A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Hydrobromic acid (HBr). A solution of hydrogen bromide gas in water.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
The process of assigning duties to a subordinate with lesser qualifications.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

Comparison of two in vitro activation systems for protoxicant organophosphorous esterase inhibitors. (1/242)

In order to perform in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by organophosphorous (OP) protoxicants, simple, reliable methods are needed to convert protoxicants to their esterase-inhibiting forms. Incubation of parathion or chlorpyrifos with 0.05% bromine solution or uninduced rat liver microsomes (RLM) resulted in production of the corresponding oxygen analogs of these OP compounds and markedly increased esterase inhibition in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither activation system affected cell viability or the activity of AChE or NTE in the absence of OP compounds. Although parathion and chlorpyrifos were activated by RLM, bromine activation required fewer steps and produced more esterase inhibition for a given concentration of chlorpyrifos. However, RLM activation of OP protoxicants produced metabolites other than oxygen analogs and may, therefore, be more relevant as a surrogate for OP biotransformation in vivo. This methodology makes the use of intact cells for in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by protoxicant organophosphate compounds a viable alternative to in vivo tests.  (+info)

Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to bromine. (2/242)

Occasionally children are the victims of mass poisoning from an environmental contaminant that occurs due to an unexpected common point source of exposure. In many cases the contaminant is a widely used chemical generally considered to be safe. In the following case, members of a sports team visiting a community for an athletic event were exposed to chemicals while staying at a local motel. Bromine-based sanitizing agents and other chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, which were used in excess in the motel's swimming pool, may have accounted for symptoms experienced by the boy reported here and at least 16 other adolescents. Samples of pool water contained excess bromine (8.2 microg/mL; ideal pool bromine concentration is 2-4 microg/mL). Symptoms and signs attributable to bromine toxicity included irritative skin rashes; eye, nose, and throat irritation; bronchospasm; reduced exercise tolerance; fatigue; headache; gastrointestinal disturbances; and myalgias. While most of the victims recovered within a few days, the index case and several other adolescents had persistent or recurrent symptoms lasting weeks to months after the exposure.  (+info)

Identification and molecular characterization of BP75, a novel bromodomain-containing protein. (3/242)

We here describe the identification and characterization of a novel bromodomain-containing protein, the bromodomain protein of 75 kDa (BP75). Initially, we identified BP75 in a two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with the first PDZ (acronym for post-synaptic density protein PSD-95, Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor DlgA and the tight junction protein ZO-1) domain in protein tyrosine phosphatase-BAS-like (PTP-BL). We found that BP75 is expressed ubiquitously and show that both BP75 and a PTP-BL deletion mutant consisting of the first PDZ domain are located mainly in the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization is also evident. Full-length PTP-BL, on the contrary, is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although some basal nuclear staining is observed. The described molecular interaction may reflect a mechanism of coupling submembraneous signalling events and nuclear events.  (+info)

Actin filament organization is required for proper cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR. (4/242)

Previous studies have indicated a role of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. However, the exact molecular nature of this regulation is still largely unknown. In this report human epithelial CFTR was expressed in human melanoma cells genetically devoid of the filamin homologue actin-cross-linking protein ABP-280 [ABP(-)]. cAMP stimulation of ABP(-) cells or cells genetically rescued with ABP-280 cDNA [ABP(+)] was without effect on whole cell Cl(-) currents. In ABP(-) cells expressing CFTR, cAMP was also without effect on Cl(-) conductance. In contrast, cAMP induced a 10-fold increase in the diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC)-sensitive whole cell Cl(-) currents of ABP(+)/CFTR(+) cells. Further, in cells expressing both CFTR and a truncated form of ABP-280 unable to cross-link actin filaments, cAMP was also without effect on CFTR activation. Dialysis of ABP-280 or filamin through the patch pipette, however, resulted in a DPC-inhibitable increase in the whole cell currents of ABP(-)/CFTR(+) cells. At the single-channel level, protein kinase A plus ATP activated single Cl(-) channels only in excised patches from ABP(+)/CFTR(+) cells. Furthermore, filamin alone also induced Cl(-) channel activity in excised patches of ABP(-)/CFTR(+) cells. The present data indicate that an organized actin cytoskeleton is required for cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR.  (+info)

3,4-Dihydrocoumarin hydrolase with haloperoxidase activity from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46. (5/242)

A novel lactonohydrolase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, was purified 375-fold to apparent homogeneity, with a 22.7% overall recovery, from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46, which was isolated as a fluorene-assimilating micro-organism. The molecular mass of the native enzyme, as estimated by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is 56 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass is 30 kDa. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzes 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, and the Km and Vmax for 3,4-dihydrocoumarin are 0.806 mM and 4760 U.mg-1, respectively. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme show high similarity to those of bacterial non-heme haloperoxidases. The enzyme exhibits brominating activity with monochlorodimedon in the presence of H2O2 and 3, 4-dihydrocoumarin or an organic acid, such as acetate and n-butyrate.  (+info)

Efficient introduction of aryl bromide functionality into proteins in vivo. (6/242)

Artificial proteins can be engineered to exhibit interesting solid state, liquid crystal or interfacial properties and may ultimately serve as important alternatives to conventional polymeric materials. The utility of protein-based materials is limited, however, by the availability of just the 20 amino acids that are normally recognized and utilized by biological systems; many desirable functional groups cannot be incorporated directly into proteins by biosynthetic means. In this study, we incorporate para-bromophenylalanine (p-Br-phe) into a model target protein, mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), by using a bacterial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) variant with relaxed substrate specificity. Coexpression of the mutant PheRS and DHFR in a phenylalanine auxotrophic Escherichia coli host strain grown in p-Br-phe-supplemented minimal medium resulted in 88% replacement of phenylalanine residues by p-Br-phe; variation in the relative amounts of phe and p-Br-phe in the medium allows control of the degree of substitution by the analog. Protein expression yields of 20-25 mg/l were obtained from cultures supplemented with p-Br-phe; this corresponds to about two-thirds of the expression levels characteristic of cultures supplemented with phe. The aryl bromide function is stable under the conditions used to purify DHFR and creates new opportunities for post-translational derivatization of brominated proteins via metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. In addition, bromination may be useful in X-ray studies of proteins via the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) technique.  (+info)

Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma. (7/242)

Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific "molecular fingerprint" for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2) system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans.  (+info)

Permeabilization via the P2X7 purinoreceptor reveals the presence of a Ca2+-activated Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of murine tracheal epithelial cells. (8/242)

Calcium-activated Cl(-) secretion is an important modulator of regulated ion transport in murine airway epithelium and is mediated by an unidentified Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl(-) channel. We have transfected immortalized murine tracheal epithelial cells with the cDNA encoding the permeabilizing P2X(7) purinoreceptor (P2X(7)-R) to selectively permeabilize the basolateral membrane and thereby isolate the apical membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. In P2X(7)-R-permeabilized cells, we have demonstrated that UTP stimulates a Cl(-) current across the apical membrane of CF and normal murine tracheal epithelial cells. The magnitude of the UTP-stimulated current was significantly greater in CF than in normal cells. Ion substitution studies demonstrated that the current exhibited a permselectivity sequence of Cl(-) > I(-) > Br(-) > gluconate(-). We have also determined a rank order of potency for putative Cl(-) channel blockers: niflumic acid > or = 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid > 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate > glybenclamide >> diphenlyamine-2-carboxylate, tamoxifen, and p-tetra-sulfonato-tetra-methoxy-calix[4]arene. Complete characterization of this current and the corresponding single channel properties could lead to the development of a new therapy to correct the defective airway surface liquid in cystic fibrosis patients.  (+info)

