Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Pentanones: 5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Hydrobromic Acid: Hydrobromic acid (HBr). A solution of hydrogen bromide gas in water.Bromine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Swimming PoolsEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)BrazilInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Delegation, Professional: The process of assigning duties to a subordinate with lesser qualifications.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.

Comparison of two in vitro activation systems for protoxicant organophosphorous esterase inhibitors. (1/242)

In order to perform in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by organophosphorous (OP) protoxicants, simple, reliable methods are needed to convert protoxicants to their esterase-inhibiting forms. Incubation of parathion or chlorpyrifos with 0.05% bromine solution or uninduced rat liver microsomes (RLM) resulted in production of the corresponding oxygen analogs of these OP compounds and markedly increased esterase inhibition in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neither activation system affected cell viability or the activity of AChE or NTE in the absence of OP compounds. Although parathion and chlorpyrifos were activated by RLM, bromine activation required fewer steps and produced more esterase inhibition for a given concentration of chlorpyrifos. However, RLM activation of OP protoxicants produced metabolites other than oxygen analogs and may, therefore, be more relevant as a surrogate for OP biotransformation in vivo. This methodology makes the use of intact cells for in vitro testing of esterase inhibition caused by protoxicant organophosphate compounds a viable alternative to in vivo tests.  (+info)

Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to bromine. (2/242)

Occasionally children are the victims of mass poisoning from an environmental contaminant that occurs due to an unexpected common point source of exposure. In many cases the contaminant is a widely used chemical generally considered to be safe. In the following case, members of a sports team visiting a community for an athletic event were exposed to chemicals while staying at a local motel. Bromine-based sanitizing agents and other chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, which were used in excess in the motel's swimming pool, may have accounted for symptoms experienced by the boy reported here and at least 16 other adolescents. Samples of pool water contained excess bromine (8.2 microg/mL; ideal pool bromine concentration is 2-4 microg/mL). Symptoms and signs attributable to bromine toxicity included irritative skin rashes; eye, nose, and throat irritation; bronchospasm; reduced exercise tolerance; fatigue; headache; gastrointestinal disturbances; and myalgias. While most of the victims recovered within a few days, the index case and several other adolescents had persistent or recurrent symptoms lasting weeks to months after the exposure.  (+info)

Identification and molecular characterization of BP75, a novel bromodomain-containing protein. (3/242)

We here describe the identification and characterization of a novel bromodomain-containing protein, the bromodomain protein of 75 kDa (BP75). Initially, we identified BP75 in a two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with the first PDZ (acronym for post-synaptic density protein PSD-95, Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor DlgA and the tight junction protein ZO-1) domain in protein tyrosine phosphatase-BAS-like (PTP-BL). We found that BP75 is expressed ubiquitously and show that both BP75 and a PTP-BL deletion mutant consisting of the first PDZ domain are located mainly in the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization is also evident. Full-length PTP-BL, on the contrary, is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although some basal nuclear staining is observed. The described molecular interaction may reflect a mechanism of coupling submembraneous signalling events and nuclear events.  (+info)

Actin filament organization is required for proper cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR. (4/242)

Previous studies have indicated a role of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. However, the exact molecular nature of this regulation is still largely unknown. In this report human epithelial CFTR was expressed in human melanoma cells genetically devoid of the filamin homologue actin-cross-linking protein ABP-280 [ABP(-)]. cAMP stimulation of ABP(-) cells or cells genetically rescued with ABP-280 cDNA [ABP(+)] was without effect on whole cell Cl(-) currents. In ABP(-) cells expressing CFTR, cAMP was also without effect on Cl(-) conductance. In contrast, cAMP induced a 10-fold increase in the diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC)-sensitive whole cell Cl(-) currents of ABP(+)/CFTR(+) cells. Further, in cells expressing both CFTR and a truncated form of ABP-280 unable to cross-link actin filaments, cAMP was also without effect on CFTR activation. Dialysis of ABP-280 or filamin through the patch pipette, however, resulted in a DPC-inhibitable increase in the whole cell currents of ABP(-)/CFTR(+) cells. At the single-channel level, protein kinase A plus ATP activated single Cl(-) channels only in excised patches from ABP(+)/CFTR(+) cells. Furthermore, filamin alone also induced Cl(-) channel activity in excised patches of ABP(-)/CFTR(+) cells. The present data indicate that an organized actin cytoskeleton is required for cAMP-dependent activation of CFTR.  (+info)

3,4-Dihydrocoumarin hydrolase with haloperoxidase activity from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46. (5/242)

A novel lactonohydrolase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, was purified 375-fold to apparent homogeneity, with a 22.7% overall recovery, from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus F46, which was isolated as a fluorene-assimilating micro-organism. The molecular mass of the native enzyme, as estimated by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is 56 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass is 30 kDa. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzes 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, and the Km and Vmax for 3,4-dihydrocoumarin are 0.806 mM and 4760 U.mg-1, respectively. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme show high similarity to those of bacterial non-heme haloperoxidases. The enzyme exhibits brominating activity with monochlorodimedon in the presence of H2O2 and 3, 4-dihydrocoumarin or an organic acid, such as acetate and n-butyrate.  (+info)

Efficient introduction of aryl bromide functionality into proteins in vivo. (6/242)

Artificial proteins can be engineered to exhibit interesting solid state, liquid crystal or interfacial properties and may ultimately serve as important alternatives to conventional polymeric materials. The utility of protein-based materials is limited, however, by the availability of just the 20 amino acids that are normally recognized and utilized by biological systems; many desirable functional groups cannot be incorporated directly into proteins by biosynthetic means. In this study, we incorporate para-bromophenylalanine (p-Br-phe) into a model target protein, mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), by using a bacterial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) variant with relaxed substrate specificity. Coexpression of the mutant PheRS and DHFR in a phenylalanine auxotrophic Escherichia coli host strain grown in p-Br-phe-supplemented minimal medium resulted in 88% replacement of phenylalanine residues by p-Br-phe; variation in the relative amounts of phe and p-Br-phe in the medium allows control of the degree of substitution by the analog. Protein expression yields of 20-25 mg/l were obtained from cultures supplemented with p-Br-phe; this corresponds to about two-thirds of the expression levels characteristic of cultures supplemented with phe. The aryl bromide function is stable under the conditions used to purify DHFR and creates new opportunities for post-translational derivatization of brominated proteins via metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. In addition, bromination may be useful in X-ray studies of proteins via the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) technique.  (+info)

Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma. (7/242)

Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific "molecular fingerprint" for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2) system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans.  (+info)

Permeabilization via the P2X7 purinoreceptor reveals the presence of a Ca2+-activated Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of murine tracheal epithelial cells. (8/242)

