Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A muscarinic antagonist used mainly in the treatment of urinary syndromes. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Thermodynamic analysis of halide binding to haloalkane dehalogenase suggests the occurrence of large conformational changes. (1/418)

Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) hydrolyzes short-chain haloalkanes to produce the corresponding alcohols and halide ions. Release of the halide ion from the active-site cavity can proceed via a two-step and a three-step route, which both contain slow enzyme isomerization steps. Thermodynamic analysis of bromide binding and release showed that the slow unimolecular isomerization steps in the three-step bromide export route have considerably larger transition state enthalpies and entropies than those in the other route. This suggests that the three-step route involves different and perhaps larger conformational changes than the two-step export route. We propose that the three-step halide export route starts with conformational changes that result in a more open configuration of the active site from which the halide ion can readily escape. In addition, we suggest that the two-step route for halide release involves the transfer of the halide ion from the halide-binding site in the cavity to a binding site somewhere at the protein surface, where a so-called collision complex is formed in which the halide ion is only weakly bound. No large structural rearrangements are necessary for this latter process.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. (2/418)

1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the relevant binding site.  (+info)

Human extracellular water volume can be measured using the stable isotope Na234SO4. (3/418)

The volume of human extracellular water (ECW) may be estimated from the sulfate space (SS). Although it may better approximate ECW volume than the bromide space, a common alternative, SS measurement is limited by the need to administer a radioactive substance, sodium [35S]sulfate. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement of the SS using the stable isotope, sodium [34S]sulfate. Eight healthy nonobese men ingested 0.50-0.78 mg (3.47-5.42 micromol) Na234SO4/kg body weight and 30 mg NaBr/kg body weight. Sulfate concentrations and 34SO4 enrichments were measured by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry before and during the 5 h after tracer administration. SS was calculated by linear extrapolation of the natural logarithm of serum 34SO4 concentrations obtained at h 2, 3 and 4 compared with h 3, 4 and 5. The SS obtained using values between h 3 and 5 (187 +/- 17 mL/kg) was similar to published determinations using intravenous or oral radiosulfate, and was 80% of the simultaneously measured corrected bromide space (234 +/- 10 mL/kg, P = 0.01). Oral sodium [34S]sulfate administration is a suitable technique for measuring ECW and avoids radiation exposure.  (+info)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies of bromide binding to bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum. (4/418)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies have been carried out for bromide/peroxidase samples in Tris buffer at pH 8. The results are compared with those of aqueous (Tris-buffered) bromide and vanadium model compounds containing Br-V, Br-C(aliphatic) and Br-C(aromatic) bonds. It is found that bromide does not coordinate to the vanadium centre. Rather, bromine binds covalently to carbon. A possible candidate is active site serine.  (+info)

Agonist-induced sensitization of beta-adrenoceptor signaling in neonatal rat heart: expression and catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase. (5/418)

Agonist stimulation of neonatal cardiac beta-adrenoceptors produces heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling, rather than desensitization, as seen in adults. We examined the ontogenetic patterns of AC expression and activity, and evaluated isoproterenol effects on this pattern. [(3)H]Forskolin binding showed an increase in AC concentration across the period (birth to 25 days of age) in which agonist-induced sensitization is replaced by desensitization; binding affinity also increased, suggesting a shift in conformation and/or isoform. Indeed, catalytic properties of AC changed substantially with development, as evaluated by AC responses to forskolin versus Mn(2+). In contrast, there were only minor changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the two major isoforms. Neonates given repeated isoproterenol treatment showed an enhancement of [(3)H]forskolin binding B(max) and a precocious shift to the mature affinity state and corresponding catalytic properties. Although isoproterenol caused significant increases in AC mRNAs, the effects were small and showed no isoform preference. Thus, a primary mode for ontogenetic increases in cardiac cellular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation is the increase in AC activity attendant upon an absolute increase in the membrane concentration of AC molecules, along with changes in the catalytic properties of AC. The lack of correlation between mRNA and AC protein suggests that the primary regulatory events are post-transcriptional. The induction of AC by beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the fetus and neonate accounts for heterologous, agonist-induced sensitization, a phenomenon that preserves cellular responses during the period of the perinatal transition.  (+info)

Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase. (6/418)

Highly purified coliphage Qbeta replicase when incubated without added template synthesizes self-replicating RNA species in an autocatalytic reaction. In this paper we offer strong evidence that this RNA production is directed by templates generated de novo during the lag phase. Contamination of the enzyme by traces of RNA templates was ruled out by the following experimental results: (1) Additional purification steps do not eliminate this RNA production. (2) The lag phase is lengthened to several hours by lowering substrate or enzyme concentration. At a nucleoside triphosphate concentration of 0.15 mM no RNA is produced although the template-directed RNA synthesis works normally. (3) Different enzyme concentrations lead to RNA species of completely different primary structure. (4) Addition of oligonucleotides or preincubation with only three nucleoside triphosphates affects the final RNA sequence. (5) Manipulation of conditions during the lag phase results in the production of RNA structures that are adapted to the particular incubation conditions applied (e.g., RNA resistant to nuclease attack or resistant to inhibitors or even RNAs "addicted to the drug," in the sense that they only replicate in the presence of a drug like acridine orange). RNA species obtained in different experiments under optimal incubation conditions show very similar fingerprint patterns, suggesting the operation of an instruction mechanism. A possible mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Resonance raman spectra of manganese (III) tetraphenylporphin halides. (7/418)

Unique resonance Raman spectra were obtained when manganese(III) tetraphenylporphin halides in noncoordinating solvents were illuminated by laser frequencies around 500 nm. Of particular interest is the observation of a feature that is sensitive to the nature of the axial ligand. This feature disappears when the coordinating solvent pyridine is employed, and it, therefore, appears to be diagnostic of the manganese coordination number.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on body composition in 25 to 30 week gestational age infants. (8/418)

AIMS: To compare the effects of early and delayed sodium supplementation on body composition and body water compartments during the first two weeks of postnatal life. METHODS: Preterm infants of 25-30 weeks' gestation were stratified and randomly assigned according to gender and gestational age, to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day beginning either on the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight had been achieved. Daily sodium intake, total fluid intake, energy intake, urine volume, and urinary sodium excretion were recorded. Total body water was measured by H(2)(18)O dilution on days 1, 7, and 14, and extracellular fluid volume by sodium bromide dilution on days 1 and 14. RESULTS: Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences between the groups in body water compartments on day 1. In the delayed group, but not the early group, there was a significant loss of total body water during the first week (delayed -44 ml/kg, p=0. 048; early 6 ml/kg, p=0.970). By day 14 the delayed, but not the early group, also had a significant reduction in extracellular fluid volume (delayed -53 ml/kg, p=0.01; early -37 ml/kg, p=0.2). These changes resulted in a significant alteration in body composition at the end of the first week (total body weight: delayed 791 ml/kg; early 849 ml/kg, p=0.013). By day 14 there were once again no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Body composition after preterm birth is influenced by the timing of introduction of routine sodium supplements. Early sodium supplementation can delay the physiological loss of body water that is part of normal postnatal adaptation. This is likely to be of particular relevance to babies with respiratory distress syndrome. A tailored approach to clinical management, delaying the introduction of routine sodium supplements until there has been postnatal loss of body water, is recommended.  (+info)

Best Sodium Bromide Dealers in Vadodara. Find the list of best Sodium Bromide suppliers & Manufacturers in Vadodara. Yellow Pages Directory of Sodium Bromide, Sodium Bromide manufacturers, Traders, and Sodium Bromide, Sodium Bromide Suppliers & Dealers in Vadodara, India.
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Article A colorimetric microwell method for determining bromide concentrations. Bromide is commonly used as a tracer in studies of water and chemical transport in soil and rock because it is relatively nonreactive with soil and rock constituents and ...
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Potassium bromide is used in making bromide and iodo bromide photographic emulsions as well as in many developer formulas, where it performs the role of a restrainer. ​One packet contains 100 grams of potassium bromide, analytical grade.
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NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.7 °C.[7] Dihydrate salts (NaBr·2H2O) crystallize out of water solution below 50.7 °C.[8] NaBr is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide. Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine. This can be accomplished by treating an aqueous solution of NaBr with chlorine gas: ...
Sodium Bromide molecular formula:NaBr. molecular weight:102.9. CAS NO: 7647-15-6. Usage::This product is used for making sensitive emulsion of photographic film and for making medicinal intermediates in medico-industries, e.g. diuretic , sedative etc. It is also used as bromide making complex material and complex dyes.. Specifications:. ...
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K-BroVet Potassium Bromide is a prescription pet medication to help manage seizures in dogs and is available in 250 mg and 500 mg chewable tablets.
7758-02-3 - IOLCXVTUBQKXJR-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium bromide [USP:JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Nucleophillic Substitution Conclusion we all know that dipoles exsist because last lesson we were doing some hardcore chem-cooking What is it? Why is this relevant? and each end has positive and negative polarities due to electronegativity i hope someones done cakes this week :/ we were cooking some delicious brews of 1-bromobutane so we started off wtih the butan-1-ol then chucked in some water and sodium bromide C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H O Na Br just incase you didnt know ;) then after adding the magic ingredient of sulphuric acid concentrated acid plus sodium bromide = hydrogen bromide :) this is when the magic happens C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H because the bromide ion in hyrdogen bromide is more elctronegative than the hydroxide group when it approaches the butan-1-ol it strongly attracts the positive end of the molucule with its lone pairs dragging elctrons away from the hydroxide bond towards itself until evntually bye bye hydroxide hello ...
