Bromazepam: One of the BENZODIAZEPINES that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Nordazepam: An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Equilin: An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of four double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of euilin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Pheromones, Human: Chemical substances excreted by humans that elicit behavior or physiological responses from other humans. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Polyporus: A genus of basidiomyceteous fungi in the family POLYPORACEAE found mostly on living trees or dead wood.Propionibacterium acnes: A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.IndiaSafety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Vesicovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Hernia, Hiatal: STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)RomaniaEphedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Liquid Phase Microextraction: Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Trephining: The removal of a circular disk of the cranium.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.United StatesOxymorphone: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Diazepam Binding Inhibitor: An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Carisoprodol: A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.North CarolinaResearch Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).United States Department of Homeland Security: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.South CarolinaCoproporphyria, Hereditary: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of COPROPORPHYRINOGEN OXIDASE in the LIVER, the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, 5-AMINOLEVULINATE and COPROPORPHYRINS.Coproporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Porphyrias, Hepatic: A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.Porphyrias: A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Porphyrinogens: Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.Porphyria, Acute Intermittent: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of HYDROXYMETHYLBILANE SYNTHASE in the LIVER, the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features are recurrent and life-threatening neurologic disturbances, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and elevated level of AMINOLEVULINIC ACID and PORPHOBILINOGEN in the urine.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.PorphobilinogenFloridaMethane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.History of MedicineMinors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Flurazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Receptors, GABA-B: A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Helsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Halofenate: An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.

Investigation into some aspects of EMIT d.a.u., TLC, and GC-MS urinalysis of bromazepam. (1/15)

Among the different 1,4-benzodiazepine urinary metabolites, those of bromazepam possess distinctive chemical features that may be used in their selective isolation and detection. The detection of bromazepam metabolites in urine was carried out using EMIT d.a.u., thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The positive EMIT d.a.u. benzodiazepine assay for bromazepam was found to be due to the 3-hydroxybromazepam (3HOB) metabolite. The detection by TLC and GC-MS was carried out after enzyme or acid hydrolysis of the glucuronide conjugates. Both the 2-amino-3-hydroxy5-bromobenzoylpyridine (AHBBP) metabolite and the acid hydrolysis product of 3-HOB, 2-amino-5-bromobenzoylpyridine (ABBP), were selectively detected by TLC. The bromazepam metabolites in urine could be both isolated and detected selectively by GC-MS in the presence of the metabolites of other 1,4-benzodiazepines that were sometimes used in combination with bromazepam. Both 3-HOB and AHBBP were detected by GC-MS only after trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and not as the free compounds or the acetyl derivatives. Only ABBP was detected in three forms: ABBP, the TMS derivative, and the acetyl derivative. Evidence has been obtained from the enzyme hydrolysis and the TLC studies for the formation of the glucuronide conjugate of AHBBP at the 3-OH group rather than at the 2-NH2 group. All the results have been validated using reference 3-HOB and AHBBP.  (+info)

Hair to document drug-facilitated crimes: four cases involving bromazepam. (2/15)

The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, so-called DFSA, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs used can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be quickly cleared from body fluids. In case of long delay between the alleged crime and clinical examination, collection of blood or even urine can be of little value. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To explore the detectability of a single absorption of bromazepam in hair, two volunteers (male and female) received a 6-mg dose. A strand of hair was sampled about one month after exposure and was cut into three segments of 2-cm long. After pulverization, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.4). The aqueous phase was extracted with 5 mL of a mixture of diethyl ether/methylene chloride (80:20) in the presence of diazepam-d5, which was used as internal standard (IS). Hair extract was separated on a XTerra MS C18 column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 316.0 to 182.2 and 209.3 and m/z 290.1 to 154.1 and 198.2 for bromazepam and the IS, respectively. In the hair of the two subjects, bromazepam was detected in the proximal segment at 0.8 and 4.7 pg/mg, respectively. Hair analysis was applied to four authentic criminal cases. In the two first cases, bromazepam tested positive in the corresponding hair segment at 5.7, and 10.3 pg/mg. In another case, head hair was sampled 19 weeks after the alleged offense, and its length (< 4 cm) did not allow analysis of the corresponding period. However, 4.1 pg/mg of bromazepam was quantified in the victim's pubic hair. In these three cases, concentrations were consistent with a single exposure to bromazepam. In the last case, bromazepam was detected at 15 pg/mg in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged offence but also in the range 2 to 7 pg/mg in the four other consecutive segments, making a single exposure statement difficult.  (+info)

[Neuromodulatory effects of caffeine and bromazepam on visual event-related potential (P300): a comparative study]. (3/15)

The P300 component of the event-related potential (ERP) is a general measurement of "cognitive efficiency". It is an index of the ability of an individual's central nervous system (CNS) to process incoming information. OBJECTIVE: To compare the neuromodulatory effects of caffeine and bromazepam on the visual ERP (P300), in relation to a P300 normative database. METHOD: 15 right-handed individuals (7 male and 8 female), between 20 and 30 years of age, healthy, free of any cognitive impairment and not making use of psychoactive substances were studied. Participants were submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm, after the administration of caffeine and bromazepam, in a randomized, double-blind design. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed when the caffeine and bromazepam conditions were compared to the normative database. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that caffeine and bromazepam have distinct modulatory effects on CNS functioning.  (+info)

Analysis of the influence of bromazepam on cognitive performance through the visual evoked potential (P300). (4/15)

Benzodiazepines have been used in the pharmacological treatment of anxiety for over four decades. However, very few studies have combined bromazepam and event-related potentials (ERP). The present study aimed at investigating the modulatory effects of this drug on brain dynamics. Specifically, the effects of bromazepam (3 mg) on the P300 component of the ERP were tested in a double-blind experiment. The sample, consisting of 15 healthy subjects (7 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Electrophysiological (P300) and behavioral measures (stroop, digit span, and reaction time) were analyzed across three experimental conditions: placebo 1, placebo 2, and bromazepam. Results suggest that the effects of bromazepam (3 mg) on cognitive processes are not apparent. In spite of what seems irrefutable in current literature, bromazepam did not produce evident effects on the behavioral and electrophysiological variables analyzed.  (+info)

Comparison of behavioral effects after single and repeated administrations of four benzodiazepines in three mice behavioral models. (5/15)

The behavioral and clinical profiles of various benzodiazepines after acute and chronic treatment are not well defined and may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral profiles of alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam and lorazepam in mice after single and repeated (every half-life for seven half-lives) administrations using a stimulation-sedation test (actimeter), a myorelaxation test (rotarod), and an anxiolysis test ("four plates"). A dose range from 0.03 to 4 mg/kg was used. A single administration of alprazolam showed stimulating and anxiolytic effects which diminished after repeated administration. Lorezapam's sedative effect diminished but its anxiolytic effect increased upon repeated administration. Except for lorazepam, the myorelaxing effect of all four drugs increased after repeated treatment. These results suggest that the behavioral profile of benzodiazepines may not be identical during acute and chronic treatment. These differences may be present in clinical treatment and warrant investigation in humans.  (+info)

Influence of bromazepam on cortical interhemispheric coherence. (6/15)

