Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A muscarinic antagonist used mainly in the treatment of urinary syndromes. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Thermodynamic analysis of halide binding to haloalkane dehalogenase suggests the occurrence of large conformational changes. (1/418)

Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) hydrolyzes short-chain haloalkanes to produce the corresponding alcohols and halide ions. Release of the halide ion from the active-site cavity can proceed via a two-step and a three-step route, which both contain slow enzyme isomerization steps. Thermodynamic analysis of bromide binding and release showed that the slow unimolecular isomerization steps in the three-step bromide export route have considerably larger transition state enthalpies and entropies than those in the other route. This suggests that the three-step route involves different and perhaps larger conformational changes than the two-step export route. We propose that the three-step halide export route starts with conformational changes that result in a more open configuration of the active site from which the halide ion can readily escape. In addition, we suggest that the two-step route for halide release involves the transfer of the halide ion from the halide-binding site in the cavity to a binding site somewhere at the protein surface, where a so-called collision complex is formed in which the halide ion is only weakly bound. No large structural rearrangements are necessary for this latter process.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. (2/418)

1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the relevant binding site.  (+info)

Human extracellular water volume can be measured using the stable isotope Na234SO4. (3/418)

The volume of human extracellular water (ECW) may be estimated from the sulfate space (SS). Although it may better approximate ECW volume than the bromide space, a common alternative, SS measurement is limited by the need to administer a radioactive substance, sodium [35S]sulfate. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement of the SS using the stable isotope, sodium [34S]sulfate. Eight healthy nonobese men ingested 0.50-0.78 mg (3.47-5.42 micromol) Na234SO4/kg body weight and 30 mg NaBr/kg body weight. Sulfate concentrations and 34SO4 enrichments were measured by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry before and during the 5 h after tracer administration. SS was calculated by linear extrapolation of the natural logarithm of serum 34SO4 concentrations obtained at h 2, 3 and 4 compared with h 3, 4 and 5. The SS obtained using values between h 3 and 5 (187 +/- 17 mL/kg) was similar to published determinations using intravenous or oral radiosulfate, and was 80% of the simultaneously measured corrected bromide space (234 +/- 10 mL/kg, P = 0.01). Oral sodium [34S]sulfate administration is a suitable technique for measuring ECW and avoids radiation exposure.  (+info)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies of bromide binding to bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum. (4/418)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies have been carried out for bromide/peroxidase samples in Tris buffer at pH 8. The results are compared with those of aqueous (Tris-buffered) bromide and vanadium model compounds containing Br-V, Br-C(aliphatic) and Br-C(aromatic) bonds. It is found that bromide does not coordinate to the vanadium centre. Rather, bromine binds covalently to carbon. A possible candidate is active site serine.  (+info)

Agonist-induced sensitization of beta-adrenoceptor signaling in neonatal rat heart: expression and catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase. (5/418)

Agonist stimulation of neonatal cardiac beta-adrenoceptors produces heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling, rather than desensitization, as seen in adults. We examined the ontogenetic patterns of AC expression and activity, and evaluated isoproterenol effects on this pattern. [(3)H]Forskolin binding showed an increase in AC concentration across the period (birth to 25 days of age) in which agonist-induced sensitization is replaced by desensitization; binding affinity also increased, suggesting a shift in conformation and/or isoform. Indeed, catalytic properties of AC changed substantially with development, as evaluated by AC responses to forskolin versus Mn(2+). In contrast, there were only minor changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the two major isoforms. Neonates given repeated isoproterenol treatment showed an enhancement of [(3)H]forskolin binding B(max) and a precocious shift to the mature affinity state and corresponding catalytic properties. Although isoproterenol caused significant increases in AC mRNAs, the effects were small and showed no isoform preference. Thus, a primary mode for ontogenetic increases in cardiac cellular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation is the increase in AC activity attendant upon an absolute increase in the membrane concentration of AC molecules, along with changes in the catalytic properties of AC. The lack of correlation between mRNA and AC protein suggests that the primary regulatory events are post-transcriptional. The induction of AC by beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the fetus and neonate accounts for heterologous, agonist-induced sensitization, a phenomenon that preserves cellular responses during the period of the perinatal transition.  (+info)

Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase. (6/418)

Highly purified coliphage Qbeta replicase when incubated without added template synthesizes self-replicating RNA species in an autocatalytic reaction. In this paper we offer strong evidence that this RNA production is directed by templates generated de novo during the lag phase. Contamination of the enzyme by traces of RNA templates was ruled out by the following experimental results: (1) Additional purification steps do not eliminate this RNA production. (2) The lag phase is lengthened to several hours by lowering substrate or enzyme concentration. At a nucleoside triphosphate concentration of 0.15 mM no RNA is produced although the template-directed RNA synthesis works normally. (3) Different enzyme concentrations lead to RNA species of completely different primary structure. (4) Addition of oligonucleotides or preincubation with only three nucleoside triphosphates affects the final RNA sequence. (5) Manipulation of conditions during the lag phase results in the production of RNA structures that are adapted to the particular incubation conditions applied (e.g., RNA resistant to nuclease attack or resistant to inhibitors or even RNAs "addicted to the drug," in the sense that they only replicate in the presence of a drug like acridine orange). RNA species obtained in different experiments under optimal incubation conditions show very similar fingerprint patterns, suggesting the operation of an instruction mechanism. A possible mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Resonance raman spectra of manganese (III) tetraphenylporphin halides. (7/418)

Unique resonance Raman spectra were obtained when manganese(III) tetraphenylporphin halides in noncoordinating solvents were illuminated by laser frequencies around 500 nm. Of particular interest is the observation of a feature that is sensitive to the nature of the axial ligand. This feature disappears when the coordinating solvent pyridine is employed, and it, therefore, appears to be diagnostic of the manganese coordination number.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on body composition in 25 to 30 week gestational age infants. (8/418)

AIMS: To compare the effects of early and delayed sodium supplementation on body composition and body water compartments during the first two weeks of postnatal life. METHODS: Preterm infants of 25-30 weeks' gestation were stratified and randomly assigned according to gender and gestational age, to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day beginning either on the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight had been achieved. Daily sodium intake, total fluid intake, energy intake, urine volume, and urinary sodium excretion were recorded. Total body water was measured by H(2)(18)O dilution on days 1, 7, and 14, and extracellular fluid volume by sodium bromide dilution on days 1 and 14. RESULTS: Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences between the groups in body water compartments on day 1. In the delayed group, but not the early group, there was a significant loss of total body water during the first week (delayed -44 ml/kg, p=0. 048; early 6 ml/kg, p=0.970). By day 14 the delayed, but not the early group, also had a significant reduction in extracellular fluid volume (delayed -53 ml/kg, p=0.01; early -37 ml/kg, p=0.2). These changes resulted in a significant alteration in body composition at the end of the first week (total body weight: delayed 791 ml/kg; early 849 ml/kg, p=0.013). By day 14 there were once again no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Body composition after preterm birth is influenced by the timing of introduction of routine sodium supplements. Early sodium supplementation can delay the physiological loss of body water that is part of normal postnatal adaptation. This is likely to be of particular relevance to babies with respiratory distress syndrome. A tailored approach to clinical management, delaying the introduction of routine sodium supplements until there has been postnatal loss of body water, is recommended.  (+info)

There are several types of lung diseases that are classified as obstructive, including:

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that makes it hard to breathe and can cause long-term disability and even death. COPD is caused by damage to the lungs, usually from smoking or exposure to other forms of pollution.
2. Emphysema: This is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged and cannot properly expand and contract. This can cause shortness of breath and can lead to respiratory failure.
3. Chronic bronchitis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it harder to breathe.
4. Asthma: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become damaged and widened, leading to thickening of the walls of the airways and chronic infection.
6. Pulmonary fibrosis: This is a condition where the lung tissue becomes scarred and stiff, making it harder to breathe.
7. Lung cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can occur in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollution, genetics, and certain occupations or environments. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases may include medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to pollutants. In severe cases, surgery or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that these diseases can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a doctor if you experience any persistent breathing difficulties or other symptoms. A proper diagnosis and treatment plan can help manage the condition and improve quality of life.