Wintersun code: 19-067B CAS Number: 7647-15-6 Molecular Formula: NaBr Molecular Weight: 102.89 g/mol Appearance: White cubic crystal/powder Assay: 99.0% Min.
Oxidative treatment is one of the options to eliminate emerging pollutants (EPs) from drinking water or wastewater. For drinking water treatment, the ozonation technology is already implemented at many sites all around the world, so far mostly for disinfection purposes. However, in some countries such as the Netherlands surface water contains relatively high bromide concentrations, which leads upon reaction with ozone to the formation of bromate, a suspe cted carcinogen. In such a case, UV/H2O2 treatment is considered a useful alternative, despite the fact that energy requirements are substantially higher compared to treatment with ozone or O3 /H2O2. Only in recent years, the oxidative treatment of wastewat er has been investigated to not only protect our water resources, but also the ecosystem from pollution with chemicals used in our daily life. In Switzerland, the first permanent full scale plant with ozonat ion, WWTP Neugut in Dübendorf, is running since March 2014 . Its performance was ...
I came to the conclusion that adding 2ml/liter of a 5% solution of household ammonia to the salt fixer, the time is reduced to as few as 2 hours. In this recipe I also included 2g/l of Potassium Bromide which also contributes to the speeding of the salt fixer. But it may be left away, if time may be longer than 2 hours, let us say 4 hours. Also Potassium Bromide is not a household stuff and this is actually the aim of the thing, no need of expensive products and hard to get ...
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Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Cytochrome bo forms complexes with chloride, bromide and iodide in which haem o remains high-spin and in which the 630 nm charge-transfer band is red-shifted by 7-8 nm. The chloride and bromide complexes each have a characteristic set of integer-spin EPR signals arising from spin coupling between haem o and CuB. The rate and extent of chloride binding decreases as the pH increases from 5.5 to 8.5. At pH 5.5 the dissociation constant for chloride is 2 mM and the first-order rate constant for dissociation is 2×10-4 s-1. The order of rate of binding, and of affinity, at pH 5.5 is chloride (1) , bromide (0.3) , iodide (0.1). It is suggested that the halides bind in the binuclear site but, unlike fluoride, they are not direct ligands of the iron of haem o. In addition, both the stability of the halide complexes and the rate of halide binding seem to be increased by the co-binding of a proton.. ...
write formulas for ionic compounds composed of the following ions, the Formulas of Ionic Compounds Example: Write the formula for calcium bromide. 1) Write the symbol/formula of the first ion in the compounds name, then the symbol/formula of the second... co mpound_names_and_formulas_tutor ial_and_worksheet.pdf Naming Chemical Compounds - Answers. Name the following ionic compounds: 1) NaBr sodium bromide.
Applying the Asp nucleophile and either pair of halide‐binding residues (Trp and Trp/Asn) to filter the initial list of ABH sequences would have narrowed the
Experiments to determine the precise effect of bromide of potassium in epilepsy Clouston, T. S; University of Glasgow (Epilepsy, Potassium bromide.)
Contains an evacuable potassium bromide die for the preparation of 13mm diameter pellets of the highest quality and clarity, a pellet holder and adjustable mount for precise mounting of samples in your Spectrum RX, the easy-to-operate 15-tonne hydraulic press and 100g of research-grade KBr powder. ` ...
Spectrum RX1 KBr Disc Complete Starter Pack for solids - L1272266, Contains an evacuable potassium bromide die for the preparation of 13mm diameter pellets of the highest quality and clarity.
Solid samples can be prepared in a variety of ways. One common method is to crush the sample with an oily mulling agent (usually Nujol) in a marble oragate mortar, with a pestle. A thin film of the mull is smeared onto salt plates and measured. The second method is to grind a quantity of the sample with a specially purified salt (usually potassium bromide) finely (to remove scattering effects from large crystals). This powder mixture is then pressed in a mechanical press to form a translucent pellet through which the beam of the spectrometer can pass. A third technique is the cast film technique, which is used mainly for polymeric materials. The sample is first dissolved in a suitable, non hygroscopic solvent. A drop of this solution is deposited on surface of KBr or NaCl cell. The solution is then evaporated to dryness and the film formed on the cell is analysed directly. Care is important to ensure that the film is not too thick otherwise light cannot pass through. This technique is suitable ...
* found in: Potassium bromide, suitable for FTIR applications, Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 98%, Potassium nitrite, ACS, 96.0% min., Calcium iodide,..
For the next test Ive choosen a more delicate subject with a rather big contrast due to the strong side light and a dark surrounding. I didnt care for an EI 400 exposure but started with EI 800 going up to EI 3200. Development was 80 minutes in Caffenol-C-L with 1.2 g/l potassium bromide, 5 mins presoak , 24 °C pure stand development and agitation only for the first minute. Yes, 80 mins @ 24 °C! To keep the temperature I used a mantle bath with water of the same temperature. The stronger development should give the best film speed and more contrast, and the lack of any agitation after the first minute should avoid burnt highlights. When I took the wet negs out of the tank for drying I immediately knew: yep, thats it! The EI 800 exposure is spot on, almost no postprocessing needed, the grain is very fine for EI 800 and the contrast is simply perfect. No blown highlights at all. Base fog is still low enough for easy to enlarge wetprints, perfect even development. I was amazed. Rarely Ive ...
For the next test Ive choosen a more delicate subject with a rather big contrast due to the strong side light and a dark surrounding. I didnt care for an EI 400 exposure but started with EI 800 going up to EI 3200. Development was 80 minutes in Caffenol-C-L with 1.2 g/l potassium bromide, 5 mins presoak , 24 °C pure stand development and agitation only for the first minute. Yes, 80 mins @ 24 °C! To keep the temperature I used a mantle bath with water of the same temperature. The stronger development should give the best film speed and more contrast, and the lack of any agitation after the first minute should avoid burnt highlights. When I took the wet negs out of the tank for drying I immediately knew: yep, thats it! The EI 800 exposure is spot on, almost no postprocessing needed, the grain is very fine for EI 800 and the contrast is simply perfect. No blown highlights at all. Base fog is still low enough for easy to enlarge wetprints, perfect even development. I was amazed. Rarely Ive ...
By: Jill Enfield. People usually think of doing tintypes in large format cameras such as 4 x 5 or 8 x 10s, but for years I have been encouraging students to use any type of camera they have on hand. Brownies and pinhole cameras have been used as well as something that has become a favorite - the Holga.. Dry plate tintypes are not faux tintypes. Gelatin emulsion tintypes were made commercially (by Kodak and others) as early as the 1880s. They were also made on paper and used in street cameras.. The emulsion bought today (such as AG plus) is similar to what you get when you make it from scratch using: gelatin, silver nitrate, potassium bromide and chrome alum.. I have been using dry plate tintype kits made by Rockland called the Rockloid AG Plus Tintype Parlor. It is very simple and the plates, which are actually aluminum, can be cut with a scissors so that they can fit into any camera. Since it is dry plate, no preparation needs to be done to the camera. Nothing will be dripped on or get ruined ...
I just got home from visiting with him and speaking to the vet. Gio is completely doped up, so was mostly unresponsive when I was there. But I got to give him lots of hugs and kisses at least. He has to stay overnight, and possibly tomorrow night as well. Lots of fluids, and depending how he is tomorrow morning, maybe some other treatment whose name has slipped my mind at the moment. Something about giving IV solution that competes with the Potassium Bromide and flushes it from the system quicker. So far, he doesnt need that, but if he doesnt improve much by tomorrow morning then it is a possibility ...
My husband and I are looking to adopt our first dog soon, and one online listing in particular has caught our eye. This dog is being rehomed because he has idiopathic epilepsy, which I understand means that he has seizures without any known cause. He is currently on phenobarbitol and potassium bromide but still seizes about once a month, usually at night while sleeping. We dont object to taking in a dog with special needs, in fact we would be happy to, but we want to be absolutely certain that we can handle this particular condition before we commit. I have done a lot of research already, but as much as I want to help him Im still not sure if this would be getting in over our heads. What advice do you have about living with and caring for an epileptic dog? Give me the lowdown dirty facts, please - Ive seen a lot of you and your dog can still live a normal life but I know that there would be bad days as well as good, and I feel it would be unfair to the dog if we didnt know that we were ...
My husband and I are looking to adopt our first dog soon, and one online listing in particular has caught our eye. This dog is being rehomed because he has idiopathic epilepsy, which I understand means that he has seizures without any known cause. He is currently on phenobarbitol and potassium bromide but still seizes about once a month, usually at night while sleeping. We dont object to taking in a dog with special needs, in fact we would be happy to, but we want to be absolutely certain that we can handle this particular condition before we commit. I have done a lot of research already, but as much as I want to help him Im still not sure if this would be getting in over our heads. What advice do you have about living with and caring for an epileptic dog? Give me the lowdown dirty facts, please - Ive seen a lot of you and your dog can still live a normal life but I know that there would be bad days as well as good, and I feel it would be unfair to the dog if we didnt know that we were ...