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Bromine, from ancient Greek, meaning stench, is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen.. Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline salts, analogous to table salt. The high solubility of bromide ions has caused its accumulation in the oceans, where it is abundantly available. Commercially, the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China.. Elemental bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. One of the major uses of bromine is as a water purifier/disinfectant in swimming pools and hot tubs. Another key use of bromine compounds is in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals: Brominated substances are important ingredients of many over-the-counter and prescription drugs, including analgesics, sedatives, and antihistamines.. Elestors storage systems incorporate a number of parallel and independent ...
Abstract. The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive bromine at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive bromine aloft. Here, we present bromine monoxide (BrO) and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 BRomine Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This ...
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: chemistry,hydrocarbon,GCSE,Alkene (Chemical Classification),science,YouTube Editor,alkene,c3,c2,c1,Bromine (Chemical Element),Bromine Water,Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (Chemical Classification),unsaturated,alkali,bromine
This weekend I switched from BBB in spa to Bromine. 3-step. Using Borax also. Put in proper amounts using Pool Calculator and then threw in the floater with Bromine tabs. MAJOR big mistake that I didnt realize until next day. The feeder cant be adjusted down fine enough. Took feeder out (still out) and will put in only one tab till can get one that can be fine tuned. Bromine so way off the scale I cant measure pH. I drained close to 1/2 and refilled. Bromine came down a little. So stopped by
This paper describes our recent work in which CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) micelles are used as catalytic platforms for performing bromination and oxidation reactions in water. The bromide counter ion is used to prepare Br2 in situ which is subsequently employed as a brominating and oxidizing agent. In this process the bromide is rapidly oxidized to bromine using BPO (benzoic peroxyanhydride). The reaction is facilitated by the micelle which improves the BPO solubility and its proximity with Br-. Several example reactions are discussed including micelle-assisted bromination of cholesterol and methyl styrene along with an example of mild oxidation of benzyl alcohol to form benzaldehyde. These examples illustrate the use of bromine as a mild oxidizing agent and also as a brominating agent. Kinetic studies of Br2 formation and cholesterol bromination are also presented ...
In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kW(th) bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel -serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth ...
This study describes the use of alkaline fusion by sodium peroxide to dissolve chlorine and bromine in rocks to produce a solution which, with appropriate pre-treatment, is suitable for analysis by ion chromatography. Results are given for a selection of sedimentary and igneous rocks. The accuracy of the fusion method is evaluated by analysis of Geological Survey of Japan reference materials. Additionally, a spike recovery rest is performed to show that the fusion process is quantitative for chlorine and bromine. The results for chlorine are in the range 58-3860 mg kg(-1) and show good agreement both with results obtained by pyrohydrolysis with flow injection colorimetric detection and results obtained by aqueous leaching of the samples with ion chromatography detection. Results for bromine are in the range ,3-4.5 mg kg(-1). Because of the relatively few data obtained in this study and the relative paucity of published data for reference materials, an assessment of the accuracy of the fusion ...
Bromine water test for alkenes. When an alkene is added to a solution of bromine water (left) the solution is de-colourised (right). Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. The number of hydrogen atoms in an alkene is double the number of carbon atoms. Alkenes can de-colourise bromine water, while alkanes cannot. - Stock Image C029/0955
Im a newbie who just installed a small (200 gallon) hot tub. I read the sticky here about bromine systems and decided to go with a 3 step bromine system with a floater. Im attempting to set up my spa for the first time today. Please excuse if Im asking this in the wrong place. Background info: Im using 4-in-1 bromine test strips, not a test kit, so my measurements are imperfect, but my initial hardness from the tap seems to be around 100, alkalinity is 120, and pH is 7.8. I added
Bromine is a brown or red liquid with a characteristic odor. Bromine is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, inks, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and chemical warfare agents. Occupational exposure to bromine may occur during the production and the application of bromine compounds and during other industrial activities. This compound is adsorbed into the human body through the respiratory tract, skin (occupational exposure) and alimentary tract (general population). Physiologically, bromine exists as an ion in the body. Slight eye irritation occurs as a consequence of chronic exposure to bromine vapors at concentration of 1 mg/m3. Higher concentrations increase this effect and cause nasal and skin irritation. Many years observations have shown that during occupational exposure to bromine vapors at concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), there are no observed adverse effects. From cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, it is known that brominated organic compounds are more toxic than ...
In a previous post we went through the key reactions of the carbocation pathway. Its a family of reactions which proceed through 1) attack of an alkene upon an acid, forming a free carbocation, and 2) attack of a nucleophile upon the carbocation.. Although we saw that several key reactions of alkenes were consistent with this mechanism, it isnt the case for all. Take the bromination of alkenes, for instance.. Treatment of an alkene with bromine (Br2) in a chlorinated solvent (CHCl3, and CH2Cl2 are popular choices; CCl4 is often cited in textbooks*) leads to the formation of products containing two bromine atoms.. Observation #1: Bromination Proceeds with anti stereochemistry. Possibly the most interesting feature of this reaction is that the products follow a very predictable stereochemical pattern. For instance, in the reaction of cyclohexene with Br2, the two bromine atoms add to opposite faces of the alkene (anti stereochemistry). No syn products are observed.. ...
Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. Its properties are thus similar to those of fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, and tend to be intermediate between those of the two neighbouring halogens, chlorine and iodine. Bromine has the electron configuration [Ar]3d104s24p5, with the seven electrons in the fourth and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell.[16] Corresponding to periodic trends, it is intermediate in electronegativity between chlorine and iodine (F: 3.98, Cl: 3.16, Br: 2.96, I: 2.66), and is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine. It is also a weaker oxidising agent than chlorine, but a stronger one than iodine. Conversely, the bromide ion is a weaker reducing agent than iodide, but a stronger one than chloride.[16] These similarities led to chlorine, ...
Equations (9) to (18) can be used (with the aid of a simple, iterative computer program) to solve for (DGH), (DGC), (DGCl) and (DGBr). However, it is clear that equations (9) to (11) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes, likewise equations (12) to (14) can be replaced by a general equation for the bromine substituted methanes and equations (15) to (17) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted bromomethanes. Similarly, equations (15) and (18) are members of the bromine substituted monochloromethanes.. Thus, the general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes will be,. ...
Global Bromine Disinfectant Tablet (BCDMH) Market by Manufacturers, Types, Regions and Application Research Report(PharmaNewsWire.Com, January 13, 2018 ) Global Bromine Disinfectant Tablet (BCDMH) Market report is replete with detailed analysis from a thorough research, especially on questions th
Thanks Chem Geek for your reply. I also asked this question in other forums and got different answers. Local pool supply shops suggested to not use a chlorine based shock because of the generation of unwanted chemistry in a bromine pool (dont remember now what that was supposed to be). In any case, I went with a non-chlorine shocker. I understand that with the DCDMH that shocking is not as necessary but I did use shocker with all the fresh water. In any case, the bromine testing seems to be good. The stabilizer, cyanuric acid, I understand to be required for chlorine in outside pools to protect from breakdown due to UV light. In any case, my understanding was that mono-chloroamine was the cause of chlorine smell. My pool is indoor and is directly attached to the basement floor in a walkout configuration. Still there was some cyanuric acid in the pool even though it should not be required. In any case, this configuration is very sensitive to the chemical smell. I have now moved on to a different ...
Answer to: Aluminum will react with bromine to form aluminum bromide (Al2Br6). What mass of bromine (g) is needed to form 1.16 mol of Al2Br6? Do not enter units
Hi all -- Ive spoken with Mike about his bromine request. The OSHA PEL (TWA) is 0.1 ppm - compare to that of Cl2, which is 0.5 ppm. However, like most things, it can be managed safely (gee, I remember using it as an undergrad in organic synthesis lab.) Its heavy, red gas, so you can see it coming. But I really dont want to see this in our cleanroom. However, Mike has worked with it and is familiar with safety precautions. This is expected to be done only a few times at most as his company is building their lab now. I would like to suggest that we allow Mike (and only Mike) to do this etch in one of the exhausted benches in the wafersaw room. His solution is pretty dilute, so he can collect the waste as solvent waste. He just needs to make sure that the bromine kept in the proper storage area, not at the bench. I would also suggest that this be done only during working hours (so people will be nearby and he can access the storage area -- I dont think we should store this in the personal ...