* Cerebral encephalocele: when the brain tissue protrudes through the skull.
* Meningoencephalocele: when the meninges (the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord) protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.
* Mesenchymal encephalocele: when other tissues such as skin, muscle or bone protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.

Symptoms of encephalocele can vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include:

* Protrusion of the brain or meninges through a opening in the skull
* Abnormal appearance of the head or face
* Delayed developmental milestones such as sitting, standing or walking
* Poor muscle tone
* Seizures
* Vision and hearing problems

Diagnosis of encephalocele is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and genetic testing. Treatment for encephalocele usually involves surgery to repair the opening in the skull and relieve any pressure on the brain. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to correct other defects such as hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation in the brain).

Encephalocele is a rare condition, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated. Early detection and intervention are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

... toxicity can also cause a type of skin eruption, see potassium bromide. The bromide ion has an ionic radius of 196 pm. ... to give bromide ions. The classic case is sodium bromide, which fully dissociates in water: NaBr → Na+ + Br− Hydrogen bromide, ... The kidneys excrete bromide ions. The half-life of bromide in the human body (12 days) is long compared with many ... Bromide is rarely mentioned in the biochemical context. Some enzymes use bromide as substrate or as a cofactor. Bromoperoxidase ...
... may refer to Niobium(III) bromide. NbBr3 Niobium(IV) bromide, NbBr4 Niobium(V) bromide, NbBr5 Greenwood, Norman ... Niobium compounds, Bromides, Metal halides, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, All ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula Te2Br. It is one of the few stable lower bromides of tellurium. ... Other tellurium bromides include the yellow liquid Te2Br2, the orange solid TeBr4, and the greenish-black solid TeBr2. ... Bromides, Nonmetal halides, Tellurium compounds, Chalcohalides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... (TOAB or TOABr) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula: [CH3(CH2)7]4N Br. It is ... Tetraoctylammonium bromide at Sigma-Aldrich v t e (Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG source, ECHA InfoCard ID ...
... is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula AtBr. Astatine bromide is produced by the reaction of ... astatine with an aqueous solution of iodine monobromide: 2 At + 2 IBr → 2 AtBr + I2 Astatine bromide also can produce by react ...
... may refer to: Indium(I) bromide, InBr Indium(III) bromide, InBr3; when molten it is dimeric, In2Br6, and it is ...
Evaluation of vinyl bromide Report on Carcinogens Background Document for Vinyl Bromide Synthesis of vinyl bromides The ... Vinyl bromide is listed in List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens as a suspected human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride Allyl bromide ... MSDS at Oxford University MSDS at Vinyl bromide at IRIS Vinyl bromide at IARC Summary & ... Vinyl bromide is a simple vinyl halide. It is a colorless liquid. It is produced from ethylene dibromide. It is mainly used as ...
"Clidinium bromide". Retrieved August 24, 2013. Aronson JK (2016). "Clidinium bromide". Meyler's side effects of ... ISBN 978-0-444-53716-4. "Clidinium Bromide Monograph". Retrieved August 24, 2013. "Clidinium bromide". 2014 Nurse's ... Clidinium bromide (INN) is an anticholinergic (specifically a muscarinic antagonist) drug. It may help symptoms of cramping and ...
... is a compound which comprises iron and bromine: Iron(II) bromide, ferrous bromide Iron(III) bromide, ferric ... bromide This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, ...
Bromides, Nicotinic antagonists, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Fluorenes, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system drug stubs ...