Benzodiazepines are among the most commonly prescribed medications due to their therapeutic efficacy in reducing anxiety and inducing sleep. Consequently, they have been widely employed in the pharmacological treatment of several disorders. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed the effects of bromazepam in electroencephalographic activity (EEG). The present study aimed at investigating the modulatory effects of this drug on brain dynamics. Specifically, the effects of bromazepam (3mg) on EEG coherence were tested in a double-blind experiment. The sample, consisting of 10 healthy subjects (5 male and 5 female), was submitted to ten minutes of EEG recording. The electrophysiological measure (coherence) was analyzed across three experimental conditions: bromazepam, placebo 1, and placebo 2. Results indicate that bromazepam significantly increases cortical interhemispheric coherence.  (+info)

The effects of bromazepam on the early stage of visual information processing (P100). (7/15)

The early stages of visual information processing, involving the detection and perception of simple visual stimuli, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to psychotropic agents. The present study investigated the effects of an acute dose of bromazepam (3 mg), compared with placebo, on the P100 component of the visual evoked potential and reaction time. The sample, consisting of 14 healthy subjects (6 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Results suggest that bromazepam (3 mg) impairs the initial stage of visual information processing, as observed by an increase in P100 latency.  (+info)

Alterations in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism during the 'withdrawal' phase after chronic treatment with diazepam and bromazepam. (8/15)

1 Daily administration of diazepam or bromazepam (10 mg/kg) for 22 days significantly increased the activity of mid-brain tryptophan hydroxylase by 36% and 39%, respectively. The concentration of tryptophan was also enhanced in the mid-brain region of rats subjected to benzodiazepine treatment.2 Chronic therapy with either of the two anti-anxiety agents enhanced the endogenous levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pons-medulla, mid-brain and striatum.3 Whereas diazepam treatment decreased (13%) the activity of monoamine oxidase in mid-brain, bromazepam failed to exert any effect, suggesting that the observed elevation in 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid levels is not associated with enhanced deamination of 5-hydroxytryptamine.4 Discontinuation of treatment for 48 h significantly decreased the activity of mid-brain tryptophan hydroxylase to levels that were significantly lower than those seen for benzodiazepine-treated and normal rats. The concentrations of mid-brain tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine were also reduced in various brain regions examined.5 Withdrawal from diazepam or bromazepam therapy further augmented the levels of brain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.6 The results demonstrate that the depressant effects on behaviour of these agents are accompanied by increased metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain. Withdrawal from these minor tranquillizers, on the other hand, reduces the synthesis of this indoleamine.  (+info)

*Bromazepam

... typically comes in doses of 3 mg and 6 mg tablets. Bromazepam is contraindicated and should be used with caution in ... Bromazepam is pregnancy category D, a classification that means that bromazepam has been shown to cause harm to the unborn ... A severe bromazepam benzodiazepine overdose may result in an alpha pattern coma type. The toxicity of bromazepam in overdosage ... Bromazepam has also been used in serious criminal offences including robbery, homicide, and sexual assault. Bromazepam is a ...

*Diazepam

Pérez Trullen JM, Modrego Pardo PJ, Vázquez André M, López Lozano JJ (1992). "Bromazepam-induced dystonia". Biomedicine & ... bromazepam, and clorazepate. Diazepam has anticonvulsant properties. Diazepam has no effect on GABA levels and no effect on ... Diazepam Flash animation about how bromazepam works (mechanism of action) "Medication of the Month" at Albany Medical Center at ...

*Pyrazolam

... has structural similarities to alprazolam and bromazepam. Unlike other benzodiazepines, pyrazolam does not appear to ...

*Benzodiazepine overdose

Pasinato E, Franciosi A, De Vanna M (Apr 1983). ""Alpha pattern coma" after poisoning with flunitrazepam and bromazepam. Case ...

*Cloxazolam

Ansseau, M.; von Frenckell, R. (1990). "Controlled comparison of two anxiolytic benzodiazepines, cloxazolam and bromazepam". ...

*Lorazepam

Others include diazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate. Lorazepam was first ...

*Flurazepam

... bromazepam, and clorazepate. Flurazepam generates an active metabolite, N-Desalkylflurazepam with a very long elimination half- ...

*Clorazepate

Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, bromazepam and ...

*Sedative

June 2005). "[Neuromodulatory effects of caffeine and bromazepam on visual event-related potential (P300): a comparative study ...

*Anxiolytic

Benzodiazepines include: Alprazolam (Xanax) Bromazepam (Lectopam, Lexotan) Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Clonazepam (Klonopin, ... "Neuromodulatory effects of caffeine and bromazepam on visual event-related potential (P300): A comparative study". Arquivos de ...

*Metaclazepam

... is slightly more effective as an anxiolytic than bromazepam, or diazepam, with a 15 mg dose of metaclazepam ... metaclazepam and bromazepam, in anxiety neurosis". Curr Med Res Opin. 11 (1): 45-7. doi:10.1185/03007998809111130. PMID 2898321 ... selective anxiolytic with less sedative or muscle relaxant properties than other benzodiazepines such as diazepam or bromazepam ... equivalent to 4 mg of bromazepam. Metaclazepam can interact with alcohol producing additive sedative-hypnotic effects. Fatigue ...

*Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepines with a half-life of less than 24 hours include alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, flunitrazepam, loprazolam, ... diazepam and bromazepam in benzodiazepine dependence". British Journal of Psychiatry. 158 (4): 511-6. doi:10.1192/bjp.158.4.511 ...

*Forensic entomological decomposition

To this date, bromazepam, levomepromazine, malathion, phenobarbital, trazolam, oxazepam, alimemazine, clomipramine, morphine, ...

*Francisca Ballesteros

2004 Ballesteros killed her husband Antonio González Barribino with Colme and with the sedatives Zolpidem and Bromazepam. On 4 ...

*Benzodiazepine use disorder

... bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam. A 1985 study found that triazolam and temazepam maintained higher rates of ...

*Benzodiazepine

Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam ... nitrazepam and bromazepam). Flunitrazepam is subject to more stringent regulations in certain states and temazepam ...

*Opium Law

... allobarbital alprazolam amobarbital amfepramone aminorex barbital benzphetamine bromazepam brotizolam buprenorphine butalbital ...

*Convention on Psychotropic Substances

... alprazolam bromazepam brotizolam camazepam chlordiazepoxide clobazam clonazepam clorazepate clotiazepam cloxazolam delorazepam ...

*Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

Bromazepam (7-bromo-1,3-dihydro-5-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1, 4-benzodiazepin-2-one) Brotizolam (2-bromo-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H- ...

*Misuse of Drugs Act (Ireland)

Bromazepam Brotizolam (added by 2010 Regulations) Camazepam Chlordiazepoxide Clobazam Clonazepam Clorazepic Acid Clotiazepam ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... bromazepam MeSH D03.438.079.080.070.150 --- clonazepam MeSH D03.438.079.080.070.200 --- devazepide MeSH D03.438.079.080.070.216 ...

*Brazilian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

METHANETHAMINE METHYLPHENIDATE TANFETAMINE ALOBARBITAL ALPRAZOLAM AMBARBITAL APPROBARBITAL BARBEXACLONE BARBITAL BROMAZEPAM ...

*Hoffmann-La Roche

... bromazepam) for anxiety disorders Lucentis (ranibizumab) for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) MabThera (rituximab) ...

*Drug policy of India

Buprenorphine Butalbital Cathine Cyclobarbital Flunitrazepam Glutethimide Pentazocine Pentobarbital Benzfetamine Bromazepam 5- ...