Tire curing bladders are made from poly(isobutylene-co-4-bromomethylstyrene) with a benzylic bromine content of from 0.15 to 0.45 mole percent, vulcanized with a cure system of 1,6-hexamethylene-bis(sodium thiosulfate) and zinc oxide. The vulcanizate has low residual benzylic bromine content which leads to enhanced stability under severe duty applications, reduced hot tension set, and reduced adhesion or co-cure to halobutyl tire innerliners.
Bromine, a reddish-brown liquid chemical, is used in many household applications, such as a water purifier and as a fire-retardant. Occasionally, someone may have an allergy to bromine, which can cause serious symptoms. It is important to identify and treat this allergy to keep each individual safe and symptom-free.
After being cooled in liquid nitrogen, a tube of pure bromine diffuses faster than a tube of bromine plus air. (Disc 16-11, 52 sec ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Bromine Industry, 2016 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Bromine Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research...
Tetrabromoethane (TBE) is a halogenated hydrocarbon, chemical formula C2H2Br4. Although three bromine atoms may bind to one of the carbon atoms creating 1,1,1,2-tetrabromoethane this is not thermodynamically favorable, so in practice tetrabromoethane is equal to 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane, where each carbon atom binds two bromine atoms. It has an unusually high density for an organic compound, near 3 g/mL, due largely to the four bromine atoms ...
Tetrabromoethane (TBE) is a halogenated hydrocarbon, chemical formula C2H2Br4. Although three bromine atoms may bind to one of the carbon atoms creating 1,1,1,2-tetrabromoethane this is not thermodynamically favorable, so in practice tetrabromoethane is equal to 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane, where each carbon atom binds two bromine atoms. It has an unusually high density for an organic compound, near 3 g/mL, due largely to the four bromine atoms ...
Bromine: Secret Toxin?. Reference: Endocrine Society, Oncology Letter,. Archives: www.newsinnutrition.com. What do you know about bromine? I bet not much. Its in the halide family, meaning the same family as chlorine and iodine and fluorine. Iodine is the biggest size of the lot, then smaller bromine, then chlorine and finally fluorine. They all share a negative one charge, so act the same chemically. They differ only in size and weight. Bromine is easily extracted from ocean salt brine pools, and is used industrially as a fire retardant. It used to be used as an insecticide in the form of methyl bromide, but that turned out to be a potent ozone depletor, so that got nixed. And once upon a time it was used as an anti-anxiety drug, and hence the term, Bromides for trite and trivial soothing answers.. The issue of bromine that I want to explore is that of its competition with iodine. We need iodine. Desparately. It is one of the elements that all of us are just barely getting enough of. The WHO ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 1m9r: Human Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase With 3-Bromo-7- Nitroindazole Bound
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 3ot3: X-Ray Crystal Structure of Compound 22K Bound to Human CHK1 Kinase Domain
Pi Page Diaphragm Seals Halogen Chlorine Ds Pi 32a - Product Information Page Diaphragm Seal Chlorine Bromine Fluorine DS-PI-32A - Product & Technical Information product information
This brings up another point. With all the fluorine and chlorine we are exposed to from bathing, brushing our teeth, cooking with tap water, drinking tea, consuming chlorides such as sodium chloride (table salt), etc. why isnt every one breaking out in acne? After all fluorine and chlorine will both push bromine out of the system. On the other hand iodine is less reactive than bromine so the bromine if present will push the iodine out of the system. Yet they are claiming that the acne only occurs when they take the less reactive iodine that does not push bromine out of the body like fluorine and chlorine will ...
The multifaceted role of halogen chemistry in the troposphere gained increasing attention in the last two decades. In particular, the interaction of Reactive Halogen Species (RHS) with ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) cycles (producing particulate matter and O3), as well as the consumption of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds by chlorine atoms (Cl) in competition with OH radicals, or the initiation of sudden O3 depletions by bromine (Br) atoms, are of major interest in atmospheric research. An important issue is the exploration and quantification of RHS sources and sinks, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous processes. The main focus of this work is the heterogeneous, photochemical formation of atomic Cl and Br in the presence of iron-doped saline media at various salt and gas-phase compositions. A Teflon smog chamber was employed to expose the samples to simulated sunlight under controlled conditions (air composition, temperature, relative humidity). The production of the ...
Hazards: Bromine is corrosive and toxic.. Carbon tetrachloride is a cancer suspect agent. Toluene is flammable and toxic. Chemicals and Solutions: Materials: Two vials of toluene (about 10 ml each). 5% bromine in carbon tetrachloride solution. Plastic eyedropper Procedure: Add a few drops of the bromine solution rapidly to each of the vials of toluene. Show the class the orange solution produced. Place one of the vials on the overhead projector and watch this solution decolorize rapidly. The vial not placed on the overhead will decolorize much more slowly. This demo can be scaled up to be done in small hydrometer cylinders. Students will be able to see the the bromine fading out starting from the bottom and moving up the cylinder. Hint: Discussion: The halogenation reaction is a substitution reaction that takes place by a free radical mechanism.. ...
The Thermodynamics of Chromatography - Interactions Between the Atoms of Hydrogen, Carbon, Chlorine and Bromine and an Exclusively Dispersive Stationary Phase , Experimental Data , Page ...
Leisure Time Test Strips are an easy and effective way to test the chlorine or bromine level in your spa. Each bottle of test strips has a chart on the back.
Comprehensive information for the element Bromine - Br is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.
Bromine (Br) is the only nonmetallic periodic element that is in its liquid state at room temperature. It is considered toxic and highly reactive, which makes it dangerous for humans who do not handle it with extreme diligence. It is reddish-brown in color, and has a distinctive, unpleasant odor. The element was discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard, and has an atomic number of 35.. ...
I dont think polarization is the issue. Adding $\ce{FeBr3}$ is just to reduce the $\ce{Br-Br}$ bond strength, speeding up the reaction (attack of the aromatic ring on the bromine is part of the rate determining step, which is slow in the bromination of benzene). It functions as a catalyst being recycled when the $\ce{Br-}$ grabs a $\ce{H+}$ to restore aromaticity in the ring. Im pretty sure - at least I see no reason to doubt - that the catalyst requirements for the bromination of anisole and the bromination of phenol do not differ much, if at all. That is, no catalyst is required for the bromination of anisole.. ...
Three new methods have been developed for the assay of cyproheptadine in bulk drug and in tablet formulation based on the bromination of cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CPH) by bromine generated in situ by the action of acid on bromate-bromide mixture. In titrimetry, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium followed by the determination of unreacted bromine iodometrically. Spectrophotometry involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate-bromide reagent in acid medium to CPH, and after the reaction is ensured to be complete, the residual bromine is determined by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm. In kinetic method, a mixture containing CPH and methyl orange dye in 1 M sulphuric acid is mixed with bromate-bromide reagent at 4-5 C and time required for bleaching of methyl orange colour is measured. In titrimetry and spectrophotometry, the amount of bromine reacted corresponds to the amount ...
Poly maleic acid is prepared with maleic anhydride as reactant and peroxide of hydrogen as initiator in the solvent of water. The influences of the amount of catalyst and reaction temperature on its bromine value, viscosity, scale inhibition action are showed respectively by changing two reaction conditions including reaction temperature and the amount of catclyst. The effect of polymers bromine value and its viscosity on inhibiting scale is also investigated. The relationship between the scale inhibition action and amount of polymer added is also discussed. The experimental results state that the bromine value and viscosity and amount of polymer affect inhibiting scale, the best efficiency of sacle inhibition can be obtained by controlling polymers bromine value and viscosity according to reaction conditions. The efficiency of scale inhibition can not be enhanced when amount of polymer is added to certain degree.
Bromine (Br) cycling in natural wetlands is highly complex, including abiotic/biotic processes and multiphase inorganic/organic Br-species. Wetland ecosystems r...
Wondering about peracetic acid products? Weve recently updated our Frequently Asked Questions page with a new layout and more answers - perhaps your answer is already there.. Or, curious about our bromine based products? Have a look at our site devoted exclusively to our bromine products, Stabilized Bromine, or skip to the Frequently Asked Questions list for our stabilized bromine product, BromMax.. If you still cant find what youre looking for, feel free to contact us.. ...
Wondering about peracetic acid products? Weve recently updated our Frequently Asked Questions page with a new layout and more answers - perhaps your answer is already there.. Or, curious about our bromine based products? Have a look at our site devoted exclusively to our bromine products, Stabilized Bromine, or skip to the Frequently Asked Questions list for our stabilized bromine product, BromMax.. If you still cant find what youre looking for, feel free to contact us.. ...
The catalytic asymmetric bromoamination of chalcones with N-bromosuccinimide as both bromine and amide source was realized by using a chiral N,N′-dioxide-Sc(NTf2)3 complex as an efficient catalyst. The corresponding chiral bromoamination products were obtained in high yields with high dr and good ee values (
Lookup HS Codes for Saint Lucia vi 28.01.30 Flourine; bromine. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Saint Lucia.