Look up bromide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bromide can refer to: In language: Bromide (language), a figure of speech ... Sodium bromide, an anticonvulsant and sedative In photography Bromide paper, paper coated with an emulsion of silver bromide, ... Bromide Basin, a basin in Utah This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bromide. If an internal link ... Potassium bromide, an anticonvulsant and sedative (most pharmacologic information is here) ...
... is an acyl bromide compound. As is expected, it may be prepared by reaction between phosphorus tribromide and ... Acetyl bromide[permanent dead link] at Sigma-Aldrich Theodore M. Burton and Ed. F. Degering (1940). "The Preparation of Acetyl ... Acyl bromides, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... acetyl bromide hydrolyzes rapidly in water, forming acetic acid ... Bromide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62: 227. doi:10.1021/ja01858a502. v t e (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ...
... can be stored under dry conditions at 2 to 8 °C for extended periods. Cyanogen bromide is volatile, and ... "Cyanogen Bromide HSDB 708". HSDB. NIH / NLM. 2009-04-07. Lunn, G.; Sansone, E. B. (1985). "Destruction of Cyanogen Bromide and ... "Cyanogen Bromide MSDS Number: C6600". J. T. Baker. 1996-08-12. Teeri, A. E. (1948). "Thiamine and the Cyanogen Bromide Reaction ... If the sulfur in cysteine attacked cyanogen bromide, the bromide ion would deprotonate the cyanide adduct, leaving the sulfur ...
... due to extensive disorder in the bromide sublattice. Strontium bromide melts at 930 K (657 °C). Space-filling model of the ... Strontium bromide imparts a bright red colour in a flame test, showing the presence of strontium ions. It is used in flares and ... Strontium bromide is a chemical compound with a formula SrBr2. At room temperature it is a white, odourless, crystalline powder ... The beta phase of strontium bromide has a much higher ionic conductivity of about 1 S cm−1, comparable to that of molten SrBr2 ...
... is hydrogen bromide with the hydrogen being the heavier isotope deuterium. Hydrogen represents only a small ... Hydrogen bromide Heavy water (Water with deuterium in place of normal hydrogens.) "Hydrobromic acid-d". CAS Common Chemistry. ... "DEUTERIUM BROMIDE". Chemical Book. Retrieved 23 August 2022. v t e (Articles needing additional references from August 2022, ... fraction of the mass so it is not significantly heavier than typical hydrogen bromide. ...
... (C4H9Br) may refer to: 1-Bromobutane (n-Butyl bromide) 2-Bromobutane (sec-butyl bromide) 1-Bromo-2-methylpropane ... isobutyl bromide) 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane (tert-butyl bromide) This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated ...
... , also known as methylbenzyl bromide or T-stoff ('substance-T'), is any member or a mixture of organic chemical ... m-xylyl bromide (3-methylbenzyl bromide, systematic name 1-(bromomethyl)-3-methylbenzene) (NIST record) CAS RN 104-81-4: p- ... xylyl bromide (4-methylbenzyl bromide, systematic name 1-(bromomethyl)-4-methylbenzene) (NIST record) In the absence of ... Xylyl bromide is an irritant and lachrymatory agent. It has been incorporated in chemical weapons since the early months of ...
... is a decomposition product of halon compounds used in fire extinguishers. Carbonyl bromide is formed when ... Carbonyl bromide, also known as bromophosgene by analogy to phosgene, is an organic chemical compound. It is a carbon oxohalide ... It is also sensitive to hydrolysis, breaking down into hydrogen bromide and carbon dioxide. Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of ... In contrast to phosgene, carbonyl bromide cannot be produced efficiently from carbon monoxide and bromine. A complete ...
... , or ScBr3, is a trihalide, hygroscopic, water-soluble chemical compound of scandium and bromine. ScBr3 is ... 2 Sc(s) + 3 Br2(g) → 2 ScBr3(s) Scandium bromide is used for solid state synthesis of unusual clusters such as Sc19Br28Z4, (Z= ... ". "Scandium Bromide". "WebElements Periodic Table » Scandium » reactions of elements". "Scandium(III) bromide , CAS 13465-59-3 ... Bromides, Scandium compounds, Metal halides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... acts by neutralizing the charge repulsion between virions and sialic acid on the cell surface. Use of ... Hexadimethrine bromide (commercial brand name Polybrene) is a cationic polymer with several uses. Currently, it is primarily ... Hexadimethrine bromide also reverses heparin anticoagulation during open-heart surgery, and it was the original reversal agents ... It was replaced by protamine sulfate in 1969, after it was shown that hexadimethrine bromide could potentially cause kidney ...