*Etizolam

In a study that compared the effectiveness of etizolam, alprazolam, and bromazepam for the treatment of generalized anxiety ...
We describe a rare case of diffuse macroscopic discoloration and chemical gastritis due to chronic bromazepam intake. The chemical composition of pharmaceuticals has to be considered at endoscopy and it is evident that some chemical substances damage the epithelial tissue and lead to clinical symptoms. Endoscopy was performed in an 82-year-old patient due to gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and epigastric pain. Gastroscopy showed a hiatal hernia and a scarred duodenal bulb. More striking was the yellow-brownish discoloration of the gastric and the duodenal mucosa. The gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb showed local discoloration that could not be rinsed off. The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg) had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. The histopathological findings showed appearances of chemical gastritis. Within the lamina propria and on the epithelial surface there were granules. There was no foreign body reaction to these granules. Corpus mucosa showed a mild
... Systematic (IUPAC) name 9-bromo-6-pyridin-2-yl-2,5-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undeca-5,8,10,12-tetraen-3-one Identifiers CAS number 1812-30-2 ATC
... Systematic (IUPAC) name 9-bromo-6-pyridin-2-yl-2,5-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undeca-5,8,10,12-tetraen-3-one Identifiers CAS number 1812-30-2 ATC
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Used with the permissions of NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center Collection (C) 2008 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved ...
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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Worlddrugtracker, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India, in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK- GENERICS LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now sSanofi, Searle India ltd, now Rpg lifesciences, etc. he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, Eurekamoments in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 25 year tenure, good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several international drug patents published ...
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Benzodiazepines are drugs which act upon the GABA(A) receptor, and produce a general set of effects which vary by compound, mostly being sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant. The first benzodiazepine, Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann-La Roche, which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963. = Dosage = {, class="wikitable sortable" ,+Comparison of benzodiazepines ! Chemical name (brand name) ! Half-Life [Active Metabolites] ! Dose Equiv. of 10mg Diazepam (Oral) ! Class ,- , Alprazolam (Xanax) , 6 - 12 hours , 0.5 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexomil) , 10 - 20 hours , 5 - 6 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Brotizolam , 2 - 6 hours , .25mg , Hypnotic ,- , Chlordazepoxide (Librium) , 5 - 30 hours [36 - 200 hours] , 25 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clobazam (Frisium) , 12 - 60 hours , 20 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clonazepam (Klonopin) , 18 - 50 hours , 0.5 mg , Anxiolytic ,- , Clorazepate ...
Perkiraan Dosis Ekuivalen Benzodiazepin Perkiraan Dosis Oral Ekuivalen, mg dosis kadar tertinggi, jam qaktu paruh, jam Alprazolam (Xanax) 0.5 1-2 12 Bromazepam (Lexotan) 3 1-4 20 Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 25 1-4 100 Clonazepam (Klonopin) 0.25 1-4 34 Clorazepate (Tranxene) 10 0.5-2 100 Diazepam (Valium) 5 1-2 100 Flurazepam (Dalmane) 15 0.5-1 100 Lorazepam (Ativan) 1 1-4…
Mylan-Bromazepam: Bromazepam belongs to the class of mediations known as benzodiazepines. It is used for the short-term relief of symptoms of excessive anxiety. It works to reduce anxiety by affecting certain substances in the brain called neurotransmitters.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI): state anxiety, stress hormone response and clinical course in patients treated and not treated with bromazepam. [Italian ...
Radiation exposure: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on radiation exposure at PatientsLikeMe. 16 patients with radiation exposure experience fatigue, depressed mood, anxious mood, Pain, and insomnia and use Bromazepam and Chymotrypsin-trypsin to treat their radiation exposure and its symptoms.
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The key goal of electric power distribution companies is to provide a high quality of service with a low cost of operation. The growing customer needs requires a re-distribution of the Power over various nodes of the Distributed Generation (DG) facilitates. The re-distribution might cause over load on various parts of the networks which if not correctly optimized might increase the cost of maintenance and affect the overall network reliability. This is why it is urgently requited to find a methodology that can effectively provide a schema for re-distribution of the power and achieve both customers and power companies contracting objectives. In this paper, we explore our new proposed idea of using a simulated annealing based local search technique to provide an efficient power load distribution for distributed generation network. On doing this, we will apply our approach on the famous IEEE14 and IEEE30 power systems as two test cases. The developed results show the significant of the proposed approach.
Light rail systems interact with utility AC power distribution systems in many areas where running rails run parallel to the utility AC power transmission and distribution lines. This interaction may produce a 60Hz voltage on the running rail relative to the earth, adjacent to that the running rail. Since the running rails on modern systems are reasonably well isolated, this can result in potentials that can cause significant AC voltage on the rail that can cause instrumentation problems and personnel safety issues working on right-of-way (ROW). This effect is generally seen in areas where electrical distribution lines (power lines) run parallel to the running rail.. This paper will describe methodology used to mitigate the problems by selecting a suitable capacitor filter bank network that provides a highly conductive path for the induced AC voltages between the substation grounding grid and the running rail at the traction power substation location. The filter actually provides lower ...
Enable your IT investment with Fujitsu Power Distribution Unit offerings. Fujitsu network power of rack PDUs (based on Emerson MPE and MPH2 Family) provides highest availability and most intelligent power metering and distribution.
A telephone and auxiliary power distribution system in a building has a flexible multi-conductor signal and power distribution cable; which cable originates from a central signal & power management facility located near the point where the telephone utility line enters the building and extends from there to each of numerous locations within the building at which a fire-hazard-proof signal & power outlet is wanted; each of which outlets is adapted to service one of plural different loads, such as a wide variety of telephone and telephone-related instruments, smoke detectors, PCs, TVs & VCRs, clocks and timers, thermostats, door chimes and buttons, modems, fax machines, lamps & lights, Class-2 & Class-3 sub-circuits, etc. The central signal and power management facitility, which is connected with the telephone utility line, the electric utility power line, the gas utility gas supply line and a water supply line, serves: (i) to connect the telephone utility line with the signal and power distribution
A method and system are given for a coupling a data signal over a power distribution system. An inductive signal coupler has two windings. The first winding is in series with a line conductor of the power distribution system. A capacitor is connected between the first line conductor and a second line conductor of the distribution system such that the capacitor presents a high impedance to a power signal and a low impedance to a data signal. A communication device is connected to the second winding so that a data signal can be coupled between the communication device and the distribution system.
Society relies more and more on a continuous supply of electricity. However, while underinvestments in reliability lead to an unacceptable number of power interruptions, overinvestments result in too high costs for society. To give incentives for a socioeconomically optimal level of reliability, quality regulations have been adopted in many European countries. These quality regulations imply new financial risks for the distribution system operator (DSO) since poor reliability can reduce the allowed revenue for the DSO and compensation may have to be paid to affected customers.This thesis develops a method for evaluating the incentives for reliability investments implied by different quality regulation designs. The method can be used to investigate whether socioeconomically beneficial projects are also beneficial for a profit-maximizing DSO subject to a particular quality regulation design. To investigate which reinvestment projects are preferable for society and a DSO, risk-based methods are ...
Kinetics eddy current clutch field exciter is a SCR regulated rectifier system designed for the application of supplying regulated variable DC power.
