Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedIpratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide: A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Hexadimethrine Bromide: A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea: A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.Bromine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.AcetophenonesThiazolesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.PhenanthridinesFormazans: Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Pipecuronium: A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Noxae: Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAcridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Triethyltin Compounds: Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Emepronium: A muscarinic antagonist used mainly in the treatment of urinary syndromes. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Benzyl CompoundsCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedBorates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Oxyphenonium: A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.AcridinesAllyl CompoundsTrimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.PeroxidasesChromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bromosuccinimide: A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ozone Depletion: A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Pyridinium CompoundsDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Thermodynamic analysis of halide binding to haloalkane dehalogenase suggests the occurrence of large conformational changes. (1/418)

Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) hydrolyzes short-chain haloalkanes to produce the corresponding alcohols and halide ions. Release of the halide ion from the active-site cavity can proceed via a two-step and a three-step route, which both contain slow enzyme isomerization steps. Thermodynamic analysis of bromide binding and release showed that the slow unimolecular isomerization steps in the three-step bromide export route have considerably larger transition state enthalpies and entropies than those in the other route. This suggests that the three-step route involves different and perhaps larger conformational changes than the two-step export route. We propose that the three-step halide export route starts with conformational changes that result in a more open configuration of the active site from which the halide ion can readily escape. In addition, we suggest that the two-step route for halide release involves the transfer of the halide ion from the halide-binding site in the cavity to a binding site somewhere at the protein surface, where a so-called collision complex is formed in which the halide ion is only weakly bound. No large structural rearrangements are necessary for this latter process.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of hyperpolarization-activated chloride channel gates. (2/418)

1. ClC proteins are a class of voltage-dependent Cl- channels with several members mutated in human diseases. The prototype ClC-0 Torpedo channel is a dimeric protein; each subunit forms a pore that can gate independently from the other one. A common slower gating mechanism acts on both pores simultaneously; slow gating activates ClC-0 at hyperpolarized voltages. The ClC-2 Cl- channel is also activated by hyperpolarization, as are some ClC-1 mutants (e.g. D136G) and wild-type (WT) ClC-1 at certain pH values. 2. We studied the dependence on internal Cl- ([Cl-]i) of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of several ClC channels (WT ClC-0, ClC-0 mutant P522G, ClC-1 mutant D136G and an N-terminal deletion mutant of ClC-2), by patch clamping channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. 3. With all these channels, reducing [Cl-]i shifted activation to more negative voltages and reduced the maximal activation at most negative voltages. 4. We also investigated the external halide dependence of WT ClC-2 using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Reducing external Cl- ([Cl-]o) activated ClC-2 currents. Replacing [Cl-]o by the less permeant Br- reduced channel activity and accelerated deactivation. 5. Gating of the ClC-2 mutant K566Q in normal [Cl-]o resembled that of WT ClC-2 in low [Cl-]o, i.e. channels had a considerable open probability (Po) at resting membrane potential. Substituting external Cl- by Br- or I- led to a decrease in Po. 6. The [Cl-]i dependence of the hyperpolarization-activated gates of various ClC channels suggests a similar gating mechanism, and raises the possibility that the gating charge for the hyperpolarization-activated gate is provided by Cl-. 7. The external halide dependence of hyperpolarization-activated gating of ClC-2 suggests that it is mediated or modulated by anions as in other ClC channels. In contrast to the depolarization-activated fast gates of ClC-0 and ClC-1, the absence of Cl- favours channel opening. Lysine 556 may be important for the relevant binding site.  (+info)

Human extracellular water volume can be measured using the stable isotope Na234SO4. (3/418)

The volume of human extracellular water (ECW) may be estimated from the sulfate space (SS). Although it may better approximate ECW volume than the bromide space, a common alternative, SS measurement is limited by the need to administer a radioactive substance, sodium [35S]sulfate. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement of the SS using the stable isotope, sodium [34S]sulfate. Eight healthy nonobese men ingested 0.50-0.78 mg (3.47-5.42 micromol) Na234SO4/kg body weight and 30 mg NaBr/kg body weight. Sulfate concentrations and 34SO4 enrichments were measured by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry before and during the 5 h after tracer administration. SS was calculated by linear extrapolation of the natural logarithm of serum 34SO4 concentrations obtained at h 2, 3 and 4 compared with h 3, 4 and 5. The SS obtained using values between h 3 and 5 (187 +/- 17 mL/kg) was similar to published determinations using intravenous or oral radiosulfate, and was 80% of the simultaneously measured corrected bromide space (234 +/- 10 mL/kg, P = 0.01). Oral sodium [34S]sulfate administration is a suitable technique for measuring ECW and avoids radiation exposure.  (+info)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies of bromide binding to bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum. (4/418)

Bromine K-edge EXAFS studies have been carried out for bromide/peroxidase samples in Tris buffer at pH 8. The results are compared with those of aqueous (Tris-buffered) bromide and vanadium model compounds containing Br-V, Br-C(aliphatic) and Br-C(aromatic) bonds. It is found that bromide does not coordinate to the vanadium centre. Rather, bromine binds covalently to carbon. A possible candidate is active site serine.  (+info)

Agonist-induced sensitization of beta-adrenoceptor signaling in neonatal rat heart: expression and catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase. (5/418)

Agonist stimulation of neonatal cardiac beta-adrenoceptors produces heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling, rather than desensitization, as seen in adults. We examined the ontogenetic patterns of AC expression and activity, and evaluated isoproterenol effects on this pattern. [(3)H]Forskolin binding showed an increase in AC concentration across the period (birth to 25 days of age) in which agonist-induced sensitization is replaced by desensitization; binding affinity also increased, suggesting a shift in conformation and/or isoform. Indeed, catalytic properties of AC changed substantially with development, as evaluated by AC responses to forskolin versus Mn(2+). In contrast, there were only minor changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the two major isoforms. Neonates given repeated isoproterenol treatment showed an enhancement of [(3)H]forskolin binding B(max) and a precocious shift to the mature affinity state and corresponding catalytic properties. Although isoproterenol caused significant increases in AC mRNAs, the effects were small and showed no isoform preference. Thus, a primary mode for ontogenetic increases in cardiac cellular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation is the increase in AC activity attendant upon an absolute increase in the membrane concentration of AC molecules, along with changes in the catalytic properties of AC. The lack of correlation between mRNA and AC protein suggests that the primary regulatory events are post-transcriptional. The induction of AC by beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the fetus and neonate accounts for heterologous, agonist-induced sensitization, a phenomenon that preserves cellular responses during the period of the perinatal transition.  (+info)

Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase. (6/418)

Highly purified coliphage Qbeta replicase when incubated without added template synthesizes self-replicating RNA species in an autocatalytic reaction. In this paper we offer strong evidence that this RNA production is directed by templates generated de novo during the lag phase. Contamination of the enzyme by traces of RNA templates was ruled out by the following experimental results: (1) Additional purification steps do not eliminate this RNA production. (2) The lag phase is lengthened to several hours by lowering substrate or enzyme concentration. At a nucleoside triphosphate concentration of 0.15 mM no RNA is produced although the template-directed RNA synthesis works normally. (3) Different enzyme concentrations lead to RNA species of completely different primary structure. (4) Addition of oligonucleotides or preincubation with only three nucleoside triphosphates affects the final RNA sequence. (5) Manipulation of conditions during the lag phase results in the production of RNA structures that are adapted to the particular incubation conditions applied (e.g., RNA resistant to nuclease attack or resistant to inhibitors or even RNAs "addicted to the drug," in the sense that they only replicate in the presence of a drug like acridine orange). RNA species obtained in different experiments under optimal incubation conditions show very similar fingerprint patterns, suggesting the operation of an instruction mechanism. A possible mechanism is discussed.  (+info)