K-BROVET potassium bromide is used to treat seizure disorders in dogs. Can be used in addition to therapy with other agents or as the sole anticonvulsant.
Reaction mechanism - Reaction mechanism - Unimolecular: Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions proceed by a two-stage mechanism in which heterolysis precedes reaction with the nucleophile. The following equation is a typical example: in which the symbols are the same as in earlier equations, with the addition of delta plus (δ+) and delta minus (δ−), which indicate partial positive and negative charges, respectively. The significant consideration in this reaction mechanism is the initial separation of the bromide ion (by way of a transition state showing partial separation of the ion) to give a free positively charged organic ion (carbonium ion). This step is the rate-determining step of the reaction,
Scientists from the University of Bristol made the soap by dissolving iron in chloride and bromide ions, similar to those found in mouthwash or fabric conditioner.
Looking for online definition of potassium bromide in the Medical Dictionary? potassium bromide explanation free. What is potassium bromide? Meaning of potassium bromide medical term. What does potassium bromide mean?
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see article for more examples. Abstract. Unsaturated compounds such as alkenes, alkynes, allenes, and methylenecyclopropanes (MCPs) can be dibrominated within minutes by NBS and lithium bromide in THF at room temperature in good to excellent yields under mild conditions.. ...
0220]Strain CNB476 was grown in a 500-ml flask containing 100 ml of the first vegetative medium consisting of the following per liter of deionized water: glucose, 4 g; Bacto tryptone, 3 g; Bacto casitone, 5 g; and synthetic sea salt (Instant Ocean, Aquarium Systems), 30 g. The first seed culture was incubated at 28 degree C. for 3 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 rpm. Five ml of the first seed culture was inoculated into a 500-ml flask containing 100 ml of the second vegetative medium consisting of the following per liter of deionized water: starch, 10 g; yeast extract, 4 g; peptone, 2 g; ferric sulfate, 40 mg; potassium bromide, 100 mg; calcium carbonate, 1 g; and sodium bromide, 30 g. The second seed cultures were incubated at 28° C. for 7 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 rpm. Approximately 2 to 3 gram of sterile Amberlite XAD-7 resin were added to the second seed culture. The second seed culture was further incubated at 28° C. for 2 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 ...
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound. The alkali metals combine directly with halogens under appropriate conditions forming halides of the general formula, MX (X = F, Cl, Br or I). Many salts are halides; the hal- syllable in halide and halite reflects this correlation. All Group 1 metals form halides that are white solids at room temperature. A halide ion is a halogen atom bearing a negative charge. The halide anions are fluoride (F−), chloride (Cl−), bromide (Br−), iodide (I−) and astatide (At−). Such ions are present in all ionic halide salts. Halide minerals contain halides. All these halides are colourless, high melting crystalline solids having high negative enthalpies of formation. ...
Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: inorganic anion A(out) + inorganic anion B(in) = inorganic anion A(in) + inorganic anion B(out).
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Autori: M. Teodorescu,S. G. Gaynor and K. Matyjaszewski. Editorial: American Chemical Society, Macromolecules, 33(7), p.2335-2339, 2000.. Rezumat:. Halide anions have been used as complexing ligands in iron-mediated ATRP, in both direct and reverse ATRP. In direct ATRP, iron(II) bromide complexed with ammonium and phosphonium chloride, bromide or iodide salts has been shown to catalyze the polymerization of both styrene and (meth)acrylates in a controlled manner under appropriate conditions. The experimental molecular weights increased linearly with monomer conversion and were close to the calculated values. The polymerization rates and polydispersities (Mw/Mn = 1.1 - 1.4) were dependent on the monomer employed. Reverse ATRP, initiated by AIBN/FeBr3/onium salts, led to a controlled polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate, while for styrene uncontrolled molecular weights and high polydispersities were obtained, presumably due to the involvement of the cationic ...
Comba, Peter, Gahan, Lawrence R. 2018) Heteroatom-Interchanged Isomers of Lissoclinamide 5: Copper(II) Complexation, Halide Binding, and s ebook Configuring Citrix Metaframe XP for Windows. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2018 12: 1465-1476. Kalimuthu, Palraj, Wojtkiewicz, Agnieszka, Szaleniec, Maciej and Bernhardt, Paul V. 2018) atypical acid of types by level C25 epidemiology from tubing agents.
Palladium-catalyzed germylation of aryl bromides and aryl triflates using commercially available hexamethyldigermane is described. Optimized reaction conditions afforded various functionalized aryltrimethylgermanes, including drug-like molecules, in moderate to good yields, demonstrating the versatility of the presented protocols ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−), because a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically maintains its chirality, though the SN2 products configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile.. ...
Relative densities and heat capacity ratios have been measured for selected aqueous systems. These measurements have been used to calculate apparent molar volumes and heat capacities. Densities of aqueous sodium bromide have been measured from 374 to 522 K and 10.00 to 30.00 MPa using a recently developed high temperature and pressure vibrating tube densimeter. These data have been used to test the utility of an automated high temperature and pressure densimetric data analysis program. Apparent molar volumes and heat capacities of several aqueous rare earth sulphate systems at 298.15 K and 0.10 MPa have been reported, and discussed in terms of ionic contributions. Single ion partial molar volumes and heat capacities for aqueous trivalent rare earth species have been estimated in a review of apparent molar data from the literature and through the use of semi-empirical Debye-Huckel equation. These singles ion properties have subsequently been used to estimate the single ion properties of the ...
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded with a Bruker ARX-600 (Bruker Co., Karlsruhe, Germany) (1H, 600 MHz; 13C, 150 MHz) spectrometer in C5D5N with tetramethylsilane as internal standard. Infrared (IR) spectra on a Bruker Inter-Frame Space (IFS)-55 infrared spectrophotometer (Bruker Co., Karlsruhe, Germany) were recorded in Potassium bromide (KBr) disks. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra (HRESIMS) were recorded on an Agilent 1100 LC-MSD (Mass Spectrometer Detector) TOF (time-of-flight). system (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, USA) [ionization mode, positive; nebulizing gas (N2) pressure, 35 psi; drying gas (N2) flow, 12 L/min; temp, 325°C; selleckchem capillary voltage, 3,000 V; fragmentor voltage, 225 V]. Gas chromatography. (GC) was performed on the Agilent technologies 6890N apparatus (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, USA) with an OV-17 column (30 m × 0.32 mm). The column temperature was programmed from 80°C to 280°C at a rate of ...
The bromide ion functions as the nucleophile and attacks to displace the good leaving group, neutral alcohol molecule, by cleaving the C-O bond. This results in the formation of an alkyl bromide and an alcohol ...
Hey there. My dog Spartacus is a 13-year-old (best guess) rat terrier who has been on Phenobarbital (64.8mg twice a day) and Potassium Bromide (375mg once a day) for about five years now. Hes had occasional ataxia episodes lasting ten minutes or so, where his back legs wouldnt work at all, but thats it. Up until a few months ago, when he started having frequent bouts of wobbliness and loss of balance. We decreased his pheno by 1/4, giving him a full dose in the morning and a half dose in the evening, and he got better for a few months ...
Liqin Zhao, Tao Yan, Christian Bruneau, Henri Doucet. Reactivity of C-H bonds of polychlorobenzenes for palladium-catalysed direct arylations with aryl bromides. Catalysis Science & Technology, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, 4 (2), pp.352-360. ⟨10.1039/C3CY00757J⟩. ⟨hal-01114493⟩ ...
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For the rest of the problem, you can see that from all of the balanced equations, for every 8NaBr to be produced, 3Fe is needed. You can then start with the dimensional analysis. First convert the ton of NaBr to grams, then use molar mass to get the number of moles in 2.5ton of NaBr. Then you can use the ratio of NaBr to Fe to get the moles of Fe. From there, you could use molar mass and unit conversion to calculate and convert the final mass of Fe needed. Hope this helped ...
The chemical properties of styryl bromide are clear yellowish to brown liquid. Then styryl bromide can be used as flavors and fragrances.
Article Removal of bromide and bromate from drinking water using granular activated carbon. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to remove bromide (Br−) and bromate (BrO3−) from drinking water in both bench- and pilot-scale experime...
Abstract. Employing low loadings of Pd(OAc)2 and an iminoproazaphosphatrane as bulky ligand in the Hiyama coupling reaction gives biaryls in high yields. Electron-rich, -neutral, and -deficient aryl chlorides and bromides undergo coupling with various phenylsiloxanes.. ...
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This weekend I switched from BBB in spa to Bromine. 3-step. Using Borax also. Put in proper amounts using Pool Calculator and then threw in the floater with Bromine tabs. MAJOR big mistake that I didnt realize until next day. The feeder cant be adjusted down fine enough. Took feeder out (still out) and will put in only one tab till can get one that can be fine tuned. Bromine so way off the scale I cant measure pH. I drained close to 1/2 and refilled. Bromine came down a little. So stopped by
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An acyl halide also known as an acid halide is an organic compound derived from carboxylic acids by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group. An acyl halide is colorless fuming liquid which...