Calcium-activated Cl(-) secretion is an important modulator of regulated ion transport in murine airway epithelium and is mediated by an unidentified Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl(-) channel. We have transfected immortalized murine tracheal epithelial cells with the cDNA encoding the permeabilizing P2X(7) purinoreceptor (P2X(7)-R) to selectively permeabilize the basolateral membrane and thereby isolate the apical membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. In P2X(7)-R-permeabilized cells, we have demonstrated that UTP stimulates a Cl(-) current across the apical membrane of CF and normal murine tracheal epithelial cells. The magnitude of the UTP-stimulated current was significantly greater in CF than in normal cells. Ion substitution studies demonstrated that the current exhibited a permselectivity sequence of Cl(-) > I(-) > Br(-) > gluconate(-). We have also determined a rank order of potency for putative Cl(-) channel blockers: niflumic acid > or = 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid > 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate > glybenclamide >> diphenlyamine-2-carboxylate, tamoxifen, and p-tetra-sulfonato-tetra-methoxy-calix[4]arene. Complete characterization of this current and the corresponding single channel properties could lead to the development of a new therapy to correct the defective airway surface liquid in cystic fibrosis patients.  (+info)

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Bromine, from ancient Greek, meaning "stench", is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen.. Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline salts, analogous to table salt. The high solubility of bromide ions has caused its accumulation in the oceans, where it is abundantly available. Commercially, the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China.. Elemental bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. One of the major uses of bromine is as a water purifier/disinfectant in swimming pools and hot tubs. Another key use of bromine compounds is in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals: Brominated substances are important ingredients of many over-the-counter and prescription drugs, including analgesics, sedatives, and antihistamines.. Elestors storage systems incorporate a number of parallel and independent ...
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: chemistry,hydrocarbon,GCSE,Alkene (Chemical Classification),science,YouTube Editor,alkene,c3,c2,c1,Bromine (Chemical Element),Bromine Water,Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (Chemical Classification),unsaturated,alkali,bromine
This weekend I switched from BBB in spa to Bromine. 3-step. Using Borax also. Put in proper amounts using Pool Calculator and then threw in the floater with Bromine tabs. MAJOR big mistake that I didnt realize until next day. The feeder cant be adjusted down fine enough. Took feeder out (still out) and will put in only one tab till can get one that can be fine tuned. Bromine so way off the scale I cant measure pH. I drained close to 1/2 and refilled. Bromine came down a little. So stopped by
This paper describes our recent work in which CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) micelles are used as catalytic platforms for performing bromination and oxidation reactions in water. The bromide counter ion is used to prepare Br2 in situ which is subsequently employed as a brominating and oxidizing agent. In this process the bromide is rapidly oxidized to bromine using BPO (benzoic peroxyanhydride). The reaction is facilitated by the micelle which improves the BPO solubility and its proximity with Br-. Several example reactions are discussed including micelle-assisted bromination of cholesterol and methyl styrene along with an example of mild oxidation of benzyl alcohol to form benzaldehyde. These examples illustrate the use of bromine as a mild oxidizing agent and also as a brominating agent. Kinetic studies of Br2 formation and cholesterol bromination are also presented ...
In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kW(th) bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench scale reactor to characterize the fate of Cl and Br in BFB combustion conditions. Spruce bark was used as the base fuel -serving as a source of alkali metals (mainly K, little Na). The gases HCl and HBr were fed with the fluidization air at different proportions into the BFB unit. In total, six experiments were done. The fate of bromine and chlorine was evaluated by means of several measurements including: FTIR (flue gas measurement), a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles) and deposit probe sampling (deposit growth ...
This study describes the use of alkaline fusion by sodium peroxide to dissolve chlorine and bromine in rocks to produce a solution which, with appropriate pre-treatment, is suitable for analysis by ion chromatography. Results are given for a selection of sedimentary and igneous rocks. The accuracy of the fusion method is evaluated by analysis of Geological Survey of Japan reference materials. Additionally, a spike recovery rest is performed to show that the fusion process is quantitative for chlorine and bromine. The results for chlorine are in the range 58-3860 mg kg(-1) and show good agreement both with results obtained by pyrohydrolysis with flow injection colorimetric detection and results obtained by aqueous leaching of the samples with ion chromatography detection. Results for bromine are in the range ,3-4.5 mg kg(-1). Because of the relatively few data obtained in this study and the relative paucity of published data for reference materials, an assessment of the accuracy of the fusion ...
Bromine water test for alkenes. When an alkene is added to a solution of bromine water (left) the solution is de-colourised (right). Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. The number of hydrogen atoms in an alkene is double the number of carbon atoms. Alkenes can de-colourise bromine water, while alkanes cannot. - Stock Image C029/0955
Im a newbie who just installed a small (200 gallon) hot tub. I read the sticky here about bromine systems and decided to go with a 3 step bromine system with a floater. Im attempting to set up my spa for the first time today. Please excuse if Im asking this in the wrong place. Background info: Im using 4-in-1 bromine test strips, not a test kit, so my measurements are imperfect, but my initial hardness from the tap seems to be around 100, alkalinity is 120, and pH is 7.8. I added
Bromine is a brown or red liquid with a characteristic odor. Bromine is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, inks, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and chemical warfare agents. Occupational exposure to bromine may occur during the production and the application of bromine compounds and during other industrial activities. This compound is adsorbed into the human body through the respiratory tract, skin (occupational exposure) and alimentary tract (general population). Physiologically, bromine exists as an ion in the body. Slight eye irritation occurs as a consequence of chronic exposure to bromine vapors at concentration of 1 mg/m3. Higher concentrations increase this effect and cause nasal and skin irritation. Many years observations have shown that during occupational exposure to bromine vapors at concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), there are no observed adverse effects. From cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, it is known that brominated organic compounds are more toxic than ...
Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. Its properties are thus similar to those of fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, and tend to be intermediate between those of the two neighbouring halogens, chlorine and iodine. Bromine has the electron configuration [Ar]3d104s24p5, with the seven electrons in the fourth and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell.[16] Corresponding to periodic trends, it is intermediate in electronegativity between chlorine and iodine (F: 3.98, Cl: 3.16, Br: 2.96, I: 2.66), and is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine. It is also a weaker oxidising agent than chlorine, but a stronger one than iodine. Conversely, the bromide ion is a weaker reducing agent than iodide, but a stronger one than chloride.[16] These similarities led to chlorine, ...