Resonance raman spectra of manganese (III) tetraphenylporphin halides. (7/418)

Unique resonance Raman spectra were obtained when manganese(III) tetraphenylporphin halides in noncoordinating solvents were illuminated by laser frequencies around 500 nm. Of particular interest is the observation of a feature that is sensitive to the nature of the axial ligand. This feature disappears when the coordinating solvent pyridine is employed, and it, therefore, appears to be diagnostic of the manganese coordination number.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on body composition in 25 to 30 week gestational age infants. (8/418)

AIMS: To compare the effects of early and delayed sodium supplementation on body composition and body water compartments during the first two weeks of postnatal life. METHODS: Preterm infants of 25-30 weeks' gestation were stratified and randomly assigned according to gender and gestational age, to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day beginning either on the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight had been achieved. Daily sodium intake, total fluid intake, energy intake, urine volume, and urinary sodium excretion were recorded. Total body water was measured by H(2)(18)O dilution on days 1, 7, and 14, and extracellular fluid volume by sodium bromide dilution on days 1 and 14. RESULTS: Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences between the groups in body water compartments on day 1. In the delayed group, but not the early group, there was a significant loss of total body water during the first week (delayed -44 ml/kg, p=0. 048; early 6 ml/kg, p=0.970). By day 14 the delayed, but not the early group, also had a significant reduction in extracellular fluid volume (delayed -53 ml/kg, p=0.01; early -37 ml/kg, p=0.2). These changes resulted in a significant alteration in body composition at the end of the first week (total body weight: delayed 791 ml/kg; early 849 ml/kg, p=0.013). By day 14 there were once again no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Body composition after preterm birth is influenced by the timing of introduction of routine sodium supplements. Early sodium supplementation can delay the physiological loss of body water that is part of normal postnatal adaptation. This is likely to be of particular relevance to babies with respiratory distress syndrome. A tailored approach to clinical management, delaying the introduction of routine sodium supplements until there has been postnatal loss of body water, is recommended.  (+info)

*Bromide

... toxicity can also cause a type of skin eruption. See potassium bromide. Lithium bromide was used as a sedative ... The bromide ion is antiepileptic, and bromide salts are still used as such, particularly in veterinary medicine. Bromide ion is ... The formation of creamy silver bromide precipitate confirms the existence of bromides. Bromide compounds, especially potassium ... A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand. This is a bromine atom with an ionic charge of −1 (Br−); ...

*Bromide, Oklahoma

The area around Bromide was noted for its mineral water springs, and the bromide content of the water gave the town its name. ... Bromide Bromide - Ghost Town Red River Historian - Bromide. ... Bromide is a town in Coal and Johnston counties in the U.S. ... Census Viewer:"Bromide, Oklahoma Population."] Retrieved June 6, 2013. May, Jon D. "Bromide," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History ... "Bromide," Mitchell, Marshal Don. Bromide Oklahoma Centennial: From Boastown to Ghostown, Our Hometown 2007. ISBN 1-4243-2986-8 ...

*Clidinium bromide

"Clidinium bromide". Drugs.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013. "Clidinium Bromide Monograph". Drugs.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013. ... Clidinium bromide (INN) is an anticholinergic (specifically a muscarinic antagonist) drug. It may help symptoms of cramping and ...

*Cetrimonium bromide

... [(C16H33)N(CH3)3]Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB] is a ... Clarke, Joseph D. (2009-03-01). "Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) DNA Miniprep for Plant DNA Isolation". Cold Spring ... Isomaa, B.; Reuter, J.; Djupsund, B. M. (1976-06-01). "The subacute and chronic toxicity of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ( ... Cheng, Wenlong; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang (2003-10-01). "Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Capped ...

*Benzyl bromide

... is used in organic synthesis for the introduction of the benzyl groups. The reaction is often achieved in the ... Benzyl bromide is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Br. The molecule consists of a benzene ring substituted with a ... Benzyl bromide can be synthesized by the bromination of toluene under conditions suitable for a free radical halogenation: The ... Benzyl bromide is a strong lachrymator and is also intensely irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Because of these ...

*Propargyl bromide

... may be produced by the treatment of propargyl alcohol with phosphorus tribromide. Propargyl bromide can be ... In the 1960s, propargyl bromide was first used in a soil fumigant called Trizone. Propargyl bromide can also be used as an ... Aldehydes may be reacted with propargyl bromide in a Barbier-type reaction to yield alkyne alcohols as well: Propargyl bromide ... Propargyl bromide, also known as 3-bromo-1-propyne, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CHCCH2Br. It is a ...

*Vecuronium bromide

... has been used as part of a drug cocktail that prisons in the United States use as a means to put a condemned ... Injections of vecuronium bromide without proper sedation allow the person to be fully awake but unable to move in response to ... Vecuronium bromide, sold under the brand name Norcuron among others, is a medication used as part of general anesthesia to ... A pure form of the substance was first synthesised in 1964, and was named pancuronium bromide. The name was derived from p( ...

*Zinc bromide

It is the electrolyte in the zinc bromide battery. In oil and natural gas wells, solutions containing zinc bromide are used to ... Zinc bromide solutions can be used as a transparent shield against radiation. The space between two glass panes is filled with ... Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnBr2. It is a colourless salt that shares many ... A similar structure is found in the dimeric form of aluminium bromide (Al2Br6). Gaseous ZnBr2 is linear in accordance with ...

*Phenacyl bromide

... , TCI America R. M. Cowper and L. H. Davidson. "Phenacyl bromide". Organic Syntheses. ; Collective Volume, 2, p ... Phenacyl bromide is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH2Br. This colourless solid is a powerful lachrymator as ... Media related to Phenacyl bromide at Wikimedia Commons. ...

*Pipecuronium bromide

Pipecuronium (Arduan) is a bisquaternary aminosteroid muscle relaxant which blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. It is the most potent neuromuscular blocking agent of the aminosteroid class. Pancuronium ...

*Ipratropium bromide

Chemically, ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound obtained by treating atropine with isopropyl bromide, thus ... Ipratropium bromide was developed in Germany in 1976. It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1986. It is on ... Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large ... "Ipratropium Bromide". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved ...

*Thionyl bromide

2HCl Thionyl bromide will convert alcohols to alkyl bromides and can be used for brominations of certain α,β-unsaturated ... Thionyl bromide is the chemical compound SOBr2. It is less stable and less widely used than its chloride analogue, thionyl ... It is prepared by the action of hydrogen bromide on thionyl chloride, a characteristic reaction where a stronger acid is ... "Thionyl Bromide". In Paquette, E. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Bromide (language)

Some well known quotes (or bromides) in current usage that appeared in Burgess' Are You A Bromide? include: "I don't know much ... In these works he labeled a dull person as a "Bromide" contrasted with a "Sulphite" who was the opposite. Bromides meant either ... A now outdated usage of bromide is a photographic print, stemming from the use of silver bromide in photographic films, ... "A.Word.A.Day: bromide". Wordsmith.org. Retrieved 24 August 2017. "Meaning of the word "bromide" in "an additional charge for ...

*Tetraoctylammonium bromide

... (TOAB or TOABr) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula: [CH3(CH2)7]4N Br. It is ...