Im a newbie who just installed a small (200 gallon) hot tub. I read the sticky here about bromine systems and decided to go with a 3 step bromine system with a floater. Im attempting to set up my spa for the first time today. Please excuse if Im asking this in the wrong place. Background info: Im using 4-in-1 bromine test strips, not a test kit, so my measurements are imperfect, but my initial hardness from the tap seems to be around 100, alkalinity is 120, and pH is 7.8. I added
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CAS NO:896465-66-0; Chemical name:1-Isoamyl-2-methyl-3,3-dibenzyl-5-chloroindolium bromide ; physical and chemical property of 896465-66-0, 1-Isoamyl-2-methyl-3,3-dibenzyl-5-chloroindolium bromide is provided by ChemNet.com
I am growing MCF-7 cell line. I have been trying to stain dead cells using ethidium bromide and I havnt been very successful. I found the protocol online but it doesnt seem to work. if there is any other method with which I can stain the cells please let me know. Thanks in advance ...
Does anyone know the mechanism(s) of mutagenesis by ethidium bromide? Any references? Thanks. Chris Cole U. of Minn-Morris Morris, MN 56267 colect at caa.mrs.umn.edu ...
Hi all -- Ive spoken with Mike about his bromine request. The OSHA PEL (TWA) is 0.1 ppm - compare to that of Cl2, which is 0.5 ppm. However, like most things, it can be managed safely (gee, I remember using it as an undergrad in organic synthesis lab.) Its heavy, red gas, so you can see it coming. But I really dont want to see this in our cleanroom. However, Mike has worked with it and is familiar with safety precautions. This is expected to be done only a few times at most as his company is building their lab now. I would like to suggest that we allow Mike (and only Mike) to do this etch in one of the exhausted benches in the wafersaw room. His solution is pretty dilute, so he can collect the waste as solvent waste. He just needs to make sure that the bromine kept in the proper storage area, not at the bench. I would also suggest that this be done only during working hours (so people will be nearby and he can access the storage area -- I dont think we should store this in the personal ...
Optimized PM6_D3H4 data set: MERS=(1,2,1) GNORM=4 PM6-D3H4 THREADS=1 Titanium(iv) bromide (TiBr4) (PM6-D3H4) Ti 0.42698700 +1 0.2117731 +1 0.8921759 +1 Ti -4.30491892 +1 -6.4773070 +1 -1.5004360 +1 Ti 0.29021966 +1 -0.9009843 +1 -4.2307153 +1 Br -3.69888946 +1 -1.8617788 +1 -7.1002692 +1 Br -1.83235907 +1 0.6018724 +1 1.8313998 +1 Br -6.38944936 +1 -2.5674896 +1 1.9787709 +1 Br 1.33312170 +1 -2.1289795 +1 -6.6325740 +1 Br -4.52669224 +1 -1.2562574 +1 -4.8394398 +1 Br 0.38164887 +1 2.5009449 +1 -0.5997460 +1 Br -2.95861573 +1 -8.5301858 +1 -0.6240677 +1 Br -1.81455526 +1 -2.2341104 +1 -3.7158022 +1 Br -1.96759876 +1 -4.9482290 +1 -2.3612729 +1 Br -0.93164843 +1 -0.0371416 +1 -1.6955077 +1 Br -4.34518515 +1 -2.7016668 +1 -1.9973386 +1 Br 1.63487108 +1 -0.1297490 +1 -1.5933006 +1 Br -6.60795364 +1 -3.6162984 +1 -4.6166030 +1 Br 3.06474099 +1 0.2288122 +1 1.4148497 +1 Br -2.55751279 +1 -5.1568974 +1 0.0759385 +1 Br -0.79366532 +1 0.7826121 +1 -6.3379464 +1 Ti -3.72372204 +1 -3.8230296 +1 -4.4825364 ...
KBR 모바일 사이트, 기사 상세페이지, SillaJen신라젠, a Korean developer of bio drug, said Monday the first European patient been enrolled in its multinational Phase 3 trial for Pexa-Vec in a...
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, (3-benzoyloxy)phenyldiethylmethyl-, bromide including: 5 synonyms/identifiers.
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Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-44239, Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Except cations, any electrolyte consists of anions. So, the analysis of salts, acids, natural waters and industrial solutions will be incomplete, without identification of anions. Anions are divided into three (3) analytical groups (as it is shown in the table 7.1). First group contains such anions that form insoluble barium salts. Second group contains anions, that form precipitates with
I always dilute 20 µl ethibro (10 mg/ml) in 400 ml water. this means, the concentration becomes 0.05 µg/ml ethibro solution (please correct me if im wrong ...
Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) is a new paradigm in thermochemistry, which produces accurate, reliable, and self consistent thermodynamic values.
Chemists have a familiarity with many elements and many compounds, from having worked with them or studied them in the literature. You get a feel for whats
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Ethidium bromide[edit]. Ethidium bromide intercalates and stains DNA, providing a fluorescent red-orange stain. Although it ... Consequently, ethidium bromide is often used as a marker for apoptosis in cells populations and to locate bands of DNA in gel ...
Thus, phenylcopper is prepared by reaction of phenyllithium with copper(I) bromide in diethyl ether. Grignard reagents can be ... Simultaneously, a palladium catalyst converts an aryl bromide to the organopalladium intermediate (Ar'PdBr), and on ... bromides > chlorides > ketones > esters > nitriles >> alkenes Generally the OA-RE mechanism is analogous to that of palladium- ...
Bromides". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3959. doi:10.1039/JR9550003959. Bagnall, K. W.; d'Eye, R. W. M.; Freeman ...
Sulfonyl bromides have the general formula RSO2Br. In contrast to sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl bromides readily undergo light- ... The stability of sulfonyl halides decreases in the order fluorides > chlorides > bromides > iodides, all four types being well ... "α-Haloalkanesulfonyl Bromides in Organic Synthesis. 5. Versatile Reagents for the Synthesis of Conjugated Polyenes, Enones and ... "A General Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Conjugated Dienes from Olefins using Bromomethanesulfonyl Bromide: 1,2- ...
Hydrogen bromideEdit. The simplest compound of bromine is hydrogen bromide, HBr. It is mainly used in the production of ... Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but ... The bromide anion is not very toxic: a normal daily intake is 2 to 8 milligrams.[57] However, high levels of bromide ... Large amounts of bromide salts are toxic from the action of soluble bromide ion, causing bromism. However, a clear biological ...
It dissolves in carbon disulfide, chloroform and ethyl bromide, but decomposes in water, so that it produces selenous acid in ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. Tideswell, N. W.; McCullough, J. D. (1956). "Selenium Bromides. I. A Spectrophotometric Study of the ...
Ipratropium bromide. *Salbutamol (albuterol). *Tiotropium. Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances[ ...
Potassium bromide (KBr) has one of the highest dipole moments because it is an ionic compound that exists as a molecule in the ...
benzododecinium bromide. 7281-04-1 C21H38O2. isopropyl linoleate. 22882-95-7 ...
Zinc-bromide 1.8 0.27-0.31 75-85 Zinc-cerium 2.5[24] Under testing ...
Potassium bromide Solid KBr −392.2 Potassium carbonate Solid K2CO3 −1150 ...
Titanium(IV) bromide (titanium tetrabromide) - TiBr4. *Titanium(IV) carbide - TiC. *Titanium(IV) chloride (titanium ...
Methyl Bromide Alternatives; Plant Biological and Molecular Processes; Plant Diseases; Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and ...
PANCURONIUM BROMIDE 386. PANTOPRAZOLE 387. PARA-AMINO BENZENE SULPHONAMIDE, ITS SALTS & DERIVATIVES ...
R05DB12 Bibenzonium bromide. R05DB13 Butamirate. R05DB14 Fedrilate. R05DB15 Zipeprol. R05DB16 Dibunate. R05DB17 Droxypropine. ...
Koelsch, C. F. (August 1957). "Syntheses with Triarylvinylmagnesium Bromides. α,γ-Bisdiphenylene-β-phenylallyl, a Stable Free ...
Bromides are better alkylating agents than chlorides, thus exposure to them should be minimized. EtBr is classified by the ... It is abbreviated by chemists as EtBr (which is also used as an abbreviation for ethidium bromide). This volatile compound has ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ethyl bromide". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). ... Bromoethane, also known as ethyl bromide, is a chemical compound of the haloalkanes group. ...
Tamura T, Ogawa J, Taniguchi T, Waki I (January 1990). "[Preferential action of eptazocine, a novel analgesic, with opioid receptors in isolated guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens preparations]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica (in Japanese). 95 (1): 41-6. doi:10.1254/fpj.95.1_41. PMID 2154395 ...
A canned chorus sings bromides. Vera sings a torch song about her past. Vera proclaims that she has a solution. "I'll rip up my ...
This final rule lists n-propyl bromide (nPB) as an acceptable substitute when used as a solvent in industrial equipment for ... "AGREEMENT OF THE MEMBER STATE COMMITTEE ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF 1-BROMOPROPANE [n-PROPYL BROMIDE] AS A SUBSTANCE OF VERY HIGH ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Q and A 2007 Final and Proposed Regulations for n Propyl Bromide (nPB)" (PDF). US EPA ... Oliver Kamm and C. S. Marvel (1941). "Alkyl and alkylene bromides" (PDF). Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 1, p. 25 Adams ...
... bromide has been FDA approved for military use during combat situations as an agent to be given prior to ... Pyridostigmine bromide is contraindicated in cases of mechanical intestinal or urinary obstruction and should be used with ... "Neostigmine Bromide". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... Pyridostigmine bromide is available under the trade names Mestinon (Valeant Pharmaceuticals), Regonol and Gravitor (SUN Pharma ...
