2 - Precision measurements using the Rydberg charge-exchange and electric field-detachment methods find that the dipole-bound electron affinity (EA) of acetone (C3H6O) is 55 ± 10 μeV greater than for deuterated acetone (C3D6O). The result agrees well with a theoretical prediction obtained with high-level electronic-structure and anharmonic vibrational calculations. The dipole moments calculated for the vibrationally averaged structures of C3H6O and C 3D6O show that the isotope effect (2% reduction) on the EA of acetone is mainly due to a slight reduction (0.5%) of the average dipole moment upon deuteration.. AB - Precision measurements using the Rydberg charge-exchange and electric field-detachment methods find that the dipole-bound electron affinity (EA) of acetone (C3H6O) is 55 ± 10 μeV ...
CONICET Digital, el repositorio institucional del CONICET, un servicio gratuito para acceder a la producción científico-tecnológica de investigadores, becarios y demás personal del CONICET.
Today is the birthday of Maria Sibylla Merian, born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1647. She was a VERY early explorer and explainer of botanical end entomological processes. I had never heard of her until I read about her at the Biodiversity Heritage Librarys blog site, where they write, Marias illustrations were important and revolutionary for a number…
The lighting setup was dictated by the choice of location. For the sequences captured in-studio, studio lighting was employed. As stated previously, the studio lighting setup consisted of 8 650W lights and an above head height frame suspended from the ceiling and a control panel that allowed the intensity of each light to be adjusted individually. In contrast, additional lighting in the on-location sites was more sparingly used. In fact, no additional lighting was used in the outdoor shots. For the indoor location, there was a limited amount of additional lighting provided by a 300W spot and a 4-bank Kino Flo lighting fixture [6]. The basic philosophy behind the studio lighting design was to illuminate the performance area from a single key light and two diffuse fill lights to soften shadows cast by the key. The diffuse lighting was provided by two of the 650W spot lights mounted at head height at either end (ie. left and right from the camera perspective) of the performance area, with a screen ...
Commonly used triethyl aluminum and tri-isobutyl aluminum cocatalysts may be replaced in olefin polymerizations with a cocatalyst conforming to the formula AlR z (X z ) n L z m wherein R z may be a linear or branched organic moiety having at least 5 carbons and X z may be a linear or branched organic moiety having at least 5 carbons or heteroatom substituted organic moiety or a heterocyclic moiety having at least 4 atoms and may be anionic (n=2) or dianionic (n=1). One X z may also be hydrogen. The aluminum complex may also be in the form of an adduct complex where L z may be a Lewis base and m=1−3. In the absence of a Lewis base, m=0.
It has previously been shown that self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) suffers from a self-interaction error that leads to artificial stabilization of delocalized states. The effects of the error are similar to those appearing for many density functionals. In SCC-DFTB, the delocalization error is inherently related to the use of a Hubbard-like term to describe on-site charge interactions. The mathematical simplicity of this Hubbard-like term makes it easy to estimate if a complex system is subject to artificial stabilization of delocalized states and to quantitatively predict the delocalization error in the system energy at large fragment separation. The error is directly proportional to the on-site charge interaction term but decreases as the fragments become more asymmetric. The difference in orbital energies required to eliminate the delocalization error becomes equal to the Hubbard-like parameter of the fragment with the highest electron affinity. However, in ...
Mikio Kumada, Executive Director & Global Strategist at LGT Capital Partners tells CNBCs Cash Flow why he thinks the market has overreacted to U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernankes comments.
Stradiņš J.; Glezer V.; Turovska B.; Markava E.; Freimanis J. Electrochemical reduction of N-aryl- and N-arylsulphonylbenzoquinoneimines in acetonitrile-II. Electron affinity and relationship between oxidation and reduction potentials. Electrochim Acta 1991, 36(7), 1219-1225 ...
Stradiņš J.; Glezer V.; Turovska B.; Markava E.; Freimanis J. Electrochemical reduction of N-aryl- and N-arylsulphonylbenzoquinoneimines in acetonitrile-II. Electron affinity and relationship between oxidation and reduction potentials. Electrochim Acta 1991, 36(7), 1219-1225 ...
My research involves investigations into the molecular genetics of a group of plant pathogenic Pseudomonads. This work involves studies of the genes responsible for the bacteria/plant interaction, investigation into pathogenicity islands present in these bacteria and study into the role of plasmids in the interaction between bacteria and plant ...
BF3 would have an sp2 hybridization, but it has an empty p-orbital (can accept a lone pair and have an octet). When BF3 undergoes an acid-base reaction, Boron can accept a lone pair from a Lewis base, and that bond is called a coordinate covalent bond? And that coordinate covalent bond would be a sigma bond ...
Kinetic measurements have been made at 25° C on the halogenation of benzoylacetone, acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl α-bromoacetoacetate and diethyl bromomalonate. A method is described for analyzing the kinetic data and obtaining the rates of substitution of successive halogen atoms without isolating the partly halogenated derivatives. The reaction velocities measured are all independent of the halogen concentration, and represent the rates of ionization of the ketonic substances in presence of basic catalysts. The results obtained conform in general to the regularities previously found for this type of reaction, but anomalies are found in some instances; these are related to the interaction of large substituent groups in both substrate and anion catalyst. The effect of bromine substitution in increasing the reaction velocity is shown to decrease as the reactivity of the ketone increases, and this is explained in terms of the charge distribution in the anion of the substrate. ...
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct. A Lewis base, then, is any species that has a filled orbital containing an electron pair which is not involved in bonding but may form a dative bond with a Lewis acid to form a Lewis adduct. For example, NH3 is a Lewis base, because it can donate its lone pair of electrons. Trimethylborane (Me3B) is a Lewis acid as it is capable of accepting a lone pair. In a Lewis adduct, the Lewis acid and base share an electron pair furnished by the Lewis base, forming a dative bond.[1] In the context of a specific chemical reaction between NH3 and Me3B, the lone pair from NH3 will form a dative bond with the empty orbital of Me3B to form an adduct NH3•BMe3. The terminology refers to the contributions of Gilbert N. Lewis.[2]. The terms nucleophile and electrophile are more or less interchangeable with Lewis base and Lewis acid, respectively. However, ...
The BZ reaction is an example of a chemical oscillator, a system which instead of arriving at a steady state transitions between two different chemical states (which two states have two different colors, whence the waves above). Boris Belousov discovered it in the 1950s when he happened to mix together potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, propanedioic acid and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid (hell, why not?); he made two attempts to publish his findings, but was rejected from peer-reviewed journals because he couldnt explain why the oscillations occurred ...
A Lewis base catalyzed ring expansion of isatin with 2, 2, 2-trifluorodiazoethane (CF3CHN2) is developed. It is characterized that the merge of tetramethylethylenediamine and CF3CHN2 generates reactive triazene intermediates, which construct substituted 3-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)quinolinones with high efficiency. Synthetic application of the procedure is broadened by 3-trifluormethylpyrazole fused 3-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)quinolinone synthesis ...
