The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (1/528)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (2/528)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

A phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C regulates activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human alveolar macrophages. (3/528)

This study uses human alveolar macrophages to determine whether activation of a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is linked to activation of the p42/44 (ERK) kinases by LPS. LPS-induced ERK kinase activation was inhibited by tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate (D609), a relatively specific inhibitor of PC-PLC. LPS also increased amounts of diacylglycerol (DAG), and this increase in DAG was inhibited by D609. LPS induction of DAG was, at least in part, derived from PC hydrolysis. Ceramide was also increased in LPS-treated alveolar macrophages, and this increase in ceramide was inhibited by D609. Addition of exogenous C2 ceramide or bacterial-derived sphingomyelinase to alveolar macrophages increased ERK kinase activity. LPS also activated PKC zeta, and this activation was inhibited by D609. LPS-activated PKC zeta phosphorylated MAP kinase kinase, the kinase directly upstream of the ERK kinases. LPS-induced cytokine production (RNA and protein) was also inhibited by D609. As an aggregate, these studies support the hypothesis that one way by which LPS activates the ERK kinases is via activation of PC-PLC and that activation of a PC-PLC is an important component of macrophage activation by LPS.  (+info)

In vitro endothelial differentiation of long-term cultured murine embryonic yolk sac cells induced by matrigel. (4/528)

The yolk sac of an early mammalian embryo contains progenitors of hematopoietic cells and vascular endothelial cells. We established a cell line, YS4, from murine embryonic yolk sac 10 years ago. The line has been successfully cultured since then. To determine whether these long-term cultured yolk sac cells still have the potential to differentiate into endothelial cells, an in vitro model of yolk sac cell differentiation into tubeforming endothelial cells was established in the present study by culturing the yolk sac cells on basement membrane proteins (Matrigel). The results indicate that upon plating onto Matrigel, YS4 cells attach quickly, align in tandem, and form a complete network of capillary structures within 12 h. By using antibodies against the known components of Matrigel in a tube formation inhibition assay, we found that extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin, collagen IV, vitronectin, and fibronectin are the most important components in the Matrigel which induce the yolk sac cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. New basement membrane proteins are also required for the endothelial differentiation process, as indicated by the fact that base membrane protein synthesis inhibitor, D609, can block the differentiation process. Furthermore, our experiments revealed the involvement of several signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinase A, C and protein tyrosine kinase in this differentiation process.  (+info)

Analysis of the behaviour of selected CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonists in radioligand binding assays performed in mouse and rat cerebral cortex. (5/528)

1. The previously described complex behaviour of the CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist, L-365,260, in radioligand binding assays could be explained by a variable population of two binding sites. We have investigated whether other CCKB/gastrin receptor ligands (PD134,308, PD140,376, YM022 and JB93182) can distinguish between these sites. 2. In the mouse cortex assay, Hill slopes were not different from unity and the ligand pKI values did not differ when either [125I]-BH-CCK-8S or [3H]-PD140,376 was used as label as expected for a single site (G2). 3. In the rat cortex, where previous analysis of replicate (n=48) L-365,260 data indicated the presence of two CCKB/gastrin sites (G1 and G2), the competition data for PD134,308, PD140,376, YM022 and JB93182 could be explained by a homogeneous population of CCKB/gastrin sites because the Hill slope estimates were not significantly different from unity. However, the estimated affinity values for JB93182 and YM022 were significantly higher and that for PD134,308 was significantly lower than those obtained in the mouse cortex when the same radioligand was used. In view of our previous data obtained with L-365,260, the rat cortex data were also interpreted using a two-site model. In this analysis, SR27897 expressed approximately 9 fold, PD134,308 approximately 13 fold and PD140,376 approximately 11 fold selectivity for the G2 site. In contrast, JB93182 expressed approximately 23 fold and YM022 approximately 4 fold selectivity for the G1 site. If the two-site interpretation of the data is valid then, because of its reverse selectivity to L-365,260, JB93182 has been identified as a compound which if radiolabelled could provide a test of this receptor subdivision.  (+info)

Characterization of the binding of a novel radioligand to CCKB/gastrin receptors in membranes from rat cerebral cortex. (6/528)

1. We have investigated the binding of a novel radiolabelled CCKB/gastrin receptor ligand, [3H]-JB93182 (5[[[(1S)-[[(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-phenylethyla mino]-carbonyl]-6-[[(1-adamantylmethyl) amino]carbonyl]-indole), to sites in rat cortex membranes. 2. The [3H]-JB93182 was 97% radiochemically pure as assessed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) and was not degraded by incubation (150 min) with rat cortex membranes. 3. Saturation analysis indicated that [3H]-JB93182 labelled a homogeneous population of receptors in rat cortex membranes (pKD=9.48+/-0.08, Bmax=3.61+/-0.65 pmol g(-1) tissue, nH=0.97+/-0.02, n=5). The pKD was not significantly different when estimated by association-dissociation analysis (pKD=9.73+/-0.11; n=10). 4. In competition studies, the low affinity of the CCKA receptor antagonists, L-364,718; SR27897 and 2-NAP, suggest that, under the assay conditions employed, [3H]-JB93182 (0.3 nM) does not label CCKA receptors in the rat cortex. 5. The affinity estimates obtained for reference CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonists were indistinguishable from one of the affinity values obtained when a two site model was used to interpret [125I]-BH-CCK8S competition curves obtained in the same tissue (Harper et al., 1999). 6. This study provides further evidence for the existence of two CCKB/gastrin sites in rat cortex. [3H]-JB93182 appears to label selectively sites previously designated as gastrin-G1 and therefore it may be a useful compound for the further discrimination and characterization of these putative receptor subtypes.  (+info)

Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol. (7/528)

A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lipids [1] [2] that is regulated during progression through the cell cycle [1] [3], differentiation [1] [2] and after DNA damage [2], suggesting that a number of different regulatory pathways impinge upon this pool of lipids. It has been suggested that the downstream consequence of the activation of one of these nuclear phosphoinositide (PI) regulatory pathways is the generation of nuclear diacylglycerol (DAG) [1] [3] [4], which is important in the activation of nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) [5] [6] [7]. Activation of PKC in turn appears to regulate the progression of cells through G1 and into S phase [4] and through G2 to mitosis [3] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Although the evidence is enticing, there is as yet no direct demonstration that nuclear PIs can be hydrolysed to generate nuclear DAG. Previous data in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells have suggested that nuclear phosphoinositidase Cbeta1 (PIC-beta1) activity is important in the generation of nuclear DAG. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular species of nuclear DAG bears little resemblance to the PI pool and is unlikely to be generated directly by hydrolysis of these inositol lipids. Further, we show that there are in fact two distinct subnuclear pools of DAG; one that is highly disaturated and mono-unsaturated (representing more than 90% of the total nuclear DAG) and one that is highly polyunsaturated and is likely to be derived from the hydrolysis of PI. Analysis of these pools, either after differentiation or during cell-cycle progression, suggests that the pools are independently regulated, possibly by the regulation of two different nuclear phospholipase Cs (PLCs).  (+info)

DNA damage increases sensitivity to vinca alkaloids and decreases sensitivity to taxanes through p53-dependent repression of microtubule-associated protein 4. (8/528)

Taxanes and Vinca alkaloids are among the most active classes of drugs in the treatment of cancer. Yet, fewer than 50% of previously untreated patients respond, and clinicians have few ways of predicting who will benefit from treatment and who will not. Mutations in p53 occur in more than half of human malignancies and may alter the sensitivity to a variety of anticancer therapies. We have shown that the transcriptional status of p53 determines the sensitivity to antimicrotubule drugs and that this is mediated through the regulation of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Expression of MAP4 is transcriptionally repressed by wild-type p53. Increased expression of MAP4, which occurs when p53 is transcriptionally inactive, increases microtubule polymerization, paclitaxel binding, and sensitivity to paclitaxel, a drug that stabilizes polymerized microtubules. In contrast, overexpression of MAP4 decreases microtubule binding and sensitivity to Vinca alkaloids, which promotes microtubule depolymerization. To determine whether induction of endogenous wild-type p53 by DNA-damaging agents alters the expression of MAP4 and changes the sensitivity to antimicrotubule drugs, we assayed cell lines with wild-type or mutant p53 for the expression of MAP4 and drug sensitivity before and after DNA damage. UV irradiation, bleomycin, and doxorubicin increased wild-type p53 expression and decreased MAP4 expression. These changes were associated with decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel and increased sensitivity to vinblastine. These changes in drug sensitivity were no longer observed when p53 and MAP4 returned to baseline levels. Changes in drug sensitivity following DNA-damaging agents were associated with decreased binding of paclitaxel and increased binding of Vinca alkaloids. In contrast, DNA damage did not alter the sensitivity to non-microtubule-active drugs, such as 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and doxorubicin. Changes in drug sensitivity following DNA-damaging drugs were not observed in cells with mutant p53. These studies demonstrate that induction of wild-type p53 by DNA-damaging agents can affect the sensitivity to antimicrotubule drugs through the regulation of MAP4 expression and may have implications for the design of clinical anticancer therapies.  (+info)

This invention relates to compositions containing taxane derivatives, consisting of a solution of such derivatives in a surfactant. These compositions can be used to prepare perfusion solutions.
Germline BRCA mutation does not prevent response to taxane-based therapy for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer Academic Article ...
This information explains nail changes that you may have while taking taxane-based chemotherapy and how nail cooling can help you manage these changes.
Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) is a main toxicity of taxanes with no effective treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pr...
Disclosed are compositions comprising 1) taxol, taxotere, or derivatives thereof and 2) a platinum coordination complex such as cisplatin, the compositions exhibiting therapeutic synergy.
This is the first report to show a robust and statistically significant correlation between nuclear CHFR expression levels and 2 important clinical outcomes measures (response and overall survival) after first-line therapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel in NSCLC. Our results support the ample preclinical evidence for the role of the CHFR-controlled antephase checkpoint in response to microtubular damage (12): in cells with intact CHFR expression, the antephase checkpoint delays entry into mitosis, prevents nuclear translocation of cyclin D1, and allows cells to repair taxane-induced microtubular damage (12). Cells which are deficient in CHFR expression enter mitosis without delay and undergo mitotic catastrophy, ultimately resulting in apoptosis. Our findings have 2-fold direct clinical implications: first, taxane-based chemotherapy could emerge as molecularly targeted therapy for patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors show reduced expression of CHFR but lack actionable driver mutations. ...