Equations (9) to (18) can be used (with the aid of a simple, iterative computer program) to solve for (DGH), (DGC), (DGCl) and (DGBr). However, it is clear that equations (9) to (11) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes, likewise equations (12) to (14) can be replaced by a general equation for the bromine substituted methanes and equations (15) to (17) can be replaced by a general equation for the chlorine substituted bromomethanes. Similarly, equations (15) and (18) are members of the bromine substituted monochloromethanes.. Thus, the general equation for the chlorine substituted methanes will be,. ...
... (PharmaNewsWire.Com, January 13, 2018 ) Global Bromine Disinfectant Tablet (BCDMH) Market report is replete with detailed analysis from a thorough research, especially on questions th
Thanks Chem Geek for your reply. I also asked this question in other forums and got different answers. Local pool supply shops suggested to not use a chlorine based shock because of the generation of unwanted chemistry in a bromine pool (dont remember now what that was supposed to be). In any case, I went with a non-chlorine shocker. I understand that with the DCDMH that shocking is not as necessary but I did use shocker with all the fresh water. In any case, the bromine testing seems to be good. The stabilizer, cyanuric acid, I understand to be required for chlorine in outside pools to protect from breakdown due to UV light. In any case, my understanding was that mono-chloroamine was the cause of chlorine smell. My pool is indoor and is directly attached to the basement floor in a walkout configuration. Still there was some cyanuric acid in the pool even though it should not be required. In any case, this configuration is very sensitive to the chemical smell. I have now moved on to a different ...
Hi all -- Ive spoken with Mike about his bromine request. The OSHA PEL (TWA) is 0.1 ppm - compare to that of Cl2, which is 0.5 ppm. However, like most things, it can be managed safely (gee, I remember using it as an undergrad in organic synthesis lab.) Its heavy, red gas, so you can see it coming. But I really dont want to see this in our cleanroom. However, Mike has worked with it and is familiar with safety precautions. This is expected to be done only a few times at most as his company is building their lab now. I would like to suggest that we allow Mike (and only Mike) to do this etch in one of the exhausted benches in the wafersaw room. His solution is pretty dilute, so he can collect the waste as solvent waste. He just needs to make sure that the bromine kept in the proper storage area, not at the bench. I would also suggest that this be done only during working hours (so people will be nearby and he can access the storage area -- I dont think we should store this in the personal ...
Tire curing bladders are made from poly(isobutylene-co-4-bromomethylstyrene) with a benzylic bromine content of from 0.15 to 0.45 mole percent, vulcanized with a cure system of 1,6-hexamethylene-bis(sodium thiosulfate) and zinc oxide. The vulcanizate has low residual benzylic bromine content which leads to enhanced stability under severe duty applications, reduced hot tension set, and reduced adhesion or co-cure to halobutyl tire innerliners.
Bromine, a reddish-brown liquid chemical, is used in many household applications, such as a water purifier and as a fire-retardant. Occasionally, someone may have an allergy to bromine, which can cause serious symptoms. It is important to identify and treat this allergy to keep each individual safe and symptom-free.
After being cooled in liquid nitrogen, a tube of pure bromine diffuses faster than a tube of bromine plus air. (Disc 16-11, 52 sec ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Bromine Industry, 2016 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Bromine Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research...
Tetrabromoethane (TBE) is a halogenated hydrocarbon, chemical formula C2H2Br4. Although three bromine atoms may bind to one of the carbon atoms creating 1,1,1,2-tetrabromoethane this is not thermodynamically favorable, so in practice tetrabromoethane is equal to 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane, where each carbon atom binds two bromine atoms. It has an unusually high density for an organic compound, near 3 g/mL, due largely to the four bromine atoms ...
Tetrabromoethane (TBE) is a halogenated hydrocarbon, chemical formula C2H2Br4. Although three bromine atoms may bind to one of the carbon atoms creating 1,1,1,2-tetrabromoethane this is not thermodynamically favorable, so in practice tetrabromoethane is equal to 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane, where each carbon atom binds two bromine atoms. It has an unusually high density for an organic compound, near 3 g/mL, due largely to the four bromine atoms ...
Bromine: Secret Toxin?. Reference: Endocrine Society, Oncology Letter,. Archives: www.newsinnutrition.com. What do you know about bromine? I bet not much. Its in the halide family, meaning the same family as chlorine and iodine and fluorine. Iodine is the biggest size of the lot, then smaller bromine, then chlorine and finally fluorine. They all share a negative one charge, so act the same chemically. They differ only in size and weight. Bromine is easily extracted from ocean salt brine pools, and is used industrially as a fire retardant. It used to be used as an insecticide in the form of methyl bromide, but that turned out to be a potent ozone depletor, so that got nixed. And once upon a time it was used as an anti-anxiety drug, and hence the term, "Bromides" for trite and trivial soothing answers.. The issue of bromine that I want to explore is that of its competition with iodine. We need iodine. Desparately. It is one of the elements that all of us are just barely getting enough of. The WHO ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 1m9r: Human Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase With 3-Bromo-7- Nitroindazole Bound
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 3ot3: X-Ray Crystal Structure of Compound 22K Bound to Human CHK1 Kinase Domain
Pi Page Diaphragm Seals Halogen Chlorine Ds Pi 32a - Product Information Page Diaphragm Seal Chlorine Bromine Fluorine DS-PI-32A - Product & Technical Information product information
This brings up another point. With all the fluorine and chlorine we are exposed to from bathing, brushing our teeth, cooking with tap water, drinking tea, consuming chlorides such as sodium chloride (table salt), etc. why isnt every one breaking out in acne? After all fluorine and chlorine will both push bromine out of the system. On the other hand iodine is less reactive than bromine so the bromine if present will push the iodine out of the system. Yet they are claiming that the acne only occurs when they take the less reactive iodine that does not push bromine out of the body like fluorine and chlorine will ...
Hazards: Bromine is corrosive and toxic.. Carbon tetrachloride is a cancer suspect agent. Toluene is flammable and toxic. Chemicals and Solutions: Materials: Two vials of toluene (about 10 ml each). 5% bromine in carbon tetrachloride solution. Plastic eyedropper Procedure: Add a few drops of the bromine solution rapidly to each of the vials of toluene. Show the class the orange solution produced. Place one of the vials on the overhead projector and watch this solution decolorize rapidly. The vial not placed on the overhead will decolorize much more slowly. This demo can be scaled up to be done in small hydrometer cylinders. Students will be able to see the the bromine fading out starting from the bottom and moving up the cylinder. Hint: Discussion: The halogenation reaction is a substitution reaction that takes place by a free radical mechanism.. ...
The Thermodynamics of Chromatography - Interactions Between the Atoms of Hydrogen, Carbon, Chlorine and Bromine and an Exclusively Dispersive Stationary Phase , Page ...
Leisure Time Test Strips are an easy and effective way to test the chlorine or bromine level in your spa. Each bottle of test strips has a chart on the back.
Comprehensive information for the element Bromine - Br is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.