... is a precursor to chemicals used in photography and to other bromides. Historically, barium bromide was used to ... Barium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula BaBr2. It is ionic in nature. BaBr2 crystallizes in the lead chloride ... Solutions of barium bromide reacts with the sulfate salts to produce a solid precipitate of barium sulfate. BaBr2 + SO2− 4 → ... Barium bromide can be prepared by treating barium sulfide or barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid: BaS + 2 HBr → BaBr2 + H2S ...
... ethylmagnesium bromide has been supplanted by the wide availability of organolithium reagents. Ethylmagnesium bromide is ... Ethylmagnesium bromide is a Grignard reagent with formula C2H5MgBr. It is widely used in the laboratory synthesis of organic ... Apart from acting as the synthetic equivalent of an ethyl anion synthon for nucleophilic addition, ethylmagnesium bromide may ...
... is strong electrolyte when put in water: NH4Br(s) → NH4+(aq) + Br−(aq) Ammonium bromide decomposes to ammonia ... NH3 + HBr → NH4Br It can also be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with iron(II) bromide or iron(III) bromide, which may be ... Ammonium bromide can be prepared by the direct action of hydrogen bromide on ammonia. ... 2 NH3 + FeBr2 + 2 H2O → 2 NH4Br + Fe(OH)2 Ammonium bromide is a weak acid with a pKa of ~5 in water. It is an acid salt because ...
... is the name for compounds with the chemical formula CaBr2(H2O)x. Individual compounds include the anhydrous ... Calcium bromide at WebElements MSDS (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need ... When strongly heated in air, calcium bromide will react with oxygen to produce calcium oxide and bromine: 2 CaBr2 + O2 → 2 CaO ... It adopts the rutile structure, featuring octahedral Ca centres bound to six bromide anions, which also bridge to other Ca ...
... (trade name Ecclock; development code BBI-4000) is a drug used to treat hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating ... It is a retrometabolically-designed drug (or "soft drug") based on glycopyrronium bromide, meaning it has been designed to ... Paik J (December 2020). "Sofpironium Bromide: First Approval". Drugs. 80 (18): 1981-1986. doi:10.1007/s40265-020-01438-1. PMID ... Sofpironium bromide is an anticholinergic agent that reduces sweating by inhibiting M3 muscarinic receptors in eccrine glands. ...
... is a monocationic detergent. A solution of it is thus a surfactant and a detergent that promotes tissue ...
... in an organic halide with a formula of CH3NH3Br. It is the salt of methylammonium and bromide. It is a ... "Methylammonium bromide". Greatcell Solar Materials. Retrieved 7 May 2021. "Sigma-Aldrich". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 5 February ...
... as umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol) and also as a triple-therapy combination as fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/ ... "Umeclidinium bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine v t e (Articles with short ... Umeclidinium bromide (trade name Incruse Ellipta) is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for the maintenance treatment ... Feldman GJ, Edin A (December 2013). "The combination of umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol in the management of chronic ...
... may refer to: Phosphorus tribromide, PBr3 Phosphorus pentabromide, PBr5 Phosphorus heptabromide, PBr7 ...
... ([(C16H33)N(CH3)3]Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB) is a ... Clarke, Joseph D. (1 March 2009). "Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) DNA Miniprep for Plant DNA Isolation". Cold Spring ... Clarke, Joseph D. (2009-03-01). "Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) DNA Miniprep for Plant DNA Isolation". Cold Spring ... Isomaa, B.; Reuter, J.; Djupsund, B. M. (1976-06-01). "The subacute and chronic toxicity of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ( ...