Find out about the science and chemistry of Sodium Ethyl Xanthate (SEX, Xanthate), see colourful images of Sodium Ethyl Xanthate and explore interactive 3D molecules of Sodium Ethyl Xanthate
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A little about collector strength and Xanthates: Some call it selectivity, I call it how much do you put on Even the most selective collector can be rendered un selective it you add enough In reverse order of strength strongest to weakest: PAX SIBX SIPX SEX Methyl Xanthate uncommon More about the collecting power of xanthate and the Effect of pH on Pulp Potential and Sulphide Get Price ...
Numerous studies in pre-clinical models and in human clinical trials have clearly established the potential for the use of rexinoids in the treatment and prevention of cancer. NRX 194204, a second generation rexinoid, is a highly potent and specific activator of RXRs. Because NRX 194204 is significantly more selective for the RXRs relative to the RARs than a first generation approved drug, it is associated with fewer adverse events in clinical use. This study seeks to investigate NRX 194204 monotherapy in patients with castration- and taxane- resitant prostate cancer ...
Methyl-bambus[6]uril may form a variety of inclusion compounds, especially with anionic species. This communication reports the formation of the non-classical [I2Cl]− interhalide ion when chloride-bearing methyl-bambus[6]uril interacts with iodine, both in solution and in the solid state.
How did Y&X Mining Reagent design xanthate?:At Y&X Beijing Technology Co., Ltd., the design process of xanthate has several stages and steps, and each of them can...
Supplementary Materialscells-08-01067-s001. and ARV7 protein expression in CTCs can be associated with level of resistance towards book hormone therapies [20,21,22,23,24,25] which expressing individuals benefit even more from taxane-based therapy [25,26,27]. This implicates ARV7 just as one treatment selection biomarker for ...
Ovarian cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer related death among women, with an estimated 5-year survival of approximately 30-40%. The relatively poor prognosis is due largely to the advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Advanced stage tumors typically have peritoneal metastases along with ascites fluid accumulation. Treatment involves surgical resection followed by platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy. While this regimen results in a 75-80% clinical response rate, 50-75% of patients will have recurrent disease within 2-3 years. Clearly, there is a need for additional more effective therapeutics. Ovarian carcinomas metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelium, a layer of mesothelial cells that line the peritoneum and function in part to regulate fluid transport to and from underlying lymphatics. The ability of ovarian carcinoma cells to invade through the mesothelium is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesize that maintaining the barrier function of ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human SGOL1 protein. SGOL1 (NP_612493.1, 1 a.a. ~ 292 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00151648-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Maybe, … depending on the clinical situation. Clearly the application of this important test requires, and will get, additional validation. Validation studies will provide information about the prevalence of AR-V7 in different clinical situations and its effect on treatment outcome. This will allow physicians to better guide men as to their best treatment options.. However, on the basis of what is currently known, two scenarios can be imagined. A management decision might be based on the findings of the Abstract 5012 cited earlier. Envision a man with a history of Gleason 8 cancer who, at a later period in his disease during ADT, exhibited early mCRPC with a rising PSA and a doubling time of 9 months. If his blood showed circulating tumor cells (an adverse prognostic sign by itself) and he tested AR-V7 positive, his likelihood of benefiting from Zytiga or Xtandi would be low. The choice of taxane chemotherapy could be considered as a more likely pathway to response. On the other hand, if no ...
To further evaluate the safety profile at one dose level below the MTD derived for OGX-427 administered as a single agent and at the MTD level when OGX 427 is administered in combination with a taxane chemotherapy (docetaxel ...
The Sodium Ethyl Xanthate (SEX) Market Report (China , Asia Pacific , Europe , Australia etc) 2020 Analysis, Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Global Forecast to 2026.
Definitions of taxane. What is taxane: any of a class of diterpenoid drugs that inhibit cancer cell growth and division. Examples are Paclitaxel (taxol) and Docetaxel (taxotere).. Synonyms:
Overexpression on plasma membrane of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is reported in 25% to 30% of breast cancers. Heterodimer formation with cognate members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, such as HER3 and EGFR, activates abnormal cell-signalling cascades responsible for tumorigenesis and further transcriptional HER2 gene upregulation. Targeting the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression and recycling may effectively deactivate this feedback-amplification loop. We recently showed that inactivation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) may exert a pivotal role in selectively modulating the expression on the membrane of specific receptors or proteins relevant to cell function. In the present study, we investigated the capability of PC-PLC inhibition to target the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression on the membrane of breast cancer cells by altering the rates of its endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. Localization
This study was undertaken to define pathways by which LPS might activate the ERK kinases in alveolar macrophages. We hypothesized that LPS activates a PC-PLC, leading to production of DAG, an activator of sphingomyelinase activity. This, in turn, results in increased amounts of ceramide, an important effector molecule, which activates PKC ζ. PKC ζ activates MEK, which subsequently leads to ERK kinase activation. To test this hypothesis, we showed that LPS activates the ERK 2 kinase in alveolar macrophages and that this activation is inhibited by D609, a relatively specific inhibitor of PC-PLC. We next showed that LPS increases amounts of DAG and ceramide and that both of these effects of LPS are inhibited by D609. Our present studies indicate that LPS induction of DAG in alveolar macrophages is derived, at least in part, from a PC-containing phospholipid. Thus, we conclude from these experiments that the LPS-induced DAG is derived from hydrolysis of PC via activation of PC-PLC. In separate ...
The time course of paeoniflorin in the cortex of normal and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats, following intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract at a dose of 60 mg/kg of paeoniflorin, was determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay. The results showed that paeoniflorin could penetrate through the blood-brain barrier to reach the cortex, and that the injuries of ischemia-reperfusion could play an important role in pharmacokinetic process of paeoniflorin in the cortex after intravenous administration of Paeoniae Radix extract. The cortex concentrations of paconiflorin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats were lower 5 min after dosing and declined more slowly than that in normal control. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ...
A phase I-II dose ranging study of BMS-275183 (oral taxane) in combination with pemetrexed (Alimta) in patients with recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cance
We previously reported that paeoniflorin but not albiflorin, components of peony root, produced ameliorative effects on scopolamine−induced spatial cognitive impairment in rats.In this study, we examined the effects of paeoniflorin and muscarinic receptor antagonists on long−term potentiation(LTP)of population spike recorded from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.Bath applications of an M,SUB,1,/SUB,− and M,SUB,2,/SUB,−receptor antagonist scopolamine and a selective M,SUB,1,/SUB,−receptor antagonist pirenzepine, at a concentration of 10 μM, significantly suppressed LTP, whereas AF−DX116, a selective M,SUB,2,/SUB,−receptor antagonist, failed to affect it.Paeoniflorin(0.1−1μM), which alone was ineffective on LTP induction, significantly reversed the suppressive effects of scopolamine and pirenzepine(10μM).In contrast, albiflorin(0.1−1μM)had no effect on the scopolamine−induced LTP suppression.These results suggest that paeoniflorin reversal of the muscarinic ...
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Cooling the scalp may help prevent taxane-induced alopecia, whereas frozen gloves and socks may prevent nail and cutaneous side effects of the drugs, researchers say. I absolutely recommend these cooling modalities, Dr. Adam Friedman of George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Washington, DC, told Reuters Health by email.
1. Tao Z, Shi A, Lu C, Song T, Zhang Z, Zhao J. Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. 2015;72:333-8 2. Godone RLN, Leitao GM, Araujo NB, Castelletti CHM, Lima-Filho JL, Martins DBG. Clinical and molecular aspects of breast cancer: Targets and therapies. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;106:14-34 3. Pu M, Messer K, Davies SR, Vickery TL, Pittman E, Parker BA. et al. Research-based PAM50 signature and long-term breast cancer survival. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2020;179:197-206 4. Verma S, Joy AA, Rayson D, McLeod D, Brezden-Masley C, Boileau JF. et al. HER story: the next chapter in HER-2-directed therapy for advanced breast cancer. The oncologist. 2013;18:1153-66 5. Wolff AC, Hammond ME, Hicks DG, Dowsett M, McShane LM, Allison KH. et al. Recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists clinical practice guideline update. Archives of pathology & laboratory ...
Moutan cortex radicis (MCR), the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa, has been widely used as a traditional herb. In this study, we evaluated whether the MCR extract and two active compounds of the bark, paeoniflorin (paeo) and oxypaeoniflorin (oxypaeo), alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and whether they controlled TLR signaling pathway. RAW264.7 cells were treated with the MCR extract or two active compounds in the presence or absence of LPS. The extract and two active compounds inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression. Additionally, the extract and two active compounds suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion and gene expression in LPS-stimulated cells. The extract and two active compounds alleviated NF-κB activation by regulating upstream genes in TLR signaling pathway. In addition, the extract and two active compounds decreased phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK. These results
Gui Fu Ren White Delighful Garden Mountain Tree Peony, find complete details about Gui Fu Ren White Delighful Garden Mountain Tree Peony, White Moutan Planting Big Tree Peony, stunning garden tree peony, gorgeous garden tree peony - Big Tree Peony
This year I noticed the same three intersectional peonies had the same fungal diseases they did last year. I was wondering if there was anything I could do to prevent it next year or if I need to get rid of the entire plant. None of my other intersectional peonies have any diseases to speak of. However these 3 specimens were apparently sold to me with the diseases, unfortunately. The intersectional peony pictured above, Peony Misaka, I purchased as a potted plant from a local nursery, and it did seem a little suspect when I bought it. Im wondering if it has Phytophthora blight because of the curled, deformed leaves. Plus Ive seen plenty of Botrytis blight on my herbaceous peonies before, and this seems to be a little different. I guess I know better now than to buy anything that seems a little iffy. However the two intersectional peonies pictured below were both purchased as roots from two different reputable growers. I had never seen any incidence of Peony Blotch in my garden until I got ...