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A complex is a species in which the central atom is surrounded by a group of Lewis bases that have covalent bonds to the central atom. The Lewis bases that surround the central atom are generally referred to as ligands. Complexes are so named because when they were first studied, they seemed unusual and difficult to understand. Primarily, transition metals form complexes and their most observable property is their vivid color. The color of transition metal complexes is dependent on the identity and oxidation state of the central atom and the identity of the ligand.. Acids and bases were originally defined by Arrhenius as substances that donated protons (positively charged hydrogen ions) and hydroxide ions (consisting of one hydrogen atom bonded to one oxygen atom and having an overall charge of minus one) respectively. Subsequently, Bronsted and Lowry redefined acids and bases as being proton donors and proton acceptors, respectively. This broadened definition made it possible to include ...
A component of a polymerization catalyst is prepared by reacting an organo-magnesium compound, or a complex with an organo-aluminium compound, with an halogenating agent such as silicon tetrachloride or hydrogen chloride, and then reacting the product with a Lewis Base compound, particularly an ester and finally with titanium tetrachloride. The product obtained is combined with an organo-aluminium compound preferably together with a Lewis Base and used to polymerize an olefine monomer. The catalyst has a high activity and is stereospecific.
The test for alkenes is the bromine water test. The mechanism for this is the one with Br-Br. A solution of Br will be coloured orange, but when this reaction happens with an alkene, it will become colourless because it becomes a haloalkane. In the middle of this reaction, a carbocation (that is a cation of carbon) is formed; this is a C+. The position of this is important, depending on whether this is primary, secondary, or tertiary (see this page), determines the likelihood of different products being formed. A tertiary carbocation is the most stable, and therefore will form the major product, while secondary and primary carbocations will make the minor product ...
Get Details of Bromine Manufacturers,Bromine Suppliers,Bromine Dealers, Bromine Exporters, Bromine Traders, Bromine Producers, Bromine Wholesalers, Bromine Companies
Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; σ and π-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enoltautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals. Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: ...
As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties. The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+), in analogy to carbocations (R3C+) which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative ...
I have been doing chemistry since the mid fifties, since my first introduction to research as a summer student visitor at the Brookhaven Laboratory. (An earlier course in qualitative analysis came close in its demands for a chemist’s eye, hand brain coordination.) I’ll use this as an excuse to ruminate on the course of chemistry during those fifty years.. If you except biochemistry and, in particular, the DNA revolution, not much seemed to be happening from the fifties through the seventies, and my answer to friends’ queries about what was new in chemistry was often “not much!†My field †physical organic chemistry †was a victim of its own success. In a relatively few years, it had answered most of the important questions regarding reaction mechanisms and, by the sixties, was involved in heated arguments about classical versus non-classical carbocations †a question that could not be answered with the experimental techniques available at the ...
Abstract: Standard flavors of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are known to fail in describing anions, due to large self-interaction errors. The problem may be circumvented by using localized basis sets of reduced size, leaving no variational flexibility for the extra electron to delocalize. Alternatively, a recent approach exploiting DFT evaluations of total energies on electronic densities optimized at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level has been reported, showing that the self-interaction-free HF densities are able to lead to an improved description of the additional electron, returning affinities in close agreement with the experiments. Nonetheless, such an approach can fail when the HF densities are too inaccurate. Here, an alternative approach is presented, in which an embedding environment is used to stabilize the anion in a bound configuration. Similarly to the HF case, when computing total energies at the DFT level on these corrected densities, electron affinities in very good ...
Perfluorotetracyclobuteno-1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (PCOT) is a planar and centrosymmetric molecule which possesses an extraordinary electron affinity due to the planarity of the eight pi-electron system and the cumulative electron-withdrawing effects of the 16 fluorine atoms. An improved method for the synthesis of PCOT and the product resulting from the spontaneous reaction of PCOT with excess alcohol is reported. Crystal structures of the methyl (1) and ethyl (2) derivatives are described.. ...
The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration
(2,2-difluoroethenyl)benzene | Entropy, Enthalpy of Formation, Critical Temperature, Critical Pressure, Boiling Point, Refractive Index, Magnetic Susceptibility, Polarizability, Flash Point, Flammability, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity
(2S,3S)-3,4-dichlorobutan-2-yl acetate | Entropy, Enthalpy of Formation, Critical Temperature, Critical Pressure, Boiling Point, Refractive Index, Magnetic Susceptibility, Polarizability, Flash Point, Flammability, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of Band-Offsets at Monolayer-Multilayer MoS2 Junctions by Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy. AU - Howell, Sarah L.. AU - Jariwala, Deep. AU - Wu, Chung Chiang. AU - Chen, Kan Sheng. AU - Sangwan, Vinod K.. AU - Kang, Junmo. AU - Marks, Tobin J.. AU - Hersam, Mark C.. AU - Lauhon, Lincoln J.. PY - 2015/4/8. Y1 - 2015/4/8. N2 - The thickness-dependent band structure of MoS2 implies that discontinuities in energy bands exist at the interface of monolayer (1L) and multilayer (ML) thin films. The characteristics of such heterojunctions are analyzed here using current versus voltage measurements, scanning photocurrent microscopy, and finite element simulations of charge carrier transport. Rectifying I-V curves are consistently observed between contacts on opposite sides of 1L/ML junctions, and a strong bias-dependent photocurrent is observed at the junction. Finite element device simulations with varying carrier concentrations and electron affinities show that a type II ...
reference: GSK-3-selective inhibitors derived from Tyrian purple indirubins., Meijer L, Skaltsounis AL, Magiatis P, Polychronopoulos P, Knockaert M, Leost M, Ryan XP, Vonica CA, Brivanlou A, Dajani R, Crovace C, Tarricone C, Musacchio A, Roe SM, Pearl L, Greengard P, Chem Biol 2003 Dec;10(12):1255-66. PMID: 14700633 ...
Im a newbie who just installed a small (200 gallon) hot tub. I read the sticky here about bromine systems and decided to go with a 3 step bromine system with a floater. Im attempting to set up my spa for the first time today. Please excuse if Im asking this in the wrong place. Background info: Im using 4-in-1 bromine test strips, not a test kit, so my measurements are imperfect, but my initial hardness from the tap seems to be around 100, alkalinity is 120, and pH is 7.8. I added
Words Ending with bro. Words which starts with bro of different lengths. Here is a list of all words which start with the word bro
Chemists have a familiarity with many elements and many compounds, from having worked with them or studied them in the literature. You get a feel for whats
a b c Michael J. Dagani, Henry J. Barda, Theodore J. Benya, David C. Sanders "Bromine Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... Preparation of other bromine compounds[edit]. Sodium bromide is widely used for the preparation of other bromides in organic ... Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles ... 2 NaBr + Cl2 → Br2 + 2 NaCl. Applications[edit]. Sodium bromide is the most useful inorganic bromide in industry.[7] It is also ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... Recent research has found that adding silica gel or alumina to H-Cl (or H-Br) in dichloromethane increases the rate of reaction ... Therefore, in the presence of peroxides, HBr adds so that the bromine atom is added to the carbon bearing the most numerous ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. Heather ... This compound is synthesized by the condensation of acetone (hence the suffix A in the name) with two equivalents of phenol. ... Compounds without a Phenanthrene Nucleus". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 125 (839): 222- ... Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of ...
doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(97)00006-0. Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". ... These compounds are classified as oleochemicals. More commonly fatty amines are derived from C12-C18 hydrocarbons, which in ... Some applications of these compounds are in fabric softeners, froth flotation agents (purification of ores), and corrosion ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... Industrially significant organic compounds prepared from hydrobromic acid include allyl bromide, tetrabromobis(phenol), and ... It is a useful reagent for generating organobromine compounds. Certain ethers are cleaved with HBr. It also catalyzes ... Hydrobromic acid has commonly been prepared industrially by reacting bromine with either sulfur or phosphorus and water. ...