Trump, D. L.; Hochberg, M. C. (April 1976). "Bromide intoxication". The Johns Hopkins Medical Journal. 138 (4): 119-123. ISSN ...
"methylene bromide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 25 March 2005. ... W. W. Hartman, E. E. Dreger (1929). "Methylene bromide". Org. Synth. 9: 56. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.009.0056. International ...
Like the chloride, it undergoes ab exothermic trimerisation to form cyanuric bromide. This reaction is catalyzed by traces of ... Cyanogen chloride and cyanogen bromide each trimerize at elevated temperatures over a carbon catalyst. The chloride gives ... Morris, Joel; Kovács, Lajos; Ohe, Kouichi (2015). "Cyanogen Bromide". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. pp. 1-8. ... Joel Morris; Lajos Kovács (2008). "Cyanogen Bromide". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X. ...
Methylnaltrexone bromide is the bromide salt form of methylnaltrexone, a quaternary methyl derivative of noroxymorphone. The ... Methylnaltrexone bromide was the first medication in the drug class approved by the FDA. It was discovered in 1979 by Leon ... Methylnaltrexone bromide, naloxegol, and naldemedine all have similar structures, which is not far away from the chemical ... "Methylnaltrexone bromide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. R. William, Hipkin; Dolle, Roland E. (2010). "Chapter 9 - Opioid Receptor ...
Ethidium bromide). This method is useful for cases where concentration is too low to accurately assess with spectrophotometry ...
Bromide anions are also toxic, but less so than bromine. Bromide has a lethal dose of 30 grams. Iodine is somewhat toxic, being ... Hydrogen bromide is even more toxic and irritating than hydrogen chloride. Breathing in gas with more than thirty parts per ... Some bromine in the form of the bromide anion is present in all organisms. A biological role for bromine in humans has not been ... Iron can also react with bromine to form iron(III) bromide. This compound is reddish-brown in dry conditions. Iron's reaction ...
"Buscopan- n-butylscopolammonium bromide injection". DailyMed. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020. Tytgat, Guido N (2007). " ... "Butylscopolamine bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... The attachment of the butyl-bromide moiety effectively prevents the movement of this drug across the blood-brain barrier, ...
5Na with trimethylammonium bromide.[4] The ion is bent too, with a H-C-H angle of about 103°.[8] ...
Nitrosyl bromide (NOBr) is red. The reactions of the nitryl halides are mostly similar: nitryl fluoride (FNO2) and nitryl ...
"Clidinium Bromide Monograph". Drugs.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013.. *^ 2014 Nurses Drug Handbook (13th ed.). Burlington, MA: ... Clidinium bromide (INN) is an anticholinergic (specifically a muscarinic antagonist) drug.[1] It may help symptoms of cramping ... 3-[(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphenylacetyl)oxy]-1-methyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium bromide ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clidinium_bromide&oldid=889081510" ...
Tiotropium bromide, sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of ... "Tiotropium Bromide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 31 January ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tiotropium_bromide&oldid=902031320" ...
bromide salt (CHEBI:22925) has part bromide (CHEBI:15858). hydrogen bromide (CHEBI:47266) is conjugate acid of bromide (CHEBI: ... bromide (CHEBI:15858) is a halide anion (CHEBI:16042) bromide (CHEBI:15858) is a monoatomic bromine (CHEBI:36896) bromide ( ... CHEBI:15858 - bromide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min-width ...
Bromides are formed by the reaction of bromine or a bromide with another substance; they are widely distributed in nature. ... bromide, any of a group of compounds that contain bromine [1] and a more electropositive element [2] or radical. ... Potassium bromide, KBr, and sodium bromide, NaBr, are the familiar bromides used in medicine as sedatives; they should be used ... bromide, any of a group of compounds that contain bromine and a more electropositive element or radical. Bromides are formed by ...
... is a bromide salt (CHEBI:22925) demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) is a carbamate ester (CHEBI: ... demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) has part demarcarium (CHEBI:59719) demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) has role EC 3.1.1.7 ( ... CHEBI:4391 - demecarium bromide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... m-hydroxyphenyl)trimethylammonium bromide decamethylenebis(methylcarbamate) ChemIDplus decamethylenebis(m-dimethylaminophenyl-N ...
Sodium bromide, NaBr (th); Bromide salt of sodium, Trisodium tribromide, NaBr (en) ... bromuro de sodio (es); Натрий бромиди (ky); سودیوم برومید (azb); Natriumbromid (de-ch); Natriumbromid (de); sodium bromide (en- ... Media in category "Sodium bromide". The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. ... sodium bromide (en); بروميد الصوديوم (ar); 溴化钠 (zh-hans); 臭化ナトリウム (ja) compuesto inorgánico (es); 化合物 (yue); konposatu kimiko ( ...
Methyl bromide. Methyl bromide, also called bromomethane, a colourless, nonflammable, highly toxic gas (readily liquefied) ... Methyl bromide is manufactured by the reaction of methanol with hydrobromic acid; it is slightly soluble in water but miscible ... For use as a fumigant, methyl bromide often is mixed with chloropicrin, which serves as a warning agent because of its intense ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Potassium Bromide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Potassium Bromide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Crisax (Potassium Bromide and Phenobarbital (+ Bromocamphor (veterinary use)). Laboratoire TVM, France. *DIBRO-BE mono. ... Potassium Bromide. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Aclidinium Bromide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Aclidinium Bromide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Brimica Genuair (Aclidinium Bromide and Formoterol fumarate dihydrate). Berlin-Chemie, Germany. *Duaklir (Aclidinium Bromide ... Brimica (Aclidinium Bromide and Formoterol). Almirall, Poland; AstraZeneca, Slovenia; Berlin-Chemie, Croatia (Hrvatska) ...
... was valued at US$ XX Bn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026 at a CAGR of 5.1% ... Global Sodium Bromide Market table. Global Sodium Bromide Market, by Region. • North America. • Asia-Pacific. • Europe. • Latin ... Global Sodium Bromide Market. Geographically, Asia-Pacific is the largest producer and consumer of the sodium bromide. The Asia ... Global Sodium Bromide Market Scope: Inquire before buying. The report helps in understanding sodium bromide dynamics, structure ...
Other names: Germanium triethyl bromide; Germane, bromotriethyl-; Bromotriethylgermane; Triethylbromogermane *Information on ...
1. Potassium Bromide and Sulfate, High Temp., 1973, 11, 50. [all data] ...
BROMIDE; BROMIDE 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-; CETAB; CETYL TRIMETHYL AMMONIUM BROMIDE; CETYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE ... HEXADECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE; N,N,N-TRIMETHYL- BROMIDE 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM; N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-1-HEXADECANAMINIUM BROMIDE; (1 ... About CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE: Cetrimonium Bromide is a quaternary ammonium salt.. Function(s): Antistatic Agent; Cosmetic Biocide ... Synonym(s): 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-, BROMIDE; 1HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,NTRIMETHYL, ...
... Available data for this site SUMMARY OF ALL AVAILABLE DATA. Location map. Water- ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Bromoethane, Monobromoethane Colorless to yellow liquid with an ether-like odor. [Note: A gas above 101°F.]
... Litta Olsen litta.olsen at med.uib.no Fri Dec 1 03:45:03 EST 1995 *Previous message: Ethidium ... I am trying to find out which way Ethidium bromide runs in an agrose gel. Is , it in the same direction as the DNA (negative to ...
... Christopher T. Cole colect at caa.mrs.umn.edu Tue Apr 20 12:08:02 EST 1993 *Previous message: ... Does anyone know the mechanism(s) of mutagenesis by ethidium bromide? Any references? Thanks. Chris Cole U. of Minn-Morris ...
... EINECS 208-583-5 (S)-1-Bromo-2-methylbutane (2S)-1-bromo-2-methyl-butane 534-00-9 bromide
... chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide) are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Librax is also used to ... Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride/clidinium bromide may be taken with or without food.. *Take 1 to two capsules every 6 to 8 hours ... Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride/clidinium bromide is not recommended for use in pregnant women because it increases the risk of ... Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride/clidinium bromide should not be used in people with glaucoma or urinary retention (difficulty ...
Ipratropium bromide inhaler (Atrovent, Atrovent HFA) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of nonallergic and allergic ... ipratropium bromide inhaler (Atrovent). *What is ipratropium bromide inhaler, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ... Which drugs or supplements interact with ipratropium bromide inhaler?. *Is ipratropium bromide inhaler safe to take if Im ... Which drugs or supplements interact with ipratropium bromide inhaler?. *Is ipratropium bromide inhaler safe to take if Im ...
... produced by the reaction of silver nitrate with a bromide: used chiefly in the manufacture of photographic emulsions. See more. ... Silver bromide definition, a yellowish, water-insoluble powder, AgBr, which darkens on exposure to light, ... silver bromide is extensively used in photography, and the bromides of sodium and potassium are used as drugs. ... silver bromide. noun 1. a yellowish insoluble powder that darkens when exposed to light: used in making photographic emulsions ...
About the ratings: EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any ...