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So I decided to plant all 7 intersectional peony root pieces in my peony test bed to see how they might grow. I planted them from smallest amount of root (on the left) to largest amount of root (on the right). It was a little muddy and wet outside for planting, but luckily it was only a light rain. We shall see in the spring how many of these roots sprout, and then we shall see how many of them live to see another spring. Last time all of the Intersectional Peony Bartzella roots sprouted, no matter how little (or no) roots the division had, 2013 Peony Experiments - Intersectional Divisions Grow. So I am interested to see how these Intersectional Peony Little Darlin plants will do (especially since the original plant was growing like a weed ...
Heres how to grow these royal showstoppers in your own garden. The key to growing spectacular peonies is getting them planted correctly.From that point on, little care is required for stunning blooms year after year. When planting from bare tuberous roots, make sure the root clump has at least 3 to 5 eyes-small reddish buds that resemble potato eyes. Choose a container that is at least 1 ½ feet (46 cm.) What are the 3 rules for growing perfect peonies? Jun 15, 2020 - Tips on growing peonies in the garden. Heres how to grow your own. One of the joys of any garden, stunning large scented flowers adorn these plants during the summer months. Peonies need sun to produce blooms. The peonies offered at plant society sales or plant swaps are very often the tuberous bare roots. Dividing peonies not only helps your plant get more blooms, it also gives you more plants to share. Peonies are usually sold as bare-root tubers with 3 to 5 eyes (buds), divisions of a 3- or 4-year-old plant. We have wide ...
Despite its prevalence in patients receiving taxane-based chemotherapies, taxane acute pain syndrome (TAPS) remains poorly researched.
In the present study, we focused on the association between ATG5 rs473543 genotypes and the prognosis of TNBC patients who were treated with adjuvant anthracycline- and/or taxane-based regimens. No significant association was discovered between clinicopathological characteristics and ATG5 rs473543 genotypes. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that compared with the GG genotype, the AA/GA genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence and thus unfavorable disease outcomes. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses confirmed that ATG5 rs473543 genotypes were an independent predictor for DFS. Besides, a stratified analysis according to patients lymph node status showed that in patients without axillary lymph node metastasis, the rs473543 AA/GA genotype indicated a higher risk of recurrence and shorter DFS as compared with the GG genotype.. Recently, a growing body of researches has demonstrated that heightened autophagy is a mechanism of ...
If how much tylenol can a 110 pound person take it is the reduction of various oral hypoglycaemic drugs of morbidity in late inspiratory crackles And. Com- binations carries a semi-synthetic taxane derivative of hepatic first-pass metabolism It has vT The newer progestogens. Substances such as anxiety is used how much to sell 5 mg hydrocodone to antibiotics will continue on pH above 7 673. Treatment is a balance adequate but is generally, which was no evidence of insulin, e. Insulin is at his or added t4 somatostatin, a lower-affinity/higher- capacity. It is a proton-pump inhibitors, oral prodrug which emphasize the elderly The hypotension. The mean corpuscular volume of pitting and blood pressure. CGMP previously useful in nSTEMI following recovery from the neurological event. The majority of coronary events, and goserelin given intravenously Alternate-day dosing should be primary. Therefore how long does it take for a viagra to work pregnant women who are not enter the sensation of urine. ...
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Michael G. Kelly, MD, Academic Office One, Room 4412, 12631 E 17th Ave, MS B198-4; PO Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045; Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511. E-mail: Michael.Kelly{at}UCDenver.edu ...
TTP remains highly signifi-cant.There is 1 total response inside the combination arm,vs 0 from the monotherapy arm.The odds ratio for total response was one.9,.The decreased incidence of CNS metastases with lapatinib treatment was statistically signifi cant in this evaluation.These information strongly propose a benefi t for your mixture of lapatinib and capecitabine above capecitabine alone in sufferers with state-of-the-art or metastatic HER-2 positive breast cancer which have progressed on other remedies.Lapatinib,mixed with capecitabine,continues to be licensed for use within the US in refractory HER-2 beneficial metastatic breast cancer for the basis from the EGF100151 information.Taxane-based chemotherapy has become a mainstay of breast cancer treatment in the adjuvant and metastatic settings for any generation.The efficacy and safety of lapatinib and 3-weekly paclitaxel was established within a phase I examine ...
Product Details of Potassium Ethyl Xanthate CAS140-89-6 Potassium ethylxanthate, Potassium Ethyl Xanthate CAS140-89-6 o-ethyldithiocarbonato potassium from China manufacturer on Hisupplier.com.
Excerpt:. Clinical data on the role of platinum salts in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) - particularly germline (g) BRCA1-related TNBC - are encouraging in the neoadjuvant setting, where the pathologic complete response rate is improved with the addition of a platinum to anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy.. Data have emerged to show the utility of incorporating platinums into the metastatic setting in TNBC as well, with the strongest evidence for use in patients who are BRCA1/2 mutation carriers or who express a BRCA-like genomic instability signature.. Go to full article.. ...
Meaning and definition of the name Peony. Learn the meaning of Peony, learn about the origin of the name Peony and find other information about the name Peony.
1573 PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in patients diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. This is due in part to the late stage at diagnosis as well as the development of chemotherapy resistance. Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with debulking surgery followed by adjuvant platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy combinations. To prevent chemotherapy-related side effects, synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) are routinely given with cytotoxic therapy. Of concern, pre-clinical data implicate GCs in inhibiting apoptosis in epithelial tumors such as breast and ovarian cancers, and therefore in resistance to chemotherapy. These effects are thought to be mediated by upregulation of pro-cell survival genes including Serum and Glucocorticoid-regulated Kinase (SGK). SGK encodes SGK-1, a serine/threonine kinase that shares 54% homology with the catalytic domain of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Despite abundant ...
Peripheral neuropathy can persist for 2 years or more in women with breast cancer treated with taxane chemotherapy drugs, as this Cancer Currents post reports.
Hello, I received some Japanese tree peonies to plant today. They are grafted onto herbaceous tree peonies. The grafting point is supposed to be 4-5 inches below the soil surface. This is the first time I have planted tree peonies, and I dont know
Nurseryman and Peony Grower Alec White explains the difficulties faced when growing peonies and three rules for how to grow the perfect peonies
Included within the scope of the present invention are potent taxanes and taxanes containing a linking group. Also included is a cytotoxic agent comprising one or more taxanes linked to a cell binding agent. A therapeutic composition for inducing cell death in selected cell populations comprising: (A) a cytotoxic amount of one or more taxanes covalently bonded to a cell binding agent through a linking group, and (B) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient is also included. A method for inducing cell death in selected cell populations comprising contacting target cells or tissue containing target cells with an effective amount of a cytotoxic agent comprising one or more taxanes linked to a cell binding agent is included as well.
Peonies are perennials grown for their large, showy flowers. Although peonies have few problems, they are susceptible to some diseases. The best cure for all diseases is proper cleanup and maintenance of the plant. Spent flowers should be removed and the plant should only be watered at the base. After trimming ...
Peonies are long-lived perennials, and can endure in one spot for decades. But what happens when a move is necessary? Learn how to transplant peonies.
Thread in the Peonies forum forum by Oldgardenrose: Early Scout [db_photo]226400[/db_photo] Roselette [db_photo]226399[/db_photo] Unnamed pink ...
Tree peonies are hardy, deer-resistant shrubs that do well in garden beds and borders. A tree peony can bloom for 50 years or more, producing clusters of blossoms measuring up to 10 inches across during May and June.
[124 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Peony Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Peony market is valued at...
Shop peonies for sale and add large blooms to your garden. Our peony plants for sale smell delightful and look just as beautiful. Order peonies online today!
Revlon Renewist Lipcolor Lush Peony Review : moisturising lip color and had a distinct moisturising core. I would say I am highly disappointed, the colour
These are mature, undivided field-run Clumps. Economical and fast-growing - 15-20 eyes average. Sarah Bernhardt Peony is a very large dark rose pink double bloom with edges a little lighter.
Kinderkraft Felio 2020 Baby Bouncer - Peony Rose can be used by your child from birth up to the moment they start sitting up on their own.
Elk jaar publiceert de BNA een benchmark-onderzoek over de stand van zaken in de Nederlandse architectenbranche. Voor het eerst sinds 2008 zijn echt p...
2020Pigment print framed44 x 33 in/112 x 83.7 cmEdition of 6 + 2 APsFrom the series jane says, 2015-ongoing. Learn more about Ann Shleton. Pricing includes framing. If you do not want your piece framed please contact the gallery.
Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you dont have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...
Commander SGOL1 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-SGOL1 anticorps.
Chenier, Philip J. (1978). "The Favorskii Rearrangement in Bridged Polycyclic Compounds". Journal of Chemical Education. 55 (5 ...
Vibrational spectroscopy of hydride-bridged transition metal compounds". Transition Metal Hydrides. Advances in Chemistry. 167 ... The bridging hydrogen atoms provide one electron each. The B2H2 ring is held together by four electrons forming two 3-center 2- ... Diborane is one of many compounds with such unusual bonding. Of the other elements in group IIIA, gallium is known to form a ... Four hydrides are terminal, while two bridge between the boron centers. The lengths of the B-Hbridge bonds and the B-Hterminal ...
Compounds like KGa2Cl7 that have a chloride bridged anion are known. In a molten mixture of KCl and GaCl3, the following ... compounds have been used as diamagnetic analogues of ferric compounds. Gallium trichloride can be prepared from the elements, ... Gallium(III) is easier to reduce than Al(III), so the chemistry of reduced gallium compounds is more extensive than for ... Gallium trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula GaCl3. Solid gallium trichloride exists as a dimer with the ...
One example of this is to make cyclic metal compounds. Nucleophiles add to the center of the π ligand and produces a ... Schörshusen, Sonja; Heck, Jürgen (2007). "Metal-Mediated Transformations of Cyclooctatetraene to Novel Methylene-Bridged, ... Periana, Roy A (1986). "Carbon-carbon activation of organic small ring compounds by arrangement of cycloalkylhydridorhodium ...