Ioffe, D.; Kampf, A. (2002). "Bromine, Organic Compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. doi:10.1002/ ... The decolouration of bromine water by electron-rich arenes is used in the bromine test. Direct halogenation of arenes are ... In organic chemistry, an aryl halide (also known as haloarene or halogenoarene) is an aromatic compound in which one or more ... The most important members are the aryl chlorides, but the class of compounds is so broad that many derivatives and ...
2 Al + 6 HBr → Al2Br6 + 3 H2. Alternatively, the direct bromination occurs also: 2 Al + 3 Br2 → Al2Br6. Reactions[edit]. Play ... Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx. Aluminium tribromide is the most common form of ... Al2Br6 dissociates readily to give the strong Lewis acid, AlBr3. Regarding the tendency of Al2Br6 to dimerize, it is common for ... AlBr3 + COCl2 → COBr2 + AlCl2Br. Al2Br6 is used as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction.[3] Related Lewis acid ...
... is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O3. It is an orange solid that ... bromine bromate).[2] The Br−O−Br bond is bent with bond angle 111.2° and the Br−O−BrO2 bond length is 1.85Å.[3] ... This inorganic compound-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Dibromine trioxide can be prepared by reacting a solution of bromine in dichloromethane with ozone at low temperatures.[2][3] ...
... is the organobromine compound with the formula Br(CH2)11CH3. It is a colorless liquid. It is used as a long ... Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... CH3(CH2)11OH + HBr → CH3(CH2)11Br + H2O "1-BROMODODECANE - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. Gribble ... Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification. ... It is manufactured for agricultural and industrial use by treating methanol with bromine in the presence of sulfur or hydrogen ... Bromomethane is readily photolyzed in the atmosphere to release bromine radicals, which are far more destructive to ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. Dietmar ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... The compound is prepared by bromination of acetic acid, such as by a Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction or using other reagents. ... Bromoacetic acid is the chemical compound with the formula CH2BrCO2H. This colorless solid is a relatively strong alkylating ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. NFPA 12A ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
... is an organohalogen compound with the formula Br(CH2)3Cl. It is a colorless liquid, produced by free- ... Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
... is organobromine compound with formula Br(CH2)5CH3. It is a colorless liquid. Most 1-bromoalkanes are prepared by ... Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... Bromoalkanes Bromocyclohexane "1-bromohexane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology ...
It has an unusually high density for an organic compound, near 3 g/mL, due largely to the four bromine atoms. TBE is a liquid ... "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. A B van ... where each carbon atom binds two bromine atoms. The compound has no commercial use. ... Although three bromine atoms may bind to one of the carbon atoms creating 1,1,1,2-tetrabromoethane this is not ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula HBr. It is a hydrogen halide consisting of hydrogen and bromine. A ... Hydrogen bromide and hydrobromic acid are important reagents in the production of inorganic and organic bromine compounds. The ... "Hydrobromic Acid - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. ... "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405.CS1 maint ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... "methylene bromide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 25 March 2005. ... Another way is to prepare it from diiodomethane and bromine. Dibromomethane is used as a solvent, gauge fluid, and in organic ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... The compound is a white solid (not colorless), although commercial samples appear yellow. It is one of the most common fire ... TBBPA is produced by the reaction of bromine with bisphenol A. Most commercial TBBPA products consist of a mixture that differ ... in the degree of bromination with the formula C15H16−xBrxO2 where x = 1 to 4. Its fire-retarding properties correlate with %Br. ...
ed.: Alasdair H. (2003). Organic bromine and iodine compounds. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer. ISBN 3-540-02777-7. van den Wijngaard, ... Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological Treatment of Hazardous Organic Compounds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. ISBN 94- ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. "Safety ... It is produced by the reaction of ethylene gas with bromine, in a classic halogen addition reaction: CH2=CH2 + Br2 → BrCH2- ... In organic synthesis, 1,2-dibromoethane is used as a source of bromine to brominate carbanions and to activate magnesium for ... 1,2-Dibromoethane, also known as ethylene dibromide (EDB), is an organobromine compound with the chemical formula C 2H 4Br 2. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". ... "butyl bromide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 27 March 2005. ... 1-Bromobutane is the precursor to n-butyllithium: 2 Li + C4H9X → C4H9Li + LiX where X = Cl, Br The lithium for this reaction ... 1-Bromobutane is the organobromine compound with the formula CH3(CH2)3Br. It is a colorless liquid, although impure samples ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. George H ... The resulting chlorodifluoromethane is then reacted with elemental bromine at 400-600 °C, with reaction time limited to about 3 ... are that it has lower toxicity than chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride and that since it is a covalently bonded compound, ...
Allyl chloride Allyl iodide Allyl Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's ... The compound is mainly used as an electrophilic allylating agent. Allylzinc bromide may be produced by treating this compound ... It is an alkylating agent used in synthesis of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and other organic compounds. Physically, allyl ...
... is the organobromine compound with the formula CH3CH(Br)(CH2)3CH3. It is a colorless liquid. The compound is ... Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... "2-BROMOHEXANE - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 27 March 2005. ...
Houben-Weyl Methods of Organic Chemistry (in German). 4: Bromine and Iodine Compounds (4th ed.). Georg Thieme Verlag. 2014. p. ... The analogous quinoline compound behaves similarly. Pyridinium tribromide can be obtained by reacting pyridinium bromide with ... It is thus a strong oxidizing agent used as a source of electrophilic bromine in halogenation reactions. ... The chemical is a solid whose reactivity is similar to that of bromine. ...
Quite soon, bromine was found to have advantages, but was not used in elemental form. Certain hydrocarbon bromine compounds ... transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine. ...
Many marine organisms biosynthesize halomethanes, especially bromine-containing compounds. Small amounts of chloromethanes ... Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, ... For example, consider Halon 1211: C F Cl Br 1 2 1 1 Halon 1211 has one carbon atom, two fluorine atoms, one chlorine atom, and ... The physical properties of halomethanes depend on the number and identity of the halogen atoms in the compound. In general, ...
CH2=CH2 + Br2 → CH2Br-CH2Br (1,2-dibromoetaan). ... "Glossary of Class Names of Organic Compounds and Reactive ... Allesjäänud Br- ioon ründab tsüklit teiselt poolt ning tekib antiasendatud dihalogeniid.[1] ... Br2 liitumine alkeenidele toimub ekvivalentses vastavuses ja seda reaktsiooni saab kasutada ka alkeenide kvantitatiivseks ... Halogeenimisel lisatakse alkeenile halogeeni (Cl2, Br2, F2, I2) ning moodustub dihalogeniid. Kaksiksidemel olevad π-sideme ...