Ipratropium bromide inhalation solution unit-dose vials contain 500 mcg ipratropium bromide, USP anhydrous in 2.5 mL normal ... Ipratropium bromide is contraindicated in known or suspected cases of hypersensitivity to ipratropium bromide, or to atropine ... IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE (UNII: J697UZ2A9J) (IPRATROPIUM - UNII:GR88G0I6UL) IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE. 0.5 mg in 2.5 mL. ... IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application ...
... At approximately 11 a.m. on November 30, 1988, a tractor-trailer ... Editorial Note: Methyl bromide gas, used primarily as an agricultural fumigant for nematodes, is a severe pulmonary irritant ... Although the driver was pinned in the truck for at least 1 hour, he tested negative for methyl bromide exposure--probably as a ... Death and injury caused by methyl bromide: an insecticide fumigant. J Forensic Sci 1983;28:GO1-7. ...
Biologic: No specific test for methyl bromide is available; however, detection of elevated bromide levels in serum (reference ... Detection of bromide below toxic levels does not rule out methyl bromide poisoning. ... Methyl bromide is an ocular, dermal, and mucous membrane irritant. Onset of symptoms might be delayed 1 to 48 hours. Symptoms ... Methyl bromide. In: Harbison RD, ed. Hamilton and Hardys industrial toxicology. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1998: ...
Tetra-decylammonium bromide; CAS No. 14937-42-9; Explore related products, MSDS, application guides, procedures and protocols ... Tetrakis(decyl)ammonium bromide acts as a phase transfer agent to transfer platinum salt from aqueous to organic phase during ...
... CAS 7699-45-8 WIKI information includes physical and chemical properties, USES, security data, NMR spectroscopy, ... Zinc bromide. 1.2 Synonyms. EINECS 231-718-4 MFCD00011294 Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) Zinc bromide anhydrous ZINC BROMIDE SOL. D20 2,5 ... BROMIDES/,...BROMIDES CROSS THE PLACENTA. RENAL EXCRETION OF BROMIDE IS VERY SLOW. BIOLOGIC HALF-LIFE OF BROMIDE IS ABOUT 12 ... BROMIDES/,ALTHOUGH RENAL EXCRETION OF BROMIDE IS SIMILAR TO THAT OF CHLORIDE, TUBULAR REABSORPTION OF BROMIDE IS MORE EFFICIENT ...
Twenty percent of the bromide dogs were still vomiting six months later. In addition, the Phenobarbital was more effective in ... This study found that Phenobarbitol has fewer lasting side effects and is more effective than bromide in treating epileptic ... Home > Research > Research Portfolio > Bromide as Sole Drug Therapy for Treatment of Canine Epilepsy ... 1280: Bromide as Sole Drug Therapy for Treatment of Canine Epilepsy. Grant Status: Closed ...
Photovoltaic Characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Added with Ethylammonium Bromide and Formamidinium Iodide by ... "Photovoltaic Characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Added with Ethylammonium Bromide and Formamidinium Iodide" ... "Photovoltaic Characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Added with Ethylammonium Bromide and Formamidinium Iodide" ... Photovoltaic Characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Added with Ethylammonium Bromide and Formamidinium Iodide. ...
... Molecular Formula: C20H23BrN2O2 ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ...
You should not use Incruse Ellipta if you are allergic to Umeclidinium Bromide or to milk proteins or if you have any other ... Incruse Ellipta (Umeclidinium Bromide) is a prescription medication that is typically used once daily as directed by a ...
Biologic: No specific test for methyl bromide is available; however, detection of elevated bromide levels in serum (reference ... Detection of bromide below toxic levels does not rule out methyl bromide poisoning. ... Methyl bromide is an ocular, dermal, and mucous membrane irritant. Onset of symptoms might be delayed 1 to 48 hours. Symptoms ... Methyl bromide. In: Harbison RD, ed. Hamilton and Hardys industrial toxicology. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1998: ...
Methylnaltrexone-D3 bromide. 100 ug/mL (as quarternary ammonium ion) in Methanol , Certified Reference Material. ...
Workshop: Gelatin Bromide Emulsion Making, Rochester, NY. Gelatin Bromide Emulsion Making. From March 18, 2013 through March 21 ...