... thus only N atoms bridge the B12 icosahedra. However, REB9N compounds have not been identified yet. Sc, Y, Ho, Er, Tm and Lu ... Ten bridging sites C60-B69 interconnect polyhedron units or other bridging sites to form a 3D boron framework structure. One ... Thus, boron compounds are often regarded as electron-deficient solids. Icosahedral B12 compounds include α-rhombohedral boron ( ... Remaining 3 boron-carbon mixed-occupancy sites are bridge sites; C and Si sites are also bridge sites. More than 1000 atoms are ...
... forming cyclic compounds such as ethylene carbonate and trimethylene carbonate. The bridging compound can also have ... Alternatively, the carbonate groups can be linked by a 2- or 3-carbon bridge, ...
Trimethylaluminium is an organometallic compound with a bridging methyl group. It is used in the industrial production of some ... Organometallic compounds are distinguished by the prefix "organo-" (e.g., organopalladium compounds), and include all compounds ... However, many organometallic compounds do not follow the 18e rule. The metal atoms in organometallic compounds are frequently ... Representative Organometallic Compounds Ferrocene is an archetypal organoiron complex. It is an air-stable, sublimable compound ...
Few other natural compounds with such a peroxide bridge are known. Artemisinin and its derivatives have been used for the ... A precursor compound can be produced using a genetically-engineered yeast, which is much more efficient than using the plant. ... compound of green-blue wormwood'), it was one of many candidates tested as possible treatments for malaria by Chinese ... A synthetic compound with a similar trioxolane structure (a ring containing three oxygen atoms) named RBx-11160 showed promise ...
The compound is used as a bridging ligand in coordination chemistry. 2,2′-Bipyrimidines can be prepared by Ullmann coupling of ... 2,2′-Bipyrimidine is an organic compound with the formula (C4H3N2)2. It is a derivative of the heterocycle pyrimidine. It is a ...
The analogs with 2 to 5 bridges are also known compounds. The benzene rings have been replaced by other aromatic units, such as ... The compound has been of some scientific interest as a model for testing aromaticity and was first synthesised by Virgil ... 2.2.2.2.2.2]( 1,2,3,4,5,6)Cyclophane or superphane is a 6-fold bridged cyclophane with all arene positions in the benzene dimer ... Numerous derivatives are known with variations in the type and length of the bridging units. The first synthesis of superphane ...
Dithiatopazine is a tricyclic compound with the -S-S- as a bridge. 1,2-Dithietan-3-one, the ketone of 1,2-dithietane, was ... It is a heterocyclic compound with a four-membered ring. Two sulfur atoms are adjacent, and the molecule is saturated. 1,2- ... 4,4-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dithietan-3-one and the spiro compound 4,4-(2',2',6',6'-tetramethylcyclohexyl)1,2-dithietan-3-one have ...
In this compound, the two hydride ligands bridge one Os-Os edge. The molecule displays reactivity reminiscent of diborane. ... Triosmium dodecacarbonyl is a chemical compound with the formula Os3(CO)12. This yellow-colored metal carbonyl cluster is an ... with two bridging CO ligands resulting in C2v symmetry. Os3(CO)12 is prepared by the direct reaction of OsO4 with carbon ... important precursor to organo-osmium compounds. Many of the advances in cluster chemistry have arisen from studies on ...
Open-coopetition is a compound-word term bridging coopetition and open-source. Coopetition refers to a paradoxical relationship ... In parallel, such 'bridging' actors also act as gatekeepers in flows of code and information (e.g., what code should, or should ... Central actors that act as a bridge between the community and the companies contributing to it (e.g., a lead developer or a ...
The song is structured with four verses and a bridge, and uses a complex compound meter. It became Sondheim's most popular song ... The lyrics of the song are written in four verses and a bridge and sung by Desirée. As Sondheim explains, Desirée experiences ... These are two complex compound meters that evoke the sense of a waltz used throughout the score of the show. Sondheim tells the ...
14-bridged oripavine compound 030418". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 32 (10): 1215-1224. doi:10.1038/aps.2011.83. ISSN 1671-4083 ...
Fused and bridged bicyclic compounds get the prefix bicyclo, whereas spirocyclic compounds get the prefix spiro. In between the ... When naming simple fused bicyclic compounds, the same method as for bridged bicyclic compounds is applied, except the third ... In bridged bicyclic compounds, the two rings share three or more atoms, separating the two bridgehead atoms by a bridge ... "Bridged-bicyclic-rings-and-how-to-name-them". MasterOrganicChemistry. August 14, 2014. Polycyclic compound Bredt's rule. ...
Cp2ScX compounds are dimers with X forming a bridging ligand. Dimerization is avoided in presence of coordinating solvent such ... This compound is sensitive to air and moisture and forms an infinite chain with one bridging Cp group and two pentahapto Cp ... Synthesis of Organometallic Compounds: A Practical Guide Sanshiro Komiya Ed. 1997 *^ C. Elschenbroich, A. Salzer ... Organoscandium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to scandium chemical bond.[1][2] The ...
Yu and co-workers reported a unique variant of the reaction that preferentially forms bridged bicyclic compounds. Martin and co ... Liu CH, Yu ZX (July 2017). "Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed Bridged [5+2] Cycloaddition of cis-Allene-vinylcyclopropanes to Synthesize the ...
Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane is an organic compound, the simplest member of the bicyclic bridged compounds family. It is a hydrocarbon ...
"Optical properties of single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional halogen-bridged mixed-valence platinum and palladium compounds ... This species has been of interest due to the unusual mixed valence system of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) bridged by a chlorine atom. The ... This compound is an early example of a one-dimensional coordination polymer, serving as a representative structure for studies ... While Drew & Tess attempted to explain the deep color of this compound based on the assumption of a Pt(III) species, Jensen ...
The compound exists as a hydride-bridged dimer, which easily cleaves in the presence of reducible substrates. 9-BBN is also ... 9-Borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane or 9-BBN is an organoborane compound. This colourless solid is used in organic chemistry as a ... The compound is commercially available as a solution in tetrahydrofuran and as a solid. 9-BBN is especially useful in Suzuki ... chemists often simply draw a banana shape with the bridging boron.[better source needed] 9-BBN is prepared by the reaction of 1 ...
Being a lowest bridging point of a critical prehistoric military route compounds the problem. Towns had to built above the ... then Rochester Bridge Station,1 April 1861 Rochester & Strood, 1 November 1861 Rochester Bridge (Strood), 1862 Rochester Bridge ... The SER bridge over the Medway was retained for the Chatham Main Line, and the LCDR bridge was abandoned (its piers were later ... The lowest bridging point of the River Medway is between Strood and Rochester, and the first bridge was built soon after the ...
Cumulenic compounds generally bridge two metal atoms of the same element and are symmetrical. However, there are exceptions to ... Metallacarbynes bridge different metal centers. Within this class, the number of bonds formed from the carbon to each metal can ... Bridging carbido ligands can be subdivided into three classes, called cumulenic, metallocarbyne, and polar covalent. ... A Metal carbido complex is an organometallic compound or coordination complex that contains the ligand C. Carbido complexes are ...
They have developed model compounds for carboxylate-bridged diiron metalloenzymes which can be compared with corresponding ... Lippard has used X-ray diffraction and a variety of other methods to study such compounds, greatly expanding our understanding ... Another novel complex was a "ferric triple-decker", containing three parallel triangular iron units and a triple bridge of six ... They have synthesized analogues of the diiron carboxylate cores of MMO and related carboxylate-bridged diiron proteins such as ...
It is used in organic synthesis to form C3-bridged compounds such as through C-N coupling reactions. 1,3-Dibromopropane was ... "1,3-dibromopropane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. ... 1,3-Dibromopropane is an organobromine compound with the formula (CH2)3Br2. It is a colorless liquid with sweet odor. ...
At the bridge, the RF company beat back a minor probe of its compound. CUPP 9 had 10 Marines wounded in the initial shelling, ... Near the south end of the bridge lay the compound of the 323rd RF Company, which had as its main mission protection of the span ... They concentrated on CUPP 9, the bridge, the 1st Platoon CP and the RF compound. Simultaneous with this barrage, the VC ... The RF troops, following their usual practice, remained in their fortified compound watching the bridge. At 02:00 on 11 June, ...
There are daily bus and boat tours to Harberton, the Bridges family compound, Estancia Harberton. Tours also visit the Les ... Thomas Bridges learned the Yaghan (coastal dwellers) language and was a fluent speaker. To a lesser extent he was able to ... "Cavalcade Step Bridges". 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2017. you will cross ... As the Yaghans had no ability nor means to write, Thomas Bridges had to construct an alphabet which was suited to the phonetics ...
The compound adopts a cubane-like structure with four triply bridging iodide ligands. "Tetramethylplatinum" was claimed in 1952 ... Many metallodendrimers have repeating units based on organoplatinum compounds. Organoplatinum compounds are implicated in the ... compounds. The compound Me(PEt3)2PtOTf reacts reversibly with triflic acid between -60 and -80 °C, forming methane and (PEt3) ... but organoplatinum compounds are more stable and therefore less useful as catalysts. Most organoplatinum(0) compounds contain ...
It is this dramatic shift that CFCH bridges in its compound title of Folklife & Cultural Heritage. This eclectic collection of ... It is this contemporary shift that the CFCH bridges in its compound title of Folklife & Cultural Heritage. This linguistic ... The compound name, Center for Folklife & Cultural Heritage, epitomizes an ongoing transition within the field of cultural ... A plethora of newly minted compound concepts have been introduced into the vocabulary and discussion of culture since the turn ...
Two years later, the river crossing bridge connecting Fisheries Street and the Seminary compound was completed. In front was ...
Toussaint, Godfried, "The Euclidean Algorithm Generates Traditional Musical Rhythms", Proceedings of BRIDGES: Mathematical ... Both patterns shown in simple meter (duple-pulse) and compound meter (triple-pulse) structures ...
Bridge, Robert. "Timpani Construction paper" (PDF). Dicapai 2008-02-18.. *^ "The NPR Classical Music Companion: Terms and ... Kochmann, W. (2004). "Nanowires in ancient Damascus steel". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 372: L15-L19. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... bridges, telegraph and railway lines, and other government property,[143] thereby threatening the British Raj's war enterprise. ... These factors were compounded by restricted access to grain: domestic sources were constrained by emergency inter-provincial ...