*Acetyl bromide

... is an acyl bromide compound. As is expected, it may be prepared by reaction between phosphorus tribromide and ... Acetyl bromide[permanent dead link] at Sigma-Aldrich Theodore M. Burton and Ed. F. Degering (1940). "The Preparation of Acetyl ... acetic acid: 3 CH3COOH + PBr3 → 3 CH3COBr + H3PO3 As usual for an acid halide, acetyl bromide hydrolyzes rapidly in water, ... Bromide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62: 227. doi:10.1021/ja01858a502. ...

*Calcium bromide

... is the name for compounds with the chemical formula CaBr2(H2O)x. Individual compounds include the anhydrous ... When strongly heated in air, calcium bromide will react with oxygen to produce calcium oxide and bromine: 2 CaBr2 + O2 → 2 CaO ... It adopts the rutile structure, featuring octahedral Ca centres bound to six bromide anions, which also bridge to other Ca ... 2 Br2 In this reaction the oxygen oxidizes the bromide to bromine. It is mainly used as dense aqueous solutions for drilling ...

*Tetraethylammonium bromide

... (TEAB) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+Br−, often written as " ... V. Kinetics of the bromide ion promoted elimination reaction of 2-benzyl-2-bromo-4,4-dimethyl-1-tetralone in solvent ... M. Ralle, J. C. Bryan, A. Habenschuss and B. Wunderlich (1997). "Low-temperature phase of tetraethylammonium bromide." Acta ... 1948). "Action of tetraethylammonium bromide." Lancet 251 15-18. C. M. Armstrong and B. Hille (1972). "The inner quaternary ...

*Pipenzolate bromide

... is an antimuscarinic. It binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as an antagonist therefore preventing ...

*Prifinium bromide

... is an antimuscarinic. Magalini, M.; Monica, F. (1995). "Use of prifinium bromide in endoscopic premedication ...

*Bromide Formation

Bryozoa from the Ordovician Bromide Formation Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology, 16-4 (1942)[2] Amsden, T.W. Upper Bromide ... The Bromide Formation has been a source of oil and gas, with exploration slightly north of the area where the formation is ... The Bromide Formation crops out in the Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains and in the Criner Hills of Southern Oklahoma. It appears ... The Bromide Formation is a geological formation in Oklahoma, USA. It is well known for its diverse echinoderm and trilobite ...

*Thonzonium bromide

... is a monocationic detergent. A solution of it is thus a surfactant and a detergent that promotes tissue ...

*Timepidium bromide

... (INN) is an anticholinergic. The quaternary nitrogen prevents it from crossing the blood brain barrier, so ...

*Phenylmagnesium bromide

... is a strong nucleophile as well as a strong base. It can abstract even mildly acidic protons, thus the ... Although phenylmagnesium bromide is routinely represented as C 6H 5MgBr, the molecule is more complex. The compound invariably ... Phenylmagnesium bromide, with the simplified formula C 6H 5MgBr, is a magnesium-containing organometallic compound. It is ... Phenylmagnesium bromide is commercially available as solutions of diethyl ether or THF. Laboratory preparation involves ...

*Cimetropium bromide

... is a belladonna derivative. Evidence does not support its use in infantile colic. Hall, B; Chesters, J; ...