Bromine (Br) is the only nonmetallic periodic element that is in its liquid state at room temperature. It is considered toxic and highly reactive, which makes it dangerous for humans who do not handle it with extreme diligence. It is reddish-brown in color, and has a distinctive, unpleasant odor. The element was discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard, and has an atomic number of 35.. ...
Bromine species, and hydrogen bromide (HBr) in particular, could play an important part in the photochemistry of the lower atmosphere of Venus. This conclusion was made by researchers from MIPT and the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences after comparing the data of Earth-based observations of Venus with the predictions of a photochemical model. The paper detailing their study was published in the journal Icarus.. Since the 1960s, numerous space probes have been sent to Venus. Because 17 out of 24 successful missions were launched by the Soviet Union, scientists dubbed it "the Russian planet." Back in the middle of the 20th century, sci-fi writers imagined Venus as a habitable planet covered entirely by ocean, expecting that it would welcome future generations of earthlings. But the "morning star" had many surprises in store for its would-be colonists.. The first Soviet probes that attempted to land on Venus were crushed by immense pressures in the lower atmosphere before ...
A 250-ml. three-necked flask fitted (glass joints) with a sealed mechanical glass stirrer, an addition funnel, and a reflux condenser capped with a calcium chloride drying tube is charged with 30.0 g. (0.140 mole) of 2-methyldodecanoic acid (Note 2) and 13.7 ml. (0.144 mole) of phosphorus tribromide (Note 3). Stirring is commenced, and 14.6 ml. (0.284 mole) of dry bromine (Note 4) is introduced slowly from the addition funnel until the reaction mixture retains a deep bromine coloration. The addition requires about 10 minutes to this stage (Note 5). The remainder of the bromine is then added all at once, and the flask heated in a bath maintained at 85-90° (Note 6) for 1.5 hours. An additional 3.6 ml. (0.07 mole) of bromine is then added and the heating at 85-90° continued for 18 hours. The mixture is cooled to room temperature and poured into a 1-l. separatory funnel containing about 150 ml. of water and 200 g. of cracked ice. The transfer is completed with the addition of 150 ml. of benzene, ...
Bromine chloride BrCl PubChemBy law, these pesticides must meet new safety standards, such as those described in the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 and, if
Each Kitagawa Gas Detector Tube is formulated with high purity reagents that absorb and react with the target gas or vapors being measured. Bromine
Bromine Test For Alkenes is a photograph by Science Photo Library which was uploaded on November 13th, 2019. The photograph may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days.
A guide to the mechanism of the electrophilic addition reaction between bromine and symmetrical alkenes like ethene and cyclohexene.
ALBANY, New York, August 2, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Global Bromine Market Estimated to Reach US$ 2,674.6 Mn by 2025: Transparency Market Research.
/PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: US Bromine Industry...
For more information regarding specific products, please visit our website.. Bromine intermediates in the Pharma and Agro are mainly used in the synthesis of the Active Ingredient (AI), mostly to add a new part to the chemical skeleton (building block) of a multi-step process, or to introduce a Bromine atom at a specific position to create a required chemical structure.. The Bromine Intermediates activity is focused on innovation and is able to offer tolling/subcontracting service, backed by few essential arms, among them strong R&D development team, Health Safety and Regulatory experts team and in addition offering Circular Economy activity approach to help recovery of effluent streams.. Products for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry - ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−). This is a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically keeps its chirality, though the SN2 products configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile (Walden inversion).. ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−), because a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically maintains its chirality, though the SN2 products configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile.. ...
BrF3 is the chemical formula for bromine trifluoride. Bromine trifluoride is a hazardous liquid chemical compound that is created when a single bromine atom bonds with three atoms of...
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Surfactants such as cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA+) and cetylpyridinium (CP+) have diverse applications in various biological and industrial processes. In this dissertation, these surfactants with bromide counterions have been used to produce bromine in situ by the oxidation of the bromide anions using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the oxidizing agent in water (Chapter 2). The method presented here is safe and cost effective compared to other conventional methods that use metal catalysts or organic solvents for bromine generation. As an illustration, in situ generated bromine has been employed as a brominating agent for cholesterol and methyl styrene; and as an oxidizing agent for benzyl alcohol and 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)benzene. The partial oxidation of the aromatic alcohols form aldehydes and is significant since the typical oxidation product of primary alcohols in water is their corresponding acid. However, the partial oxidation of 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)benzene in CPB micelle gives a regioselective ...
Due to their inherent stability under ambient conditions, conductive polyheterocycles has become a topic of great research interest. Simultaneous chemical copolymerization and oxidation of pyrrole and N-methylpyrrole by bromine and iodine has been carried out. The composition of the copolymers can be effectively controlled by varying the monomer feed ratio. From elemental analysis the copolymer composition and the monomer reactivity ratios have been determined. As the copolymer composition changes, the IR absorption spectra show changes in the intensity of certain bands. In bromine-induced polymerization, the electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and bromine content of the copolymer complex decrease with increase in N-methylpyrrole fraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data suggest that a fixed fraction of bromine is incorporated as covalent bromide in the copolymer complex. When iodine is used, the halogen content do not show substantial differences among the copolymers but the ...
Process of employing as herbicides N-phenylalkyl - γ hydroxybutyramide or methyl or halo derivatives thereof wherein the methyl or halo substituent occupies any one of two of the ortho-, meta- and para-positions of the phenyl ring; said compounds having the following formula: ##SPC1## Wherein m is 1 or 0 and R1 is hydrogen, methyl, chlorine, or bromine; R2 is hydrogen, methyl or, when R1 is other than hydrogen, R2 can also be chlorine or bromine; and R3 is hydrogen or, when R1 is hydrogen, R3 can also be chlorine or bromine. The above compounds are useful as plant growth regulating agents particularly as a herbicide or control agents for aquatic weeds.
The sea ice and mercury changes are linked chemically through bromine, which is released from seawater. The sea ice surface controls the way bromine escapes the ocean and reaches the atmosphere. When they do reach the air, bromine molecules can do two things: chemically scrub out ozone, and transform mercury from a fairly unreactive form to a reactive form. Reactive mercury can fall out of the atmosphere into snow, ice and the ocean.. "It is this converted form of mercury that can be incorporated into Arctic food chains in the ocean and on land," said Oltmans, an atmospheric scientist with CIRES and NOAAs Earth System Research Laboratory. At high enough levels, mercury can harm organisms nerves, brains, reproductive systems and more, depending on the form of the metal and type of exposure.. Oltmans detailed the relationship between sea ice, ozone and mercury this week during the Global Monitoring Annual Conference at NOAAs Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colo.. Scientists have ...