Bridge * sw:Bridge. British Empire * sw:British Empire. Bronze Age * sw:Bronze Age. Brussels * sw:Brussels. Buddha * sw:Buddha ... Chemical compound * sw:Chemical compound. Chemical element * sw:Chemical element. Chemistry * sw:Chemistry. Chess * sw:Chess. ...
... compounds utilising fly ash in the slurry mix is cheaper still, and has less environmental impact. Foam concrete ... The 1930s-era Smithy bridge used foamed concrete for infilling.. The history of foam concrete dates back to the early 1920s and ...
ABC News, Thai power base useless in bridging social divide, 28 November 2008 ... a compound of Bhūmi (भूमि), meaning "Land"; Bala (बल), meaning "Strength" or "Power"; Atulya (अतुल्य), meaning "Incomparable"; ...
Organic compounds Halobacterium Lithotrophs. Inorganic compounds. Organic compounds or carbon fixation. Ferroglobus, ... Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges between cells that appear to be used for ... Organic compounds Organic compounds or carbon fixation Pyrococcus, Sulfolobus or Methanosarcinales Some Euryarchaeota are ... One compound acts as an electron donor and one as an electron acceptor. The energy released is used to generate adenosine ...
Nine of the eleven bridges were successfully destroyed. The attack on road bridge at Nahal Kziv failed and developed into a ... April 25 - Lehi bombed a British police compound, killing five policemen.[117] ... June 16-17 - Night of the Bridges - Haganah carried out a sabotage operation, blowing up ten of the eleven bridges connecting ... The Haganah had previously spared the railway bridge at Rosh HaNikra during their 1946 Night of the Bridges operation. ...
... forming compound units such as dBm, dBu, dBA, etc., is not.[13] The proper way, according to the IEC 60027-3,[12] is either as ... a bridge between logarithms, decibel, neper and preferred numbers]. VDI-Zeitschrift (in German). 98: 267-274.. ...
we show that an FeAl-type brittle but hard intermetallic compound (B2) can be effectively used as a strengthening second phase ... Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton. Even ... Adding small amounts of nickel was found to result in precipitation as nano particles of brittle B2 intermetallic compounds ... "Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 518 ...
... new regulations enacted by the Alberta government in 1960 forced the industry to reduce its emissions of such sulphur compounds ... Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. *China Oilfield Services. *Enbridge. *Ensco. *GE Oil & Gas ...
Darkening tea leaves to trade with ethnic groups at the borders has a long history in China. These crude teas were of various origins and were meant to be low cost.[7] Darkened tea, or hēichá, is still the major beverage for the ethnic groups in the southwestern borders and, until the early 1990s, was the third major tea category produced by China mainly for this market segment.[2] There had been no standardized processing for the darkening of hēichá until the postwar years in the 1950s where there was a sudden surge in demand in Hong Kong, perhaps because of the concentration of refugees from the mainland. In the 1970s the improved process was taken back to Yunnan for further development, which has resulted in the various production styles variously referred to as wòduī today.[5][8] This new process produced a finished product in a matter of months that many thought tasted similar to teas aged naturally for 10-15 years and so this period saw a demand-driven boom in the production of ...
The Princess Alice was a passenger steamer crowded with day trippers returning from Gravesend to Woolwich and London Bridge. On ... Armed convoys would then take the goods to the company's secure compound in the City. The practice led to the creation of ever- ... New river crossings are planned at Beckton, (the Thames Gateway Bridge)[159] and the proposed Silvertown Link road tunnel, to ... London Wall, the Tower of London and Tower Bridge, inner boundaries of the East End. Immediately to the east (left) lie St ...
... which contain compounds that may act as hormone disruptors and increase the risk of some cancers.[58] ...
The maxwell (Mx), a compound derived CGS unit measuring magnetic flux[117] ... like those in many bridges. ...
Reduction of nitro compounds Nitro compounds Can be accomplished with elemental zinc, tin or iron with an acid. ... the terminal charged primary ammonium on lysine forms salt bridges with carboxylate groups of other amino acids in polypeptides ... ˈæmiːn/,[1][2] UK also /ˈeɪmiːn/)[3] are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. ... Aryldiazonium couple with electron-rich aromatic compounds such as a phenol to form azo compounds. Such reactions are widely ...
It has a structure with a cycloheptene ring, with a nitrogen bridge, and a carboxylic acid side chain. Methylecgonidine is ... Ecgonidine is formed as a metabolite of methylecgonidine, and so the relative concentrations of the two compounds can be used ... and so these two compounds can be tested for as a specific biomarker for crack cocaine use. ...
Most carbon compounds CO2 Carbon dioxide Determining the point group is a useful way to predict polarity of a molecule. In ... Examples of household nonpolar compounds include fats, oil, and petrol/gasoline. Therefore, most nonpolar molecules are water- ...
... granted it a sum of twenty million francs to bridge the deficit, followed by the people's initiative to also accept a role in ... and Daniel Bovet received the 1957 Nobel Prize for his discoveries on synthetic anti-histamines and curarizing compounds. ...
ref,,ref,{{cite web,title=Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds ,work=EPA- ... During his term, he launched initiatives to promote literacy and bridge-building. Bartleman was the first Aboriginal person to ...
c) - compound exercise, (i) - isolated exercise. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bent-over_row&oldid ... Bridge (c). *Deadlift (c). *Dirty dog exercise (c). *Leg press (c). *Lunge (c) ...
Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in ... The translator's role as a bridge for "carrying across" values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the ... They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source ... "Translation, Please: Hand-Held Device Bridges Language Gap". NPR. Retrieved 2014-10-09.. ...
Bridges, Sara K.; Selvidge, Mary M. D.; Matthews, Connie R. (April 2003). "Lesbian Women of Color: Therapeutic Issues and ... or experience compounded ethnic or religious discrimination, or endure relationship difficulties with no support system.[212] ...
In other languages, such as Futunan, compound terms like kavakava atua refer to other species belonging to the genus Piper. The ... The general structure of the kavalactones, without the R1-R2 -O-CH2-O- bridge and with all possible C=C double bonds shown. ... Also "chemical solvents used do not extract the same compounds as the natural water extracts in traditional use. The extraction ... One group of scholars say that organic solvents introduce compounds that may affect the liver into the standardized product; ...
A compound is a pure chemical substance composed of more than one element. The properties of a compound bear little similarity ... Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century: Bridging Boundaries. Wiley-VCH, 2001. ISBN 3-527-30271-9. pp. 1-2. ... An organic compound is defined as any compound based on a carbon skeleton. ... in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions (cations and anions); hydrogen bonds; and ...
This can give rise to elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfate as well as many other compounds in ... There is, in addition, a zone which bridges between groundwater and lotic systems, which is the hyporheic zone, which underlies ...
The problem of fretting corrosion was involved in the Silver Bridge tragedy and the Mianus River Bridge accident. ... during frictional contact and generally refers to unwanted displacement and attachment of wear debris and material compounds ... Unprotected bearings on large structures like bridges can suffer serious degradation in behaviour, especially when salt is used ... the during winter to deice the highways carried by the bridges. ...
Compounds with the formula MIUO3 have a perovskite structure. Compounds MI3UO4 have a defect rock-salt structure. MI7UO6 ... Burns, C. J.; Neu, M.P.; Boukhalfa, H.; Gutowski, K. E.; Bridges, N. J.; Roger, R. D. (2004). "Chapter 3.3, The Actinides". ... up to about 208 pm in the related compound α-UO3, so it is debatable as to whether these compounds all contain the uranyl ion. ... Halo-uranates are compounds in which one oxygen atom is replaced by two halogen atoms. For example, CaU2O6F2 is described as an ...
In Search of the Best Strains of Bees. Hebden Bridge, W. Yorks: Northern Bee Books, 1983. ... compounds gradually solidify in the orthography of natural languages in ways that do not always comply with prescription. ... Alston, F. Skeps, their History, Making and Use. Hebden Bridge, W. Yorks: Northern Bee Books, 1987. ...
Calvin B. Bridges', Nature 143, 191-192 (04 Feb 1939). *^ "Percy Williams Bridgman". NNDB.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. He was ... He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances and disproved the theory of vitalism.[29][30] ... Calvin Bridges (1889-1938): American geneticist, known especially for his work on fruit fly genetics.[49] ...
"Synthetic approaches to polycyclic bridged ring compounds." (1958) Masters, Rice University. http://hdl.handle.net/1911/89023. ...
Mesoionic compounds with a bridge nitrogen atom. 9. Imidazo[1,2-c]thiazoles. ...
I dont know how to phrase that the system works with the bridge but not without the bridge. Like the bridge is a switch for the ... As salt bridge, a covalent compound (graphite) or a metal which does not react with electrolytes (Pt, Au) is used. For graphite ... Re: Can a covalent or metallic compound substitute a salt bridge in a battery? « Reply #1 on: 24/10/2013 19:44:51 » ... Re: Can a covalent or metallic compound substitute a salt bridge in a battery? « Reply #2 on: 24/10/2013 19:54:14 » ...
All The Technique Behind Pfizer Licensed Compound Library. From Open Source Bridge Wiki ... as well as m may be the electrophoretic range of motion with the compound. Capsular P . s . had been isolated while referred to ... Retrieved from "http://opensourcebridge.org/wiki-raw/index.php?title=All_The_Technique_Behind_Pfizer_Licensed_Compound_Library& ... had been analysed looking at the various zeta potentials upon tissues through development in different Pfizer Licensed Compound ...
All The Technique Behind Pfizer Licensed Compound Library. From Open Source Bridge Wiki ... Revision as of 04:07, 17 June 2018 by Pickle2zipper (Talk , contribs) (All The Technique Behind Pfizer Licensed Compound ... as well as m may be the electrophoretic range of motion with the compound. Capsular P . s . had been isolated while referred to ... Retrieved from "http://opensourcebridge.org/wiki-raw/index.php?title=All_The_Technique_Behind_Pfizer_Licensed_Compound_Library& ...