*Vinyl bromide

Evaluation of vinyl bromide Report on Carcinogens Background Document for Vinyl Bromide Synthesis of vinyl bromides The ... Vinyl bromide is used to manufacture bromopolymers and mainly polyvinyl bromide. Further it is used as an alkylation agent. ... MSDS at Oxford University MSDS at mathesontrigas.com Vinyl bromide at IRIS Vinyl bromide at osha.gov IARC Summary & ... Vinyl bromide is highly flammable liquid and reacts violently with oxidizers. It is listed in List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens ...
Business Directory for Potassium Bromide Suppliers in Vapi - Get contact details of Potassium Bromide Manufacturers, Wholesale Potassium Bromide Exporters, Best Potassium Bromide Traders & Distributors Across the Vapi.
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Article A colorimetric microwell method for determining bromide concentrations. Bromide is commonly used as a tracer in studies of water and chemical transport in soil and rock because it is relatively nonreactive with soil and rock constituents and ...
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Potassium bromide, 98%, extra pure, ACROS Organics™ 1kg; Plastic bottle Potassium bromide, 98%, extra pure, ACROS Organics™ Inorganic Potassium Compounds
potassium bromide chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of potassium bromide 7758-02-3, What are the physical properties of potassium bromide ect.
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Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of Sodium Bromidefor price inquiry.where to buy Sodium Bromide.Also offer free database of Sodium Bromide including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Potassium bromide is used in making bromide and iodo bromide photographic emulsions as well as in many developer formulas, where it performs the role of a restrainer. ​One packet contains 100 grams of potassium bromide, analytical grade.
... for only $44.99. Find out more about K-BroVet Potassium Bromide Oral Solution 250 mg/ml 300 ml by PRN PHARMACAL and check out opinions from other buyers. Discounts, deals, special offers for Pet Supply on ShopMania.
Sodium Bromide molecular formula:NaBr. molecular weight:102.9. CAS NO: 7647-15-6. Usage::This product is used for making sensitive emulsion of photographic film and for making medicinal intermediates in medico-industries, e.g. diuretic , sedative etc. It is also used as bromide making complex material and complex dyes.. Specifications:. ...
Tianjin Tanggu Hengli Chemical Plant of is a company established in the past decade. We have good manufacturing and quality control facilities,plus a good technical staff to ensure quality products with competitive prices.
Tianjin Tanggu Hengli Chemical Plant of is a company established in the past decade. We have good manufacturing and quality control facilities,plus a good technical staff to ensure quality products with competitive prices.
Send Inquiry to srikumaranagrochemicals - We are leading Manufacturer of Sodium Bromide, Magnesium sulfide, ibandronate sodium, Ammonium Nitrate, moisture absorbent from Salem Tamil Nadu India.
The Global Sodium Bromide Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current sta - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
Potassium Bromide from Manufacturer Honeywell Specialty Chemicals Seelze GmbH from the category Chemical & Pharma can be found at Exportpages.
7758-02-3 - IOLCXVTUBQKXJR-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium bromide [USP:JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Nucleophillic Substitution Conclusion we all know that dipoles exsist because last lesson we were doing some hardcore chem-cooking What is it? Why is this relevant? and each end has positive and negative polarities due to electronegativity i hope someones done cakes this week :/ we were cooking some delicious brews of 1-bromobutane so we started off wtih the butan-1-ol then chucked in some water and sodium bromide C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H O Na Br just incase you didnt know ;) then after adding the magic ingredient of sulphuric acid concentrated acid plus sodium bromide = hydrogen bromide :) this is when the magic happens C-C-C-C-OH - H - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H because the bromide ion in hyrdogen bromide is more elctronegative than the hydroxide group when it approaches the butan-1-ol it strongly attracts the positive end of the molucule with its lone pairs dragging elctrons away from the hydroxide bond towards itself until evntually bye bye hydroxide hello ...
Wintersun code: 19-067B CAS Number: 7647-15-6 Molecular Formula: NaBr Molecular Weight: 102.89 g/mol Appearance: White cubic crystal/powder Assay: 99.0% Min.
Oxidative treatment is one of the options to eliminate emerging pollutants (EPs) from drinking water or wastewater. For drinking water treatment, the ozonation technology is already implemented at many sites all around the world, so far mostly for disinfection purposes. However, in some countries such as the Netherlands surface water contains relatively high bromide concentrations, which leads upon reaction with ozone to the formation of bromate, a suspe cted carcinogen. In such a case, UV/H2O2 treatment is considered a useful alternative, despite the fact that energy requirements are substantially higher compared to treatment with ozone or O3 /H2O2. Only in recent years, the oxidative treatment of wastewat er has been investigated to not only protect our water resources, but also the ecosystem from pollution with chemicals used in our daily life. In Switzerland, the first permanent full scale plant with ozonat ion, WWTP Neugut in Dübendorf, is running since March 2014 . Its performance was ...
I came to the conclusion that adding 2ml/liter of a 5% solution of household ammonia to the salt fixer, the time is reduced to as few as 2 hours. In this recipe I also included 2g/l of Potassium Bromide which also contributes to the speeding of the salt fixer. But it may be left away, if time may be longer than 2 hours, let us say 4 hours. Also Potassium Bromide is not a household stuff and this is actually the aim of the thing, no need of expensive products and hard to get ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Cytochrome bo forms complexes with chloride, bromide and iodide in which haem o remains high-spin and in which the 630 nm charge-transfer band is red-shifted by 7-8 nm. The chloride and bromide complexes each have a characteristic set of integer-spin EPR signals arising from spin coupling between haem o and CuB. The rate and extent of chloride binding decreases as the pH increases from 5.5 to 8.5. At pH 5.5 the dissociation constant for chloride is 2 mM and the first-order rate constant for dissociation is 2×10-4 s-1. The order of rate of binding, and of affinity, at pH 5.5 is chloride (1) , bromide (0.3) , iodide (0.1). It is suggested that the halides bind in the binuclear site but, unlike fluoride, they are not direct ligands of the iron of haem o. In addition, both the stability of the halide complexes and the rate of halide binding seem to be increased by the co-binding of a proton.. ...
Applying the Asp nucleophile and either pair of halide‐binding residues (Trp and Trp/Asn) to filter the initial list of ABH sequences would have narrowed the
Spectrum RX1 KBr Disc Complete Starter Pack for solids - L1272266, Contains an evacuable potassium bromide die for the preparation of 13mm diameter pellets of the highest quality and clarity.
Contains an evacuable potassium bromide die for the preparation of 13mm diameter pellets of the highest quality and clarity, a pellet holder and adjustable mount for precise mounting of samples in your Spectrum RX, the easy-to-operate 15-tonne hydraulic press and 100g of research-grade KBr powder. ` ...
Solid samples can be prepared in a variety of ways. One common method is to crush the sample with an oily mulling agent (usually Nujol) in a marble oragate mortar, with a pestle. A thin film of the mull is smeared onto salt plates and measured. The second method is to grind a quantity of the sample with a specially purified salt (usually potassium bromide) finely (to remove scattering effects from large crystals). This powder mixture is then pressed in a mechanical press to form a translucent pellet through which the beam of the spectrometer can pass. A third technique is the "cast film" technique, which is used mainly for polymeric materials. The sample is first dissolved in a suitable, non hygroscopic solvent. A drop of this solution is deposited on surface of KBr or NaCl cell. The solution is then evaporated to dryness and the film formed on the cell is analysed directly. Care is important to ensure that the film is not too thick otherwise light cannot pass through. This technique is suitable ...
* found in: Potassium bromide, suitable for FTIR applications, Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous, 98%, Potassium nitrite, ACS, 96.0% min., Calcium iodide,..
For the next test Ive choosen a more delicate subject with a rather big contrast due to the strong side light and a dark surrounding. I didnt care for an EI 400 exposure but started with EI 800 going up to EI 3200. Development was 80 minutes in Caffenol-C-L with 1.2 g/l potassium bromide, 5 mins presoak , 24 °C pure stand development and agitation only for the first minute. Yes, 80 mins @ 24 °C! To keep the temperature I used a mantle bath with water of the same temperature. The stronger development should give the best film speed and more contrast, and the lack of any agitation after the first minute should avoid burnt highlights. When I took the wet negs out of the tank for drying I immediately knew: yep, thats it! The EI 800 exposure is spot on, almost no postprocessing needed, the grain is very fine for EI 800 and the contrast is simply perfect. No blown highlights at all. Base fog is still low enough for easy to enlarge wetprints, perfect even development. I was amazed. Rarely Ive ...