Wholesale Various High Quality Domiphen Bromide Products from Global Domiphen Bromide Suppliers and Domiphen Bromide Factory, ... cyclopentyl bromide potassium bromide hyoscine butyl bromide sodium bromide calcium bromide ammonium bromide lithium bromide ... zinc bromide silver bromide granular bromide anhydrous bromide isopropyl bromide hexadecyl bromide tert-butyl bromide ... Tags: Domiphen Bromide Cas No. 538-71-6 , Raw Material Domiphen Bromide , 99% Purity Domiphen Bromide , View larger image ...
Biologic: No specific test for methyl bromide is available; however, detection of elevated bromide levels in serum (reference ... Detection of bromide below toxic levels does not rule out methyl bromide poisoning. ... Methyl bromide is an ocular, dermal, and mucous membrane irritant. Onset of symptoms might be delayed 1 to 48 hours. Symptoms ... Methyl bromide. In: Harbison RD, ed. Hamilton and Hardys industrial toxicology. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1998: ...
Bromide (500 mcg t.i.d.) n = 219. Metaproterenol (15 mg t.i.d.). n = 212. Ipratropium Bromide/ Metaproterenol (500 mcg t.i.d./ ... Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution Unit-Dose Vials contain 500 mcg ipratropium bromide anhydrous in 2.5 mL normal saline. ... Ipratropium bromide is contraindicated in known or suspected cases of hypersensitivity to ipratropium bromide, or to atropine ... IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE (UNII: J697UZ2A9J) (IPRATROPIUM - UNII:GR88G0I6UL) IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE. 0.5 mg in 2.5 mL. ...
To protect your privacy, your account will be locked after 6 failed attempts. After that, you will need to contact Customer Service to unlock your account.. You have 4 remaining attempts.. You have 3 remaining attempts.. You have 2 remaining attempts.. You have 1 remaining attempt.. Contact Customer Service ...
Ipratropium bromide inhalation solution unit-dose vials contain 500 mcg ipratropium bromide, USP anhydrous in 2.5 mL normal ... IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE (UNII: J697UZ2A9J) (IPRATROPIUM - UNII:GR88G0I6UL) IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE ANHYDROUS. 0.5 mg in 2.5 mL. ... Ipratropium bromide is contraindicated in known or suspected cases of hypersensitivity to ipratropium bromide, or to atropine ... Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution, 0.02% (0.5 mg/2.5 mL) For Oral Inhalation Only Rx Only 30 x 2.5 mL STERILE Unit-Dose ...
ETHIDIUM BROMIDE. ICSC. : 1676. Phenanthridinium, 3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenyl-, bromide. 2,7-Diamino-10-ethyl-9- ... This produces toxic gases including hydrogen bromide (see ICSC 0282) and nitrogen oxides (see ICSCs 0930 and 1311). Reacts ...
View information & documentation regarding Strontium bromide, including CAS, MSDS & more. ... Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Strontium bromide products. ... Strontium bromide, anhydrous, powder, 99.995% trace metals ...
  • Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as sedatives in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • silver bromide is extensively used in photography, and the bromides of sodium and potassium are used as drugs. (dictionary.com)
  • Potassium bromide, commonly abbreviated as "KBr", is a drug that is commonly used to control seizures in dogs. (petplace.com)
  • So the potassium bromide blood level must be monitored carefully when used for treatment. (petplace.com)
  • A potassium bromide level is indicated after trying a new dose of potassium bromide, if excessive vomiting or diarrhea occur or if seizures develop during potassium bromide treatment. (petplace.com)
  • It is also a good idea to check potassium bromide blood levels at least every 6 months, even if the dog is doing well. (petplace.com)
  • There are no real contraindications to performing this test in an dog on potassium bromide. (petplace.com)
  • What Does a Potassium Bromide Level Reveal in Dogs? (petplace.com)
  • A potassium bromide level will reveal the levels of potassium bromide circulating in the blood. (petplace.com)
  • High levels of potassium bromide indicate that the dose should be reduced. (petplace.com)
  • Low levels indicate that the dose of potassium bromide should be increased in order to be effective. (petplace.com)
  • How Is a Potassium Bromide Level Done in Dogs? (petplace.com)
  • In order to perform a potassium bromide level, your veterinarian must draw a blood sample, which is placed in a special glass tube. (petplace.com)
  • Is a Potassium Bromide Level Painful to Dogs? (petplace.com)
  • Is Sedation or Anesthesia Needed for a Potassium Bromide Level? (petplace.com)
  • Potassium bromide has the same lattice structure as NaCl. (bartleby.com)
  • The density of potassium bromide has to be calculated. (bartleby.com)
  • Libromide comes in tablets containing 325mg of potassium bromide (KBr). (viovet.co.uk)
  • The amount of salt in the dog's diet affects how much potassium bromide is in the blood stream, so blood tests are often needed to establish the correct dose for a particular dog. (viovet.co.uk)
  • Side effects are seen in some dogs which are particularly sensitive to potassium bromide, or in cases of overdose. (viovet.co.uk)
  • Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. (statemaster.com)
  • Potassium bromide is a typical ionic salt which is fully dissociated and pH7 in aqueous solution. (statemaster.com)
  • I am trying to find out which way Ethidium bromide runs in an agrose gel. (bio.net)
  • A salt-induced cooperative conformational transition of a synthetic DNA, poly(dG-dC), is reversed by addition of ethidium bromide. (pnas.org)
  • These convenient cards stain gels easily and rapidly with a minimum of ethidium bromide waste. (carolina.com)
  • I have been trying to stain dead cells using ethidium bromide and I havnt been very successful. (protocol-online.org)
  • and what wave length is ideal to excite Ethidium Bromide? (protocol-online.org)
  • Ethidium bromide, also sometimes referred to as ethobromide, homidium bromide, and dromilac, appears as dark red crystals when it is pure and dry. (fsu.edu)
  • A relatively large, flat molecule, ethidium bromide appears somewhat similar to a DNA base pair and can easily insert into strands of the material due to its chemical structure. (fsu.edu)
  • Thus, when bound to double-stranded DNA molecules, increased fluorescence of ethidium bromide occurs. (fsu.edu)
  • Commonly utilized in molecular biology and biochemistry laboratories around the world, ethidium is best known in its bromide form. (fsu.edu)
  • Despite the usefulness of ethidium bromide, many other fluorescent dyes have been developed for detecting nucleic acid components in recent years. (fsu.edu)
  • The reason for this progression is largely due to the fact that ethidium bromide use is plagued by many possible hazards. (fsu.edu)
  • Moreover, inhalation of ethidium bromide dust could cause serious side effects since the stain is known to be a severe respiratory irritant. (fsu.edu)
  • Hydrobromic acid is a water solution of hydrogen bromide, a gas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • HOBr (aq) + HBr (g)}}} This forms hypobromous acid (HOBr), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) a colourless gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This produces toxic gases including hydrogen bromide (see ICSC 0282) and nitrogen oxides (see ICSCs 0930 and 1311). (inchem.org)
  • wherein said gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen bromide and a chlorine-bearing species. (google.com)
  • wherein said gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen bromide, and at least one halogen bearing species taken from the class consisting of fluorine and chlorine. (google.com)
  • and (4) potential effect of pyridostigmine bromide in oxidative stress, addressing as subtitle the influence of pyridostigmine bromide on the superoxide-hydrogen peroxide imbalance model. (intechopen.com)
  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen bromide and carbonyl bromide. (intox.org)
  • Reacts violently with water, methanol or ethanol to form hydrogen bromide. (intox.org)
  • For use as a fumigant, methyl bromide often is mixed with chloropicrin, which serves as a warning agent because of its intense odour. (britannica.com)
  • Death and injury caused by methyl bromide-an insecticide fumigant. (cdc.gov)
  • The practice of fumigating imported fruit and vegetables with the highly toxic fumigant methyl bromide should be stopped immediately, and effective alternatives such as steam sterilisation should be required instead, Green Party Safe Food and Health Spokesperson Sue Kedgley says. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Methyl bromide is a highly toxic fumigant and it is extremely concerning that fruit and vegetables intended for human consumption are being fumigated with it," Ms Kedgley says. (scoop.co.nz)
  • New Zealand's use of the ozone-depleting gas methyl bromide has doubled despite the fact that New Zealand has signed conventions pledging to reduce use of the fumigant. (scoop.co.nz)
  • The largest agricultural source of bromine in soil within the United Kingdom is probably derived from the use of bromomethane (methyl bromide) as a soil fumigant. (inchem.org)
  • In the replicated experiments eight fumigant treatments were evaluated each year, including the nonfumigated control and commercial standard methyl bromide plus chloropicrin mixture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In summary, Garca-Mndez stated: "Replacements for methyl bromide will require more than one fumigant component as well as a higher level of management of pest populations in the fields during rotational crop production. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality's Division of Air Quality is taking action on the use of methyl bromide , a toxic fumigant, in log fumigation operations. (eponline.com)
  • Clidinium bromide ( INN ) is an anticholinergic (specifically a muscarinic antagonist ) drug . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent that, based on animal studies, appears to inhibit vagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released from the vagus nerve. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium bromide , a short-acting inhaled anticholinergic, was approved in 1986 for COPD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spiriva HandiHaler ( tiotropium bromide) Inhalation Powder is an anticholinergic drug used to prevent bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways in the lungs ) in people with bronchitis , emphysema , or COPD ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ). (rxlist.com)
  • Glycopyrronium Bromide is also known as glycopyrrolate, an anticholinergic agent. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator chemically described as 8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1] octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl8-(1-methylethyl)-, bromide monohydrate, (3-endo, 8-syn)-: a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound chemically related to atropine . (rxlist.com)
  • Silver bromide is one of the light-sensitive silver salts used in films, plates, and printing papers for photography. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromargyrite-natural, crystalline silver bromide-is the most common bromide mineral known but is still very rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of creamy silver bromide precipitate confirms the existence of bromides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules of silver bromide gradually aggregate together, forming larger and larger particles. (dictionary.com)
  • Let remain two or three minutes after transparency is cleared of all appearance of silver bromide . (dictionary.com)
  • In brief, film is a cellulose base coated with silver bromide and gelatine. (dictionary.com)
  • In the case of the silver bromide a distinct photo-electric effect is still observed. (dictionary.com)
  • By these silver bromide is obtained in a very fine state of division, ready to mix with gelatine and water in any proportion. (dictionary.com)
  • The silver bromide is much more sensitive than the chloride, so that the printing can be done in artificial light. (dictionary.com)