Bulloch, Gordon (1976) Some Aspects of the Chemistry of Nitrogen-Bridged Diphosphorus Compounds. PhD thesis, University of ... The compounds, [Cl(X)P)2NR (X=lone pair, R=Me, Et or But; X=O, R=Me or Et; X=S, R=Me) undergo reactions with three mol equiv. ... By contrast, the unusual ring compounds Me2N(S)P. NR. P(S)(NMe2)S (R=Me or Et) have been isolated from the reactions of [Cl2(S) ... Similar reactions of [Cl2(O)P]2CH2 with t-butylamine and i-propylamine gave a new class of ring compound, Cl(O)P. CH2,P(O)Cl. ...
... bridges formed from the Lewis base and composed of donor atoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur ... Lewis base-bridged intermetallic compounds comprising the reaction product of a transition metal alkoxide with a reducing metal ... 7. The intermetallic compound of claim 6, wherein said compound is hydrocarbon soluble.. 8. The intermetallic compound of claim ... 1. Lewis base bridged compounds comprising the reaction product of a transition metal alkoxide with a reducing metal having a ...
In Complex With An Azo Compound (African malaria mosquito). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds ... Odorant Binding Protein 7 From Anopheles Gambiae With Four Disulfide Bridges, ...
... it discloses an improved method for the synthesis of macrocyclic compound tetraaza crosslinking bridges. ... Discloses an improved method of synthesizing a polycyclic macrocyclic compounds, more specifically, ... Improving method for preparing cross-bridge macrocylic compound * 1998 * 1998-03-06 CN CN 03133238 patent/CN1263759C/en not_ ... Improving method for preparing cross-bridge macrocylic compound - Google Patents. Improving method for preparing cross-bridge ...
Etoos Hat-trick Compounds Moyes Misery At Stamford Bridge. Posted by Makinde Azeez.. on Jan 20, 2014 under Sports 55 ... handed Chelsea a convincing 3-1 win over Manchester United in a Barclays Premiership match at Stamford Bridge Sunday. ...
... ... Compounds in the Nomenclature of coordination compounds ligands … Naming coordination compounds Pt ( NH 3 ) 4 ] 2! Compounds in ... Coordination compound - Coordination compound - Ligands and chelates: Each molecule or ion of a coordination compound includes ... Naming coordination Compound if than! Compounds certain rules have been framed by IUPAC one kind of bridging ligands are those ...
... Formato de cita APA. ISO 690-2. Chicago ... Magnetic properties of phosphate-bridged copper(II) organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. Artículo ... Compound 1 has a dimeric structure, while compound 2 and 4 have dimer chain structures. The dependence of the magnetic ... In addition, the magnetic behaviour of the related compound [Cu2(bipy)2(VO 2)2(PO4)2]n (3), has been measured. ...
Synthesis and Reactions of Binuclear Diolefin Rhodium(I) Compounds bridged by Nitrogen Heterocycles, Crystal Structure of ... Compounds bridged by Nitrogen Heterocycles, Crystal Structure of Dichloro-Di-1,5-Cyclooctadiene(Mu-Pyrazine)-Dirhodium(I) [[Rh( ... with bridging heterocycles have been isolated and their reactions with carbon monoxide, 2,2′-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ...
Vibrational energy transfer in highly excited bridged azulene- aryl compounds: Direct observation of energy flow through ... Vibrational energy transfer in highly excited bridged azulene- aryl compounds: Direct observation of energy flow through ... Abstract: Intra- and intermolecular vibrational energy flow in vibrationally highly excited bridged azulene-(CH2)(n)-aryl (n = ... Schwarzer, D., Hanisch, C., Kutne, P., & Troe, J. (2002). Vibrational energy transfer in highly excited bridged azulene- aryl ...
Ion-pair chromatography of nitrogen-bridged compounds on silica gel. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Bridged-Ring ... Shalaby, A., Budvári-Bárány, Z., & Szász, G. (1985). Ion-pair chromatography of nitrogen-bridged compounds on silica gel. ... Shalaby, A, Budvári-Bárány, Z & Szász, G 1985, Ion-pair chromatography of nitrogen-bridged compounds on silica gel, Journal ... Ion-pair chromatography of nitrogen-bridged compounds on silica gel. In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography. 1985 ; Vol. 8, No. 6 ...
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
Structural studies of oxygen-bridged iron compounds. I. Vasilevsky, N. J. Rose and R. E. Stenkamp ... Symmetry determination and Pb-site ordering analysis for the n = 1, 2, PbxBi2−xSr2Can−1CunO4+2n+δ compounds by convergent-beam ...
Polycyclic organic compounds, Euphoriants, Heterocyclic compounds (bridged-ring) Categories. ‹ All Categories. ‹ All Polycyclic ...
BRIDGING OF BONE DEFECTS IN COMPOUND WOUNDS. Moore, John Royal Moore, John Royal Less ... WOUND-HEALING IN COMPOUND FRACTURES AND REPAIR OF BONE DEFECTS. Mech, Karl F. ... THE BASIC PROBLEMS IN BONE-GRAFTING FOR UNUNITED COMPOUND FRACTURES. Murray, Clay Ray ...
Mixed Carboxylate-Bridged Dimanganese(II/III) Compounds Prepared by an O 2 -Dependent Oxidative Cleavage of Ketones ...
Disulfide-bridge dimeric porphyrin and their reference compounds for glutathione-based specific tumor-activation ... due to the superior flexibility of the alkyl bridge over the disulfide bridge. ... The three compounds have been investigated from a photochemical and photophysical point of view. It appears that the disulfide- ... To exploit this feature for tumor-activatable porphyrin-based photosensitizers, a dimeric disulfide-bridged porphyrin has been ...
The indenyl nuclei are optionally substituted at the 3-position and are joined by a 1,1′-bridge of the formula -(CR 8 R 9)m -R ... Silicon bridged transition metal compounds. EP0347129A1. Jun 9, 1989. Dec 20, 1989. Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.. Process for ... A transition-metal compound having a substituted, bridged bis-cyclopentadienyl ligand. EP0320762A2. Dec 7, 1988. Jun 21, 1989. ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5087677. Jul 5, 1990. Feb 11, 1992. Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft. Process for the ...
Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5028670. Jun 21, 1989. Jul 2, 1991. Bp Chemicals Limited. Process for the gas- ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5132262. Feb 11, 1991. Jul 21, 1992. Basf Aktiengesellschaft. Soluble catalyst ... a chiral metallocene compound, e.g., a bis(cyclopentadienyl) metal compound as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,401, and an ... Metal complex compounds. US5068141. Sep 15, 1989. Nov 26, 1991. Unitika Ltd.. Polyolefin-type nonwoven fabric and method of ...
... preferably one containing a bridging group possessing at least two bulky groups, and (b) a cation-generating cocatalyst. A ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5026798 *. 13 Sep 1990. 25 Jun 1991. Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.. Process for ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5442020 *. 30 Aug 1994. 15 Aug 1995. Polysar Rubber Corporation. Bimetallic ... Transition-metal compound having a bis-substituted-cyclopentadienyl ligand of bridged structure. ...
The heteronuclear MM quadruply bonded oxalate bridged compound [(t-BuCO2)3MoW]2(μ-C2O 4) (I) has been prepared from the ... Oxalate bridged heteronuclear compounds containing MM quadruple bonds (M = Mo and W) and their radical cations. Canadian ... Oxalate bridged heteronuclear compounds containing MM quadruple bonds (M = Mo and W) and their radical cations. / Chisholm, ... Chisholm, M. H., & Patmore, N. J. (2009). Oxalate bridged heteronuclear compounds containing MM quadruple bonds (M = Mo and W) ...
... in a high space-time yield if a catalyst system is used which comprises an aluminoxane and a stereorigid metallocene compound ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5036034 *. 10 Oct 1989. 30 Jul 1991. Fina Technology, Inc.. Catalyst for ... Silicon bridged transition metal compounds. EP0351392A2. 31 May 1989. 17 Ene 1990. Fina Technology, Inc.. Process and catalyst ... A transition-metal compound having a substituted, bridged bis-cyclopentadienyl ligand. EP0344887A2. 17 Mar 1989. 6 Dic 1989. ...
Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5028670. 21 Jun 1989. 2 Jul 1991. Bp Chemicals Limited. Process for the gas-phase ... Silicon-bridged transition metal compounds. US5132262. 11 Feb 1991. 21 Jul 1992. Basf Aktiengesellschaft. Soluble catalyst ... or an ethylene vinyl compound, such as vinyl acetate, and a compound represented by the formula H2C═CHR wherein R is a C1-C20 ... a chiral metallocene compound, e.g., a bis(cyclopentadienyl) metal compound as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,401, and an ...
Bridged Bicyclo Compounds / pharmacology * Calcimycin / pharmacology * Calcium / metabolism * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ...
Bridged-Ring Compounds* * Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology* * Female * Glucosides / pharmacology* * Glycyrrhetinic Acid / ...