Loss of Mission. SUMMARY:. Explosion due to electrical short. Loss of O2 and EPS.. EVENT DESCRIPTION:. Apollo 13 launched on April 11, 1970. On April 13, 1970 during trans-lunar flight at approximately 56 hours, one of the two Service Module oxygen tanks over-pressurized and exploded. This caused the loss of oxygen in that tank and a leak of oxygen out of the remaining tank. This resulted in the loss of all three fuel cells, loss of the primary oxygen source, and the loss of electrical power to the Command Module (except for the entry batteries). The mission was able to continue with the use of the Lunar Module, and the crew safely returned.. Prior to launch, the following conditions resulted in the oxygen tank failing during the mission: By design the cryogenic oxygen tank required both electrical heaters to maintain pressure, and fans to prevent stratification. The tank was a complex assembly with blind installation of the quantity probe, heater/fan assembly, and fill tube. This design leaves ...
Reducing the interconnect size with each technology node and increasing speed with each generation increases IR-drop and Ldi/dt noise. In addition to this, the drive for more integration increases the average current requirement for modern ULSI design. Simultaneous switching of core logic blocks and I/O drivers produces large current transients due to power distribution network parasitics at high clock frequency. The current transients are injected into the power distribution planes thereby inducing noise in the supply voltage. The part of the noise that is caused by switching of the internal logic load is core switching noise. The core logic switches at much higher speed than driver speed whereas the package inductance is less than the on-chip inductance in modern BGA packages. The core switching noise is currently gaining more attention for three-dimensional integrated circuits where on-chip inductance is much higher than the board and package inductance due to smaller board, and package. The ...
European networks will require €600 billion of investment by 2020. Two thirds of this investment will take place in distribution grids. The DSO share of overall network investments is estimated to grow to almost 75% by 2035, and to 80% by 2050.. DSO investments include building new capacity and refurbishing and replacing existing assets as they reach the end of their technical lifetime. Investments are also driven by a changing distribution system, with a greater role for new loads like electric vehicles, for distributed generation like rooftop solar panels, and for smart meters.. As regulated companies, the DSO investment framework is determined by regulation at the national level.. Electricity use in transport may only make up a small part of total electricity demand for many years to come, but e-mobility could nevertheless have a big impact on load, in particular if motorists all plug in their vehicles during the peak load time.. Active load management will be needed to avoid network ...
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On circular integrated circuit devices concentric rings a, b of conductive material are laid over a suitable insulator on top of the personalization lay...
Individuals that inherit genomic mutation from their parents are at a bigger risk of certain varieties of cancers. Familial cancer syndromes are the group of cancers wherever patients inherit genomes that dont perform properly, increasing the chance of developing cancer.. Approximately 100 familial cancer syndromes are known and this vary is growing. The genes identified as increasing the chance of cancer are usually chromosome dominant (only one amongst the try of bodys must have the mutation so as for it to be expressed) though theyll even be chromosome recessive (both chromosomes ought to have the mutation for it to be expressed). The identification of these genes has improved designation and helped verify new cancer treatments.. The growing use of biological therapies that have an effect on cellular signal pathways has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, a trend which will continue as treatment ways in which could also be personalized to people once genomic typing of their cancer is ...
HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers Herbert W. Stanford III, Lynn Faulkner, Herbert W. Stanford III Electric Power Distribution Handbook Thomas Allen Short, Leonard L. Grigsby Boiler Operators HandbookEdited by Kenneth E. Bonin HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers Herbert W. Stanford III, Lynn Faulkner, Herbert W. About Taylor properties; Francis Contact us exchange aspects; FAQs Librarians Authors download the changing adolescent; Editors ; What is classical? We manifest recognized the Taylor download the changing adolescent experience societal trends and the transition to; Francis India poster to navigate CRC Press victims. just gone, this aliphatic download the of a array is the latest series Students and the horizontal concentrations and sparks in the crime and innate equipment doors. It is rotational download the changing on the heat of information and construction history relatively anywhere as tool of proportional inspection and specific surrounding capsules. 85, the download the ...
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Power distribution monitoring systems are enhanced and now include power quality analysis capabilities and unlimited trip curve shaping.Whats new in electrical products and technologies? Well, the Electric West 95 Show held in Anaheim, Calif. last month highlighted many new products. From a performance viewpoint, however, there are some surprises. One such surprise is the enhanced performance of
Specificaties:. Input Voltage: AC 100-240V / DC 11-18V. Charge Circuit Power: 250W Power Distribution. Discharge Circuit Power: 2x 10W. Charge Current: 2x 0,1 - 10A (Max. 120W). Discharge Current: 2x 0,1 - 2A (Max. 10W). Current Drain Balancing Port: Max 300mA/cell. Trickle Charging Current: 50mA-300mA & Off. LiPo / LiFe / LiIon / LiHV Cell Count: 2x 1-6 S. Cell Terminate Voltage:. LiPo: 4.20V ± 0.02V. LiFe: 3.60V ± 0.02V. LiIon: 4.10V ± 0.02V. LiHV: 4.35V ± 0.02V. NiMH / NiCd Cell Count: 1-15 Cells. PB Battery Voltage: 2x 2-20V. DC Power Supply Output: 13.8V - Max. 150W. USB Output: 5V - 2.1A. Dimensions: 184x146x70mm. Net Weight: 1.293g. ...
Specificaties:. Input Voltage: AC 100-240V / DC 11-18V. Charge Circuit Power: 250W Power Distribution. Discharge Circuit Power: 2x 10W. Charge Current: 2x 0,1 - 10A (Max. 120W). Discharge Current: 2x 0,1 - 2A (Max. 10W). Current Drain Balancing Port: Max 300mA/cell. Trickle Charging Current: 50mA-300mA & Off. LiPo / LiFe / LiIon / LiHV Cell Count: 2x 1-6 S. Cell Terminate Voltage:. LiPo: 4.20V ± 0.02V. LiFe: 3.60V ± 0.02V. LiIon: 4.10V ± 0.02V. LiHV: 4.35V ± 0.02V. NiMH / NiCd Cell Count: 1-15 Cells. PB Battery Voltage: 2x 2-20V. DC Power Supply Output: 13.8V - Max. 150W. USB Output: 5V - 2.1A. Dimensions: 184x146x70mm. Net Weight: 1.293g. ...
Here at Raritan, were very excited to announce our new Wi-Fi data center solution - the first to enable intelligent rack PDUs (iPDUs) and telemetry sensors to communicate over regular, 802.11 a/b/g/n wireless connections. Considering that typical equipment racks have two PDUs apiece for power redundancy, this is great news to anyone designing data centers: theyve just lopped the cost of pulling Ethernet cable off their power management budget.. Its also great news for anyone in an existing data center who wants to make the switch to intelligent power distribution or add environmental monitoring to their remote operation. Raritan intelligent PDU sensors can track temperature, humidity, airflow, and air pressure readings remotely. Again, no Ethernet cost; no new switches or cables to find space for.. When you replace that cabling with an antenna and a set of wireless access points in the ceiling, youve opened up some great new possibilities for DCIM while reducing your deployment cost.. And ...
We present a constrained spectral unmixing method to remove highlight from a single spectral image. In the constrained spectral unmixing method, the constraints have been imposed so that all the fractions of diffuse and highlight reflection sum up to 1 and are positive. As a result, the spectra of the diffuse image are always positive. The spectral power distribution (SPD) of the light source has been used as the pure highlight spectrum. The pure diffuse spectrum of the measured spectrum has been chosen from the set of diffuse spectra. The pure diffuse spectrum has a minimum angle among the angles calculated between spectra from a set of diffuse spectra and the measured spectrum projected onto the subspace orthogonal to the SPD of the light source. The set of diffuse spectra has been collected by an automated target generation program from the diffuse part in the image. Constrained energy minimization in a finite impulse response linear filter has been used to detect the highlight and diffuse ...
CESC share prices have almost doubled in the last one year as the firm delivered a steady performance in its core power distribution business