The Wender Taxol total synthesis in organic chemistry describes a Taxol total synthesis (one of six to date) by the group of Paul Wender at Stanford University published in 1997. This synthesis has much in common with the Holton Taxol total synthesis in that it is a linear synthesis starting from a naturally occurring compound with ring construction in the order A,B,C,D. The Wender effort is shorter by approximately 10 steps. Raw materials for the preparation of Taxol by this route include verbenone, prenyl bromine, allyl bromide, propiolic acid, Gilman reagent, and Eschenmosers salt. The taxol synthesis started from the terpene verbenone 1 in Scheme 1, which is the oxidation product of naturally occurring α-pinene and forming ring A. Construction of ring B started with abstraction of the pendant methyl group proton by potassium tert-butoxide (conjugated anion is formed) followed by nucleophilic displacement of the bromine atom in prenyl bromide 2 to form diene 3. Ozonolysis of the prenyl ...
Organobromine compounds have a wide range of uses in the chemical industry, which vary from petrol additives and drilling fluids to dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals. The production of these compounds under more environmentally and industrially friendly conditions is desirable. In this work the ability of y-alumina and montmorillonite K10 to adsorb bromine onto the surface, and the ability of these adsorbed species to enhance bromination reactions, are investigated. These investigations include the bromination of the supports using, dibromomethane, hydrogen bromide and dibromine. The action of each of these individual reagents upon the supports results in its own distinct adsorbed bromine species on the surface. These investigations also include the hydrobromination of alkenes and the Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction (bromination of the carbon a to the carboxylic acid group). The alkenes chosen for this work include 1,9-decadiene and butenes, as these give rise to both liquid and gas phase ...
More than two decades of new parents have turned to Consumer Reports Best Baby Products, the A-Z guide for everything they need to know about getting the best value on the safest products for their babies. This ninth edition is updated with the latest safety and product buying advice and exclusive Consumer Reports Ratings. Consumer Reports is the only publisher that conducts its own independent, unbiased safety and effectiveness testing on products for babies. We accept no advertising in our publications. Everything we test is purchased by secret shoppers in the same stores that new parents shop in. Well tell you not only which products are best, but also which products to avoid because they are not safe, or simply are a waste of money. As a result Consumer Reports Best Baby Products is the indispensable companion for new parents navigating the complex maze of hundreds of available baby products. What are the features to look for to make sure the crib you buy is a safe one? All-terrain strollers,
In medical terminology hives is usually spoken as urticaria as hive is a symptom of urticaria. Most people do not develop one hive when they have urticaria, hence the name hives.Hives are a kind of skin rash notable for dark red, raised, itchy bumps. Hives are most often caused by allergic reactions but there are many other causes too. For example, most cases of hives lasting less than six weeks (acute hives) are the result of an allergic trigger ...
0158]Examples of substituent which may be the substituent of the bivalent bonding group represented by J in Formula 2 include an alkyl group such as a methyl group, an ethyl group, a propyl group, an isopropyl group, a tert-butyl group, a pentyl group, a hexyl group, an octyl group, a dodecyl group and a trifluoromethyl group, a cycloalkyl group such as a cyclopentyl group and a cyclohexyl group, an aryl group such as a phenyl group and a naphthyl group, an acylamino group such as an acetylamino group and a benzoylamino group, an alkylthio group such as a methylthio group and an ethylthio group, an arylthio group such as a phenylthio group and a naphthylthio group, an alkenyl group such as a vinyl group, a 2-propenyl group, 3-butenyl group, 1-methyl-3-propenyl group, a 3-pentenyl group, 1-methyl-3-butenyl group, a 4-hexenyl group and a cyclohexenyl group, a halogen atom such as a chlorine atom, a bromine atom and an iodine atom, an alkynyl group such as a propargyl group, a heterocyclic group ...
This report is a comprehensive research of halogens market in Mexico. The report starts with giving brief country profile for Mexico, including general
Halogens form ionic compounds with metals- Form 1- atoms called halides for example NA-CL-. A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive one from a aqueous solution of its salt. For example chlorine can displace bromine and iodine from an aqueous of its salt, bromine will also displace iodine because of the trend in reactivity.. ...
Looking for bromide? Find out information about bromide. any of a group of compounds that contain bromine bromine , volatile, liquid chemical element; symbol Br; at. no. 35; at. wt. 79.904; m.p. -7.2°C;; b.p.... Explanation of bromide
Generally, yes polar molecules are more reactive. For example, benzene is unable to polarise bromine so they cant react, whereas phenol can; bromine is polarised and is therefore able to react. Halogens are very electronegative: Fluorine is the most at 4.0. H-Cl, eg, is held by a polar covalent bond ...
Selenium (mainly in the forms of selenite (Se(IV)) and selenate (Se(VI)) is a regulated drinking water contaminant, but there is little information on the kinetics and mechanisms of Se(IV) oxidation during water treatment. Species-specific and apparent second-order rate constants for the oxidation of Se(IV) at pH 7.0 were determined in buffered solutions and they decrease in the order bromine (5.8 ± 0.3 × 103 M−1 s−1) , ozone (O3, 513.4 ± 10.0 M−1 s−1) , chlorine (61.0 ± 3.6 M−1 s−1) , permanganate (2.1 ± 0.1 M−1 s−1), monochloramine (NH2Cl, (1.3 ± 0.1) × 10−3 M−1 s−1), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, (2.3 ± 0.1) × 10−5 M−1 s−1). The reaction stoichiometries for the reactions of Se(IV) with bromine, O3, chlorine, NH2Cl, and H2O2 are 1:1. For Mn(VII), the stoichiometries varied with pH and were 5:2, 3:2, and 1:2 for acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions, respectively. Based on the reaction orders and stoichiometries, the corresponding Se(IV) oxidation ...
Antoine-Jerome Balard. Portrait of Antoine-Jerome Balard (1802-76), French chemist. Balard taught at Montpellier University and in 1854 became prof- essor of chemistry at the College de France; Louis Pasteur was one of his pupils. Balard investigated salts dissolved in sea water and during his research in 1825 discovered bromine, named after bromos, the Greek for stink. The similarity of bromine to iodine and chlorine suggested that there were families of elements. In 1834 he worked on the chemistry of bleaching and isolated the two active agents, hypochlorous acid and chlorine monoxide. These work by oxidising dyes into chemicals with little or no pigment. - Stock Image H402/0220
Analyzing elements can provide insight into why you may not synthesize or convert thyroid hormones and can help determine the cause of thyroid related symptoms. The thyroid gland regulates cellular energy metabolism, as well as controls heart rate and protein synthesis for proper growth and development. These elements directly or indirectly impact thyroid hormone synthesis and intracellular conversion of T4 to T3. While bromine, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium are known biological toxins, iodine and selenium can potentially be toxic also if dietary intake, including excessive supplementation, is too high. Testing for these elements in urine provides an excellent assessment of overall body burden of toxic elements and is an indicator of excessive or inadequate intake or supplementation of iodine and selenium.. This Elements Profile measures: Iodine, Lithium, Bromine, Cadmium, Selenium, Arsenic, Creatinine and Mercury.. This test does NOT include: zinc, copper, magnesium or lead. See our other ...
Dibromine trioxide is the chemical compound composed of bromine and oxygen with the formula Br2O3. It is an orange solid that is stable below −40 °C. It has the structure Br−O−BrO2 (bromine bromate).[2] The Br−O−Br bond is bent with bond angle 111.2° and the Br−O−BrO2 bond length is 1.85Å.[3] ...