For the next test Ive choosen a more delicate subject with a rather big contrast due to the strong side light and a dark surrounding. I didnt care for an EI 400 exposure but started with EI 800 going up to EI 3200. Development was 80 minutes in Caffenol-C-L with 1.2 g/l potassium bromide, 5 mins presoak , 24 °C pure stand development and agitation only for the first minute. Yes, 80 mins @ 24 °C! To keep the temperature I used a mantle bath with water of the same temperature. The stronger development should give the best film speed and more contrast, and the lack of any agitation after the first minute should avoid burnt highlights. When I took the wet negs out of the tank for drying I immediately knew: yep, thats it! The EI 800 exposure is spot on, almost no postprocessing needed, the grain is very fine for EI 800 and the contrast is simply perfect. No blown highlights at all. Base fog is still low enough for easy to enlarge wetprints, perfect even development. I was amazed. Rarely Ive ...
By: Jill Enfield. People usually think of doing tintypes in large format cameras such as 4 x 5 or 8 x 10s, but for years I have been encouraging students to use any type of camera they have on hand. Brownies and pinhole cameras have been used as well as something that has become a favorite - the Holga.. Dry plate tintypes are not faux tintypes. Gelatin emulsion tintypes were made commercially (by Kodak and others) as early as the 1880s. They were also made on paper and used in street cameras.. The emulsion bought today (such as AG plus) is similar to what you get when you make it from scratch using: gelatin, silver nitrate, potassium bromide and chrome alum.. I have been using dry plate tintype kits made by Rockland called the Rockloid AG Plus Tintype Parlor. It is very simple and the plates, which are actually aluminum, can be cut with a scissors so that they can fit into any camera. Since it is dry plate, no preparation needs to be done to the camera. Nothing will be dripped on or get ruined ...
I just got home from visiting with him and speaking to the vet. Gio is completely doped up, so was mostly unresponsive when I was there. But I got to give him lots of hugs and kisses at least. He has to stay overnight, and possibly tomorrow night as well. Lots of fluids, and depending how he is tomorrow morning, maybe some other treatment whose name has slipped my mind at the moment. Something about giving IV solution that competes with the Potassium Bromide and flushes it from the system quicker. So far, he doesnt need that, but if he doesnt improve much by tomorrow morning then it is a possibility ...
My husband and I are looking to adopt our first dog soon, and one online listing in particular has caught our eye. This dog is being rehomed because he has idiopathic epilepsy, which I understand means that he has seizures without any known cause. He is currently on phenobarbitol and potassium bromide but still seizes about once a month, usually at night while sleeping. We dont object to taking in a dog with special needs, in fact we would be happy to, but we want to be absolutely certain that we can handle this particular condition before we commit. I have done a lot of research already, but as much as I want to help him Im still not sure if this would be getting in over our heads. What advice do you have about living with and caring for an epileptic dog? Give me the lowdown dirty facts, please - Ive seen a lot of "you and your dog can still live a normal life" but I know that there would be bad days as well as good, and I feel it would be unfair to the dog if we didnt know that we were ...
My husband and I are looking to adopt our first dog soon, and one online listing in particular has caught our eye. This dog is being rehomed because he has idiopathic epilepsy, which I understand means that he has seizures without any known cause. He is currently on phenobarbitol and potassium bromide but still seizes about once a month, usually at night while sleeping. We dont object to taking in a dog with special needs, in fact we would be happy to, but we want to be absolutely certain that we can handle this particular condition before we commit. I have done a lot of research already, but as much as I want to help him Im still not sure if this would be getting in over our heads. What advice do you have about living with and caring for an epileptic dog? Give me the lowdown dirty facts, please - Ive seen a lot of "you and your dog can still live a normal life" but I know that there would be bad days as well as good, and I feel it would be unfair to the dog if we didnt know that we were ...
K-BROVET potassium bromide is used to treat seizure disorders in dogs. Can be used in addition to therapy with other agents or as the sole anticonvulsant.
Information for Calcium bromide 7789-41-5 including Calcium bromide CAS NO 7789-41-5, Calcium bromide Suppliers, Calcium bromide Manufacturers, related products of Calcium bromide.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Illustrative higher temperature phase change materials suitable for thermal storage. Melting Point Substance 1 (mol %) Substance 2 (mol %) Substance 3 (mol %) Substance 4 (mol %) ° C. NaF 76.1 CaF2 14.4 MgF2 76.1 745 Na2CO3 56.6 K2CO3 43.4 56.6 710 CaCl2 38.5 CaSO4 11 CaMoO4 38.5 673 KBr 65 K2MoO4 35 65 625 NaCl 38.5 NaBr 23 Na2MoO4 38.5 612 KCl 45 KF 55 45 605 KF 40 KBr 60 40 576 NaCl 95.2 NiC12 4.8 95.2 573 BaCl2 27.9 KCl 39.8 CaCl2 27.9 551 Li2CO3 27.6 Na2CO3 57.6 K2CO3 27.6 550 Li2CO3 33.2 Na2CO3 16.8 K2CO3 33.2 550 BaCl2 26.6 KCl 39.3 NaCl 26.6 542 MgCl2 49.5 SrCl2 50.5 49.5 535 KCl 44.7 KF 33 K2CO3 44.7 528 NaCl 5 NaBr 40 Na2MoO4 5 524 KCl 24.8 NaF 35.7 K2CO3 24.8 520 NaF 2 NaBr 43 Na2MoO4 2 506 CaCl2 51.3 KCl 5.8 NaCl 51.3 504 CaCl2 55.1 KCl 15.6 NaCl 55.1 504 CaCl2 52.8 NaCl 47.2 52.8 500 CaCl2 70 NaCl 30 70 500 NaCl 48.3 CaCl2 51.7 500 KCl 50 MnCl2 50 494 CaCl2 50 CaF2 1.5 NaF 50 490 KCl 50 MgCl2 50 50 487 CaCl2 22.4 KCl 31 MgCl2 22.4 487 BaCl2 9.3 CaCl2 22.2 ...
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Alfa Aesar™ Tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide, 99% 500g Alfa Aesar™ Tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide, 99% T1 to Tetradeca -Organics
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see article for more examples. Abstract. Unsaturated compounds such as alkenes, alkynes, allenes, and methylenecyclopropanes (MCPs) can be dibrominated within minutes by NBS and lithium bromide in THF at room temperature in good to excellent yields under mild conditions.. ...
0220]Strain CNB476 was grown in a 500-ml flask containing 100 ml of the first vegetative medium consisting of the following per liter of deionized water: glucose, 4 g; Bacto tryptone, 3 g; Bacto casitone, 5 g; and synthetic sea salt (Instant Ocean, Aquarium Systems), 30 g. The first seed culture was incubated at 28 degree C. for 3 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 rpm. Five ml of the first seed culture was inoculated into a 500-ml flask containing 100 ml of the second vegetative medium consisting of the following per liter of deionized water: starch, 10 g; yeast extract, 4 g; peptone, 2 g; ferric sulfate, 40 mg; potassium bromide, 100 mg; calcium carbonate, 1 g; and sodium bromide, 30 g. The second seed cultures were incubated at 28° C. for 7 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 rpm. Approximately 2 to 3 gram of sterile Amberlite XAD-7 resin were added to the second seed culture. The second seed culture was further incubated at 28° C. for 2 days on a rotary shaker operating at 250 ...
Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: inorganic anion A(out) + inorganic anion B(in) = inorganic anion A(in) + inorganic anion B(out).
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Autori: M. Teodorescu,S. G. Gaynor and K. Matyjaszewski. Editorial: American Chemical Society, Macromolecules, 33(7), p.2335-2339, 2000.. Rezumat:. Halide anions have been used as complexing ligands in iron-mediated ATRP, in both direct and reverse ATRP. In direct ATRP, iron(II) bromide complexed with ammonium and phosphonium chloride, bromide or iodide salts has been shown to catalyze the polymerization of both styrene and (meth)acrylates in a controlled manner under appropriate conditions. The experimental molecular weights increased linearly with monomer conversion and were close to the calculated values. The polymerization rates and polydispersities (Mw/Mn = 1.1 - 1.4) were dependent on the monomer employed. Reverse ATRP, initiated by AIBN/FeBr3/onium salts, led to a controlled polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate, while for styrene uncontrolled molecular weights and high polydispersities were obtained, presumably due to the involvement of the cationic ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−), because a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically maintains its chirality, though the SN2 products configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile.. ...
Relative densities and heat capacity ratios have been measured for selected aqueous systems. These measurements have been used to calculate apparent molar volumes and heat capacities. Densities of aqueous sodium bromide have been measured from 374 to 522 K and 10.00 to 30.00 MPa using a recently developed high temperature and pressure vibrating tube densimeter. These data have been used to test the utility of an automated high temperature and pressure densimetric data analysis program. Apparent molar volumes and heat capacities of several aqueous rare earth sulphate systems at 298.15 K and 0.10 MPa have been reported, and discussed in terms of ionic contributions. Single ion partial molar volumes and heat capacities for aqueous trivalent rare earth species have been estimated in a review of apparent molar data from the literature and through the use of semi-empirical Debye-Huckel equation. These singles ion properties have subsequently been used to estimate the single ion properties of the ...