1955). "Some lithium iodide phosphors for slow neutron detection". Br. J. Appl. Phys. 6 (3): 104-106. doi:10.1088/0508-3443/6/3 ... Wietelmann, Ulrich and Bauer, Richard J. (2005) "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ... Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemical Compounds. McGraw-Hill. pp. 444-446. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. . Retrieved ... Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 39: Yttrium". Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books. pp. ... Once reached a human, scandium concentrates in the liver and is a threat to it; some its compounds are possibly carcinogenic, ...
W. Lenk, H. Prinz, A. Steinmetz,"Rubidium and Rubidium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2010 Wiley ... Br Kr RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y Zr(NO3)4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In St Sb(NO3)3 Te I Xe(NO3)2 ...
Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) ... "New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". ChemistryViews. 27 August 2016.. *↑ "HSn". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of ... Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and ...
Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. ... Br Kr ୫ Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe ...
Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. 2000. ... Br Kr 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe ...
sulfur compound metabolic process. • metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis. • metanephros development. • cellular response to ... Brown NS, Smart A, Sharma V, Brinkmeier ML, Greenlee L, Camper SA, Jensen DR, Eckel RH, Krezel W, Chambon P, Haugen BR (July ...
Tetrahydrobenzazepine: SKF-83959, SKF-82958, SKF-81297, SKF 38393, fenoldopam, 6-Br-APB, SCH 23390 ... Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single ... Alkoxy compounds[edit]. *Acyclic (3°C): diphenhydramine (c.f deramciclane), orphenadrine, p-methyldiphenhydramine ... This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh ...
... ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br ... Compounds with the group 13 elementsEdit. The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements ( ... Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ... CompoundsEdit. The alkali metals form complete series of compounds with all usually encountered anions, which well illustrate ...
Rood BR. "Infantile Brain Tumors". The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. ... in part by shuttling different compounds around in response to injury or other stimulus. ...
a b c Quercetin dihydrate safety sheet on http://www.pvp.com.br (English) Archived September 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ... Phenolic compounds in wine. *Phytochemical. *Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase. *Quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase ...
Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) ... Cloke, F. Geoffrey N. (1993). "Zero Oxidation State Compounds of Scandium, Yttrium, and the Lanthanides". Chem. Soc. Rev. 22: ...
"Br. J. Pharmacol. 71 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1980.tb10903.x. PMC 2044395 . PMID 6258683.. ... "EPI-001, A Compound Active against Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Targets Transactivation Unit 5 of the Androgen ... "Br. J. Cancer. 98 (4): 697-707. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604230. PMC 2259178 . PMID 18268497.. ... Br J Urol. 52 (3): 208-15. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410x.1980.tb02961.x. PMID 7000222.. ...
... can interact with chlorine,[48][49] bromine[50] and fluorine.[51] ... Volatile organic compounds recovery (solvent recovery systems, SRU) from flexible packaging, converting, coating, and other ... Volatile organic compounds capture from painting, dry cleaning, gasoline dispensing operations, and other processes ... Aizpuru A, Malhautier L, Roux JC, Fanlo JL (2003). "Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular ...
"Br J Clin Pharmacol. 18 (2): 127-33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1984.tb02444.x. PMC 1463527 . PMID 6148956.. ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
Br[edit]. *Bromine monochloride - BrCl. *Bromine pentafluoride - BrF5. *Bromine trifluoride - BrF3 ... Although most compounds are referred to by their IUPAC systematic names (following IUPAC nomenclature), "traditional" names ... Inorganic Molecules made thinkable, an interactive visualisation showing inorganic compounds for an array of common metal and ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_inorganic_compounds&oldid=907095066" ...
... with the Al3+ centers occupying adjacent tetrahedral holes of the close-packed framework of Br− ions. Wells, A. F. (1984) ... Related compounds Other anions Aluminium fluoride. Aluminium bromide. Aluminium iodide Other cations Boron trichloride. Gallium ...
... compound F. Compound F continues to react with the palladium intermediate B, with regeneration of the copper halide, G. ... Br, Cl or OTf The Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction has been employed in a wide variety of areas, due to its usefulness in ... The active palladium catalyst is the 14 electron compound Pd0L2, complex A, which reacts with the aryl or vinyl halide in an ... In an inverse Sonogashira coupling the reactants are an aryl or vinyl compound and an alkynyl halide. While a copper co- ...
receitasdafulaninha.blogspot.com.br. November 2011 *^ "Rules for the Review of Legislation on Production of Flour and Pasta". ... For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made of flour and ...
"www.medapharma.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-09-17.. *^ a b "Moclobemide International Brands". Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 ... Rolan P (October 1997). "Potential drug interactions with the novel antimigraine compound zolmitriptan (Zomig, 311C90)". ... "Br J Clin Pharmacol. 37 (5): 433-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1994.tb05710.x. PMC 1364898. PMID 7519866.. ... "Br J Clin Pharmacol. 35 (6): 649-52. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1993.tb04196.x. PMC 1381610. PMID 8329293.. ...
Then the unused bromine is reduced to bromide with iodide. B. r. 2. +. 2. I. −. ⟶. I. 2. +. 2. B. r. −. {\displaystyle \mathrm ... This unsaturation is in the form of double bonds, which react with iodine compounds. The higher the iodine number, the more C=C ... The fat is mixed with an excess of bromine. This bromine is added to the double bonds in the unsaturated fats. This reaction ... Br_{2}+2\ I^{-}\longrightarrow I_{2}+2\ Br^{-}} }. Now, the amount of iodine formed is determined by titration with sodium ...
the compound "world population" becomes common from c. the 1930s, adapted from early 20th-century "world's population"; pre- ... "IBGE.gov.br.. *^ "Population, total". World Bank. 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2015.. ...
Not that we are entitled to affirm, that these substances we consider as simple may not be compounded of two, or even of a ... chlorine, bromine, and iodine. *calcium, strontium, and barium. *sulfur, selenium, and tellurium ... His 1863 publication included a chart (which contained ions and compounds,[12] in addition to elements), but his original paper ... and we ought never to suppose them compounded until experiment and observation has proved them to be so." ...
"Br. J. Cancer. 93 (1): 137-43. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602665. PMC 2361489 . PMID 15956972.. ... response to organic cyclic compound. • regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination. • DNA metabolic ...
... as compounds), a combination of vitamins and/or other chemical compounds, or a single element (as a compound or mixture of ... Bromine Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[ ... Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds. Plants absorb dissolved elements in ... Research has supported that altering inorganic mineral compounds (carbonates, oxides, etc.) by reacting them with organic ...
Chemically, N-methylphenyethanolamine is an aromatic compound, an amine, and an alcohol. The amino-group makes this compound a ... The methyl group of acetophenone was brominated with bromine to give α-bromoacetophenone, which was then reacted with N- ... Subsequently, this compound (still in the form of its racemate) was studied more thoroughly by Chen and co-workers, who ... A. M. Lands (1952). "The cardiovascular actions of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-2-aminoethanol and related compounds." J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
"Br. J. Anaesth. 84 (3): 367-371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. PMID 10793599.. ... The plant contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[36] The United States Food and Drug Administration warns that ... as the major pungent compound.[41] Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet ...