All-inorganic perovskite materials, i.e. cesium lead halide (CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl)), have attracted much attention in the application of photoelectronic devices, especially in solar cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the solubility issue of CsPbX3 restricts their utilization in solution-proces
So we have a molar mass for the average mercury atom: = 200.6 g mol-1. Classwork 1. Copper has two stable isotopes:. Isotope Abundance (%) 63Cu 69.1 65Cu 30.9 Calculate the molar mass of copper.. 2. Bromine has two isotopes, 79Br and 81Br. Look up the molar mass of bromine. What is the proportion of the two isotopes?. 3. Boron has two isotopes, 10B and 11B. What is the proportion?. 4. Lead has four stable isotopes:. Isotope Abundance (%) 204Pb 1.5 206Pb 23.6 207Pb 22.6 208Pb 52.3 Calculate the molar mass of lead.. Homework - due in next week. 1 An experiment was performed to determine the density of gold. The following measurements were recorded. Mass of sample of gold = 30.923 g (to 5 sig fig), Volume of sample of gold = 1.6 cm3 (to 2 sig fig). Which of the following is the most accurate value for the density of gold (in g cm-3) which can be justified by these measurements? A. 19.327 (to 5 sig fig) B. 19.33 (to 4 sig fig) C. 19.3 (to 3 sig fig) D. 19 (to 2 sig fig). 2 The nucleus of a radon ...
The reaction between potassium metal and chlorine gas is described by the following thermochemical equation K(s) + ½C_l2(g) = KCl(s) ÄH =-437 kJ mol-1 What will be the enthalpy change (to 2 significant figures) for the reaction ...
Get an answer for If the molar mass is 56g mol^-1, determine the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon. Name a possible structure for the hydrocarbon.A gaseous hydrocarbon contains 85.7% carbon by mass. The hydrocarbon burns with a yellow, sooty flame and when bubbled through a solution of bromine, the solution is decolourised as a result of the reaction between bromine and the hydrocarbon. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Lessened stages of blended air can have really serious penalties for the sake of your waters environments as well as, throughout extreme scenarios, can cause large-scale species of fish kills (Physique A pair of). Many fluids, for instance isopropyl alcohol consumption plus drinking water, indicate wonderful solubility with each other. The superior stratum from the combination about the ideal is actually a condensed remedy with bromine throughout drinking water; the underside layer is really a soaked solution of water in bromine. A solution could be condensed together with the mixture with an greater temperatures (the place that the solute might be more disolveable) and subsequently cooled off with a reduce temp without the need of stressfull a solute. This favourable either can be described as a 100 % pure element or possibly a fusion. O2 may also break down while in the liquid substances that are utilized to help to make pockets, and when the much needed oxygen will not be removed, the actual ...
Once again nutrex comes though with another amazing product this time its postlift that is here to help secure your workout gains. Postlift made a big difference with my workouts with more muscle recovery along with and increase in muscle growth. The cluster dextrin along with the betaine anhydrous helped with extra energy along with adding more strength during my workouts. All my lifts went up even with my weaker body parts like legs I found myself with more and added increase of energy along with wanting to do more reps, and weight. The essential amino acid blend was another important agent with my workouts. It made a really made a difference because I will workout late at night around 10 or 11pm then go back the following morning at 5am to lift again. With the amino acid blend that nutrex added in this product it cut down on the recovery time along with a reduce DOMS and soreness with my muscles. The recovery time was a lot quicker then similar products that I have taking before. And we ...
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Chemistry is complicated; that includes ingredients in artificially flavored fizzy drinks. Soda makers bowed to pressure to drop brominated vegetable oil, but its safety hasnt been very well studied.
Chemists have a familiarity with many elements and many compounds, from having worked with them or studied them in the literature. You get a feel for whats
Lets say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30). ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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So heres a question for the medicinal chemists: how come we dont like bromoaromatics so much? I know I dont, but I have trouble putting my finger on just why
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Catalog # AS3791 Formula: C11H14BrN Mass: 240.14 C.A.S. / related C.A.S: [38042-74-9] / [] MDL: MFCD11226925 Appearance: powder Colour: off white Hazardous Classification: Warning Storage Temp: 2-7°C Refrigerate logP: 2,65 pKa: 8,598 ...
The phenylurea moiety is a ubiquitous synthon in supramolecular chemistry. Here we report that the introduction of chlorine or bromine atoms in the ortho positions to the urea unit is a simple and very efficient way to improve its intermolecular hydrogen bond (HB) donor character. This effect was demonstrated in solution both in the context of self-association of bis-ureas and hydrogen bonding of mono-ureas to strong HB acceptors.. ...
The second paper, published in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., describes how researchers at Genzyme used a fragment-based approach to develop potent Pim-1 inhibitors. The researchers used SPR to screen a library of about 1800 fragments at 75 micromolar concentration and then used a biochemical assay to characterize the active molecules. Benzofuran-2-carboxylic acids such as compound 10 (below) were particularly interesting: not only did they have high ligand efficiencies, they dont look anything like typical kinase inhibitors. X-ray crystallography revealed that the bromine atom is binding in a hydrophobic pocket, while the acid is making hydrogen bond contacts with the catalytic lysine and other residues. A related fragment with comparable potency had a methoxy substituent in the 7-position, and by transforming this into a positively charged moiety the researchers were able to improve the potency to low nanomolar with a dramatic increase in ligand efficiency ...
[email protected] NIEHS Grant: R00ES026620. Several molecules bearing multiple bromine atoms that are naturally produced in the marine ecosystem are known to be harmful to human health and the environment. However, scientists do not understand how these molecules are made, nor do they know the identities of their producers. Researchers from the University of California, San Diego are using a metagenome mining approach to characterize the biosynthetic routes of polybrominated pollutants and toxins. These natural marine products can biomagnify in the marine food web and be passed onto humans via seafood consumption. Data from this study will be used to drive the discovery of new natural sources of these polybrominated pollutants and could help improve public health policies aimed at mitigating exposure to these naturally produced harmful chemicals.. ...
A novel radical cyclization of 2-bromoindoles was examined, generating a series of hexahydropyrrolo[3,4- b ]indoles in fair yield. This process involved the generation of a variety of indole-3-carboxamides followed by the introduction of bromine at the C-2 position of the indoles using lithiation chemistry. Treatment of indoles 131 , 149 , and 183 with tri- n -butyltin hydride afforded the cyclized dihydroindoles 132 , 150 , and 184 , respectively, in 34-51% yields, via a 1,5-radical translocation process followed by a 5- endo-trig cyclization to the indole C-2 position. The preparation of suitable 1,6-radical translocation reaction precursors has also been investigated. Attempted C-2 bromination of indoles 194 and 195 using metallation yielded the unexpected 2,2 -biindoles 197 and 199 , respectively, in fair yields. The preparation of N -tosyl amide alcohol 221 is also presented. Bromination attempts of 221 yielded ketoamide 220 as the exclusive product. Attempts towards a novel approach to ...