AIM: The aim of this experiment is to carry out an addition reaction using trans-stilbene and bromine reagent to produce 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane. As most chemicals used in this experiment are toxic / harmful, PPE must be used throughout and the experiment should be carried out inside a fume hood. THEORY: Bromine and chlorine readily undergo addition reactions with alkenes. This practical involves the bromination of trans-stilbene using a 10% bromine dichloromethane solution. Hence, an addition reaction takes place an 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane […]. ...
Both animal research and human studies of bromine have demonstrated its toxicity, finding links to lowered fertility, early puberty onset and impaired neurological development. Studies have also shown that bromine builds up in the heart, liver and fat tissue. The accumulation may also appear in breast milk. Because of this evidence, some health safety experts are concerned about bromines use even as a flame retardant which can be present in many household items.. Given the high levels of soda many people consume in the US, its presence in soft drinks is alarming. Health experts point in particular to the gamer culture where people may play video games for hours, drinking soft drinks throughout an extended session of gaming. Some soft drink companies, such as Mountain Dew, even offer game tie-ins, awarding players bonus points for drinking more of the soda.. ...
Taste-and-odour complaints are a leading cause of consumer dissatisfaction with drinking water. The aim of this study was to determine odour threshold concentration ranges and descriptors, using a Western Australian odour panel, for chlorine, bromine, chlorine added to bromide ions, the four major regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and combined THMs. An odour panel was established and trained to determine odour threshold concentration ranges for odorous compounds typically found in drinking water at 25°C, using modified flavour profile analysis (FPA) techniques. Bromine and chlorine had the same odour threshold concentration ranges and were both described as having a chlorinous odour by a majority of panellists, but the odour threshold concentration range of bromine expressed in free chlorine equivalents was lower that that of chlorine. It is likely that the free chlorine equivalent residuals measured in many parts of distribution systems in Western Australia are comprised of some portion of ...
Retaining hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) structures in polymers after surfactant removal and drying is particularly challenging, as the surface tension existing during the drying processes tends to change the morphology. In this study, cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels were prepared in LLC hexagonal phases formed from a dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)/water system. The retention of the hexagonal LLC structures was examined by controlling the surface tension. Polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering results indicate that the hexagonal LLC structure was successfully formed before polymerization and well retained after polymerization and after surfactant removal when the surface tension forces remained neutral. Controlling the surface tension during the drying process can retain the nanostructures templated from lyotropic liquid crystals which will result in the formation of materials with desired nanostructures ...
When water attacks carbon, carbon lets go of the electrons binding it to bromine. (bromine wanted them anyway) thus breaking the bromonium bridge.. The attacking oxygen atom still has 2 bound hydrogen atoms for a total of 3 bonds and one lone pair. This results in an oxonium, or an oxygen atom with a positive formal charge.. Oxygen, an electronegative atom, is not thrilled with the positive charge and therefore pulls on the electrons binding it to hydrogen. This results in a slightly less positive oxygen, and a partially positive hydrogen atom.. Another water molecule in solution reaches out with one of its nucleophilic lone pairs to grab the partially positive hydrogen atom. The electrons break away and return to the oxygen giving it a second lone pair and neutral charge.. This resulting product is a halohydrin. If bromine you get a bromohydrin, if chlorine youll get a chlorohydrin.. How Markovnikovs Rule Factors In:. Recognize that at no point in this explanation did I mention a carbocation. ...
In phenol, the $-\ce{OH}$ group activates the benzene ring towards electrophilic substitution. But why is it that the electrophilic bromination of phenol gives trisubstitution (forming 2,4,6-tribromophenol) when aqueous bromine is used, but monosubstitution (either 2- or 4-bromophenol) when a $\ce{CCl4}$ solution of bromine is used? How does the solvent control the extent of bromination?. Related but does not explain completely: How do we know whether we will get a mono substituted or tri-substituted product during electrophilic aromatic substitution?. ...
July 2000. Background. Until 1999, DWI provided the support services for the voluntary approval system for chemicals used in swimming pool treatment. Following the decision to terminate the voluntary approval system, this study was commissioned in response to unresolved concerns about the conditions of approval for products based on the organobromine compound BCDMH.. Bromine-based disinfectants were introduced during the 1970s and early 1980s for use in recreational pools following the governments recommendation for the discontinuation of the use of chlorine gas. At the time, the perceived benefits of bromine were the improved bactericidal efficiency of bromination over chlorination (due to the greater biological activity of bromamines over chloramines, produced by the combination of the halogen with nitrogenous pollution - ie. urine), and the reduced scale of pH correction required, although it was recognized that elemental bromine is hazardous and capsulated dosing systems were recommended ...
BVO is patented by chemical companies as a flame retardant. It is also banned in over 100 countries, but it is still used in the U.S. Research shows that brominated flame retardants are building up in our bodies, and are linked to birth defects, growth problems, hearing loss, major organ system damage, early onset puberty and schizophrenia. Some individuals have reacted to drinking a beverage with BVO just once, while others dont show reactions unless they consume larger quantities. The reality is that Bromine is a fire retardant and considered an environmental toxin; it shouldnt be in any foods or drinks.. Many experts believe that the FDA standards for BVO based on data from 1977 are dated. Since laboratory testing technologies have advanced so rapidly, many feel that compounds such as bromine should be reexamined periodically, to verify that there arent any negative effects that may have been missed by prior inferior testing methods. Charles Vorhees, a toxicologist at Cincinnati Childrens ...
0153]According to the present invention, the compound may have an appropriate substituent (hereinafter, referred to as substituent W). Specific examples of the substituent W include: a halogen atom (e.g. a fluorine atom, a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom); an alkyl group [which represents a substituted or unsubstituted linear, branched, or cyclic alkyl group, and which includes an alkyl group (preferably an alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, e.g. a methyl group, an ethyl group, an n-propyl group, an isopropyl group, a t-butyl group, an n-octyl group, an eicosyl group, a 2-chloroethyl group, a 2-cyanoethyl group, or a 2-ethylhexyl group), a cycloalkyl group (preferably a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 30 carbon atoms, e.g. a cyclohexyl group, a cyclopentyl group, or a 4-n-dodecylcyclohexyl group), a bicycloalkyl group (preferably a substituted or unsubstituted bicycloalkyl group having 5 to 30 carbon atoms, i.e. a monovalent group obtained by ...
Bismuth(V) fluoride is a white crystalline solid. It is an extremely strong oxidizing agent and fluorinating agent, something that adds fluoride ions to other chemicals. It reacts with water to make ozone and oxygen difluoride. It also reacts with iodine and sulfur at room temperature. Above 50°C, it reacts with hydrocarbons like paraffin to make fluorocarbons. At 180°C, it reacts with chlorine to make chlorine monofluoride and with bromine to make bromine trifluoride.. ...
Iodine (I2) and Iodide (I-) is for optimal thyroid function. Iodine forces bromine out of body stores and may give adverse effects. This is not from Iodine, but from bromine poisoning.
In the 1960s, one slice of bread in the USA contained the full RDA of 0.15 mg iodine. The risk for breast cancer was then 1 in 20 (7). Over the last 2 decades, iodine was replaced by bromine in the bread making process. Bromine blocks thyroid function and may interfere with the anticancer effect of iodine on the breast. Now, the risk for breast cancer is 1 in 8 and increasing 1% per year (7 ...
The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution. ...
This dataset contains Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMAX-DOAS) data collected on the Gulfstream-V High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (NSF/NCAR GV HIAPER) aircraft during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) project. The data consists of two types of files: 1) volume mixing ratio of bromine monoxide in air (combined DOAS fit and vmr retrieval error (30%) expressed as volume mixing ratio of bromine monoxide in air) and 2) volume mixing ratio of iodine monoxide in air (combined DOAS fit and vmr retrieval error (20%) expressed as volume mixing ratio of iodine monoxide in air). Mixing ratios are derived by parameterization method on limb spectra integrated column measurements. BrO slant columns are corrected for stratospheric BrO above 18km using CAMChem. ...
Chemistry Paper V Organic Chemistry Previous Year Question Paper Year 2005 : IInd Year Q.I. (a) A and Bare two isomeric dicarboxylic acids whose molecular formula is C4 H4 O4. A adds 1 mole of bromine to give a product from which a pair of enantiomorphs may be resolved. B adds 1 mole of bromine to yield a compound which is not resolvable. Suggest structural formulae for A and B and the two dibromo compounds. 4 (b) Draw all possible stereoisomers for the following and […] ...