The bromide ion functions as the nucleophile and attacks to displace the good leaving group, neutral alcohol molecule, by cleaving the C-O bond. This results in the formation of an alkyl bromide and an alcohol ...
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Article Removal of bromide and bromate from drinking water using granular activated carbon. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to remove bromide (Br−) and bromate (BrO3−) from drinking water in both bench- and pilot-scale experime...
Abstract. Employing low loadings of Pd(OAc)2 and an iminoproazaphosphatrane as bulky ligand in the Hiyama coupling reaction gives biaryls in high yields. Electron-rich, -neutral, and -deficient aryl chlorides and bromides undergo coupling with various phenylsiloxanes.. ...
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This weekend I switched from BBB in spa to Bromine. 3-step. Using Borax also. Put in proper amounts using Pool Calculator and then threw in the floater with Bromine tabs. MAJOR big mistake that I didnt realize until next day. The feeder cant be adjusted down fine enough. Took feeder out (still out) and will put in only one tab till can get one that can be fine tuned. Bromine so way off the scale I cant measure pH. I drained close to 1/2 and refilled. Bromine came down a little. So stopped by
An acyl halide also known as an acid halide is an organic compound derived from carboxylic acids by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group. An acyl halide is colorless fuming liquid which...
Im a newbie who just installed a small (200 gallon) hot tub. I read the sticky here about bromine systems and decided to go with a 3 step bromine system with a floater. Im attempting to set up my spa for the first time today. Please excuse if Im asking this in the wrong place. Background info: Im using 4-in-1 bromine test strips, not a test kit, so my measurements are imperfect, but my initial hardness from the tap seems to be around 100, alkalinity is 120, and pH is 7.8. I added
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I am growing MCF-7 cell line. I have been trying to stain dead cells using ethidium bromide and I havnt been very successful. I found the protocol online but it doesnt seem to work. if there is any other method with which I can stain the cells please let me know. Thanks in advance ...
Does anyone know the mechanism(s) of mutagenesis by ethidium bromide? Any references? Thanks. Chris Cole U. of Minn-Morris Morris, MN 56267 colect at caa.mrs.umn.edu ...
Hi all -- Ive spoken with Mike about his bromine request. The OSHA PEL (TWA) is 0.1 ppm - compare to that of Cl2, which is 0.5 ppm. However, like most things, it can be managed safely (gee, I remember using it as an undergrad in organic synthesis lab.) Its heavy, red gas, so you can see it coming. But I really dont want to see this in our cleanroom. However, Mike has worked with it and is familiar with safety precautions. This is expected to be done only a few times at most as his company is building their lab now. I would like to suggest that we allow Mike (and only Mike) to do this etch in one of the exhausted benches in the wafersaw room. His solution is pretty dilute, so he can collect the waste as solvent waste. He just needs to make sure that the bromine kept in the proper storage area, not at the bench. I would also suggest that this be done only during working hours (so people will be nearby and he can access the storage area -- I dont think we should store this in the personal ...
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|p |Silia|em||span style=color: #f37021;|Bond|/span||/em||sup|®|/sup| Propyl Bromide (Si-PBR) is a versatile solid support for amines and alcohols. It is more reactive than the chloride towards displacement.|/p| |p||a href={{media url=specshe
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-44239, Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Except cations, any electrolyte consists of anions. So, the analysis of salts, acids, natural waters and industrial solutions will be incomplete, without identification of anions. Anions are divided into three (3) analytical groups (as it is shown in the table 7.1). First group contains such anions that form insoluble barium salts. Second group contains anions, that form precipitates with
I always dilute 20 µl ethibro (10 mg/ml) in 400 ml water. this means, the concentration becomes 0.05 µg/ml ethibro solution (please correct me if im wrong ...
Chemists have a familiarity with many elements and many compounds, from having worked with them or studied them in the literature. You get a feel for whats
Primesep 100 and Primesep B columns connected in series allow the quantitation of sodium chloride and potassium bromide ions in one injection. The Primesep B column retains the chloride and bromide anions by anion exchange, and the Primesep 100 retains the sodium and potassium captions by cation exchange. The separation uses a mobile phase mixture of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). ...
Pilot-scale tests were conducted at MEFOS for the production of zinc oxide from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust using a DC arc furnace with a hollow electrode suitable for the processing of fine-grained materials. The association of halides in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust and zinc oxide fume before and after water leaching was investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM analysis. In EAF dust, chlorine and fluorine were found to exist primarily as NaCl, KCl, and CaF2. After water leaching of the zinc oxide fume the halide concentrations were reduced to about 200 ppm Cl and 200 ppm F, mostly in the form of CaF2 and chlorine-containing silicate phases.. ...
The synthesis of mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) in HeLa cells is selectively inhibited by relatively low concentrations of ethidium bromide. After exposure of cells to strongly inhibitory concentrations of the drug, the apparent superhelix density of mDNA is rapidly increased, as judged by its buoyant density in CsCl in the presence of ethidium bromide. Mitochondrial DNA synthesized in the presence of partially inhibitory concentrations of ethidium bromide is also altered in its buoyant density in the presence of the dye, but is more heterogeneous in this respect. However, the change in buoyant density of newly synthesized mDNA may be explained by changes in structure other than a change in superhelix density, as indicated by its increased resistance to digestion by pancreatic DNase. ...
The stabilities and speciation of the halamines in water are difficult to characterize experimentally. We provide theoretical estimates of aqueous standard free energies of formation for inorganic chloramines, bromamines, and bromochloramines, based on high-accuracy theoretical standard free energies of formation in gas phase combined with quantum chemical estimates of Henrys law constant. Based on comparisons between several theoretical and experimental datasets, we assign an error of 1.1-1.2 log unit for equilibrium constants of several reactions leading to halamines in water. The reactions of ammonia with HOCl or HOBr that lead to dichloramine, trichloramine, and tribromamine are found to be thermodynamically more favorable than was previously believed. The newly reported equilibrium data also allow us to propose rate constant values for some hydrolysis and disproportionation reactions of dichloramine, monobromamine, and bromochloramine. Finally, theoretical results indicate aqueous acid
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Phenobarbital or potassium bromide (KBr) add-on treatment decreases the average monthly seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy resistant to a maximum dose of imepitoin. The importance of continued administration of imepitoin in these dogs is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess whether imepitoin withdrawal would destabilize epileptic seizure control. In this prospective clinical trial epileptic seizure control was evaluated by comparing the monthly seizure frequency of 13 dogs with well-controlled idiopathic epilepsy receiving a combination of imepitoin and phenobarbital (n=4), imepitoin and KBr (n=7), and imepitoin, phenobarbital and KBr (n=2) during a period of 3-6 months (pre-withdrawal period), with a follow-up period of 9-12 months after withdrawal of imepitoin (post-withdrawal period ...
Write the molecular,complete ionic, and net ionic equations for the reactions that occur, if any, when solutions of the following substances are mixed: a) nitric acid and potassium carbonate b) sodium bromide and lead nitrate c) acetic ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−). This is a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically keeps its chirality, though the SN2 products configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile (Walden inversion).. ...
5 tall vintage anti-asthmatic elixer. Says it contained Lobelia, Euphorbia, Iodide, Sodium Bromide, and Nitroglycerine. Some heavy duty stuff. Unused old stock found at the Physicians Pharmacal Co. in Geneseo, Illinois. Circa 1910s. Would look great on an old bottle ...
If a disease is found to be causing the seizures, the best treatment is to remove or correct the underlying problem. The success of such treatment depends on your vets ability to identify and treat the disease or remove the growth that is causing the seizures. For example, surgery is often effective for some tumors in cats.. If the diagnosis is epilepsy or if the underlying disease is difficult to treat and/or not becoming worse, then the usual therapy is to control the seizures with anti-convulsant drugs. Phenobarbital is considered the initial drug of choice for feline epilepsy. Diazepam (valium) may also be effective but sometimes causes liver problems. The dosage must be adjusted individually to minimize side-effects. Again, this will require your careful observation; you will want to find the lowest dosage that will control the seizures. Potassium Bromide is also being used to treat epilepsy, particularly in cases where liver problems or ineffectiveness may prevent phenobarbital from being ...