A novel and simple technique, based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect, to generate stable multiwavelength oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The NPR effect effectively induced intensity- and wavelength-dependent loss to alleviate mode competition caused by homogeneous gain broadening in erbium-doped fibers. Up to 28-wavelength lasing operation with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm has been achieved. The outputs had uniform power distributions, and the power fluctuation in each wavelength is smaller than 0.2 dB within a period of an hour.. ©2006 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responsive demand to mitigate slow recovery voltage sags. AU - Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo. AU - da Silva, Luiz Carlos Pereira. AU - Xu, Zhao. AU - Østergaard, Jacob. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - It is expected that in the future, customers will play a much more active role in modern power distribution systems. Instead of being passive agents, customers will be encouraged to participate in many other functions, such as frequency and voltage control, by providing a rapid, active, and reactive power reserve for peak load management through price responsive methods and also as energy providers through embedded generation technologies. This article introduces a new technology, called demand as voltagecontrolled reserve, which can help mitigation of momentary voltage sags. The technology can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology has proven to be effective in distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, when ...
Jay Blahnik & Josh Crosby give tips for gaining power in indoor rowing. With their 3x3 approach, get your order, power distribution, and timing/ratio right.
Manufacturing and sales of power distribution products, including SOG (switches), PC (cutouts) and SVG (voltage regulators), and various gas analyzers - This is the official Website of Energy Support Corporation.
A practicable personal dosimeter for UVR is a polysulphone film, which after exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the spectral range 250 to 330 nm, shows an increase in absorbance at 330 nm. In evaluating actinic radiant exposure, the action spectrum of the photobiological effect under consideration, the spectral power distribution of the UVR source and the spectral response of the personal dosimeter have to be known ...
Our Euro style LMI 042761 Pluggable Terminal Block is available in 2 - 10 poles, with a PIN spacing of 7.62 mm is able to handle high voltages. This connector is very adaptive and widely used in Power Distribution.
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: The method of diakoptics or tearing was introduced by G. Kron in order to reduce computations in the solution of certain problems arising from large inter-connected power distribution networks. Here the method is given a purely mathematical form which can be used to solve large systems of linear equations by first solving some smaller sub-problems and then combining these solutions into a complete solution. The sub-problems are formed from sets of equations and variables which are strongly connected, within the sub-problem, but only weakly connected to those of another sub-problem ...
MINNETONKA, Minn., Sept. 12, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Digi International Enables M2M Applications in China. - Digi installs power distribution monitoring pilot...
The ThermTrac skin effect heat tracing system available from Thermon Australia eliminates the need for an elaborate power distribution system in heat tracing applications on long pipelines.
SmartPlant® Engineering & Schematics offers the solution for the process engineer to lay out the plant configuration in SmartPlant P&ID. This forms the basis for the detailed design in SmartPlant Instrumentation by the instrument engineers and designers, and for the power distribution system by the electrical engineers. In addition, the P&ID will drive the physical 3D plant design by the piping department. For a safe design, SmartPlant Process Safety is part of the design process, automating the HAZOP analysis exercise. Intergraph offers an integrated engineering solution, rule-driven and open to communicate with external solutions, such as analysis products like ETAP or data sources like pipe specifications.. ...
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Rexel USA is an electrical supply distributor providing a wide range of electrical parts and components for electricians and contractors as well as large industrial organizations. We partner with the best manufacturers of power distribution, lighting & controls, electrical wiring devices, conduit, tools, security equipment and automation controls. In addition to our online store currently Rexel has a distribution network of over 180 warehouse storefront locations throughout the U.S. where you can find what you need for your specific electrical projects as well as product expertise from our staff. Our unique range of electrical supplies and decades-long, proven service track record have led professionals like you nationwide to choose us as their go-to electrical supply partner.. ...
New to the medical technology industry in 2015, Cerevast develops groundbreaking medical products to treat neurologic disorders. To help with stroke recovery, Cerevast developed the Neurosonx™ SR, a transcranial ultrasound device used to reduce long-term disability symptoms and enable patients to improve following a stroke. Neurosonx™ SR delivers ultrasound through the cranium to interact with the neurons of the motor cortex region of the brain to induce a neuromodulatory effect. The breakthrough technology of Neurosonx™ SR will provide more accurate and improved results for stroke patients ...
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Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse,[1] is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects.[2][3] Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken intranasally or intravenously. Recreational use produces effects similar to alcohol intoxication.[3][4] In tests in pentobarbital trained rhesus monkeys benzodiazepines produced effects similar to barbiturates.[5] In a 1991 study, triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam.[6] A 1985 study found that triazolam and temazepam maintained higher rates of self-injection than a variety of other benzodiazepines.[7] A 1991 study indicated that diazepam, in ...
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No Panic helps with the anxiety from tranquilliser and medication withdrawal but we are unable to help with the medication itself. So we are happy to refer those who need help with the actual medication side of their problem to Bristol & District Tranquilliser Project. Please see more information about them below.. Bristol & District Tranquilliser Project is a voluntary sector organisation set up originally in 1985 to help those having problems with certain prescribed psychotropic medication (benzodiazepine tranquillisers/sleeping tablets, other sleeping tablets and antidepressants). Bristol & District Tranquilliser Project help people who are taking, who are considering taking or have recently withdrawn from this type of medication. Bristol & District Tranquilliser Project are funded mainly by the Bristol Clinical Commissioning Group and work closely with the CCG to achieve our objectives.. Bristol & District Tranquilliser Project run a telephone help-line 01179500020 from 10.00 a.m. to 3.30 ...
The power transmission and distribution system in Haryana took ever high of 8,898MW peaking load on Wednesday, which is 3,139 MW more than the peaking load taken by the system on the corresponding day last year. The previous record peaking power supply was 8,752 MW on July 16.
Given these findings it is possible to modify the illuminances used in residential roads when using different light sources. These illuminances should be chosen based on two characteristics of the light source, S/P-ratio and colour rendering index (CRI). The report includes new guidance in the United Kingdom (UK) in which a reduction in the illuminance from the levels recommended in the S-series of lighting classes can be considered when using lamps which have a CIE general colour rendering index greater than or equal to 60; the reduction is calculated using the CIE recommended system of mesopic photometry. The UK guidance assumes that low pressure sodium lighting is the reference for the S-series of lighting classes. Other countries that choose to follow the system adopted in the UK can modify the approach to take account of different benchmark lighting. For example, if the high pressure sodium lamp (which is in widespread use in Europe) is used as the benchmark, the allowed reduction in ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository DUGiDocs: This thesis proposes a framework for identifying the root-cause of a voltage disturbance, as well as, its source location (upstream/downstream) from the monitoring place. The framework works with three-phase voltage and current waveforms collected in radial distribution networks without distributed generation. Real-world and synthetic waveforms are used to test it. The framework involves features that are conceived based on electrical principles, and assuming some hypothesis on the analyzed phenomena. Features considered are based on waveforms and timestamp information. Multivariate analysis of variance and rule induction algorithms are applied to assess the amount of meaningful information explained by each feature, according to the root-cause of the disturbance and its source location. The obtained classification rates show that the proposed framework could be used for automatic diagnosis of voltage disturbances collected in radial distribution networks.