ZeoVit Iodide Complex Concentrate, 50 ml. - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on ZeoVit Iodide Complex Concentrate, 50 ml.. - Buy ZeoVit Iodide Complex Concentrate, 50 ml. - Now Only $49.99 - ZeoVit Iodide Complex Concentrate, 50 ml.For an improved coloration corals need iodide in different forms as well as additional elements enabeling an optimal assimilation of the iodide. Contains organic and inorganic iodide as well as bromine, potassium and fluorine. Recommended in any tank system.Dosing: 1 drop per 100 L/25 gallons per day.- See more at: http://www.aquariumspecialty.com/zeovit-iodide-complex-concentrate-50ml#sthash.IWFZUPLE.dpufFor an improved coloration corals need iodide in different forms as well as additional elements enabeling an optimal assimilation of the iodide. Contains organic and inorganic iodide as well as bromine, potassium and fluorine. Recommended in any tank system.Dosing: 1 drop per 100 L/25 gallons per day.Enhances blue colors, especially in certain
Global Tetrabromobisphenol-A report 2017, forthcoming industry trends and provides segmentation based on keyplayers, type, application, regions
You may have heard that photography is a snap. Thats because every picture begins with the snap of a shutter. When the shutter opens, light is captured and recorded on photographic film. It doesnt matter if the film youre shooting is black-and-white or color--the same chemical processes are at work. Black-and-white film is made by suspending billions of tiny silver halide crystals in gelatin and coating a clear sheet of plastic with the gelatin. Each tabular-shaped crystal contains silver and bromideions held together by strong electrostatic forces. Photons of light with the right amount of energy can change these crystals, producing silver ions, bromine atoms, and free electrons. An electron wanders through the crystal until it is captured by a silver ion. In the process, silver ions are changed into black metallic silver. The number of silver atoms formed depends on the amount of light each crystal receives. In an exposed crystal, as few as four silver atoms may form. These atoms usually ...
Halogenoalkanes, also known as haloalkanes or alkyl halides, are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. In carbon-halogen bond, halogens have significantly greater electronegativities than carbon except iodine. In result, this functional group is polarized so that the carbon is electrophilic and the halogen is nucleophilic. Halogenoalkanes are can be classified depending on the halogen atom position on the chain of carbon atoms. The carbon which is attached with the halogen atom is linked up with only one other alkyl group in primary halogenoalkanes, whereas directly linked up with two and three other alkyl groups in secondary halogenoalkanes and tertiary halogenoalkanes respectively. In some case, primary halogenoalkanes are counted even though there are no alkyl groups attached to the carbon with the halogen on it. Three characteristics provide important influences on the chemical behavior ...
Flame retardants in baby products are raising big concerns from health experts. Many of the chemicals have been classified as probable carcinogens. Some have been known to interrupt normal hormone systems. Some have been linked to brain damage.
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0009] The 5-chloro-1-alkyl-3-fluoroalkyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes used as starting materials in the process according to the invention are defined generically by the formula (II). The radical R1 in this formula (II) preferably represents methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, butyl, pentyl, and more preferably represents methyl. The radical R2 represents C1-C5-fluoroalkyl, wherein fluoroalkyl is an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms which is substituted with at least one fluorine atom up to the point of perfluorination. When the fluoroalkyl is not perfluorinated, further halogen atoms such as chlorine and bromine, preferably chlorine, can be present as further substituents. R2 preferably represents CF2H, CF3, CF2Cl, CCl2F, C2F5, C3F7, and more preferably represents CF2H and CF3. Very particular preference is given to using 5-chloro-1-methyl-3-difluoromethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde (II-1) as starting material ...
Here, we investigate the strengths of R-X···π interactions, involving both chlorine and bromine, in model systems derived from protein-ligand complexes found in the PDB. We find that the strengths of these interactions can vary significantly, with binding energies ranging from −2.01 to −3.60 kcal/mol. Symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) analysis shows that, as would be expected, dispersion plays the largest role in stabilizing these R-X···π interactions, generally accounting for about 50% to 80% of attraction. R-Br···π interactions are, for the most part, found to be stronger than R-Cl···π interactions, although the relative geometries of the interacting pair and the halogens chemical environment can also have a strong impact. The two factors that have the strongest impact on the strength of these R-X···π interactions is the distance between the halogen and the phenyl plane as well as the size of the halogen σ-hole.
Even if you do decide to go for a swim in a chlorine-treated pool, make sure you take a shower before and right after the swim to prevent the rash from appearing!. Some health complications may accompany chlorine rash as a result of increased exposure. It can be a red rash on balls or just white spots on your testicles. A tightly fitting swim cap and pair of goggles prevents the chlorinated water from further reaching the hair and eye area. Skin Problems Caused by Swimming Pool Bromine - Swimming pool water needs disinfection and constant maintenance in order to keep it safe for swimmers. How can you prevent hot tub rash? If youre using a public hot tub or pool, the CDC recommends asking the person in charge if disinfectant (like chlorine) pH levels are checked at least twice a. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are a great way to ruin a day in the outdoors. Chlorine helps eliminate harmful bacteria and other foreign agents that can build up in a body of water, especially when its exposed to a large ...
The New Jersey regulations require weekly testing for bacteria by a State Certified Laboratory and testing every two hours for pH and disinfectants (such as free chlorine or bromine) in swimming pools, whirlpools, spas and hot tubs. Lakes and beaches have to test for bacteria weekly. The bacterial tests are the standard plate count and total coliform in swimming pools, the standard plate count and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in whirlpools, spas and hot tubs, and E. coli in lakes.. The NJDEP is requiring enterococci testing for ocean beaches. The enterococci result shall not exceed 104 enterococci per 100 ml. E. coli has replaced fecal coliform in natural waters ...
The known isotopes of tennessine, 293Ts and 294Ts, are too short-lived to allow for chemical experimentation at present. Nevertheless, many chemical properties of tennessine have been calculated.[101] Unlike the previous group 17 elements, tennessine may not exhibit the chemical behavior common to the halogens.[10] For example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine routinely accept an electron to achieve the more stable electronic configuration of a noble gas, obtaining eight electrons (octet) in their valence shells instead of seven.[102] This ability weakens as atomic weight increases going down the group; tennessine would be the least willing group 17 element to accept an electron. Of the oxidation states it is predicted to form, −1 is expected to be the least common.[5] The standard reduction potential of the Ts/Ts− couple is predicted to be −0.25 V; this value is negative, unlike for all the previous halogens.[2] There is another opportunity for tennessine to complete its octet-by ...
The known isotopes of tennessine, 293Ts and 294Ts, are too short-lived to allow for chemical experimentation at present. Nevertheless, many chemical properties of tennessine have been calculated.[98] Unlike the lighter group 17 elements, tennessine may not exhibit the chemical behavior common to the halogens.[8] For example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine routinely accept an electron to achieve the more stable electronic configuration of a noble gas, obtaining eight electrons (octet) in their valence shells instead of seven.[99] This ability weakens as atomic weight increases going down the group; tennessine would be the least willing group 17 element to accept an electron. Of the oxidation states it is predicted to form, −1 is expected to be the least common.[3] The standard reduction potential of the Ts/Ts− couple is predicted to be −0.25 V; this value is negative, unlike for all the lighter halogens.[2] There is another opportunity for tennessine to complete its octet-by ...
All Swim offer great discounts on Non-Chlorine Shock, Potassium Peroxymono Sulphate. In stock, UK next working day delivery available. FREE delivery on orders over £60. These chlorine free shock granules are ideal for regular oxidisation of pool and spa water. They are suitable for pools and spas running on chlorine or bromine.
Want to check a specific model? If you own a newer car (2006 to 2009), there is a good chance your car model has been evaluated. Check healthycar.org to see if your car is of low, medium or high concern. Using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometry device, the groups evaluators detected bromine, chlorine and lead, along with other heavy metals, allergens and known carcinogens. These substances can build up in living things - humans as well as pets - and in the environment over time. Since heat and ultraviolet rays accelerate the release of toxins, drivers are advised to use solar reflectors and park in the shade. Especially in newer cars, roll down the windows and ventilate before you and your pets enter a car that has been baking in the sun. According to the organizations 2006 Automotive Plastics Report Card, Ford and Honda have made significant improvements since 2005, joining Toyota as leaders in the movement toward using sustainable plastics in indoor auto parts. ...
Question 4: Chlorine in water is more than three times more effective as a disinfectant against ________ than an equivalent concentration of bromine, and is more than six times more effective than an equivalent concentration of iodine. ...
Each "article" in this category is a collection of entries about several stamp issuers, presented in alphabetical order. The entries are formulated on the micro model and so provide summary information about all known issuers. See the Category:Compendium of postage stamp issuers page for details of the project. Became the Congo Republic and later Zaire. Dates 1909-1960 Capital Leopoldville Currency 100 centimes = 1 franc Main Article Needed See also Congo Free State Main Article Needed Includes Eupen & Malmedy (Belgian Occupation); German East Africa (Belgian Occupation); Germany (Belgian Occupation) Dates 1849 - Capital Brussels Currency (1849) 100 centimes = 1 franc (2002) 100 cent = 1 euro Main Article Postage stamps and postal history of Belgium Dates 1914-1918 Currency 100 centimes = 1 franc Refer German Occupation Issues (WW1) Dates 1973 - Capital Belmopan Currency 100 cents = 1 dollar Main Article Postage stamps and postal history of Belize See also British Honduras Refer Belarus Dates ...