Introduction. Victor Leung 7C (10) Experiment Date: 28TH September, 2006. EXP1 - Hydrolysing Organic Halogen Compounds Aim: The purpose of this experiment is to find out how the rate of the hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on (1) the identity of the halogen atom (2) the nature of the CH skeleton. Principle: The hydrolysis of haloalkanes is an example of nucleophilic substitution in which the carbon halogen bond is replaced with a hydroxyl group. Water molecule is the nucleophile of the reaction while the halide ion departs as the leaving group. The reaction occurs faster with alcohol acting as a common solvent. The ease of leaving of halide ions increase in as the atom becomes bigger, and the bonding length longer. Method: The experiment made use of the product of hydrolysis - halide ions. The halide ions formed could be detected by AgNO3 which forms precipitation. The length of time required is inversely proportional to the rate of reaction. By observing the changes in the test ...
The Environmental Risk Management Authority has decided to begin a reassessment of the fumigant methyl bromide - a process that will determine if it can continue to be used in New Zealand. Methyl bromide is a broad-spectrum fumigant that kills a wide range of pests, including soil-borne fungi, nematodes, weeds, insects, mites and rodents. Its […] ...
After the bromine has been added the ether and dissolved hydrogen bromide are removed at once (Note 4) under reduced pressure with a slight current of air. The phenacyl bromide remains as a solid mass of brownish yellow crystals (Note 5); the color is removed by shaking with a mixture of 10 cc. of water and 10 cc. of petroleum ether. The crystals are filtered with suction and washed several times with fresh portions of the solvent mixture, if necessary, until a white product is obtained (Note 6). The crude phenacyl bromide weighs 74-80 g. (88-96 per cent of the theoretical amount) and melts at 45-48°. This material is sufficiently pure for many purposes. If higher purity is desired the crude product may be recrystallized from 25-30 cc. of methanol, yielding 54-55 g. (64-66 per cent of the theoretical amount) of white crystals melting at 49-51° (Note 7) ...
Looking for Natural Bromides? Find out information about Natural Bromides. a group of rare minerals related to the halogen compounds. The minerals known in nature are limited to the silver bromides, which crystallize in a cubic... Explanation of Natural Bromides
Global Chlorides, chloride oxides and chloride hydroxides; bromides and bromide oxides; iodides and iodide oxides Market Business Development Opportunities - Available Tenders, Contracts, values and Companies, 2018 - 2023
The iodine doctors have found in treating over 4000 patients that what is commonly thought to be a bad reaction to iodine is most likely bromide toxicity. Iodine, Bromide, Fluoride and Chlorine are all halides. When we are low in iodine and are exposed these other halides they will take a place on the iodine…
The iodine doctors have found in treating over 4000 patients that what is commonly thought to be a bad reaction to iodine is most likely bromide toxicity. Iodine, Bromide, Fluoride and Chlorine are all halides. When we are low in iodine and are exposed these other halides they will take a place on the iodine…
KBR (NYSE: KBR) announced today the successful startup of the JSC EuroChem Northwest Phosphorit 2,890 MTPD ammonia plant in Kingisepp, Russia. The...
... definition, a yellowish, water-insoluble powder, AgBr, which darkens on exposure to light, produced by the reaction of silver nitrate with a bromide: used chiefly in the manufacture of photographic emulsions. See more.
10% of the worldwide use of methyl bromide takes place in California. A statewide ban on the use of methyl bromide was to be implemented on March 1, 1996, but a special session of the legislature extended the deadline. While the use of methyl bromide was being extended in California, groups were pushing for the amendment of the Montreal Protocol in order to speed up the phaseout of methyl bromide. Since methyl bromide is a very effective pesticide and is used for a wide variety of purposes, scientists are searching for acceptable substitutes. Right now, methyl iodide (CH3I) looks promising. It has a short life and is not thought to be an ozone depletor.. [ Atmospheric Physics ] [ Atmospheric Chemistry: CFC Replacements ...
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Eosinophil peroxidase and myeloperoxidase use hydrogen peroxide to produce hypobromous acid and hypochlorous acid. These powerful oxidants may damage the lungs if they are produced as part of the inflammatory response in asthma. The aim of this study was to determine if peroxidases generate hypohalous acids in the airways of individuals with stable asthma, and if they affect lung function. Sputum was induced from patients with mild to moderate asthma and from healthy controls. Eosinophil peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, chlorinated and brominated tyrosyl residues, and protein carbonyls were measured in sputum supernatants. Eosinophil peroxidase protein was significantly elevated in asthmatic subjects whereas myeloperoxidase protein was not. There was significantly more 3-bromotyrosine (Br-Tyr) in proteins from the sputum of asthmatics compared to controls (0.79 vs. 0.23 mmol Br-Tyr/mol Tyr; medians p , .0001). Levels of 3-chlorotyrosine (0.23 vs. 0.14 mmol Cl-Tyr/mol Tyr; medians p = .11) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of inorganic anions on Fenton oxidation of organic species in landfill leachate. AU - Deng, Yang. AU - Rosario-Muniz, Edualberto. AU - Ma, Xingmao. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Fenton oxidation typically achieves only a moderate removal efficiency of chemical oxidation demand (COD) in treatment of a landfill leachate, incomparable to some other chemical oxidation processes (e.g. electrochemical oxidation). A traditional viewpoint is that the remaining highly oxidized organic species become recalcitrant to hydroxyl radical (OH·)-induced oxidation at a higher degree of Fenton oxidation. Although this may, at least partially, be true, the effects of inorganic anions, which are abundant in leachate, on Fenton oxidation have been largely ignored. The objective of this study is to assess the roles of three inorganic anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) originally present in or externally added to leachate during Fenton oxidation of refractory organic species in ...
The effects of 24-h exposure to spectinomycin (100 microgram/ml) and ethidium bromide (1 microgram/ml) on the accumulation of chloroplast and mitochondrial rRNAs and on organelle ultrastructure were studied in greening cells of Ochromonas danica. Cells treated with ethidium bromide for 24 h divide at the same rate as controls but contain less than one third the normal amount of mitochondrial rRNA. Ultrastructural observations showed that these cells contain only 10% the number of mitochondrial ribosomes found in controls as well as fewer mitochondrial cristae. Ethidium bromide has no effect on chloroplast ultrastructure in Ochromonas. Greening cells treated with spectinomycin grow at close to control rates but contain 30-40% less chloroplast rRNA than do controls. Electron microscopy showed that spectinomycin disrupts the organization of chloroplast membranes and reduces the number of chloroplast ribosomes by 30%. Under these conditions, spectinomycin has no effect on mitochondrial rRNA or ...
Bench-scale Cryptosporidium inactivation, pilot-scale disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and bench-scale inorganic DBP control experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in meeting the current and future enhanced surface water treatment and disinfectant/disinfection by-product rules. A new chlorine dioxide generation process in which dilute, humidified chlorine gas is in contact with solid sodium chlorite was employed for this study. Chlorine dioxide was found to be effective in achieving CT values (pH=8 and temperature=20°C) of approximately 50 and 100 mg · min/l for 1-log and 2-log Cryptosporidium inactivation, respectively. Chlorine dioxide did not form significant amounts of trihalomethanes or haloacetic acids. Water spiked with high bromide concentrations resulted in insignificant amounts of organic DBPs after reaction with chlorine dioxide. Reaction of chlorine dioxide with water constituents resulted in the formation of chlorite and chlorate ions. ...
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens. In particular, bromine, chlorine, iodine and fluorine may each combine with silver to produce silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl), silver iodide (AgI), and three forms of silver fluoride, respectively. As a group, they are often referred to as the silver halides, and are often given the pseudo-chemical notation AgX. Although most silver halides involve silver atoms with oxidation states of +1 (Ag+), silver halides in which the silver atoms have oxidation states of +2 (Ag2+) are known, of which silver(II) fluoride is the only known stable one. Silver halides are light-sensitive chemicals, and are commonly used in photographic film and paper. Silver halides are used in photographic film and photographic paper, including graphic art film and paper, where silver halide crystals in gelatin are coated on to a film base, glass or paper substrate. The gelatin is a ...