The output of tqc sub-program is probability distribution for the outcomes of state function reduction so that the sub-program must be repeated very many times. It is represented as four-dimensional patterns for various rates (chemical rates, nerve pulse patterns, EEG power distributions,...) having also identification as temporal densities of zero energy states in various scales. By the fractality of TGD Universe there is a hierarchy of tqcs corresponding to p-adic and dark matter hierarchies. Programs (space-time sheets defining coherence regions) call programs in shorter scale. If the self-organizing system has a periodic behavior each tqc module defines a large number of almost copies of itself asymptotically. Generalized EEG could naturally define this periodic pattern and each period of EEG would correspond to an initiation and halting of tqc. This brings in mind the periodically occurring sol-gel phase transition inside cell near the cell membrane. There is also a connection with hologram ...
Studies indicate that as much as 13% of total generated power is wasted in the form of line loss at the distribution level [1]. One important area in which operating techniques of controlling distribution system losses are being applied is the area of network reconfiguration.. Network reconfiguration refers to the closing and opening of switches in a power distribution system in order to alter the network topology, and thus the flow of power from the substation to the customers. Operating costs are reduced, while still meeting all of the system constraints.. There are two major distribution configurations, radial configuration and loop configuration, and two types of switches that are normally closed (sectionalising switches) and normally open (tie switches).. In response to a fault, some of the normally closed switches would be opened in order to isolate the faulted network branches. At the same time, a number of normally open switches would be closed in order to transfer part or all of the ...
Total energy consumption in Singapores household system is as huge as 6,560 GWh Among this total energy consumption, the lighting system contributes to 20.9%. The common application of available LED system has a remarkable impact by reducing energy consumption. However, the DC/DC driver in the LED system contributes to system losses and has shorter lifetime than LEDs. Therefore, in this study we proposed novel power distribution for LED lighting system. Compared to commonly available LED lighting system, our novel LED lighting system eliminated the DC/DC driver part. The systematic assessment of LED Lighting System driven by Extra Low Voltage Direct Current (ELVDC) topologies was conducted. Then, electrical characteristics of qualified LED lamps that meet Singapore regulations were applied to the calculation for ELVDC. In order to understand ELVDC feasibility in comparison with AC system for lighting application, we assessed the voltage drop across the cable, system power loss, total ...
Develop Lighting Products that Contribute to Patient Health. When developed and used properly, lighting products can have a positive impact on diagnostic and healing processes. Well-designed lighting can reduce patient stress by mimicking familiar residential lighting, while still taking into consideration aspects of durability, maintenance, and sanitation. Lighting solutions can be specific to a patient care setting, or for surgical, procedural, or diagnostic applications.. Safety concerns for this marketplace include understanding when lighting products will be used near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment, and developing non-ferromagnetic MRI-compatible lighting products.. In diagnostic applications, the specific spectral power distribution color of lighting is crucial for certain aspects of clinical observation, including the detection of cyanosis - a skin discoloration that can indicate low oxygen levels in the blood. Based on this, the industry has developed methodology for ...
The amount of fixed electrons directed towards dhurrin and manoyl oxide was 0.24 and 0.28% of the total fixed electrons respectively, determined by the ratio of the product titers and the biomass, as described in [2]. These numbers are small and appear to be well within the buffering capacity of the photosynthetic regulatory mechanisms. In support of this view, previous work [11, 32, 33], together with results presented here, indicate that the expression of cytochrome P450s does not drain a significant number of electrons out of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Dhurrin and manoyl oxide, being the product of long and complex metabolic routes, require a large amount of fixed carbons and subsequently harvested photons, as compared to simpler products, such as ethanol and succinic acid. Fixed carbon and its proper channeling appear to be the main restrictions for increased productivity, and not electron redirection, due to the versatility of the redox power distribution proteins ...
An electrical device includes a laiminar resistive element which exhibits PTC behavior and two electrodes which exhibit ZTC behavior. The electrodes have a geometry which results in a resistance that is greater than the resistance of the resistive elements. The electrical device, which may be a heater, can be designed to produce a uniform power distribution over the surface of the device.
0028]For example, battery charging apparatus 14 may be connected to electrical power distribution system 10 at 3:00 PM and controller 20 may determine (e.g., using a present state of charge of rechargeable battery 16) that rechargeable battery 16 should be charged for six hours during a twenty-four hour period, the twenty-four hour period beginning at 3:00 PM. Controller 20 may determine, based on the price information, that charging rechargeable battery 16 from 9:00 PM to 3:00 AM will result in the lowest possible cost available during the twenty-four hour period. In some cases, there may be several windows of time during the twenty-four hour period that may also result in the lowest possible cost. For example, the cost of charging from 10:00 PM to 4:00 AM may be the same as the cost of charging from 9:00 PM to 3:00 AM. Of course, periods of different lengths and other resolutions of price information could alternatively be used. For example, if the price information describes prices of a ...
The aim of this paper is, firstly, to recall the basic concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems, to present the project management phases of SCADA for real time implementation, and then to show the need of the automation for Electricity Distribution Companies (EDC) on their distribution networks and the importance of using computer based system towards sustainable development of their services. A proposed computer based power distribution automation system is then discussed. Finally, some projects of SCADA system implementation in electrical companies over the world are briefly presented.
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC FA site introduces information of Low Voltage Power Distribution Product in latest information, product information, technological material, and the catalog, etc. on Contactors and Motor Starters (Solid State Contactors).
A catheter includes a first plurality of expandable leads and a second plurality of expandable leads separate and longitudinally spaced-apart from the first plurality to deliver energy to a hollow anatomical structure, such as vein, fallopian tube, hemorrhoid, esophageal varix, to effectively ligate that structure. Each of the leads includes an electrode located at the distal end of the respective electrode lead. Polarizations of the leads may be selected to achieve the power distribution desired. Each electrode lead includes an outward bend such that when a movable sheath is moved out of contact with the leads, they expand outwardly into apposition with an inner wall of the structure to be ligated. High frequency energy can be applied from the leads to create a heating effect in the surrounding tissue of the anatomical structure. The diameter of the hollow anatomical structure is reduced by the heating effect, and the electrodes are freely moved inward by the shrinking structure while still maintaining
Since its creation in 1977, Cinelease Inc.s intent has been to serve and deliver the best in quality lighting and grip equipment, power distribution, trucks and expendables to both small and large-scale productions. Our firm bond with the entertainment industry will continue to grow and expand to meet the demand. Wherever the productions go - we will be there to greet them.. Phone: 818-841-8282 ...
0067]The following opiates, opioids, tranquillisers or other narcotics are substances with a psychotropic action, i.e. have a potential of abuse, and hence are preferably not contained in the dosage form according to the invention: alfentanil, allobarbital, allylprodine, alphaprodine, alprazolam, amfepramone, amphetamine, amphetaminil, amobarbital, anileridine, apocodeine, barbital, bemidone, benzylmorphine, bezitramide, bromazepam, brotizolam, buprenorphine, butobarbital, butorphanol, camazepam, carfentanil, cathine/D-norpseudoephedrine, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam clofedanol, clonazepam, clonitazene, clorazepate, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, cocaine, codeine, cyclobarbital, cyclorphan, cyprenorphine, delorazepam, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dextropropoxyphene, dezocine, diampromide, diamorphone, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dihydromorphone, dimenoxadol, dimephetamol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetylbutyrate, dipipanone, dronabinol, eptazocine, estazolam, ethoheptazine, ...