6850-01-450-6160Looking for a substitute for n propyl bromide? Weve got safer, cleaner, & more cost effective solvents. Call ... The best way to reduce exposure is to switch to products that do not contain n-Propyl Bromide, nPB. There are lots of ... Cleaning and degreasing with nPB, n-Propyl Bromide is not without worker safety & health hazards. As recently as March 2013 the ... Hypersolve™ is an established cleaner solvent degreaser based on stabilized, n-propyl bromide also known as 1-Bromopropane, CAS ...
Silver Bromide 18. Duotone 1. Daguerrotype 2. Tri-Color Carbon Print 9. Photogravure - van Gelder 29. Photogravure - Vellum 54 ...
Improvement in symptoms and rescue medication use with aclidinium bromide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Improvement in symptoms and rescue medication use with aclidinium bromide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Improvement in symptoms and rescue medication use with aclidinium bromide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Improvement in symptoms and rescue medication use with aclidinium bromide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
Transport of the nonreactive tracer bromide (Br) reflected physical and hydrologic processes. Transport of the reactive tracer ... Transport of the nonreactive tracer bromide (Br) reflected physical and hydrologic processes. Transport of the reactive tracer ... Dispersive transport of bromide and nickel. Water Resources Research ...
Rechercher des fabricants et fournisseurs des Lithium Bromide Price produits de Lithium Bromide Price qualité supérieure ... Lithium Bromide Price et à bon prix sur ... des calcium bromide et des sodium bromide bromure de lithium ...
3-(Benzyloxy)propyl)magnesium bromide, 0.5 M in THF, , 2144836-81-5, ...
... runner plant nurseries have relied on methyl bromide (MB) fumigation of soil to produce healthy transplants. Methyl bromide, ... Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), methyl bromide, methyl iodide (iodomethane), trichloronitromethane ( ... were compared to methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBPic) at a low elevation nursery (LEN) and at a high elevation nursery (HEN ...
Some properties of aqueous solutions of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide in the presence of substituted benzoic acid salts ... This work is chiefly concerned with the properties of aqueous solutions of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in the ... The critical micelle concentrations of CTAB (in .002M KBr) and of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide were determined by this ... Ferguson, James M (1949) Some properties of aqueous solutions of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide in the presence of ...
Aclidinium Bromide) from Canada, at lower prices to the U.S. Available in . Call toll FREE 1-877-303-3784 to talk with our ... Tudorza Genuair (Aclidinium Bromide). Rx Prescription Required Select your dosage. Tudorza Genuair (Aclidinium Bromide) 400 mcg ...
A biotechnology company located in the Research Triangle Park of North Carolina with a core business to innovate, manufacture and supply advanced PEG and biopolymer products.. ...
Alternatives to methyl bromide for the southern european countries. Alternatives to methyl bromide for the southern european ... "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for the Southern European Countries", organized by The European Comission DG-XI and the Consejo ...
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Sol in ethanol, in pyridine (185.6 g/l), in ethyl bromide (1.0 g/l). Forms addition compounds with amines, alcohols. Keep ...
Articles Tagged: bromide. Do Black Berkey® Elements Reduce Bromate? Bromate is a disinfectant byproduct that is formed after ...
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for ... "Cyanogen Bromide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cyanogen Bromide" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cyanogen Bromide" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ...
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Benzyl Bromide Market Size, Share, Growth, Analysis, Industry Report, Price, Overview, Key Players and Forecast 2023-2028. ... The new report by Expert Market Research titled, Global Benzyl Bromide Market Analysis, Report and Forecast 2023-2028, gives ... an in-depth analysis of the global Benzyl Bromide market, assessing the market based on its segments like form, grade, ...

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