Si H, Xu C, Zhang J, Zhang X, et al «Licochalcone A: An effective and low-toxicity compound against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro ... Br J Ophthalmol, 2006 Des; 90 (12), pp: 1464-1467. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2005.083543. PMC: 1857523. PMID: 16899532 [Consulta: 8 ... A multiparametric assay to screen new compounds» (en anglès). PLoS One, 2018 Ag 29; 13 (8), pp: e0201678. DOI: 10.1371/journal. ...
New compounds representing known structure types". Acta Crystallographica. 2 (6): 388-390. doi:10.1107/S0365110X49001016.. ... Br Kr 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe ... Synthesis of lanthanide and actinide compounds, Springer, ISBN ... "The Preparation and Identification of Some Pure Actinium Compounds". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (2): 771-775 ... "The Preparation and Identification of Some Pure Actinium Compounds". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (2): 771-775 ...
... which is an aliphatic bromine-containing acrylate and/or methacrylate monomer, said monomer being liquid at room temperature; B ... Another aspect of the invention is the use of one or more liquid bromine-containing acrylates, e.g., a compound of Formula A: ... BROMINE COMPOUNDS LTD. (P.O. Box 180, 01 Beer Sheva, 8410101, IL) ... Amongst the bromine-containing flame retardants tested in WO 2005/054330 there was also a bromine-containing acrylate: 2 , 2 ...
... compound,that,may,stop,deadly,brain,tumors,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... The α-KG compound is already there; it only needs to be modified to be used clinically, so that may save a lot of time," Xiong ... CHAPEL HILL Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have identified a compound that ... UNC study: Scientists identify chemical compound that may stop deadly brain tumors ...
The talk describes a number of classic and recent approaches to study the interactions of membrane-permeabilizing compounds ...
Br, I, OH, 2,6-Mes2-4-t-Bu-C6H3PHO2). Domenii publicaţii > Chimie + Tipuri publicaţii > Articol în revistã ştiinţificã ... Novel Sterically Congested Monoorganobismuth(III) Compounds: Synthesis, Structure, and Bismuth-Arene pi Interaction in ArBiXY ( ... Novel Sterically Congested Monoorganobismuth(III) Compounds: Synthesis, Structure, and Bismuth-Arene pi Interaction in ArBiXY ( ... X, Y ) Br, I, OH, 2,6-Mes2-4-t-Bu-C6H3PHO2) ...
a b c Michael J. Dagani, Henry J. Barda, Theodore J. Benya, David C. Sanders "Bromine Compounds" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of ... Preparation of other bromine compounds[edit]. Sodium bromide is widely used for the preparation of other bromides in organic ... Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles ... 2 NaBr + Cl2 → Br2 + 2 NaCl. Applications[edit]. Sodium bromide is the most useful inorganic bromide in industry.[7] It is also ...
... largely as organic compounds. Bromine is largely as organic compounds also. Between 0.2 to 1.0 milligrams per day of arsenic is ... However iodide in pills is probably better than sea weed as a source of iodide because of the bromine and arsenic in seaweed, ... Please keep in mind that seaweeds often contain arsenic and bromine. Seaweed is used primarily as a source of iodide. ... not being one of the twenty protein-forming compounds encoded by the universal genetic code. Small polypeptides have been ...
Bromine compounds, Intermediates for bulk drugs and agrochemicals, Phase Transfer Catalysts, Intermediates for Pigments and ...
PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: US Bromine Industry ... Global Bromine Market (2008- 2011): Breakdown ofImports and Exports for Elemental Bromine and Compounds inMetric Tons (includes ... Dead Sea Bromine Company Ltd., Clearon Corporation, ICL-IP America, Inc., Jordan Bromine Company Ltd., Morre-Tec Industries, ... and Other Bromine Compounds (includes correspondingGraph/Chart) II-3 ...
Bromine and iodine compounds. In: Haddad LM, Shannon MW, Winchester JF, eds. Clinical management of poisoning and drug overdose ... Environmental: Detection of bromine in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH. Case classification * Suspected: A case ... Ingestion of liquid bromine can cause abdominal pain and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with secondary shock. Signs and symptoms ... Morabia A, Selleger C, Landry JC, Conne P, Urban P, Fabre J. Accidental bromine exposure in an urban population: an acute ...
at 20°C)most common ions: Br−, BrO−, BrO3−, BrO4− Bromine is a member of a family of elements known as halogens that are found ... Bromine melting point [1]: −7.3°Cboiling point [2]: 59°Cdensity: 3.12 g/cm3 (liq. ... Bromine forms many interesting covalent compounds as well, including two oxides: bromine (IV) oxide (BrO2) and bromine (I) ... Bromine. melting point: −7.3°C. boiling point: 59°C. density: 3.12 g/cm3 (liq. at 20°C). most common ions: Br−, BrO−, BrO3−, ...
Bromine compounds, CAS No. 2840-28-0, Intermediates for bulk drugs and agrochemicals, Phase Transfer Catalysts, Intermediates ... Bromine,Tbhq, Dichlone, Dyes And Pigments Intermediates, Specialty & Fine Chemicals, Para Bromo Phenol, Bromo Anisole, Dibromo ...
Br) cycling in natural wetlands is highly complex, including abiotic/biotic processes and multiphase inorganic/organic Br- ... The organic bromine compounds bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) influence tropospheric chemistry and stratospheric ... Summary of "Bromine biogeodynamics in the NE Atlantic: A perspective from natural wetlands of western Portugal.". Bromine (Br) ... Bromine Radioisotopes. Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights ...
Serullas, New Compounds of Bromine. Ethyl Bromide (Ether Hydro-Bromique), and Cyanogen Bromide (Cyanure de Brome). ... Part 5.-The equilibria Br2 + CH2F2 = HBr + CHF2Br and Br2 + CH3F = HBr + CH2FBr. Determination of D(CHF2-Br) and «DELTA»H°f ( ... solution) = C7H5Br3MoO2 (solution) + (solution). By formula: C8H5BrMoO3 (cr) + Br2 (solution) = C7H5Br3MoO2 (solution) + CO ( ... By formula: C12H7MnO5 (cr) + 1.5Br2 (g) = C7H7Br (g) + Br2Mn (cr) + 5CO (g) ...
2 Al + 6 HBr → Al2Br6 + 3 H2. Alternatively, the direct bromination occurs also: 2 Al + 3 Br2 → Al2Br6. Reactions[edit]. Play ... Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx. Aluminium tribromide is the most common form of ... Al2Br6 dissociates readily to give the strong Lewis acid, AlBr3. Regarding the tendency of Al2Br6 to dimerize, it is common for ... AlBr3 + COCl2 → COBr2 + AlCl2Br. Al2Br6 is used as a catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction.[3] Related Lewis acid ...
Bromine compounds, Intermediates for bulk drugs and agrochemicals, Phase Transfer Catalysts, Intermediates for Pigments and ...
Bromine compounds, CAS No. 2840-28-0, Intermediates for bulk drugs and agrochemicals, Phase Transfer Catalysts, Intermediates ... To get answered for what is bromine compound or where Benzoyl Cyanide used, just have an overview of our website. Your entire ... Bromine,Tbhq, Dichlone, Dyes And Pigments Intermediates, Specialty & Fine Chemicals, Para Bromo Phenol, Bromo Anisole, Dibromo ...