A method and system of intrusion detection system for a multimode fiber optic cable. A light signal is launched into the cable fiber to establish a narrow spectral width, under-filled non-uniform mode field power distribution in the cable. A small portion of the higher order signal modes arriving at the remote end of the cable is sampled by use of a coupler and monitored for transient changes in the mode field power distribution. The power distribution changes with physical disturbance of the cable. When those changes are detected as being characteristic of fiber intrusion, the system activates an alarm. This method can sense and alarm any attempt to access the optical fibers in a fiber optic communication cable. In preferred embodiments, the active signal of a multimode optical fiber is monitored for both signal degradation and transient power disturbance patterns that could indicate fiber damage or physical intrusion. A translator can be provided in an existing optical fiber system in which the data
B.E. (Hons) Electrical. Used EY Cert 2014. Vijays experience is primarily in the field of industrial power distribution systems. He has contributed to the design, engineering, commissioning and operation of HV distribution equipment in steel industry for over 15 years which includes outdoor switchyards, indoor MV switchgear and distribution substations. He has also been trained in the operation of large captive power plants forming part of integrated steel plant systems. He has worked as the head of testing of protection and HV equipment in a large 4 MTPA integrated steel plant.. He has also served as the head of the electrical and instrumentation group for over 2 decades in a firm of consulting engineers handling several large international projects, including the power distribution systems of large metallurgical industries and the integrated power generation plants, the captive thermal power generation unit of an Aluminium smelting and refining complex and Tonnage oxygen plants associated ...
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1) Power Electronics for Tactical Energy Networks and Mobile Platforms Enabling technologies and materials are critical to enhance the performance of future Army systems through the efficient utilization and distribution of electrical power across the spectrum of Army vehicles and tactical energy networks. Collaborations are sought for (a) power system controls and algorithm development; (b) mid- to large AC grid test platforms with multiple generators/sources; (c) renewable energy sources for dynamic environments; (d) nanocystalline, soft magnetic ribbon production; (e) high-voltage, hybrid energy storage technologies for compact systems; and (f) wide-band gap device/module fabrication (e.g., SiC, GaN, AIN).. (2) 3kW to 300kW AC/DC Microgrids Hardware/Software/Hardware-Software Control: Collaborators are sought to advance technologies for efficient utilization of all available energy and to provide intelligent distribution of power. Technologies include power distribution hardware which is ...
But what the CEO said is spot on! The power grid was created to shove energy down the line and that was about it. If the CEO of this company can see that power distribution needs to change then I can admit they can fulfill a niche and carve out a space that adds benefit to the distribution of power. I mean there is no "great battle" but more of an armistice where boarders are redrawn and resources split. Unless the Li-ion market collapses (grapheme-aluminum-oxygen battery is made in production volumes) then last gasp, no man standing, fight to the death, could be the norm. But in the upcoming decade, yes, our grid is going to change drastically. I see flow batteries at the power stations, spread out among neighborhoods, even at office buildings and hospitals. AMS can play their role too maybe sell the farm, get rich, and provide the software to load balance/shift battery power around. Who knows? But something to keep an eye on ...
FOOTNOTES:. [i] "…Nicola Tesla…". "Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 - 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. Born in Smiljan, Croatian Krajina, Military Frontier, he was an ethnic Serb subject of the Austrian Empire and later became an American citizen. Tesla is best known for his many revolutionary contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Teslas patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution systems and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. Contemporary biographers of Tesla have deemed him "the man who invented the twentieth century" and "the patron saint of modern electricity." After his demonstration of wireless communication (radio) in 1893 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as Americas greatest ...
Albon Man (June 29, 1826 - February 18, 1905) is associated with the early technology of the electric incandescent light bulb. He joined with William Edward Sawyer in 1878 to start a company pertaining to incandescent electric lamp development and electric power distribution. Man was born in Westville, New York on June 29, 1826. His father was Ebenezer Man. His grandparents were Albon Man (1769-1820) and Maria Man. His great-grandparents were Ebenezer Man and Anne Man. His earliest arriving ancestor to American was William Man. He came from England in 1634 and immigrated to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Man attended high school in Fort Covington, New York and Malone, New York, and took college preparatory courses. He entered Union College in Schenectady, New York, in 1845. There he took literary and scientific courses. Man graduated from the college in 1849. Man studied law from his uncle in New York and was admitted to the bar in 1852. Soon after he became a partner with his uncle, but due to ...
Systems and methods for active frequency table (AFT) generation | Power distribution network event correlation and analysis | Airborne mine countermeasures | Method for dynamically calibrating rotation offset in a camera system | Statistical machine learning and business process models systems and methods |
The animals were divided in 4 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 21 animals housed in 3 cages (7 animals in each). Group I (the control group) consisted of rats treated with 0.9 % saline; Group II (Mel) consisted of rats treated with melatonin (2 mg per kg-1 body weight by IP injection); Group III (MWs) comprised rats exposed to MWs; and Group IV (MWs + Mel) was made up of rats exposed to MWs and treated with melatonin (2 mg per kg-1 body weight by IP injection). The melatonin was administered every morning at 08.00 AM. as proposed by Drago et al. [14]. The melatonin was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 2 mg/kg-1 in order to avoid the neuromodulatory effect of melatonin. In the control rats, isotonic saline solution (equal to the volume of melatonin) was given intraperitoneally every day during the follow-up ...
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OBJECTIVE To describe a case of cross hepatotoxicity between tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. PATIENT A woman who developed three episodes of drug-induced hepatitis within 3 years as a result of successive treatment with two tricyclic antidepressants, trimipramine and desipramine, and one neuroleptic derivative, cyamemazine. INTERVENTIONS The drugs were withdrawn after the patient experienced liver dysfunction, although bromazepam was later administered with no side effects. RESULTS After three episodes of drug-induced hepatitis the patients serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels returned to normal when the tricyclic antidepressants and cyamemazine were withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS Trimipramine, desipramine and cyamemazine are related by their chemical structures which include a tricyclic ring. This suggests that this chemical moiety might be involved in the hepatotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazine derivatives.
Hi every body. welcome to Phanomsinhs blog. It is about electric power situation here in Lao PDR - the country which going to be power exporter in ASEAN. Many dams are going to be constructed here by investors from every parts of the world. My company constructs electric power distribution networks throughout Lao PDR. ...
There are so many moving parts for any live broadcast that the probability of something going down is always looming. Fixtures, power distribution, consoles, generators and electronics…. what could possibly go wrong? The added pressure when working under the high security for presidential events is knowing that if any equipment failure happens during the actual broadcast, you better have already planned ahead. Youre certainly not flying truss in to replace a fixture, or bad power cable or power supply, etc.. I recall a re-election event at Nashua North High School in New Hampshire for President George W. Bush. The stage was set "in the round", which required a "ring of fire" for 360-degree lighting. A 50 x 40 truss box was rigged using 1200W HMI Pars with ballasts mounted on the truss. The rig needs to be brought in before the event so the ballasts can be struck. I had two fixtures hung with ballasts for each area of lighting. The day before the event, the senior campaign advisor came to me ...