  • In 1874 Stas called attention to six modifications of silver bromide . (dictionary.com)
  • How Is Silver Bromide Used in Photography? (reference.com)
  • Silver bromide is used in photography as a component of an emulsion that helps develop a photographic image. (reference.com)
  • Silver bromide is sensitive to light, and when suspended in gelatin, silver bromide's grains create a photographic emulsion. (reference.com)
  • When exposed to light, silver bromide decomposes and as a result, it preserves a photographic image. (reference.com)
  • bromide, any of a group of compounds that contain bromine and a more electropositive element or radical. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Magnesium bromide, found in seawater, is a source of pure bromine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A bromide ion is the negatively charged form (Br−) of the element bromine, a member of the halogens group on the periodic table. (wikipedia.org)
  • H+ (aq) + Br- (aq)}}} Since bromine does not occur naturally under atmospheric conditions, the natural pathway for the presence of bromide in the environment is the dissolution of bromide containing minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to one study, bromine (as bromide) is an essential cofactor in the peroxidising catalysis of sulfonimine crosslinks in collagen IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical formula for iron(III) bromide is written as FeBr3 and contains a third bromine atom. (reference.com)
  • Key players operating in the tetrabutylammonium bromide market are Albemarle Corporation, Chemtura Corporation, ICL Israel Chemicals Ltd, Jordan Bromine Company Limited, Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Corporation, Perekop Bromine, Morre-TEC Industries, Dhruv Chem Industries, American Elements, and R.S.A. Corporation. (openpr.com)
  • RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION USE PATTERN Bromine is widely distributed in the environment as inorganic bromide. (inchem.org)
  • Notwithstanding the possibility that some organic bromide may previously have been reported as inorganic bromide, it was also concluded that there would be a continuing need to consider residues of bromine that do occur as inorganic bromide. (inchem.org)
  • Tiotropium bromide , sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our Spiriva (tiotropium bromide) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
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  • The Local Government and Environment Select Committee, which has just released its report on a petition calling for the phasing out of the use of methyl bromide, was provided with a list of more than 6000 sites in New Zealand, many of them in residential areas, where containers can be fumigated with methyl bromide. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Global Sodium Bromide Market was valued at US$ XX Bn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026 at a CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The sodium bromide is a white, crystalline inorganic chemical available in the solid and liquid form. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The report covers the detailed analysis of the global sodium bromide industry with the classifications of the market on the basis of grade, form, end-use industry and region. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The pharmaceutical industry shows growth due to increasing disposal income and increasing purchase parity, which are the primary growth drivers for the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The MMR report on the global sodium bromide market provides a detailed demand growth from the end-use industries, which propel the growth of sodium market such as oil and gas wells, industrial wastewater treatment and pharmaceutical industry. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The presence of chief alternatives such as sodium bisulphite, ammonium thiosulphate, sodium chloride and bisulfate, which have better efficiency than sodium bromide, are restrainting the growth of global market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The use of sodium bromide for generation of calcium sensitivity due to its chemical stability, is expected to create new growth opportunity for the global sodium bromide market during the forecast period. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The growing concern related to water purity, government initiatives and policies is expected to create growth opportunities for new entrants in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The industrial grade segment was valued at US$ XX Bn in 2019 and held more than 30% shares in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Demand growth from production of biocides used in industrial cooling towers and pasteurizer is the primary growth driver for industrial grade segment in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Powder form segment holds the largest share of more than 35% in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The growth in demand from the formulation of chemicals and bromide as powder sodium bromide is useful as chemical intermediate, is the growth driver for powder segment in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Additionally, the ease of packaging and transportation of powder form sodium bromide and surging uses of powder in commercial and residential sector are also help in growth of powder segment. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Food & Nutrition segment is expected to grow at a significant CAGR of around 4.2% in the sodium bromide market during the forecast period. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Growing health concerns, surging demand for nutritional food along with growing population are the growth drivers for food & nutrition segment in the global sodium bromide market. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The Global Sodium Bromide Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Sodium Bromide industry. (bharatbook.com)
  • The Sodium Bromide market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (bharatbook.com)
  • The Sodium Bromide industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (bharatbook.com)
  • 4.1 2010-2015 Sodium Bromide Production by Regions (Such as US EU China Japan etc. (bharatbook.com)
  • Syncurine (decamethonium-bromide): its use with pentothal-sodium and nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia in abdominal surgery. (abcam.com)
  • It is also sometimes used as a bromide source in organic synthesis, since it is less hygroscopic than sodium bromide . (statemaster.com)
  • exceptions are bromides of copper, lead, mercury, and silver that are very slightly soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bromide is highly soluble in water, and this has caused it to accumulate in water bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipratropium bromide is a white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and lower alcohols. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium bromide is a white to off-white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol , and insoluble in lipophilic solvents such as ether, chloroform , and fluorocarbons. (rxlist.com)
  • Methyl bromide poisoning primarily occurs after inhalational exposure, but concurrent dermal exposure might also occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of bromide below toxic levels does not rule out methyl bromide poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • The active ingredient in Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is ipratropium bromide monohydrate. (nih.gov)
  • Atrovent Inhalation Solution contains the active ingredient ipratropium bromide monohydrate. (news-medical.net)
  • Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Methyl bromide intoxication during grain store fumigation. (cdc.gov)
  • The Green Party is also calling for an end to methyl bromide fumigation of containers in residential and urban areas. (scoop.co.nz)
  • A report on bromide ion residues in crops grown in the United Kingdom following soil fumigation with methyl bromide was made available to the Meeting. (inchem.org)
  • Many workers have demonstrated the presence of increased bromide ion levels in plants grown on bromomethane-treated soil that could be related to pre-cropping fumigation. (inchem.org)
  • As the work had been performed in 1964 or earlier when satisfactory analytical methods specific for the free unchanged fumigants and for inorganic bromide ware not available however, it was considered likely that further experimental work on the fumigation of dried eggs with ethylene dibromide and with methyl bromide would be needed to clarify the position. (inchem.org)
  • As more businesses seek to use methyl bromide at log fumigation sites in our state, the lack of specific federal or state regulatory measures for the use of this hazarous air pollutant creates a potential public health risk we must address,' said DEQ Division of Air Quality Director Mike Abraczinskas. (eponline.com)
  • As proposed, the Malec Brothers Transport facility would be the largest methyl bromide log fumigation site in the state. (eponline.com)
  • What is the formula for iron(II) bromide? (reference.com)
  • Zinc bromide is a white crystalline, non combustible solid with a formula of Br2Zn. (reference.com)
  • at the contrary, we report here that any (stable) ester of general formula R'-O-CO-R is able to co-catalyze methanolysis of aryl bromides. (erowid.org)
  • Tetrabutylammonium bromide in solid form is also available in the crystalline and powdered forms. (openpr.com)
  • Not to be confused with Acridinium bromide or Aclidinium bromide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fixed-dose combination aclidinium bromide/formoterol has been approved since November 2014 for long-term treatment of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (eurekalert.org)
  • published by IQWiG, provides easily understandable German-language information on aclidinium bromide/formoterol. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aclidinium Bromide for development trials with customized Particle Design , resulting in Inhalation grade material with highly customizable PSD to befit your application. (hovione.com)
  • These patients have fewer flare-ups under aclidinium bromide. (eurekalert.org)
  • COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol is a combination of ipratropium bromide (as the monohydrate) and albuterol sulfate. (rxlist.com)
  • Therapeutic bromide levels are measured in European countries like Germany, where bromide is still used therapeutically in human epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Bromide builds up slowly in the bloodstream taking time to achieve therapeutic levels. (news-medical.net)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide received a European marketing authorisation in September 2012 and was launched in the UK in November 2012. (nice.org.uk)
  • The recommended dosage of glycopyrronium bromide is inhalation of the powder content of 1 capsule each day. (nice.org.uk)
  • Each hard capsule contains 63 micrograms of glycopyrronium bromide equivalent to 50 micrograms of glycopyrronium. (nice.org.uk)
  • Each delivered dose (the dose that leaves the mouthpiece of the inhaler) contains 55 micrograms of glycopyrronium bromide equivalent to 44 micrograms of glycopyrronium [ 4 ] . (nice.org.uk)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide is available in 30-day and 6-day packs, each including a Breezhaler. (nice.org.uk)
  • What is Glycopyrronium Bromide? (patientslikeme.com)
  • There are no evaluations for Glycopyrronium Bromide. (patientslikeme.com)