Chemists have a familiarity with many elements and many compounds, from having worked with them or studied them in the ... Utterly glorious! Bromine is beyond merely nasty, all by itself, thanks very much, and here these people go making Br compounds ... Take compounds of bromine, for example. Most any working chemist will immediately recognize bromine (there are exceptions) ... Ph-S-Br might (educated guess) be a better Br analog.. BrO2F is not a substituted version of FOOF. In FOOF the O atoms are ...
NIOSH-Author; Epidemiology; Pesticides; Fumigants; Occupational-exposure; Organo-bromine-compounds; Fluorine-compounds; ...
NIOSH-Author; Organo-bromine-compounds; Agricultural-chemicals; Chemical-manufacturing-industry; Mortality-data; Chemical- ... industry-workers; Organo-chlorine-compounds; Cancer-rates; Risk-factors; Epidemiology; Mortality-surveys; Author Keywords: ...
Bromine is a reddish-brown gas that has a pungent smell and can irritate the skin, nose and eyes. Bromine was... ... Bromine is used in everyday products such as pesticides and water treatment solutions. ... Bromine is often used to treat swimming pools and hot tubs. Moreover, bromine compounds control algae and bacterial population ... Most pesticide agents contain bromine because it is toxic when inhaled. Bromine compounds work as soil fumigants to prevent ...
Bromine Compounds. Offering you a complete choice of products which include Sodium Bromide, Sodium Bromate, Potassium Bromide ... Organic Compounds. We offer and deal in wide range of Organic Compounds such as Organic Compounds, Homopththalic Acid - ... Copper Compounds. Providing you the best range of COPPER SULPHATE (CuSo4) (Tech/Pure/EP) (Cu-24to 25), Copper Carbonate, Copper ... Cobalt Compounds. Offering you a complete choice of products which include Cobalt Oxide, Cobalt Sulphate, Cobalt Carbonate and ...
Boron Compounds. Bromine. Bromine Compounds. C. Cadmium Compounds. Calcium Carbide. Calcium Chloride. Calcium Sulfate. Carbides ... Ammonium Compounds. Antimony Compounds. Arsenic Compounds. B. Barium Compounds. Beryllium Compounds. Bismuth Compounds. Boric ... Titanium Compounds. Tungsten Compounds. V. Vanadium Compounds. W. Water. Z. Zeolites. Zinc Compounds. Zirconium Compounds. ... Iodine and Iodine Compounds. Iron Compounds. L. Lead Compounds. Lime and Limestone. Lithium Compounds. M. Magnesium Compounds. ...
Bromine, Inorganic Compounds.. Bromine, Organic Compounds.. Butadiene.. Butyl Alcohols.. Butylenes.. Butyl Rubber. ...
Experimental and theoretical study of flame inhibition by bromine-containing compounds Description: The present paper ... air and CF/sub 3/Br-C/sub 3/H/sub 8/-air as well as HBr-CH/sub 4/-air, CH/sub 3/Br-CH/sub 4/-air and CF/sub 3/Br-CH/sub 4/-air ... The available experimental data suggest that CF/sub 3/Br is somewhat more efficient as an inhibitor than HBr or CH/sub 3/Br. ... of CH/sub 3/Br had reduced the flame speed from 38 cm/sec to about 26 cm/sec. Extensions of the model to include CF/sub 3/Br ...
Bromine trifluoride is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is BrF3. It contains bromine and fluoride ions. The bromine is ... It is made by reacting cold fluorine with bromine. Hot fluorine makes bromine pentafluoride. ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bromine_trifluoride&oldid=4269538" ...
Bromine pentafluoride is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is BrF5. It contains bromine and fluoride ions. The bromine ... It can be made by reacting hot bromine with fluorine. This makes some bromine trifluoride. Potassium bromide can be reacted ... This makes bromine pentafluoride and potassium fluoride. Uses[change , change source]. It is used to look at the isotopes of ... Bromine pentafluoride is a pale yellow liquid. It is a powerful oxidizing agent. It reacts with water to make bromic acid and ...
ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; BROMIDES; BROMINE COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM HALIDES; ... CHROMATOGRAPHY; FLUORIDES; FLUORINE COMPOUNDS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS; ... The apparent limit of detection for compounds containing carbonyl functionalities is on the order of micrograms per component ...
... of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000.Phenolic compounds react with bromine or ... The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range ... Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts - Electrophilic aromatic ... Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts - Electrophilic aromatic ...
Untersuchungen an Stickstoff-Brom-Verbindungen, IV / Studies on Nitrogen-Bromine Compounds, IV. Jabay, Omar / Pritzkow, Hans / ... Pyrimidine Derivatives and Related Compounds, IX / Preparation of 5-Aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and of Oxazino[4,5 : 5,6] ... Borverbindungen, 8. Mitteilung Umlagerung mittlerer O-B-O-Heterocyclen zu ringförmigen Oligomeren / Boron Compounds, Part 8 ... ABX Compounds with the Structure Ni2In Preparation and Crystal Structure of CaCuP(As), SrCuP(As), SrAgP(As), and EuCuAs by ...
Bromine Compounds Ltd.. Opponent name:. - Board:. 3.3.03. Headnote:. - Relevant legal provisions:. European Patent Convention ... 6. A method according to claim 5, wherein the compound of Formula I is added in an amount of up to 9. wt.%. ... 7. A method according to claim 6, wherein the compound of Formula I is added in an amount of 1.5 to 5. wt.%. ... 1. A flame-retardant material comprising a copolymer of pentabromobenzyl-acrylate with a metal salt of a compound of Formula I: ...
  • Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula Na Br . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBr x . (wikipedia.org)
  • By far the most common form of aluminium bromide is Al 2 Br 6 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction with metallic elements leads to salts such as silver bromide (AgBr), in which the bromine atom has a − 1 charge and oxidation number. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The calculated enrichment factors of bromide (Br) relative to chloride in rainfall (EF = 16.8-75.3), rivers (EF = 1.3-13.9) and wetland waters, superficial (EF = 5.8-13.1) and interstitial (EF = 2.1-8.9), increased towards the inland highlands. (bioportfolio.com)
  • That's bromine in oxidation state zero, elemental, and then you have bromide (oxidation state -1), one of the most common anions around. (sciencemag.org)
  • While it is rather rare in the Earth's crust, the high solubility of the bromide ion (Br − ) has caused its accumulation in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, many organobromide compounds-such as the pesticide methyl bromide -are no longer used. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a clear biological role for bromide ion and hypobromous acid has recently been elucidated, and it now appears that bromine is an essential trace element in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a pharmaceutical , the simple bromide ion (Br − ) has inhibitory effects on the central nervous system, and bromide salts were once a major medical sedative, before replacement by shorter-acting drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms compounds similar to those of the other halogens (see bromide ). (infoplease.com)
  • Br (as a quaternary ammonium bromide compound). (rxlist.com)
  • Oxygen is bubbled through solutions of potassium sulfide, chloride, bromide and iodide to establish which non-metallic elements are displaced from their compounds by oxygen. (rsc.org)
  • Bromine forms many interesting covalent compounds as well, including two oxides: bromine (IV) oxide (BrO 2 ) and bromine (I) oxide (Br 2 O). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ozone is not created directly, but is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds mix in sunlight. (infoplease.com)
  • 17) A flame retarded 3D-printed object made of one or more cured polymers, having a structural unit of the formula: incorporated into the polymer chains, characterized in that R comprises bromine atoms that are bound to aliphatic carbons. (sumobrain.com)
  • At high temperatures, organobromine compounds readily dissociate to yield free bromine atoms, a process that stops free radical chemical chain reactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • The same property causes ultraviolet sunlight to dissociate volatile organobromine compounds in the atmosphere to yield free bromine atoms, causing ozone depletion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in the presence of peroxides, HBr adds so that the bromine atom is added to the carbon bearing the most numerous hydrogen substituents and hydrogen atoms will add to carbons bearing fewest hydrogen substituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assuming that the atoms form the normal number of covalent bonds, give the molecular formula of the simplest compound of arsenic and bromine atoms. (bartleby.com)
  • The molecular formula of the simplest compound of Arsenic and bromine atoms has to be discussed. (bartleby.com)
  • Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH 4 ) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms ( F , Cl , Br , or I ). Halomethanes are both naturally occurring, especially in marine environments, and man-made, most notably as refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and fumigants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical properties of halomethanes depend on the number and identity of the halogen atoms in the compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halons are usually defined as hydrocarbons where the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by bromine, along with other halogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first digit specifies the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, the second is the number of fluorine atoms, the third is the chlorine atoms, and the fourth is the number of bromine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halon 1211 has one carbon atom, two fluorine atoms, one chlorine atom and one bromine atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • A haloalkane also known as alkyl halogenide , halogenalkane or halogenoalkane , and alkyl halide is a chemical compound derived from an alkane by substituting one or more hydrogen atoms with halogen atoms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The organic bromine compounds bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) influence tropospheric chemistry and stratospheric ozone depletion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bromine (Br) cycling in natural wetlands is highly complex, including abiotic/biotic processes and multiphase inorganic/organic Br-species. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bromine, Inorganic Compounds. (wiley.com)
  • A Br o nsted acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Elemental bromine is a diatomic molecule (Br 2 ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Elemental bromine is very reactive and thus does not occur free in nature, but in colourless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts , analogous to table salt . (wikipedia.org)
  • The six known compounds, two new rhmnopyranosyl compound, one pyranocoumarin compound and three aliphatic hydrocarbon were the new alcoholic compound identified by spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. (journalcra.com)
  • Activated Carbon - A form of elemental carbon whose particles have large surface area with adsorptive qualities, primarily used to remove chlorine, objectionable tastes and odors and numerous toxic organic compounds from water. (femyers.com)
  • Halogens typically encountered in these processes are fluorine, chlorine and bromine. (google.com)
  • Only compounds containing chlorine and bromine are thought to harm the ozone layer. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Arkansas ranks first in the world in the production of bromine, the basis for many widely used chemical compounds. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Arkansas is the only State for production of bromine compounds and special silica stone. (usgs.gov)
  • Carbon-fluorine compounds that often contain other elements such as hydrogen, chlorine, or bromine. (nasa.gov)
  • But bromine can also go up to +3 and +5 oxidation states, and there things start to get interesting. (sciencemag.org)
  • With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000.Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. (edu.au)
  • Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. (edu.au)
  • This shows that for natural organic matter samples, oxidation (ET) is far more important than bromine incorporation (EAS). (edu.au)
  • The bromine is in its +3 oxidation state . (wikipedia.org)
  • A metalloid with a toxicity dependent upon its chemical form and oxidation state, with +III compounds exerting greater toxicity than +V compounds. (ecospecifier.com.au)
  • Serullas's confusion, which reflects the state of organic chemistry of the period, is indicated by the fact that he called presumably the same compound protoiodure de carbone in 1823 and periodure de carbone in 1828. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Price, D. Bromine Compounds: Chemistry and Applications . (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • What Are Some Everyday Uses for Bromine? (reference.com)
  • Although there are many uses for bromine, nearly one-half of the bromine consumed annually is used in flame retardants. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Bromine is a reddish-brown gas that has a pungent smell and can irritate the skin, nose and eyes. (reference.com)
  • Bromine (chemical symbol Br) is a highly corrosive, reddish-brown, volatile element found in liquid form. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • There are also many dyes and pharmaceutical agents that contain bromine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most pesticide agents contain bromine because it is toxic when inhaled. (reference.com)
  • Flame-retardant plastics often contain bromine. (reference.com)
  • Several over-the-counter medications and prescription drugs contain bromine compounds. (reference.com)
  • For example, most antihistamines, sedatives and analgesics contain bromine. (reference.com)
  • UNC study: Scientists identify chemical compound that may stop deadly br. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It contains a whole list of new compounds that send my chemical intuition completely off the rails. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine trifluoride is a chemical compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • It can add fluoride ions to other chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great Lakes Chemical Corporation built the world's largest bromine plant in South Arkansas in 1961. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • According to CorpWatch, an organization that monitors the environmental impact of corporations, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation in Union County, the world's largest producer of bromine, was shown to be the number-one polluter in Arkansas. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • On April 29, 2005, one Great Lakes Chemical Corporation worker died and eleven others were injured when a bromine-based material was accidentally released. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Natural chlorine-, bromine-, iodine-, and fluorine-containing organic chemical compounds are abundant on our planet. (springer.com)
  • An organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene and an amino group. (ecospecifier.com.au)
  • Bromine is a chemical element in many everyday items, including baking ingredients, prescription drugs, and plastic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides ) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes , such as methane or ethane , with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine , making them a type of organic halide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The compounds range at room temperature from gasses like carbon tetrafluoride to chemically liquids used for cleaning electronic parts, such as perfluoroheptane, to solids with unusual chemical and adhesive properties, such as perfluoropolyethylene (Teflon). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bromine is a member of a family of elements known as halogens that are found in group 7A of the Periodic Table. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The atomic weight of an element such as bromine is located on the periodic table of eleme. (reference.com)