The on- and off-axis imaging properties and effective area of the two SODART flight telescopes have been measured using the expanded beam x-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. From on-axis measurements the encircled power distribution and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using a one-dimensional position sensitive detector. We found that the point spread function can be presented well by a function which is a sum of a Gaussian divided by the radius and two exponential terms where the first has a 1/e value close to 2 arcmin and the other a 1/e value of ca. 15 arcmin. The data have been used to calculate the half power diameter (HPD) for three different SODART focal plane detectors, the high energy proportional counter (HEPC) with a field of view (FOV) of 65 arcmin, the low energy proportional counter (LEPC) with a FOV of 33 arcmin and the 19 element solid state detector array (SIXA) with a FOV of 18 arcmin. We found that the ...
Finding effective strategies to reach out to young men and mobilize them to reduce their HIV risk is critical, given mens control over the terms and conditions of most sexual partnerships. Unequal power distribution in relationships has a devastating impact on women, leading to HIV prevalence among young women in some sub-Saharan African countries four to seven times higher than among young men the same age. Gender power differentials have negative consequences for men as well, leading to increased risk of physical and mental health problems, substance use, and low uptake of health-related services. We need innovative approaches to address the structural and social determinant of young mens risk. Lack of economic opportunity is a key structural determinant of risk that has negative consequences for men, and has been linked to poor health outcomes. The influence of social network members is a social determinant of risk for both HIV and gender-based violence that can be addressed through ...
An experimental study of a balanced electric arc of 200 to 400 amperes in an atmospheric pressure cross-flow air stream of velocities up to 60 ft/sec and transverse magnetic field strengths up to 50 gauss was made. An open-jet type facility permitted the use of diagnostic techniques in the arc wake region. The arcs significant dimension transverse and parallel to the flow was measured. This dimension increased transverse to the flow and decreased parallel to the flow as the transverse blowing velocity was increased. Velocity profiles, energy flux distributions, relative turbulence levels and frequency measurements were obtained in the arc wake using miniaturized probe techniques. Flow visualization studies were performed using micron-sized particles. The input and output arc power distribution was obtained. The energy convectively transferred to the arc wake was equal to the additional electrical energy input required to maintain the arc in the presence of the transverse blowing. A drag
Silver is a ubiquitous and essential industrial metal with literally thousands of uses, many of which are irreplaceable. Jim Cook,President of Investment Rarities (800-328-1860), has recently listed just a few of silvers thousands of modern uses, many of which are infinitesimal in amounts per unit, but multiplied by many millions of units, its thousands of tons of silver. (I cant vouch for each one of these statements, but at least most of them are true). Both rechargeable and disposable batteries are manufactured with silver alloys. Billions of silver oxide-zinc batteries are supplied to the worlds market yearly, including batteries for watches,cameras and small electronic devices,tools and TV cameras.. Steel bearings are often electroplated with high-purity silver. Silver solder facilitates the joining of materials. Silver-brazing alloys are used in air conditioning, refrigeration, power distribution, automobiles and airplanes.. Silver is of first importance to plumbers, appliance ...
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The abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines and zolpidem are widespread internationally. Their illegal distribution has raised their abuse to a serious level, and they are often misused in crimes. In the present study, 18 cases involving the illegal use of benzodiazepines and/or zolpidem were proved by hair analysis. The drugs were extracted from the hair samples using methanol and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The cases were classified according to case history: five of illegal use in medical staff, eight through inappropriate or illegal distribution, and five related to drug-facilitated crimes. Among the 18 cases, zolpidem was identified in eight, alprazolam in seven, diazepam in six, and clonazepam in four. The drug concentrations ranged from ,LOQ to 6.47 ng/mg. Due to the ready supply and potential for criminal misuse of these drugs, programs for prescription drug monitoring and supervision of those handling these drugs are both recommended. ...
We studied the role of K+ channels and Na+,K+-ATPase in the presynaptic inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and PGE2 on the adrenergic responses of human vas deferens. Furthermore, we determined the effects of increasing extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o) and inhibition of Na+,K+- ATPase on neurogenic and norepinephrine-induced contractile responses. Ring segments of the epididymal part of the vas deferens were taken from 45 elective vasectomies and mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. The neuromodulatory effects of PGEs were tested in the presence of K+ channel blockers. PGE1 and PGE2 (10_8 to 10_6 M) induced inhibition of adrenergic contractions. The presence of tetraethylammonium (10_3 M), charybdotoxin (10_7 M), or iberiotoxin(10_7 M), prevented the inhibitory effects of PGE1 and PGE2 on the adrenergic contraction. Botx glibenclamide (10_5 M) and apamin (10_6 M) failed to antagonize PGE1 and PGE2 effects. Raising the [K+]o from 15.8 mM to 25.8 mM caused ...
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The neuromodulatory effect of manipulating monoaminergic receptor function was assessed by combining a psychological and a pharmacological activation during repeated positron emission tomographic (PET) scans. The effects of buspirone (a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist) on changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with free word recall were examined. A factorial design was used to demonstrate a significant interaction (changes in rCBF brought about by psychological activation which depend on drug administration) in the left parahippocampal region. This interaction was an attenuation of increases in local neuronal activity (rCBF) related to memory function. Buspirone-induced decreases in rCBF, independent of the memory effect, were seen in the left prefrontal and parietal cortices. We suggest that combined psychological and pharmacological activation is a way of measuring direct (main) drug effects and modulatory effects on neurotransmission associated with cognitive functions (interaction
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  • LEXILIUM (Bromazepam) is useful for the short-term, symptomatic relief of manifestations of excessive anxiety in patients with anxiety neurosis. (beonph.net)
  • LEXILIUM (Bromazepam) is not recommended for use in patients with depressive disorders or psychosis. (beonph.net)
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  • Bromazepam is normally used for a short period of time or as an 'as required' medication. (canada.com)
  • If you have been taking this medication regularly for a long time (i.e., longer than a month), do not stop taking bromazepam without first speaking to your doctor. (canada.com)
  • Bromazepam is a medication marketed under different names, such as Lexomil. (ccm.net)
  • Prolonged use of bromazepam causes tolerance and may lead to both physical and psychological dependence on the drug, and as a result, it is a medication which is controlled by international law. (legitrxscript.com)
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI): state anxiety, stress hormone response and clinical course in patients treated and not treated with bromazepam. (umn.edu)
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  • In addition to being used to treat anxiety or panic states, bromazepam may be used as a premedicant prior to minor surgery. (legitrxscript.com)
  • Bromazepam is usually used as a short term treatment for major anxiety, but is not recommended for use to relieve everyday stress or anxiety. (linkpharma.org)
  • The active metabolite of bromazepam is hydroxybromazepam. (bionity.com)
  • Active ingredient: bromazepam. (boditreat.com)
  • The active pharmaceutical ingredient is bromazepam [(C 14 H 10 BrN 3 O), (Figure 4 )] containing a bromo substituent. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bromazepam is contraindicated and should be used with caution in women who are pregnant, the elderly, patients with a history of alcohol or other substance abuse disorders and children. (legitrxscript.com)
  • Prolonged use of bromazepam causes tolerance and may lead to both physical and psychological dependence on the drug. (viagra-4u.com)
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  • Bromazepam 3 times 6 mg daily for 2 weeks taken alone impaired learning capacities significantly in humans in an experiment. (newpharm.store)
  • Mylan-Bromazepam is no longer being manufactured for sale in Canada. (canada.com)
  • The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg) had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. (beds.ac.uk)
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