"bromine". Online Etymology Dictionary. Gemoll W, Vretska K (1997). Griechisch-Deutsches Schul- und Handwörterbuch (Greek-German ...
Recent research has found that adding silica gel or alumina to H-Cl (or H-Br) in dichloromethane increases the rate of reaction ... Therefore, in the presence of peroxides, HBr adds so that the bromine atom is added to the carbon bearing the most numerous ... Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
"Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405. Heather ...
doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(97)00006-0. Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". ...
Dagani, M. J.; Barda, H. J.; Benya, T. J.; Sanders, D. C. (2012). "Bromine Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... Hydrobromic acid has commonly been prepared industrially by reacting bromine with either sulfur or phosphorus and water. ... C further oxidizes HBr to bromine gas. The acid is further purified by filtering out the KHSO4 and by distilling off the water ...
"35 Bromine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. Carl Löwig (1827) "Über Brombereitung und eine auffallende ... Stasińska, Grażyna (2012). "The discovery of oxygen in the universe" (PDF). ppgfsc.posgrad.ufsc.br. Retrieved 20 April 2018. ... Zersetzung des Aethers durch Chlor" (On the preparation of bromine and a striking decomposition of ether by chlorine), Magazine ...
"Meet the Experts: Professor Guillermo Rein". Let's Talk Bromine. The International Bromine Council. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 11 ...
NBS can be a convenient source of Br•, the bromine radical. NBS is commercially available. It can also be synthesized in the ... NBS will decompose over time giving off bromine. Pure NBS is white, but it is often found to be off-white or brown colored by ... To do so, sodium hydroxide and bromine are added to an ice-water solution of succinimide. The NBS product precipitates and can ... non-oxidative PLP dependent decarboxylation) Although NBS is easier and safer to handle than bromine, precautions should be ...
The decolouration of bromine water by electron-rich arenes is used in the bromine test. Direct halogenation of arenes are ... For example, phenols and anilines react quickly with chlorine and bromine water to give multiple halogenated products. ... Ioffe, D.; Kampf, A. (2002). "Bromine, Organic Compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. doi:10.1002/ ...
There are two stable and naturally occurring isotopes of bromine, bromine-79 and bromine-81. A total of 33 isotopes of bromine ... Some bromine in the form of the bromide anion is present in all organisms. A biological role for bromine in humans has not been ... Pure bromine is somewhat toxic but less toxic than fluorine and chlorine. One hundred milligrams of bromine is lethal. Bromide ... Bromine was discovered in the 1820s by Antoine Jérôme Balard. Balard discovered bromine by passing chlorine gas through a ...
1891 Dow process The Dow process is the electrolytic method of bromine extraction from brine, and was Herbert Henry Dow's ... "Electrolytic Production of Bromine". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved June 25, 2012. ... second revolutionary process for generating bromine commercially in 1891. 1891 Tesla coil A Tesla coil is a type of resonant ...
"Octel Bromine Works, Amlwch". www.octelamlwch.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2017. "Anglesey railway track clear-up brings ... and transporting Bromine and related products used in fuel additives, back to the main line, bound for Ellesmere Port. In 1993 ...
Br is formed. We can look at the BDE of H−Br (= 366 kJ/mol) and subtract this value from 397 kJ/mol to get +31 kJ/mol. This ... In a chain reaction step of a Br radical reacting with a hydrogen on a secondary carbon to cleave the H−C bond requires 397 kJ/ ... A bromine radical is not very reactive and the transition state for hydrogen abstraction has much radical character and is ... This is because less energy is required to form the H-Br and tertiary radical (380 − 366 kJ/mol = +14 kJ/mol). This value is 17 ...
Its cuticle contains bromine. Features used in identification include the number of pericentral cells, the cortication of main ... Pedersén, M. E. E.; Roomans, G. M.; Hofsten, A. V. (1981). "Bromine in the Cuticle of Polysiphonia Nigrescens: Localization and ...
Where desired, free bromine may be obtained by thermal decomposition of ferrous bromide. Before Dow got into the bromine ... An oxidizing agent was added, and bromine was formed in the solution. Then bromine was distilled. This was a very complicated ... The aqueous solution is dripped onto burlap, and air is blown through causing bromine to volatilize. Bromine is trapped with ... The Dow process is the electrolytic method of bromine extraction from brine, and was Herbert Henry Dow's second revolutionary ...
"Electrolytic Production of Bromine". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2017-11-11. " ... 1960 First use of radiation chemistry for commercial products by Raychem Corporation in 1957 Electrolytic production of bromine ...
br. panc. Tadeusz Studziński. Presumed destroyed at an unknown date. (Improvised) Armored Train no 2 (Pociąg Pancerny nr 2) - ... br. panc. Stanisław Waskiewicz. Presumed destroyed at an unknown date. First Improvised Train of the Land Coastal Defense ( ...
Br. Arachnol. Soc. 11(1): 9-14. Gaedike, R. & Karsholt, O., 2001: Contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of the Madeira Islands ... n., a new troglobitic pseudoscorpion from Crete" (PDF). "Search results for research title". www.br.fgov.be. [1]. ...
Br. mycol. Soc. 27:96 Chytriomyces elegans at Chytrid Fungi Online Archived 2011-05-27 at the Wayback Machine (retrieved 9 ...
Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool. 59 (1): 33-44. Bouckaert, R.; M. Steel; W. Salzburger; Z. Starostová; J.M.I. Barth; Z. Musilová; M ...
Br. J. Pharmacol. 171 (11): 2868-87. doi:10.1111/bph.12613. PMC 4243861. PMID 24641248. Ring RH, Schechter LE, Leonard SK, ...
Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 34 (2) : 131 Ornativalva plutelliformis in biodiversidadvirtual catalog v t e. ...
It was restored in 2017 by Trondheim based organ building company, Br. Torkildsen Orgelbyggeri A/S. A graveyard belonging to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Jensenorgelet i Ilen kirke fra 1889". Br. Torkildsen Orgelbyggeri AS. Retrieved ...
Br. J. Haematol. 112 (4): 1016-24. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.02644.x. PMID 11298601. S2CID 27869385. Piekorz RP, Hoffmeyer A ...
Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Bot., 35p. v t e. ...
Br. J. Dermatol. 131 (5): 598-607. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1994.tb04969.x. PMID 7999588. S2CID 12289212. Kurth, A.; Wibbelt G; ...
Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) (Entomol.) 14 (5) : 197-259, pl. 1-4 Sands, 1979 New species of Philiris Röber (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) ...
2001). "Loricrin keratoderma: a cause of congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma and collodion baby". Br. J. Dermatol. 145 (4): ...
Br. J. Dermatol. 116 (1): 31-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1987.tb05788.x. PMID 3814513. S2CID 39214143. Aribi M, Poirriez J, ...
The Br-Br distance is 227 pm (close to the gaseous Br-Br distance of 228 pm) and the Br···Br distance between molecules is 331 ... Bromine tends to react with compounds including M-M, M-H, or M-C bonds to form M-Br bonds. The simplest compound of bromine is ... bromine thiocyanate (BrSCN), and bromine azide (BrN3). The pale-brown bromine monofluoride (BrF) is unstable at room ... and hydroxy radicals react with hydrobromic acid to form less reactive bromine radicals (i.e., free bromine atoms). Bromine ...
The bromine test is a simple qualitative test. Modern spectroscopic methods (e.g. NMR and infrared spectroscopy) are better at ... The more unsaturated an unknown is, the more bromine it reacts with, and the less coloured the solution will appear. Should the ... An unknown sample is treated with a small amount of elemental bromine in an organic solvent, being as dichloromethane or carbon ... In organic chemistry, the bromine test is a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation (carbon-to-carbon double or ...
PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: US Bromine Industry ... Dead Sea Bromine Company Ltd., Clearon Corporation, ICL-IP America, Inc., Jordan Bromine Company Ltd., Morre-Tec Industries, ... Global Bromine Market (2008- 2011): Breakdown ofImports and Exports for Elemental Bromine and Compounds inMetric Tons (includes ... US) II-25Jordan Bromine Company Ltd. (Jordan) II-25Morre-Tec Industries, Inc. (US) II-26Ocean Chemical Group (UK) II-26Solaris ...
com.br domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The .jus.br (Judiciary), and .b.br (banks) domains have mandatory ... edu.br, although some use .com.br and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions ... A .ac .ad .ae .af .ag .ai .al .am .ao .aq .ar .as .at .au .aw .ax .az B .ba .bb .bd .be .bf .bg .bh .bi .bj .bm .bn .bo .br .bs ... the Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR "The Center for Information and Coordination of Dot BR" (NIC.br),[4] which ...
... is a bromine oxide (CHEBI:37764) bromine dioxide (CHEBI:29874) is a inorganic radical (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:29874 - bromine dioxide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
A 1983 review of changes in the bromine industry during the year. The review included changes in government environmental and ... A 1983 review of changes in the bromine industry during the year. The review included changes in government environmental and ...
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, Bromine Pentafluoridepdf icon [CAS® No. 7789-30-2] [PDF - 379 KB] ... Basis for IDLH Value: Data were inadequate to directly derive an IDLH value for bromine pentafluoride. For this reason, data ... NIOSH [2016]. Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) value profile: bromine pentafluoride. By Dotson GS, Maier A, ... Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, Bromine Pentafluoride [CAS® No. 7789-30-2]. ...
Naast min of meer gebruikelijke suffixen als .com.br en .org.br kent men bijvoorbeeld .vet.br voor dierenartsen en .art.br voor ... A .ac .ad .ae .af .ag .ai .al .am .ao .aq .ar .as .at .au .aw .ax .az B .ba .bb .bd .be .bf .bg .bh .bi .bj .bm .bn .bo .br .bs ... br is het achtervoegsel van Braziliaanse domeinnamen. De naam is sinds 1989 door Jon Postel gereserveerd.[1] Het Braziliaanse ... Overgenomen van "https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=.br&oldid=49013426" ...