  • 大环化合物已经用许多方法合成,例如见"杂环化合物:氮杂-冠大环(Heterocyclic compounds;Aza (google.com)
  • Heterocyclic compounds for producing dyes are classified in subclass C09B . (uspto.gov)
  • Just like we know that nomenclature of organic compounds is important, naming the various coordination or complex compounds is also very important. (wonucspain.org)
  • Organic compounds containing at least one heterocyclic ring, and with no ring comprising a steroid, saccharide or peptide moiety. (uspto.gov)
  • In addition, the bound dinitrogen can be easily cleaved in ambient conditions by carbon monoxide to make cyanamide, a compound that is widely used in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and various organic compounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Organometallic and metal-organic compounds bridge both fields of inorganic and organic chemistry. (americanelements.com)
  • Organometallic and metal-organic compounds are widely used as both reagents and catalysts in industrial chemistry . (americanelements.com)
  • Organometallics are also used in the production of simpler organic compounds, as in the industrial production of acetic acid using metal carbonyl catalysts , and in producing polymers such as polyethylene and poly propylene. (americanelements.com)
  • with arsine at 700 °C. Gallium trichloride is an important reagent for the introduction of gallium into organic compounds. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The ligands are always written before the central metal ion in the naming of complex coordination … You will learn more about coordination compounds in the lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course. (wonucspain.org)
  • If more than one kind of bridging ligands are present, then they are … The set of rules for naming a coordination compound is: When naming a complex ion, the ligands are named before the metal ion. (wonucspain.org)
  • IR-9.2.5.2 Bridging ligands. (wonucspain.org)
  • A complex is a substance in which a metal atom or ion is associated with a group of neutral molecules or anions called ligands.Coordination compounds are neutral substances (i.e. neutral substances in which at least one ion is present as a complex. (wonucspain.org)
  • Nomenclature Rules 10 A. Bridging ligands, as far as they can be specified, are indicated by the Greek letter μ appearing before the ligand … Bridging ligands are those bound to more than one central atom. (wonucspain.org)
  • If there are two or more bridging ligands of the same kind, this is indicated by di−µ−, tri−µ−etc. (wonucspain.org)
  • For naming bridging ligands, µ is placed before the name of ligand in order to distinguish it from the normal ligand. (wonucspain.org)
  • Coordination compound - Coordination compound - Ligands and chelates: Each molecule or ion of a coordination compound includes a number of ligands, and, in any given substance, the ligands may be all alike, or they may be different. (wonucspain.org)
  • Iupac nomenclature of coordination compounds with bridging ligands of coordination compounds are described below then they are differentiated in names by anion. (wonucspain.org)
  • Alfred Stock in 1916 nomenclature of coordination compounds with bridging ligands in 1916 framed by IUPAC formulation has the primary coordination in. (wonucspain.org)
  • Di−Μ−, tri−µ−etc formulation has the primary coordination sphere in brackets as far nomenclature of coordination compounds with bridging ligands can. (wonucspain.org)
  • Are two or more bridging ligands, µ is placed before the name the. (wonucspain.org)
  • Heterocycles incorporating elements other than C, H, halogen, N, O, S, Se or Te are classified in subclass C07F , but only if the metal-containing compound has a metal carbon bond or if the metal is attached to at least two different ligands. (uspto.gov)
  • The role of bridging ligands in dinitrogen reduction and functionalization by uranium multimetallic complexes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bimetallic catalytic compounds and compositions comprising permethylpentalene ligands, as well as their methods of preparation, are described. (sumobrain.com)
  • In compounds 2 - 4 , two halogen ligands link the metal atoms forming dihalo-bridged copper dimers. (mdpi.com)
  • Cp 2 ScX compounds are dimers with X forming a bridging ligand . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignans ( 5 ) are plant-derived compounds consisting of dimers of phenylpropane units ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In and as a result organogallium compound do not form bridged dimers as organoaluminum compounds do. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 本发明还涉及含Mn的交联桥大环络合物的合成。 The present invention further relates to the synthesis of Mn-containing (google.com)
  • for example, Grignard reagents are alkyl, vinyl or aryl- magnesium halides used in synthesis of complex organic molecules such as pharmaceutical compounds . (americanelements.com)
  • A short-step synthesis of several donor/acceptor thiophene compounds and carbon/sulfur-bridged flat conjugated systems illustrates the utility of this method to streamline organic synthesis. (nature.com)
  • Despite their high toxicity organogallium compounds have some use in organic synthesis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • 1989). Although cyclophanes bridged by silicon chains are attractive compounds, their studies have not further developed because of difficulty of synthesis. (iucr.org)
  • We report herein synthesis of a silicon-bridged [2.2]paracyclophane, in which two benzene rings are fused with 3,4-disilacyclobutene rings, and discuss the structural features of this compound. (iucr.org)
  • Zeta possible (��), particle range of motion and transfer rate of recurrence had been analysed looking at the various zeta potentials upon tissues through development in different Pfizer Licensed Compound Library carbon options. (opensourcebridge.org)
  • N-N = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or Phenazine and X = Cl or Br) with bridging heterocycles have been isolated and their reactions with carbon monoxide, 2,2′-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline investigated. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • 2. The catalyst of claim 1 where in metallocene procatalyst (I), bridging group R 3 possesses the structure ##STR8## in which bulky groups R 4 and R 5 each, independently, is, or contains, a cyclohydrocarbyl group containing up to about 20 carbon atoms and from 0 to 3 heteroatoms. (google.ca)
  • C08F4/65908 - Component covered by group C08F4/64 containing a transition metal-carbon bond in combination with an ionising compound other than alumoxane, e.g. (google.com)
  • Organoscandium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to scandium chemical bond . (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxo-bridged uranium compound captures dinitrogen and converts dinitrogen and carbon monoxide into cyanamide. (eurekalert.org)
  • N 2 ) is split into two atoms of nitrogen that can then be connected to other elements like hydrogen or carbon, which allow nitrogen to be stored as ammonia or converted directly in higher value compounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • This invention relates bisindenyl metallocene catalyst compounds having long (at least 4 carbon atoms) linear alkyl groups substituted at the two position and substituted or unsubstituted aryl groups at the four position and process usin. (sumobrain.com)
  • Organometallics are compounds containing a direct bond between carbon and a metallic or metalloid element. (americanelements.com)
  • for example, organolithium compounds contain carbon-lithium bonds. (americanelements.com)
  • To modify brewer's yeast to produce noscapine, the Stanford University research team had to: 1) first, construct a biosynthetic pathway that would convert simple carbon- and nitrogen-containing compounds into noscapine, and then, 2) add genes to the yeast's genome that would produce the enzymes needed to carry out this transformation. (reasons.org)
  • Organogallium chemistry in chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to gallium (Ga) chemical bond . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Can be used to investigate the effect of co-solvents on the solubility of compounds of interest in supercritical carbon dioxide. (manufacturing.net)
  • The bonding between the boron atoms and the bridging hydrogen atoms is, however, different from that in molecules such as hydrocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bridging hydrogen atoms provide one electron each. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only exception to this requirement is that the compounds may contain metal atoms, but only as the cations of heterocyclic organic acid salts, alcoholates, phenolates or mercaptides, or as chelating atoms, e.g. in porphyrins. (uspto.gov)
  • In such borides, metal atoms donate electrons to the boron polyhedra, and thus these compounds are regarded as electron-deficient solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to the compounds of Formula 1 wherein M is Sc or Y, Hal is CI, Br, F or I R is alkyl with 1 - 4 atoms of C X is CI, Br, F or I or a group such as that shown hereinafter wherein R is alkyl with 1 - 4 atoms of. (sumobrain.com)
  • 6. Formation of ( h -Benzene) or ( h -Cyclohexa-1 ,3 -diene) Compounds of Chromium, Tungsten and Rhenium from Cyclohexane and the Metal atoms. (columbia.edu)
  • Medicinal plants are a good source of bioactive compounds for development of drugs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Chisholm, MH & Patmore, NJ 2009, ' Oxalate bridged heteronuclear compounds containing MM quadruple bonds (M = Mo and W) and their radical cations ', Canadian Journal of Chemistry , vol. 87, no. 1 SPEC. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Although primarily targeting a chemistry audience, the wide applicability of these compounds transcends traditional disciplines, making this text also of use to physicists, materials scientists or biologists who have interests in these areas. (wiley.com)
  • The chemistry of organoindium (In) and organothallium (Tl) compounds parallel that of organogallium in many regards. (thefullwiki.org)
  • EXERCISE: Naming Coordination Compounds from … The term ligand was proposed by the German chemist Alfred Stock in 1916. (wonucspain.org)
  • Most organoscandium compounds have at least one cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligand . (wikipedia.org)
  • Salts, chelates, alcoholates (except Ti/Zr), phenates involving a single ligand are classified as the parent compound (metal containing porphyrin C07D 487/22 ). (uspto.gov)
  • Provided is a production method for a catalyst, by which a catalyst that is a metallocene compound can be produced with high purity and high yield by using a ligand of a specific structure containing a fluorene skeleton. (sumobrain.com)
  • This invention relates to Lewis Base Bridged intermetallic compounds of transition metal-reducing metal complexes, especially as prepared from transition metal oxide alkoxides. (patentgenius.com)
  • The reactivity of the oxo-bridged dinitrogen complex was remarkably different compared to the previous nitride complex and the few other nitrogen complexes known in the field. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first book to comprehensively address the recent developments in both the experimental and theoretical aspects of quasi-one-dimensional halogen-bridged mono- (MX) and binuclear metal (MMX) chain complexes of Pt, Pd and Ni. (eurobuch.com)
  • In most MX-chain complexes, the Pt and Pd units are in M(II)-M(IV) mixed valence or charge density wave (CDW) states due to electron-phonon interactions, and Ni compounds are in Ni(III) averaged valence or Mott-Hubbard states due to the on-site Coulomb repulsion. (eurobuch.com)
  • Biocidal, pest attractant, or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P (this subclass does only exist in IPC).Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds is further classified in subclass A61P . (uspto.gov)
  • In 2017, the lab of Marinella Mazzanti at EPFL was able to convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia in ambient conditions by synthesizing a compound containing two uranium(III) ions and three potassium centers held together by a nitride group. (eurekalert.org)
  • 11. The compound as claimed in claim 10 , wherein the metallocene is diphenylmethylene(9-fluorenyl)(1-(3-methyl)cyclopentadienyl)M 1 Cl 2 , methylphenylmethylene(9-fluorenyl)(1-(3-methyl)cyclopentadienyl)M 1 Cl 2 , diphenylsilyl(9-fluorenyl)(1-(3-methyl)cyclopentadienyl)M 1 Cl 2 , diphenylmethylene(9-fluorenyl)(1-(3-tert.butyl)cyclopentadienyl)M 1 Cl 2 wherein M 1 is zirconium or hafnium. (google.es)
  • Although the bridging sulfur compounds bind in a manner very similar to that of the normal oligonucleotides, the presence of the sulfur changes the metal ion binding properties of the active site such that Mn2+ and Zn2+ are observed at metal ion site B, but Mg2+ is not. (rcsb.org)
  • It therefore appears that the ability of the bridging sulfur compounds to exclude nonthiophilic metal ions from metal ion site B explains the low activity of KF exonuclease on these substrates in the presence of Mg2+ (Curley et al. (rcsb.org)
  • Foreign Compounds and Intermediary Metabolism: Sulfoxidation Bridges the Divide. (ebscohost.com)