  • 2 additional evaluations for Glycopyrronium Bromide are not currently shared publicly. (patientslikeme.com)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md., April 25 -- The FDA has approved methylnaltrexone bromide (Relistor) injection for treatment of opioid-induced constipation, a common condition among patients on continuous medication for pain relief in late-stage illness. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Methylnaltrexone bromide blocks opioid receptors on the intestinal muscle cells thus allowing the bowels to function normally. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The FDA said patients who were treated with methylnaltrexone bromide had a significantly higher rate of elimination than those receiving placebo. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The safety and effectiveness of methylnaltrexone bromide have not been studied in pediatric populations. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Methylnaltrexone bromide is used to treat constipation caused by opioids (narcotic pain medicines), in adults with long-lasting pain that is not caused by cancer, or in patients with long-lasting pain caused by a previous cancer or its treatment who do not need weekly increases in opioid dosage. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The drugs studied, which include tiotropium (Spiriva) and ipratropium bromide (Atrovent), are the most commonly prescribed medications for COPD, a progressive lung disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each mL contains ipratropium bromide 0.02% (anhydrous basis) in a sterile, preservative-free, isotonic saline solution, pH adjusted to 3.4 (3 to 4) with hydrochloric acid. (nih.gov)
  • Cetrimonium Bromide is a quaternary ammonium salt. (ewg.org)
  • Dey wanted to market DuoNeb[TM], a unit dose formulation combining albuterol and ipratropium bromide for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Does the combination of albuterol & ipratropium bromide have the same effectiveness as the drugs separately in COPD? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10 October 2011 - US-based Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, part of German Boehringer Ingelheim, said last Friday that Combivent Respimat ( ipratropium bromide and albuterol) inhalation spray has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide is used in bronchial asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD- a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways). (medindia.net)
  • Bromide ion concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid are about 30% of those in blood and are strongly influenced by the body's chloride intake and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. (osti.gov)
  • Whereas copper(I) bromide (or chloride) catalyst, once added to methoxide solution, gives rise to insoluble yellow copper(I) methoxide, which decomposes under refluxing to Cu 0 and Cu(II), presence of an ester in concentrated (3 to 5 M) methoxide solutions prevents precipitation of copper(I) methoxide, but provides a colorless mixture in which added aryl bromides are readily transformed into methyl aryl ethers. (erowid.org)
  • FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Rome, 1970 BROMIDE ION Explanation Residues as bromide ion resulting from use of ethylene dibromide and methyl bromide have been previously evaluated (FAO/WHO, 1967b, 1968b and 1969b). (inchem.org)
  • The half-life of bromide in the human body (12 days) is long compared with many pharmaceuticals, making dosing challenging to adjust (a new dose may require several months to reach equilibrium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Combivent® (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol contains a microcrystalline suspension of ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate in a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation administration. (rxlist.com)
  • The usual initial adult dose of propantheline bromide tablets is 15 mg taken 30 minutes before each meal and 30 mg at bedtime (a total of 75 mg daily). (wikidoc.org)
  • What is ipratropium bromide inhaler, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (medicinenet.com)
  • What brand names are available for ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is ipratropium bromide inhaler available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do I need a prescription for ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the side effects of ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the dosage for ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is ipratropium bromide inhaler safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should I know about ipratropium bromide inhaler? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of ipratropium bromide inhaler are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep ipratropium bromide inhaler stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide inhaler (Atrovent, Atrovent HFA) is a medication prescribed for the treatment of allergic or nonallergic rhinitis and rhinitis due to the common cold. (medicinenet.com)
  • Bromide was the sole anticonvulsant available until 1912 and the introduction of phenobarbital. (news-medical.net)
  • That changed with the publication of ' Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs ' in the May 1 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association . (petmd.com)
  • This study demonstrates that both phenobarbital and bromide are reasonable first-choice AEDs [antiepileptic drugs], but phenobarbital may be more efficacious. (petmd.com)
  • In this work, we combine ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy and advanced many-body calculations to reveal that organic-inorganic lead-bromide perovskites host Mahan excitons at room temperature. (nature.com)
  • Background inorganic bromide levels in fresh fruit and vegetables can generally be expected to be below 10 mg/kg fresh weight. (inchem.org)
  • EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE The Meeting noted that the presence of unreacted bromide in certain foods had recently been reported when using modern methods of residue analysis and that the analytical methods used in some of the earlier work may have resulted in the erroneous inclusion of some organic bromide in residues reported as inorganic bromide. (inchem.org)
  • The fairly considerable amount of data on these products indicated that the formation of inorganic bromide occurs moderately readily, due to methylation of proteins, in the case of methyl bromide but not with ethylene dibromide. (inchem.org)
  • Ipratropium bromide, a synthetic quaternary isopropyl derivative of atropine, interrupts vagally mediated bronchoconstriction by inhibiting the cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate system at parasympathetic nerve endings. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: To compare the efficacy of nebulised salbutamol alone and in combination with ipratropium bromide in acute severe asthma in children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ipratropium bromide may be a useful adjunctive agent in the treatment of asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Although ipratropium bromide is currently indicated only for maintenance therapy in stable chronic bronchitis and emphysema, it may be useful as adjunctive therapy in asthma and in the management of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Nebulized salbutamol with and without ipratropium bromide in the treatment of acute asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Routine addition of ipratropium bromide to beta-agonist therapy in acute asthma is of uncertain benefit. (nih.gov)
  • however, once steady-state serum concentrations are reached, adverse effects are more likely to persist for bromide. (petmd.com)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of pure methyl bromide may cause inflammation of the bronchi or lungs, an accumulation of fluid in the lung, and irritation of the eyes and nose. (statemaster.com)
  • d) Tolerance of 400 ppm on dried eggs and certain other dried foods In a general review of this subject it was noted that the initial consideration by the Joint Meeting, of methyl bromide and ethylene dibromide, had been only concerned with cereal grains (FAO/WHO, 1967b). (inchem.org)
  • Ipratropium bromide is a bronchodilator that dilates (enlarges) airways (bronchi) in the lungs . (medicinenet.com)
  • Additional controlled 12-week studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution administered concomitantly with the beta adrenergic bronchodilator solutions metaproterenol and albuterol compared with the administration of each of the beta agonists alone. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution administered either alone or with other bronchodilators, especially beta adrenergics, is indicated as a bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (nih.gov)
  • While hospitalization length was not effected from receiving inhaled bronchodilator, ipratropium bromide or hypertonic saline, the duration was longer in patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid when compared with patients who didn't receive inhaled corticosteroid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methyl bromide , also called bromomethane , a colourless, nonflammable, highly toxic gas (readily liquefied) belonging to the family of organic halogen compounds. (britannica.com)
  • First, a seawater sample is tested for the presence of bromide compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylselenyl Bromide is one of numerous organo-metallic compounds sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Organo-Metallics™ for uses requiring non-aqueous solubility such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. (americanelements.com)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is administered by oral inhalation with the aid of a nebulizer. (nih.gov)
  • The bronchodilation following inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is primarily a local, site-specific effect, not a systemic one. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium bromide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be comparable, and may be superior, to that of the beta-sympathomimetic agents. (nih.gov)
  • The Secretary , in consultation with State, local and tribal authorities, shall establish a program to identify alternatives to methyl bromide for treatment and control of plant pests and weeds. (cornell.edu)
  • In response to the need for safe and effective alternatives to methyl bromide, researchers at the Instituto Tecnologico Agrario de Castilla y Leon in Valladolid, Spain, undertook a 3-year project to study new methods of weed control in strawberry nurseries. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to lead researcher Eva Garca-Mndez, "the phaseout of methyl bromide requires effective alternatives for soil disinfestation, particularly in high-elevation strawberry nurseries. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study, MB alternatives were evaluated for weed control and plant yields at strawberry nurseries participating in Spain's Methyl Bromide Alternatives Project (INIA). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Therefore, the undersigned countries pledge to promote sustainable alternatives to methyl bromide in their own nations and worldwide. (unep.org)
  • One can test for a bromide ion by adding excess dilute HNO3 followed by dilute aqueous AgNO3 solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicyclomine and Librax ( chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide ) are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Librax ( chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride and clidinium bromide) is a combination of an anti- anxiety medication and an antispasmodic used to treat peptic ulcer disease and IBS ( irritable bowel syndrome). (medicinenet.com)
  • Avoid driving or operating machinery while taking chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride/clidinium bromide because it reduces mental alertness. (medicinenet.com)
  • Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride/clidinium bromide may be taken with or without food. (medicinenet.com)
  • Continued effectiveness of ipratropium bromide was demonstrated throughout the 12-week period. (nih.gov)
  • Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of neostigmine bromide oral. (webmd.com)
  • Bromide showed a clear effectiveness in patients with Dravet syndrome and SCN1A mutations,' says Lotte. (news-medical.net)
  • Starting out as a Husker Du, Only Ones and Sonic Youth-obsessed lo-fi indie pop outfit, centred around vocalist/guitarist Berridge and whoever he could get to perform and record with him, Bromide released their debut album, 'Iscariot Heart' in 1997. (pennyblackmusic.co.uk)