In February 2018, VMware entered into an agreement to acquire the technology and team from CloudVelox, to accelerate its roadmap to deliver migration, mobility and delivery services in a hybrid, multi-cloud world.. CloudVelox is a pioneer in enabling workload mobility between the data center and public clouds. The software theyve built accelerates workload mobility at scale resulting in "mass migrations" being completed successfully in weeks rather than nine to 12 months.. We expect to integrate the CloudVelox technology into VMware HCX Services upon closing to enhance and accelerate our mission to transform IT to a hybrid, multi-cloud environment by:. ...
... www2.transportes.gov.br/bit/02-rodo/3-loc-rodo/loc-rodo/br-060/gbr-060.htm ... I have just modified one external link on BR-060. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need ... Added archive https://web.archive.org/web/20121122064914/http://www2.transportes.gov.br/bit/02-rodo/3-loc-rodo/loc-rodo/br-060/ ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:BR-060&oldid=745806767" ...
Part 5.-The equilibria Br2 + CH2F2 = HBr + CHF2Br and Br2 + CH3F = HBr + CH2FBr. Determination of D(CHF2-Br) and «DELTA»H°f ( ... solution) = C7H5Br3MoO2 (solution) + (solution). By formula: C8H5BrMoO3 (cr) + Br2 (solution) = C7H5Br3MoO2 (solution) + CO ( ... By formula: C12H7MnO5 (cr) + 1.5Br2 (g) = C7H7Br (g) + Br2Mn (cr) + 5CO (g) ... By formula: C6H3MnO5 (cr) + 1.5Br2 (g) = Br2Mn (cr) + 5CO (g) + CH3Br (g) ...
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Where bromine is found and how it is used *Bromine is found naturally in the earths crust and in seawater in various chemical ... If the bromine release was outdoors, move away from the area where the bromine was released. Go to the highest ground possible ... Getting bromine liquid or gas on your skin could cause skin irritation and burns. Liquid bromine that touches your skin may ... Bromine works by directly irritating the skin, mucous membranes, and tissues. *The seriousness of poisoning caused by bromine ...
Bromine and iodine compounds. In: Haddad LM, Shannon MW, Winchester JF, eds. Clinical management of poisoning and drug overdose ... Environmental: Detection of bromine in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH. Case classification * Suspected: A case ... Ingestion of liquid bromine can cause abdominal pain and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with secondary shock. Signs and symptoms ... Morabia A, Selleger C, Landry JC, Conne P, Urban P, Fabre J. Accidental bromine exposure in an urban population: an acute ...
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... mail.fug.com.br/mailman/listinfo/freebsd_fug.com.br ... FUG-BR] plugin Márcio Luciano Donada. * *Re: [FUG-BR] plugin ... FUG-BR] plugin Márcio Luciano Donada Mon, 31 Oct 2005 05:45:00 -0800 ... Cooperativa Central Oeste Catarinense mdonada at auroraalimentos dot com dot br -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: GnuPG ...
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Consulte www.apple.com/br/batteries para obter mais informações.. *1 GB = 1 bilhão de bytes e 1 TB = 1 trilhão de bytes. A ...
Bromine, a reddish-brown liquid chemical, is used in many household applications, such as a water purifier and as a fire- ... Occasionally, someone may have an allergy to bromine, which can cause serious symptoms. It is important to identify and treat ... An allergy to bromine is not very common. Most of the concentrations of bromine present in the majority of applications are ... Bromine allergy symptoms may be different depending on the severity of the allergy and the concentration of the bromine. ...
Symbol: Br; atomic weight: 79.909; atomic number: 35; specific gravity: 3.119 at 20°C. See more. ... Bromine definition, an element that is a dark-reddish, fuming, toxic liquid and a member of the halogen family: obtained from ... bromine. bromide, bromide paper, bromidic, bromidrosis, brominate, bromine, bromine pentafluoride, bromism, bromize, bromley, ... bromine. *. The second process for estimating cellulose is based upon the use of bromine and ammonia. ...
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at 20°C)most common ions: Br−, BrO−, BrO3−, BrO4− Bromine is a member of a family of elements known as halogens that are found ... Bromine melting point [1]: −7.3°Cboiling point [2]: 59°Cdensity: 3.12 g/cm3 (liq. ... Bromine. melting point: −7.3°C. boiling point: 59°C. density: 3.12 g/cm3 (liq. at 20°C). most common ions: Br−, BrO−, BrO3−, ... Elemental bromine is a diatomic molecule (Br2). Bromine will combine with most other elements. Reaction with metallic elements ...
  • The mass of bromine in the oceans is about one three-hundredth that of chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Löwig used a solution of the mineral salt saturated with chlorine and extracted the bromine with diethyl ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, data from studies with chlorine pentafluoride were used to develop an IDLH value for bromine pentafluoride because their structures, react ion mechanisms, and potencies are assumed to be similar. (cdc.gov)
  • Bromine can also be found as an alternative to chlorine in swimming pools. (cdc.gov)
  • As in the case of chlorine, bromine can be prepared by the action of hydrobromic acid (HBr) on manganese dioxide. (dictionary.com)
  • Bromine is produced commercially from natural brines and from sea-water either by electrolysis or with displacement by chlorine, a somewhat more reactive halogen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine is an alternative to chlorine and other types of sanitizers people may opt to use in their swimming pools. (ehow.com)
  • Chlorine pools must use chlorine, Baquacil pools must use baquacil, and bromine pools must use bromine. (ehow.com)
  • The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine is a special edition that contains selected sections and addresses the needs of specialists in their respective fields. (elsevier.com)
  • The text also cites some behavior characteristics of halogens that are irregular, such as chlorine and bromine are similar but differ from fluorine on one side and iodine on the other. (elsevier.com)
  • The book also compares the general methods of producing chlorine, bromine, or iodine by 1) oxidation of halide derivatives or 2) reduction of compounds of the halogens in positive oxidation states. (elsevier.com)
  • Pool and Spa Water Test Kit - Test for Bacteria, Bromine or Free and Total Chlorine, and pH: Direct-reading color cubes and ready-to-use reagents are supplied for the pH and chlorine (or bromine) tests. (environmental-expert.com)
  • But here's a thought experiment: suppose you have two drug candidate structures, one with a chlorine on an aryl ring and the other with a bromine on the same position. (sciencemag.org)
  • It's a N of 1… But I had a case where Chlorine did miracles on an arene compared to F. Br was even better - but Ames positive. (sciencemag.org)
  • One reason may be that bromine tends to more of a solubility killer than chlorine (matched molecular pair analysis). (sciencemag.org)
  • If the gain in potency resulting from replacement of chlorine with bromine is smaller than loss of solubility (and deterioration of other ADMET characteristics then the case for making the change is weakened. (sciencemag.org)
  • One situation in which we might anticipate a relatively large increase in potency resulting from replacement of chlorine with bromine is when halogen bonds can form. (sciencemag.org)
  • The seaweed was used to produce iodine, but also contained bromine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1840, bromine was discovered to have some advantages over the previously used iodine vapor to create the light sensitive silver halide layer in daguerreotypy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy halogens like bromine & iodine in drugs have been associated with phototoxicity, photoreactivity, reactive metabolite formation, etc that can led to safety issues. (sciencemag.org)
  • When you talk about thyroid hormone antagonists, I assume that you are referring to amiodarone (which contains iodine instead of bromine) which is an effective but a nasty drug associated with a number of side effects which appear to more associated with the extremely long half-life and low water solubility (precipitation in the lungs resulting in pulmonary toxicity). (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine, a reddish-brown liquid chemical, is used in many household applications, such as a water purifier and as a fire-retardant. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine is a reddish-brown gas that has a pungent smell and can irritate the skin, nose and eyes. (reference.com)
  • At high temperatures, organobromine compounds readily dissociate to yield free bromine atoms, a process that stops free radical chemical chain reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect makes organobromine compounds useful as fire retardants, and more than half the bromine produced worldwide each year is put to this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same property causes ultraviolet sunlight to dissociate volatile organobromine compounds in the atmosphere to yield free bromine atoms, causing ozone depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine compounds are still used in well drilling fluids, in photographic film, and as an intermediate in the manufacture of organic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early years of the First World War, bromine compounds such as xylyl bromide were used as poison gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some bromine-containing compounds were historically used as sedatives (drugs that can make people calm or sleepy). (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing bromine-containing compounds (combinations of bromine with other chemicals) would cause different effects depending on the compound. (cdc.gov)
  • Bromine forms many interesting covalent compounds as well, including two oxides: bromine (IV) oxide (BrO 2 ) and bromine (I) oxide (Br 2 O). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine compounds have a variety of uses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine is utilized in fire-retardant compounds and was once used in leaded gasoline. (reference.com)
  • Bromine compounds work as soil fumigants to prevent insects from attacking plants. (reference.com)
  • Moreover, bromine compounds control algae and bacterial population growths. (reference.com)
  • Several over-the-counter medications and prescription drugs contain bromine compounds. (reference.com)
  • The car industry is beginning to use bromine compounds for electric car batteries. (reference.com)