The mother and baby products retail market has not only grown quickly, but it has also quickly moved online. However, it is a market where trust in quality and advice are crucial. Consumers need to be convinced of product quality in-store before they go on to buy online.. Building brand trust and confidence increasingly means companies must not only sell high quality products, but also provide a high level of expertise and advice. This means developing new services with the help of infant development experts and institutions, but also training staff to deliver that expertise.. As the market quickly expands into lower tier cities, brands and retailers must see their business expansion not just in terms of product delivery logistics, but also in terms of service and expertise delivery. It also requires better provision of information and engagement with consumers, using all retail channels (both online and in-store), as well as engaging with consumers through social networks.. ...
Johnson & Johnson executives were handed 30,000 signatures from consumers in February who, instead of complaining, were praising the company. As one of the worlds largest producers of personal care products, it had followed through on an August pledge to remove toxic chemicals from its baby products -- and by doing so, signaled a change in corporate America.
In response to my recent advice not to buy wipe warmers, Ive received requests from soon-to-be moms for more information about products new parents dont need. So heres my list of seven other waste-of-money baby products.. 1. A hands-free pumping bra. One of the best hints I got soon after giving birth came from the lactation consultant at the hospital. "Just take an old sports bra and cut two holes in it" instead of buying a hands-free pumping bra, she suggested. And the advice worked like a charm through 11 months of pumping and two old sports bras. And an added bonus of this technique, as pointed out recently by Rookie Moms Whitney Moss, is that the cut-up bra can also help you potentially lessen some of the pains associated with breastfeeding.. 2. Shoes for babies who cant yet cruise/furniture walk. When my daughter was about three months old, I bought her really cute leopard-print and black patent leather May Janes (see the picture above) in tiny baby sizes for an embarrassing amount of ...
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The best newborn baby products, essentials, and gear, according to an obsessive mother of two and founder of maternity line Storq.
Suitable groups represented by R1t Rz, R3, R4, Re, R7, Ra, R9, R11, R12, Ri4and Ris wherever applicable may be selected be from the following group halogen atom such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine; perhaloalkyl particularly perhalo(Cr C6)alkyl such as fluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, fluoroethyl, difluoroethyl and the like; perhaloalkyl particularly perhalo(Ci-C6)alkyl such as fluoromethyloxy, difluoromethyloxy, trifluoromethyloxy and the like; substituted or unsubstituted (CrCi2)alkyl group, especially, linear or branched (Ci-C8)alkyl group, such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, t-butyl, n-pentyl, iso- pentyl, hexyl, iso-hexyl, heptyl, octyl and the like; substituted or unsubstituted (C2- Ci2)alkenyl group such as ethylene, n-propylene pentenyl, hexenyl, heptynyl, heptadienyl and the like; (CrCi2)alkynyl substituted or unsubstituted (C2-Ci2)alkynyl group such as acetylene and the like; cyclo(C3-C7)alkyl group such as ...
In fact the number $n$ can be anything you like, and it depends on how you combine the two half-equations.. To use a different (not very realistic, but I dont care) example consider the half-reactions (data from Wikipedia). $$\begin{align} \ce{Na+(aq) + e- &-, Na(s)} & E_1 &= \pu{-2.71 V} \tag{1} \\ \ce{Br2 (l) + 2e- &-, 2Br-(aq)} & E_2 &= \pu{+1.07 V} \tag{2} \end{align}$$. We have $E_\mathrm{cell} = E_2 - E_1 = \pu{+3.78 V}$. To construct a full reaction for this cell the "usual" procedure taught is to take (1), multiply it by 2, and subtract it from (2).. $$\ce{Br2(l) + 2Na(s) -, 2Na+(aq) + 2Br-(aq)} \tag{3}$$. In this case, we have $n = 2$ as there are two electrons being transferred in this reaction, from bromine to sodium. Equivalently, you can think of (3) as being the sum of two half-reactions, each featuring the gain or loss of two electrons:. $$\begin{align} \ce{2Na(s) &-, 2Na+(aq) + 2e-} \tag{4} \\ \ce{Br2(l) + 2e- &-, 2Br-(aq)} \tag{5} \end{align}$$. Note that the stoichiometric ...
if you add up 1 drop of 5 bromine solution in hexane to 1ml each of 5 solution of lard olive oil and corn oil dissolved, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
A new use of, and method of treatment using, a compound selected from the group consisting essentially of compounds of Formula I: ##STR1## wherein: R 1 is hydrogen, lower alkanoyl of up to 6 carbon atoms or aroyl selected from benzoyl and naphthoyl; R 2 is hydrogen, lower alkyl of up to 6 carbon atoms or arylalkyl selected from benzyl, phenylethyl and phenylpropyl; R 3 is hydrogen or lower alkyl of up to 6 carbon atoms; R 4 is hydrogen or lower alkyl of up to 6 carbon atoms, or when X is oxygen, R 4 together with R 5 can represent --CH 2 --O--; X is a valency bond, --CH 2 , oxygen or sulfur; Ar is selected from phenyl, naphthyl, indanyl and tetrahydronaphthyl; R 5 and R 6 are individually selected from hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, hydroxyl, lower alkyl of up to 6 carbon atoms, a --CONH 2 -- group, lower alkoxy of up to 6 carbon atoms, benzyloxy, lower alkylthio of up to 6 carbon atoms, lower alkysulphinyl of up to 6 carbon atoms and lower
To investigate whether MvINS can accommodate a DAG molecule, we synthesized a bromine-derived DAG, where the end methyl group of the Sn-1 fatty acyl chain is substituted by a bromine (Br) atom, and co-crystallized it with MvINS purified in Cymal-7. The structure was determined at 2.1 Å resolution (table S2). The V-shaped electron density, together with the Br anomalous signal, unambiguously confirmed the presence of DAG in the cavity (Fig. 2B).. The head group and the Sn-1 tail are coordinated by residues from TM1/2/3/6 and the periplasmic β strands, whereas the Sn-2 tail extends into the lipid bilayer through the cleft between TM2 and TM5 (Fig. 2C). The polar head of the DAG molecule is coordinated through hydrogen bonds by four residues close to the periplasmic side: Asp23 and His26 on TM1, Tyr34 on β1-2, and Tyr150 on β5-6 (Fig. 2D and fig. S2A). The completely buried Sn-1 aliphatic tail is surrounded by hydrophobic residues mainly from TM6 and, to a lesser extent, from TM1/2/3 (fig. ...
My research is focused on the ubiquitous presence of saline fluids at depth in the continental crust, either in sedimentary systems or within crystalline basement in fracture controlled systems. How did these fluids gain their actual salinities, which can be up to 10 times the modern seawater salinity? What is the time scale in which this deep reservoir of the hydrosphere exchanges with surface reservoir such as the oceans or more diluted shallower groundwaters? Conservative chlorine and bromine stable isotopes (respectively 37Cl/35Cl and 81Br/79Br) can be used as source tracers to identify mixing in this kind of fluids. Furthermore they have been used to identify processes at the origin of the salinity or to constrain diffusion in low permeability environments. Im also focusing on classic water isotope composition (18O and 2H) to assess the extent of water-rock interaction and its relation to the generation of abiogenic reduced gas such as CH4 or H2 in the Canadian Shield ...
1. Insufficient rest and sleep. Lack of adequate rest and sleep is a common cause of depression. Overcoming it often requires going to bed by 9 p.m. or earlier. Falling asleep before midnight is important for proper rest.. 2. Adrenal burnout. This is not the same as fatigue. It is a deep derangement of the energy-producing mechanism of the body. Just getting a good nights sleep or going on a vacation does not bring back your energy.. Millions with this condition drag themselves through life often using stimulants such as caffeine, energy drinks, sugar, worry or anger to function. Life for them is not much fun, which gives rise to depressive, negative thoughts and feelings.. 3. Low thyroid activity. This is a common contributor to depression. Many people today have impaired thyroid activity, even when their blood tests register normal. This is, in part, because the environment is flooded with iodine antagonists - chlorine, fluorine and bromine. I find that most people need extra iodine in the ...