  • Bromine was discovered in 1826 in Montpellier, France , by French chemist Antoine J. Balard. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine was discovered in 1826 by A.J. Balard. (reference.com)
  • Balard found bromine chemicals in the ash of seaweed from the salt marshes of Montpellier . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine and iodine compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • It's made by heating sugars, often with ammonia, and the state of California has labeled one of its compounds a carcinogen. (foxnews.com)
  • organic compounds that contain an amine functional group derivatives of ammonia (NH3) Classes of Amines Primary Amines one alkyl group replacing one hydrogen from the ammonia molecule Ex. (prezi.com)
  • Bromine When halogenoalkane is added to ammonia, an amine compound is produced 2. (prezi.com)
  • Bromine is utilized in fire-retardant compounds and was once used in leaded gasoline. (reference.com)
  • Bromine-along with fluorine, chlorine, and iodine-is part of a family of elements known as the halogens. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • This effect makes organobromine compounds useful as fire retardants , and more than half the bromine produced worldwide each year is put to this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of biological organobromine compounds in sea life such as algae has been known for much longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most any working chemist will immediately recognize bromine ( there are exceptions ) because we don't commonly encounter too many opaque red liquids with a fog of corrosive orange fumes above them in the container. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine has a powerful corrosive action on the skin, destroying the tissue, and the vapor is strongly irritating to the eyes and the membranes of the nose and throat. (infoplease.com)
  • What Is the Molecular Weight of Bromine? (reference.com)
  • The molecular weight of bromine is about 79.90 atomic mass units. (reference.com)
  • A molecular entity capable of donating a hydron to an acceptor (Br o nsted base). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 4. An immunosuppressant compound of claim 1, having a molecular weight below about 750 amu. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Fowden, L.: The Occurrence and Metabolism of Carbon-Halogen Compounds. (springer.com)
  • [3] Small amounts of chloromethanes arise from the interaction of chlorine sources with various carbon compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. An immunosuppressant compound of claim 1, wherein the stereochemistry at carbon position 1 is S. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Dyes aromatic amines are used in dye production amines react with nitric (III) acid to produce salt The salts undergo reactions to produce a coloured azo-compound Methyl orange is used as a pH indicator Sunset yellow FCF is used in orange Jello 3. (prezi.com)
  • Antimony & compounds was ranked as 84 out of 400 on the NPI reporting list (see National Pollutants Inventory below). (ecospecifier.com.au)
  • On a health hazard rating of 0 - 3 antimony & compounds registers 1.0. (ecospecifier.com.au)
  • On an environmental rating of 0 - 3 antimony & compounds registers 1.3. (ecospecifier.com.au)
  • Offering you a complete choice of products which include Sodium Metavanadate, Ammonium Meta Vanadate, Vanadium Compounds, Potassium Metavanadate and Vanadium Sulphate. (indiamart.com)
  • Pure bromine is somewhat toxic, but less than both chlorine and fluorine. (prezi.com)
  • The new compound developed had to have a low boiling point and be non-toxic and generally non-reactive. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bromine for commercial purposes is obtained by treating brines (from salt wells or seawater) with chlorine, which displaces the bromine. (infoplease.com)
  • Bromine, which occurs naturally in seawater, was extracted from the water by seaweed and plankton. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Bromine is produced commercially from natural brines and from sea-water either by electrolysis or with displacement by chlorine, a somewhat more reactive halogen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As these organisms decomposed during the Jurassic period (206 to 144 million years ago), bromine was released, leaving heavy salt concentrations called brines in Union and Columbia counties. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Then, chemists from the Arkansas Geological Commission (now the Arkansas Geological Survey ) discovered that the Smackover brines had high bromine content-seventy times greater than that of ocean water. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Main difference between arsenic compounds and arsine is the main route of exposure. (prezi.com)
  • You have now prepared the colorless solid bromine fluorine dioxide. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine does not occur uncombined in nature but is found in combination with other elements, notably sodium, potassium, magnesium, and silver. (infoplease.com)
  • 12) A method of creating a flame retarded 3D-printed object in a layer-by-layer manner, comprising consecutively solidifying thin layers of a UV light curable resin formulation with ultraviolet light, wherein the formulation comprises one or more aliphatic bromine-containing acrylates, optionally followed by post curing. (sumobrain.com)
  • 15) Use of an aliphatic bromine-containing acrylate monomer, which is liquid at room temperature, as a flame retardant in a 3D-printed object. (sumobrain.com)
  • This report analyzes the US market for Bromine in Thousand Metric Tons by the following End-Use Segments: Flame Retardants, Drilling Fluids, Brominated Pesticides, Water-Treatment Chemicals, and Others. (prnewswire.com)
  • Bromine and organophosphorus inhibitors act through catalytic cycles that recombine H and OH radicals in the flame. (unt.edu)
  • BVO contains bromine-a compound found in flame retardants-and is linked to memory problems. (foxnews.com)
  • Some haloalkanes (those containing chlorine or bromine) have negative effects on the environment such as ozone depletion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mixed compounds are also possible, the best-known examples being the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are mainly responsible for ozone depletion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for bromine exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Morabia A, Selleger C, Landry JC, Conne P, Urban P, Fabre J. Accidental bromine exposure in an urban population: an acute epidemiological assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • The relevant safety guideline for Br recommended by Casey & Meyer (2001) is 0.01 mg/L. The Safe Drinking Water Committee (1988) reported chronic exposure levels of Br as 2.3 mg/L. This calculation was based on the Suggested No-Adverse-Response-Level (SNARL) where a 70 kg human consuming 2 L of water per day was included. (scielo.org.za)
  • One study , for example, followed two laboratory assistants who developed cherry angiomas after exposure to bromine compounds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bromine compounds work as soil fumigants to prevent insects from attacking plants. (reference.com)
  • 13) A method according to claim 12, wherein the formulation comprises one or more aliphatic bromine-containing acrylate which is (are) liquid (s) at room temperature. (sumobrain.com)
  • Ingestion of liquid bromine can cause abdominal pain and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with secondary shock. (cdc.gov)
  • Bromine is one of two elements (the other being mercury) that is liquid at normal temperatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Both the liquid and vapor of bromine are deep red in color. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine reacts with liquid water to produce hypobromite ion (BrO − ), a powerful bleaching agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At ordinary temperatures bromine is a brownish-red liquid that gives off a similarly colored vapor with an offensive, suffocating odor. (infoplease.com)
  • The binding sites of Bromine atom in the structure of X-Ray Crystal Structure of Compound 22K Bound to Human CHK1 Kinase Domain (pdb code 3ot3 ). (atomistry.com)
  • This binding sites where shown with 5.0 Angstroms radius around Bromine atom. (atomistry.com)
  • Speciality Chemicals Bromine Compounds Manufacturer India. (chemicalsexporter.com)
  • Bromine compounds are still used in well drilling fluids , in photographic film , and as an intermediate in the manufacture of organic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine production is not without controversy, because bromine-derived chemicals negatively affect human health and the environment . (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • This work on halogen compounds led to the publication of the well-received book Sur quelques composés d'iode, tels que le chlorure d'iode, sur l'action mutuelle de l'acide iodique et de la morphine ou de ses sels, sur l'acide iodique cristallisé (1830), which became an important reference work in legal medicine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The majority of exposures to bromine occur by inhalation and typically lead to symptoms of ocular, nasal, and respiratory irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • 1997). Assessment by Casey & Meyer (2001) of a significant number of water samples over a number of years revealed that high concentrations of bromine (Br) occur naturally within groundwater in South Africa, hence a PHCC. (scielo.org.za)
  • There are many types of volatile organic compounds, and they come from sources ranging from factories to trees. (infoplease.com)
  • Determination of volatile organic compounds at the parts per trillion level in complex aqueous matrices using membrane introduction mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the simplest known compounds of arsenic and is found naturally in the gas phase. (prezi.com)
  • Then Bromine is present in the group 7A and has seven electrons in valence shell. (bartleby.com)
  • the aqueous solution, called bromine water, acts as an oxidizing agent. (infoplease.com)

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