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Bromide | Encyclopedia.comBromide | Encyclopedia.com

Bromides are formed by the reaction of bromine or a bromide with another substance; they are widely distributed in nature. ... bromide, any of a group of compounds that contain bromine [1] and a more electropositive element [2] or radical. ... Potassium bromide, KBr, and sodium bromide, NaBr, are the familiar bromides used in medicine as sedatives; they should be used ... bromide, any of a group of compounds that contain bromine and a more electropositive element or radical. Bromides are formed by ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/compounds-and-elements/bromide

bromide (CHEBI:15858)bromide (CHEBI:15858)

bromide salt (CHEBI:22925) has part bromide (CHEBI:15858). hydrogen bromide (CHEBI:47266) is conjugate acid of bromide (CHEBI: ... bromide (CHEBI:15858) is a halide anion (CHEBI:16042) bromide (CHEBI:15858) is a monoatomic bromine (CHEBI:36896) bromide ( ... CHEBI:15858 - bromide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min-width ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/en/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15858

demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391)demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391)

... is a bromide salt (CHEBI:22925) demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) is a carbamate ester (CHEBI: ... demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) has part demarcarium (CHEBI:59719) demecarium bromide (CHEBI:4391) has role EC 3.1.1.7 ( ... CHEBI:4391 - demecarium bromide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... m-hydroxyphenyl)trimethylammonium bromide decamethylenebis(methylcarbamate) ChemIDplus decamethylenebis(m-dimethylaminophenyl-N ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:4391

Triethylgermanium bromideTriethylgermanium bromide

Other names: Germanium triethyl bromide; Germane, bromotriethyl-; Bromotriethylgermane; Triethylbromogermane *Information on ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C6H15BrGe/c1-4-8

potassium bromidepotassium bromide

1. Potassium Bromide and Sulfate, High Temp., 1973, 11, 50. [all data] ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C7758023&

ethidium bromideethidium bromide

... Derek M. Harkins harkinsd at fiu.edu Thu Feb 10 14:47:34 EST 1994 *Previous message: ethidium bromide ... Id like (if : it exists) to see the archived discussion on ethidium bromide: its hazards; : potential danger and disposal. Is ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-February/011404.html

methyl bromidemethyl bromide

Atmospheric Chemistry: Methyl Bromide. Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is responsible for 5% to 10% of ozone destruction. It is a very ... 10% of the worldwide use of methyl bromide takes place in California. A statewide ban on the use of methyl bromide was to be ... Methyl Bromide / Reactions & Concentrations / Oxides of Nitrogen ]. [ Meteorology of Ozone ]. [ Glossary ] [ Related Links ] [ ... Since methyl bromide is a very effective pesticide and is used for a wide variety of purposes, scientists are searching for ...
more infohttp://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/ozone/ozatmo3.html

Prifinium Bromide - Drugs.comPrifinium Bromide - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Prifinium Bromide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Prifinium Bromide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Prifinium Bromide. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/prifinium-bromide.html

Pinaverium Bromide - Drugs.comPinaverium Bromide - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Pinaverium Bromide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Pinaverium Bromide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Pladuet (Pinaverium Bromide and Simeticone). Interlab Pharmaceutica, Mexico. *Planex (Pinaverium Bromide and Dimeticone). Rimsa ... Alevian Duo (Pinaverium Bromide and Dimeticone). Takeda, Colombia; Takeda México, Costa Rica; Takeda México, Dominican Republic ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/pinaverium-bromide.html

Methyl bromide -- Britannica Online EncyclopediaMethyl bromide -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Methyl bromide. Methyl bromide, also called bromomethane, a colourless, nonflammable, highly toxic gas (readily liquefied) ... Methyl bromide is manufactured by the reaction of methanol with hydrobromic acid; it is slightly soluble in water but miscible ... For use as a fumigant, methyl bromide often is mixed with chloropicrin, which serves as a warning agent because of its intense ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/print/article/378541

Ethidium Bromide mutagenesisEthidium Bromide mutagenesis

... Christopher T. Cole colect at caa.mrs.umn.edu Tue Apr 20 12:08:02 EST 1993 *Previous message: ... Does anyone know the mechanism(s) of mutagenesis by ethidium bromide? Any references? Thanks. Chris Cole U. of Minn-Morris ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1993-April/005188.html

ICSC 1676 -    ETHIDIUM BROMIDEICSC 1676 - ETHIDIUM BROMIDE

ETHIDIUM BROMIDE. ICSC. : 1676. Phenanthridinium, 3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenyl-, bromide. 2,7-Diamino-10-ethyl-9- ... This produces toxic gases including hydrogen bromide (see ICSC 0282) and nitrogen oxides (see ICSCs 0930 and 1311). Reacts ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics1676.htm

Potassium bromide M88015Potassium bromide M88015

Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-m88015.html

CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGCETRIMONIUM BROMIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

BROMIDE; BROMIDE 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-; CETAB; CETYL TRIMETHYL AMMONIUM BROMIDE; CETYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE ... HEXADECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE; N,N,N-TRIMETHYL- BROMIDE 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM; N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-1-HEXADECANAMINIUM BROMIDE; (1 ... About CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE: Cetrimonium Bromide is a quaternary ammonium salt.. Function(s): Antistatic Agent; Cosmetic Biocide ... Synonym(s): 1-HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,N-TRIMETHYL-, BROMIDE; 1HEXADECANAMINIUM, N,N,NTRIMETHYL, ...
more infohttps://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/717624/CETRIMONIUM_BROMIDE/

Domiphen Bromide Wholesale, Bromide Suppliers - AlibabaDomiphen Bromide Wholesale, Bromide Suppliers - Alibaba

Wholesale Various High Quality Domiphen Bromide Products from Global Domiphen Bromide Suppliers and Domiphen Bromide Factory, ... cyclopentyl bromide potassium bromide hyoscine butyl bromide sodium bromide calcium bromide ammonium bromide lithium bromide ... zinc bromide silver bromide granular bromide anhydrous bromide isopropyl bromide hexadecyl bromide tert-butyl bromide ... Tags: Domiphen Bromide Cas No. 538-71-6 , Raw Material Domiphen Bromide , 99% Purity Domiphen Bromide , View larger image ...
more infohttp://www.alibaba.com/showroom/domiphen-bromide.html
  • 1992). Methyl bromide is an extremely toxic pesticide, heavily used in the production of strawberries, flowers, and other high value specialty crops. (ewg.org)
  • This close proximity to major applications of methyl bromide raises serious questions about the safety and exposure of infants and children to this highly toxic pesticide. (ewg.org)
  • However, this is not a conventional test in human medicine in the U.S., since there are no FDA-approved uses for bromide, and (as noted) it is no longer available in over-the-counter sedatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lithium bromide was used as a sedative beginning in the early 1900s, but it fell into disfavor in the 1940s, possibly due to the rising popularity of safer and more efficient sedatives (specifically, barbiturates) and when some heart patients died after using a salt substitute (see lithium chloride). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic bromide levels are measured in European countries like Germany, where bromide is still used therapeutically in human epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10% of the worldwide use of methyl bromide takes place in California. (cotf.edu)
  • While the use of methyl bromide was being extended in California, groups were pushing for the amendment of the Montreal Protocol in order to speed up the phaseout of methyl bromide. (cotf.edu)
  • In 1993, fourteen people were made ill from routine application of methyl bromide in strawberry fields adjacent to subdivisions in Castroville, California. (ewg.org)
  • Our analysis of pesticide use data from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation shows that at least 826 elementary schools and day care centers were within 2 miles of 10,000 pounds or more methyl bromide use in 1992. (ewg.org)
  • The half-life of bromide in the human body (12 days) is long compared with many pharmaceuticals, making dosing difficult to adjust (a new dose may require several months to reach equilibrium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tiotropium bromide , sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma . (wikipedia.org)
  • A statewide ban on the use of methyl bromide was to be implemented on March 1, 1996, but a special session of the legislature extended the deadline. (cotf.edu)
  • The silver bromide is much more sensitive than the chloride, so that the printing can be done in artificial light. (dictionary.com)
  • Other than its role in collagen IV production and its facultative use in eosinophils by the body, bromide is not known in other cases necessary for animal life, as its functions may generally be replaced (though in some cases not as well) by chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for methyl bromide exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Seafoods and deep sea plants generally have high levels of bromide, while foods derived from land have variable amounts. (wikipedia.org)