  • While it is rather rare in the Earth's crust, the high solubility of the bromide ion (Br−) has caused its accumulation in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a clear biological role for bromide ion and hypobromous acid has recently been elucidated, and it now appears that bromine is an essential trace element in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a pharmaceutical, the simple bromide ion (Br−) has inhibitory effects on the central nervous system, and bromide salts were once a major medical sedative, before replacement by shorter-acting drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction with metallic elements leads to salts such as silver bromide (AgBr), in which the bromine atom has a − 1 charge and oxidation number. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When bromine dissolves in water, which it does very quickly, it turns into an ion called bromide. (kqed.org)
  • Elemental bromine is very reactive and thus does not occur free in nature, but in colourless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, analogous to table salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • An unknown sample is treated with a small amount of elemental bromine in an organic solvent, being as dichloromethane or carbon tetrachloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental bromine is a diatomic molecule (Br 2 ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine was discovered independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Balard, in 1825 and 1826, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balard found bromine chemicals in the ash of seaweed from the salt marshes of Montpellier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine was discovered in 1826 in Montpellier, France , by French chemist Antoine J. Balard. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine was discovered in 1826 by A.J. Balard. (reference.com)
  • Bromine is used in swimming pools, in fire-retardant materials and in agricultural products. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine can be found in swimming pools, Energy drinks or inorganic foods. (smore.com)
  • Bromine is often used to treat swimming pools and hot tubs. (reference.com)
  • The industrial free available Bromine and total free bromine analyzer via pH/ORP method, the Model 878-25 from IC Controls gives you maximum flexibility, reliability, and ease of use. (environmental-expert.com)
  • There are also many dyes and pharmaceutical agents that contain bromine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most pesticide agents contain bromine because it is toxic when inhaled. (reference.com)
  • Flame-retardant plastics often contain bromine. (reference.com)
  • For example, most antihistamines, sedatives and analgesics contain bromine. (reference.com)
  • Bromine is a member of a family of elements known as halogens that are found in group 7A of the Periodic Table. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our extension of the AM1 semiempirical molecular orbital technique, AM1*, has been parameterized for the elements Br and I. The basis sets for both halogens contain a set of d -orbitals as polarization functions. (springer.com)
  • Basis for IDLH Value: Data were inadequate to directly derive an IDLH value for bromine pentafluoride. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of bromine in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • A quick search of DrugBank suggests there are 12 approved drugs containing a bromine (alkyl and aryl bromides), only one of which was withdrawn from the market. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine is found naturally in the earth's crust and in seawater in various chemical forms. (cdc.gov)
  • Bromine is highly toxic in undiluted form, both as a liquid and a gas. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine is corrosive and toxic. (washington.edu)
  • In organic chemistry, the bromine test is a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation (carbon-to-carbon double or triple bonds), phenols and anilines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more unsaturated an unknown is, the more bromine it reacts with, and the less coloured the solution will appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should the brown colour not disappear, possibly due to the presence of an alkene which doesn't react, or reacts very slowly with, bromine, the potassium permanganate test should be performed, in order to determine the presence or absence of the alkene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromine reacts with liquid water to produce hypobromite ion (BrO − ), a powerful bleaching agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Skin exposure to bromine could occur through direct contact with bromine liquid or gas. (cdc.gov)
  • The majority of exposures to bromine occur by inhalation and typically lead to symptoms of ocular, nasal, and respiratory irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • If unusual symptoms do occur, however, it is best to keep away from bromine until an allergy can be confirmed or denied by a doctor. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Try to eat organic fruits and vegetables that are not sprayed with bromine. (ehow.co.uk)
  • This report analyzes the US market for Bromine in Thousand Metric Tons by the following End-Use Segments: Flame Retardants, Drilling Fluids, Brominated Pesticides, Water-Treatment Chemicals, and Others. (prnewswire.com)
  • Products containing bromine are used in agriculture and sanitation and as fire retardants (chemicals that help prevent things from catching fire). (cdc.gov)
  • One common misconception is that an allergy to bromine is actually caused by sensitivity to chemicals in general, and not actually an allergy to bromine in particular. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your doctor will also be able to determine if you actually have an allergy to bromine or whether you simply have a sensitivity to too much exposure to chemicals in general. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Besides, during extensive metabolism, a reactive intermediate may indeed form that could make displacing the Br really easy, e.g.,a quinone methide. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bromine is a naturally occurring element that is a liquid at room temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • Getting bromine liquid or gas on your skin could cause skin irritation and burns. (cdc.gov)
  • Liquid bromine that touches your skin may first cause a cooling sensation that is closely followed by a burning feeling. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of liquid bromine can cause abdominal pain and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with secondary shock. (cdc.gov)
  • Bromine is one of two elements (the other being mercury) that is liquid at normal temperatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Both the liquid and vapor of bromine are deep red in color. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromine was discovered by a German chemist named Carl Lowig by bringing a smelly, brownish liquid to his professor Antoine J Baldwin in France ,1862 He planned to study the substance but he didn't so he can pursue other things so his professor took over. (smore.com)
  • A solution of indigo shaken with a small quantity of the vapour of bromine is quickly bleached. (dictionary.com)
  • A chemical element , having the chemical symbol Br, and atomic number (the number of protons ) 35. (citizendium.org)
  • How Many Protons Does Bromine Have? (reference.com)
  • Bromine has 35 protons. (reference.com)
  • Löwig isolated bromine from a mineral water spring from his hometown Bad Kreuznach in 1825. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atomic weight of an element such as bromine is located on the periodic table of eleme. (reference.com)
  • Breathing bromine gas could cause you to cough, have trouble breathing, get a headache, have irritation of your mucous membranes (inside your mouth, nose, etc.), be dizzy, or have watery eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of a bromine allergy may include difficulty breathing, coughing, lung sensitivity, headache, dizziness and possible skin irritation, such as a rash. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbol for bromine is Br, and its atomic number is 35. (reference.com)
  • Check for bromine as an ingredient on any fire-safe material. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine was not produced in large quantities until 1858, when the discovery of salt deposits in Stassfurt enabled its production as a by-product of potash. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the war, large quantities of bromine were used in asphyxiating and lachrymating gases. (dictionary.com)
  • What Is the Molecular Weight of Bromine? (reference.com)
  • The molecular weight of bromine is about 79.90 atomic mass units. (reference.com)
  • Swallowing a large amount of bromine in a short period of time would be likely to cause symptoms such as nausea and vomiting (gastrointestinal symptoms). (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to bromine. (cdc.gov)
  • Occasionally, someone may have an allergy to bromine, which can cause serious symptoms. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine allergy symptoms may be different depending on the severity of the allergy and the concentration of the bromine. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bromine allergies have several different symptoms depending on how the chemical is encountered. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by bromine depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the person exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of negative health effects from exposure to bromine. (cdc.gov)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for bromine exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Morabia A, Selleger C, Landry JC, Conne P, Urban P, Fabre J. Accidental bromine exposure in an urban population: an acute epidemiological assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • However, there are plenty of examples where Br or I make it into the final drug candidate or even marketed drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • The most common way to encounter bromine is to run across it in drinking water or in a swimming pool. (ehow.co.uk)
  • It involves attaching an atom of bromine to it, and pure bromine is not something that you want to encounter in a dark alley. (kqed.org)
  • Following the release of bromine into water, you could be exposed by drinking the contaminated water. (cdc.gov)
  • A chemical element, like bromine, may have very little in common with a compound, say BVO, that contains the element. (kqed.org)
  • If you think you may have been exposed to bromine, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Add a few drops of the bromine solution rapidly to each of the vials of toluene. (washington.edu)