After the bromine has been added the ether and dissolved hydrogen bromide are removed at once (Note 4) under reduced pressure with a slight current of air. The phenacyl bromide remains as a solid mass of brownish yellow crystals (Note 5); the color is removed by shaking with a mixture of 10 cc. of water and 10 cc. of petroleum ether. The crystals are filtered with suction and washed several times with fresh portions of the solvent mixture, if necessary, until a white product is obtained (Note 6). The crude phenacyl bromide weighs 74-80 g. (88-96 per cent of the theoretical amount) and melts at 45-48°. This material is sufficiently pure for many purposes. If higher purity is desired the crude product may be recrystallized from 25-30 cc. of methanol, yielding 54-55 g. (64-66 per cent of the theoretical amount) of white crystals melting at 49-51° (Note 7) ...
Salinity can be defined formally as the total mass expressed in grams of all the substances dissolved in 1 kg of seawater, when all the carbonate has been converted to oxide, all the bromine and iodine have been replaced by chlorine, and all organic compounds have been oxidized at a temperature of 480 °C, or simply as the total weight in grams of dissolved salts in 1 kg of seawater expressed as parts per thousand (o/oo ...
More recently, cooling tower operators have become aware of the dangers caused by the presence of germs and bacteria in the water. Most dangerous are A. Pseudomonas which can cause the fatal Legionaires disease. These can be prevented by the injection of oxidizing sanitizers or biocides controlled by ORP. Indeed, numerous studies by health departments all over the world have shown that the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP or Redox) generated by an oxidizing sanitizer, such as chlorine or bromine, is the most reliable indicator of both sanitizer activity and sterilisation of germs and bacteria - far superior to conventional test kit measurements. ...
Soft Soak Shock, non chlorine non bromine spa hot water care, Soft Soak sanitizer, soft soak shock, soft soak spa conditioner, soft soak filter cleaner, soft soak stain & scale control
Each "article" in this category is a collection of entries about several stamp issuers, presented in alphabetical order. The entries are formulated on the micro model and so provide summary information about all known issuers. See the Category:Compendium of postage stamp issuers page for details of the project. Became the Congo Republic and later Zaire. Dates 1909-1960 Capital Leopoldville Currency 100 centimes = 1 franc Main Article Needed See also Congo Free State Main Article Needed Includes Eupen & Malmedy (Belgian Occupation); German East Africa (Belgian Occupation); Germany (Belgian Occupation) Dates 1849 - Capital Brussels Currency (1849) 100 centimes = 1 franc (2002) 100 cent = 1 euro Main Article Postage stamps and postal history of Belgium Dates 1914-1918 Currency 100 centimes = 1 franc Refer German Occupation Issues (WW1) Dates 1973 - Capital Belmopan Currency 100 cents = 1 dollar Main Article Postage stamps and postal history of Belize See also British Honduras Refer Belarus Dates ...
Br[edit]. *Bromine monochloride - BrCl. *Bromine pentafluoride - BrF5. *Bromine trifluoride - BrF3 ...
9 Br *9.1 Bra *9.1.1 Brac *9.1.1.1 Brach *9.1.1.1.1 Brachi-Brachm ...
Br2 → 2 Br• (thermal) or Br2 + hν → 2 Br• (photochemical). each Br atom is a free radical, indicated by the symbol « • » ... Br• + H2 → HBr + H•. H• + Br2 → HBr + Br•. the sum of these two steps corresponds to the overall reaction H2 + Br2 → 2 HBr, ... Detailed example: the hydrogen-bromine reaction[edit]. The reaction H2 + Br2 → 2 HBr proceeds by the following mechanism:[4][5] ... Termination 2 Br• → Br2. recombination of two radicals, corresponding in this example to initiation in reverse.. As can be ...
Br. Francis Aranha[edit]. Brother Francis Aranha was born of a wealthy and noble family of Braga in Portugal, about 1551, and ... Br. Aranha, wounded at the outset by a scimitar and a lance, fell down a deep declivity into the thick crop of a rice-field, ...
a b c Michael J. Dagani, Henry J. Barda, Theodore J. Benya, David C. Sanders "Bromine Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... 2 NaBr + Cl2 → Br2 + 2 NaCl. Applications[edit]. Sodium bromide is the most useful inorganic bromide in industry.[7] It is also ... Preparation of other bromine compounds[edit]. Sodium bromide is widely used for the preparation of other bromides in organic ... Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles ...
... -Br or -S1[edit]. Con-Br (or Con-S1, P0CG46) is isolated from Conus brettinghami (now Conus sulcatus), and is the ... "Conantokin-Br from Conus brettinghami and selectivity determinants for the NR2D subunit of the NMDA receptor". Biochemistry ...
Br2 + 2e → 2HBr = 1.07 V at pH 0). Metal bromides are largely ionic in nature. The unstable common oxide of bromine (Br2O5) is ... Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ... Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ... Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium ...
Br. J. Dermatol. 94 (2): 139-43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1976.tb04362.x. PMID 1252348.. ...
Bromine Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[ ... "Bromine Is an Essential Trace Element for Assembly of Collagen IV Scaffolds in Tissue Development and Architecture". Cell. 157 ...
Br. J. Nutr. 93 (2): 257-66. doi:10.1079/BJN20041327. PMID 15788119. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, ...
... is located north of Anápolis and Goiânia on the important interstate highway BR-153, which links Brasília to Belém. It ...
Br 36. Kr 5 37. Rb 38. Sr 39. Y 40. Zr 41. Nb 42. Mo 43. Tc 44. Ru 45. Rh 46. Pd 47. Ag 48. Cd 49. In 50. Sn 51. Sb 52. Te 53. ... Bromine 1825 J. Balard and C. Löwig 1825 J. Balard and C. Löwig They both discovered the element in the autumn of 1825. Balard ... ppgfsc.posgrad.ufsc.br. Retrieved 20 April 2018.. *^ Roza, Greg (2010). The Nitrogen Elements: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, ... "35 Bromine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ Carl Löwig (1827) "Über Brombereitung und eine auffallende ...
Br. J. Dermatol. 175 (2): 250-262. doi:10.1111/bjd.14500. PMID 26919824.. ...
"Br. J. Cancer. 92 (5): 857-66. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602389. PMC 2361904. PMID 15756256.. ... "Br. J. Cancer. 105 (11): 1676-83. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.441. PMC 3242599. PMID 22033271.. ...
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Br Kr RbOH Sr(OH)2 Y(OH)3 Zr(OH)4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd AgOH Cd(OH)2 In(OH)3 Sn(OH)2. Sn(OH)4 Sb(OH)3 Te I Xe ...
Br 36. Kr 37. Rb 38. Sr 39. Y 40. Zr 41. Nb 42. Mo 43. Tc 44. Ru 45. Rh 46. Pd 47. Ag 48. Cd 49. In 50. Sn 51. Sb 52. Te 53. I ...
BR CHI CIN CLE LOU NYG PHI PIT STL WSH Baltimore -. 7-7. 6-8. 9-5. 4-9. 12-2. 6-7-2. 10-4. 6-7-1. 9-3. 8-6. 9-4-1 ...
"Br. Med. J. 329 (7480): 1444-1446. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1444. PMC 535973. PMID 15604179.. ... Olshansky, Brian; Dossey, Larry (2003). "Retroactive prayer: a preposterous hypothesis?". Br. Med. J. 327 (7429): 1465-1468. ...
Br Kr RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y(NO3)3 Zr(NO3)4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In Sn Sb(NO3)3 Te I Xe(NO3)2 ...
Hoffbrand AV, Weir DG (June 2001). "The history of folic acid". Br. J. Haematol. 113 (3): 579-89. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001. ...
"Br. J. Pharmacol. 78 (1): 191-206. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1983.tb09380.x. PMC 2044790. PMID 6297646.. ...
Br. J. Nutr. 87. Suppl 1: S77-82. doi:10.1079/bjn2001459. PMID 11895157. Heller AR, Rössler S, Litz RJ, et al. (2006). "Omega-3 ...
Br−. , or I−. . Other silver salts with non-coordinating anions, namely silver tetrafluoroborate and silver hexafluorophosphate ... reacts quickly with halide sources to produce the insoluble silver halide, which is a cream precipitate if Br- is used, a white ... Treatment with solutions of halide ions gives a precipitate of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I). When making photographic film, silver ...

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