  • We have been involved in studies of not only microbial metabolism of man-made compounds ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ) but also biologically active natural compounds, such as curcumin ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Naming Coordination Compounds. (wonucspain.org)
  • when naming coordination compounds, always name the _____ before the _____ metal is named as the element. (wonucspain.org)
  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds Rules For Naming Coordination Compound. (wonucspain.org)
  • The standard rules that must be followed in the nomenclature of coordination compounds are described below. (wonucspain.org)
  • coordination compounds. (wonucspain.org)
  • Disclosed herein are catalyst compositions containing bicyclic bridged metallocene compounds. (sumobrain.com)
  • As with the other elements in group 3 - e.g. yttrium , forming organoyttrium compounds - and the lanthanides , the dominant oxidation state for scandium in organometallic compounds is +3 ( electron configuration [Ar] 3d 1 4s 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Organometallic compounds are also used as precursors for coatings and thin film deposition via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). (americanelements.com)
  • Organometallic precursors are used in the production of silicon - and germanium -based semiconductors as well as in III-IV, II-VI, and IV-VI compound semiconductors. (americanelements.com)
  • In addition, a host of other organometallic compounds are used as semiconductor n-type or p-type dopants including rhodocene and diethyltellurium . (americanelements.com)
  • Other polymeric organometallic compounds such as ethyl aluminum alkoxides and poly(ethylene oxide) provide corrosion protection as electrolytes and as lithium insertion compounds for electrodes in lithium ion batteries. (americanelements.com)
  • To exploit this feature for tumor-activatable porphyrin-based photosensitizers, a dimeric disulfide-bridged porphyrin has been designed and prepared, together with two reference derivatives, a non-cleavable dimer and a monomer. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • The presence of a phenyl bridge between donor and acceptor cores leads to a considerable decrease of the triplet energy due to extension of the overlap electron and hole orbitals over the triazine-phenyl core of the molecule. (frontiersin.org)
  • The invention relates to a method for producing cationic silicon (II) compounds of general formula (RaSi) +HA- (I) by reacting the silicon (II) compounds of general formula II (Rb-H) (RaSi)+ (II) with a hydride acceptor compound A, where. (sumobrain.com)
  • In the theranostic pair of technetium and radium, a compound comprising radioactive technetium is used to image a disease-affected region such as a tumour, and the same compound comprising radioactive rhenium is then used to treat the region. (lexology.com)
  • abstract = "The heteronuclear MM quadruply bonded oxalate bridged compound [(t-BuCO2)3MoW]2(μ-C2O 4) (I) has been prepared from the reaction between MoW(O 2Ct-Bu)4 and oxalic acid and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical studies. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Secondary, a non ionic salt bridge is used so again, the ions movement from salt bridge as explanation for charge equilibration does not need any comment. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The sensors contain a very fine spiralling tube, which wicks sweat away from the skin towards a series of sensors that detect potassium and sodium ions as well as compounds like glucose. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • To examine the structural basis of this phenomenon, we have solved four crystal structures of single-stranded DNA's containing either oxygen or sulfur at a 3'-bridging position bound in conjunction with various metal ions at the 3'-5' exonucleolytic active site of the Klenow fragment (KF) of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli. (rcsb.org)
  • Structural characterization of the first hydroxo-bridged plutonium compound, (PuO(2))(2)(IO(3))(mu(2)-OH)(3). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The structural analysis revealed the isostructurallity of the compounds within the series of 1a-c and 2a-c . (rsc.org)
  • The title compounds were synthesized and the structural aspects were examined by NMR spectroscopy. (go.jp)
  • Biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds and the use of same as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical compositions are described. (google.co.uk)
  • The biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds are useful in the preservation of pharmaceutical compositions, particularly ophthalmic pharmaceutical compositions and compositions. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. A method of preserving pharmaceutical compositions from microbial contamination, which comprises including a preservative effective amount of a compound of claim 1 in the composition. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention is directed to biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds having antimicrobial activity, and to the use of these compounds in pharmaceutical compositions. (google.co.uk)
  • More specifically, the invention is directed to use of the subject biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds in compositions and methods for disinfecting contact lenses, and to the use of these compounds to preserve various types of pharmaceutical compositions from microbial contamination, particularly ophthalmic, otic and nasal pharmaceutical compositions. (google.co.uk)
  • The catalytic compounds and compositions are promising catalysts in olefin (e.g. ethylene) pol. (sumobrain.com)
  • Constrained geometry catalytic compounds are disclosed as well as catalytic compositions comprising the compounds supported on solid support materials. (sumobrain.com)
  • The compounds and compositions are useful as catalysts in the polymerisation and copo. (sumobrain.com)
  • An analytical method, involving the gas chromatographic separation and the quantitative measurement of tritiated volatile compounds, was studied. (sciencemag.org)
  • 5. The intermetallic compounds of claim 1, further reacted with a halide activator selected from the group consisting of alkyl aluminum halides, silicon halides, alkyl silicon halides, titanium halides, boron halides and alkyl boron halides. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. A catalyst component for the polymerization of alpha olefins, comprising the intermetallic compound of any one of claims 1-3 and 6-8, further reacted with a halide activator selected from the group consisting of an alkyl aluminum halide, asilicon halide, an alkyl silicon halide, a titanium halide, a boron halide, and an alkyl boron halide. (patentgenius.com)
  • Diborane(6), generally known as diborane, is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diborane is a key boron compound with a variety of applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four hydrides are terminal, while two bridge between the boron centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, boron compounds are often regarded as electron-deficient solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • reviewed Raman spectra of numerous icosahedron-based boron compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that scandium has many unique boron compounds, as shown in figure 2, because of the much smaller ionic radius compared with other rare-earth elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. A catalyst system for the polymerization of alpha olefins comprising the catalyst component of claim 10 and an organo aluminum compound. (patentgenius.com)
  • A metallocene catalyst is provided which comprises the product obtained by combining (a) a metallocene procatalyst, preferably one containing a bridging group possessing at least two bulky groups, and (b) a cation-generating cocatalyst. (google.ca)
  • In class C07 , the last place priority rule is used, i.e. in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound is classified in the last appropriate subclass. (uspto.gov)
  • Similarly, compounds containing saccharide radicals are classified in subclass C07H , and heterocyclic steroids are classified in subclass C07J . (uspto.gov)
  • This subclass is a structure-oriented entry for the compounds themselves and does not cover the application or use of the compounds under the subclass definition. (uspto.gov)
  • Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes or methods of using compounds for the same purposes are classified in subclass A61K . (uspto.gov)
  • The aim of these compounds/materials is to overcome undesirable differences in biodistribution and selectivity, which can exist between distinct diagnostic and therapeutic agents.1 In practice, with a theranostic pair, the theranostic compound containing the imaging radionuclide is first administered to the patient in order to identify the disease or to locate the affected area in the body. (lexology.com)
  • Once identified/located, the disease can be treated by administering the theranostic compound containing the therapeutic radionuclide in a target specific way as the biodistribution of the imaging and therapy radionuclides are the same. (lexology.com)
  • Compound 1 has a dimeric structure, while compound 2 and 4 have dimer chain structures. (uchile.cl)
  • Disulfide-bridge dimeric porphyrin and t. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • Mesoionic compounds with a bridge nitrogen atom. (springer.com)
  • 119, 12691-12692) and that the 3'-bridging atom of the substrate is influencing the binding of metal ion B prior to catalysis. (rcsb.org)
  • Moreover, the implementation of these compounds in catalytic systems could ultimately lead to a lower cost access to fertilizers. (eurekalert.org)
  • The latter results are compared with the properties of their related homonuclear Mo 4 - and W 4 -oxalate bridged compounds and their respective radical cations. (hud.ac.uk)
  • a sesquiterpene lactone compound with a peroxide bridge, originally extracted from Artemisia annua . (biologists.org)
  • Chemically, artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone containing an unusual peroxide bridge. (medicalxpress.com)
  • No other natural compound with such a peroxide bridge is known. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Some examples of cyclophanes bridged by silicon chains have so far been reported. (iucr.org)
  • This compound is sensitive to air and moisture and forms an infinite chain with one bridging Cp group and two pentahapto Cp units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being both highly reactive and sensitive to air and moisture, these compounds are typically kept in solution with organic solvents in an inert atmosphere. (americanelements.com)
  • The compounds according to this invention possess anti-cell proliferation activity and show an increased plasma-stability. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The aminolysis of a number of acyclic and cyclic compounds containing P-NR-P or P-CH2-P skeletons have been studied. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Unlike expected, the non-cleavable dimer behaved like the monomeric derivative, due to the superior flexibility of the alkyl bridge over the disulfide bridge. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • All data supporting the findings of this study, including experimental procedures and compound characterization, are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information , or from the authors upon reasonable request. (nature.com)
  • New adsorption operations of high-performance ion--pair chromatography have been investigated, using certain types of pharmacologically active nitrogen-bridged compounds. (elsevier.com)
  • Precursors such as trimethylgallium (TMG or TMGa) , trimethylaluminum (TMA) , and trimethylindium (TMI or TMIA) are used for the deposition common compound semiconductors such as GaAs , GaN , InGaAs , InGaN , Indium Gallium Phosphide and AlGaAs . (americanelements.com)
  • As salt bridge, a covalent compound (graphite) or a metal which does not react with electrolytes (Pt, Au) is used. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Triplet-triplet annihilation-based metal complex-organic compound systems have stronger absorption and higher quantum efficiency to be more efficient upconverters than rare-earth ion doped materials 8 , 9 . (nature.com)
  • A self-repairing polyurethane resin material is produced by reaction of a polyisocyanate compound consisting of aliphatic polyisocyanate and/or araliphatic. (patents.com)
  • aryl = benzene or anthracene) compounds is observed using time-resolved pump-probe laser spectroscopy. (mpg.de)
  • The title compound, C 28 H 52 Si 8 , was synthesized by condensation of two mol-ecules of 1,2,3,4-tetra-kis-(chloro-dimethyl-sil-yl)benzene with lithium. (iucr.org)
  • The data are analyzed by representing the intramolecular energy flux as a diffusion process and using hot absorption spectra of the two chromophores of the compounds for measuring their energy contents. (mpg.de)
  • Now, the group, in collaboration with other EPFL groups, has shown that by replacing the nitride bridge in the uranium system with an oxo bridge they can still bind dinitrogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Computational studies then allowed the scientists to relate these differences in reactivity to the bonding in the uranium-oxo/-nitride bridge. (eurekalert.org)