Bretylium Tosylate: An agent that blocks the release of adrenergic transmitters and may have other actions. It was formerly used as an antihypertensive agent, but is now proposed as an anti-arrhythmic.Bretylium CompoundsSkin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Eyelid DiseasesVentricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Pharmacologic Actions: A broad category of chemical actions and uses that result in the prevention, treatment, cure or diagnosis of disease. Included here are drugs and chemicals that act by altering normal body functions, such as the REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL AGENTS and ANESTHETICS. Effects of chemicals on the environment are also included.Canrenone: A synthetic pregnadiene compound with anti-aldosterone activity.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Defibrillators: Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the HEART. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION or ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) that is not accompanied by a palpable PULSE. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or CARDIOVERSION), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. (UMDNS, 2003)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating: A slowly progressive autoimmune demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Clinical manifestations include weakness and sensory loss in the extremities and enlargement of peripheral nerves. The course may be relapsing-remitting or demonstrate a step-wise progression. Protein is usually elevated in the spinal fluid and cranial nerves are typically spared. GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME features a relatively rapid progression of disease which distinguishes it from this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1337)Polyarteritis Nodosa: A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.QatarParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Cistus: A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Geranyltranstransferase: An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.

Aerobic training and cutaneous vasodilation in young and older men. (1/30)

To determine the effect and underlying mechanisms of exercise training and the influence of age on the skin blood flow (SkBF) response to exercise in a hot environment, 22 young (Y; 18-30 yr) and 21 older (O; 61-78 yr) men were assigned to 16 wk of aerobic (A; YA, n = 8; OA, n = 11), resistance (R; YR, n = 7; OR, n = 3), or no training (C; YC, n = 7; OC, n = 7). Before and after treatment, subjects exercised at 60% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at 36 degrees C. Cutaneous vascular conductance, defined as SkBF divided by mean arterial pressure, was monitored at control (vasoconstriction intact) and bretylium-treated (vasoconstriction blocked) sites on the forearm using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Forearm vascular conductance was calculated as forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure. Esophageal and skin temperatures were recorded. Only aerobic training (functionally defined a priori as a 5% or greater increase in VO2 max) produced a decrease in the mean body temperature threshold for increasing forearm vascular conductance (36.89 +/- 0.08 to 36.63 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P < 0.003) and cutaneous vascular conductance (36.91 +/- 0.08 to 36.65 +/- 0.08 degrees C, P < 0.004). Similar thresholds between control and bretylium-treated sites indicated that the decrease was mediated through the active vasodilator system. This shift was more pronounced in the older men who presented greater training-induced increases in VO2 max than did the young men (22 and 9%, respectively). In summary, older men improved their SkBF response to exercise-heat stress through the effect of aerobic training on the cutaneous vasodilator system.  (+info)

Baroreceptor modulation of active cutaneous vasodilation during dynamic exercise in humans. (2/30)

The hypothesis that baroreceptor unloading during dynamic limits cutaneous vasodilation by withdrawal of active vasodilator activity was tested in seven human subjects. Increases in forearm skin blood flow (laser-Doppler velocimetry) at skin sites with (control) and without alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor activity (vasodilator only) and in arterial blood pressure (noninvasive) were measured and used to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Subjects performed two similar dynamic exercise (119 +/- 8 W) protocols with and without baroreceptor unloading induced by application of -40 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The LBNP condition was reversed (i.e., either removed or applied) after 15 min while exercise continued for an additional 15 min. During exercise without LBNP, the increase in body core temperature (esophageal temperature) required to elicit active cutaneous vasodilation averaged 0.25 +/- 0.08 and 0.31 +/- 0.10 degrees C (SE) at control and vasodilator-only skin sites, respectively, and increased to 0.44 +/- 0.10 and 0.50 +/- 0.10 degrees C (P < 0.05 compared with without LBNP) during exercise with LBNP. During exercise baroreceptor unloading delayed the onset of cutaneous vasodilation and limited peak CVC at vasodilator-only skin sites. These data support the hypothesis that during exercise baroreceptor unloading modulates active cutaneous vasodilation.  (+info)

Gradation of the reflex response from atrial receptors. (3/30)

1. In anaesthetized dogs, distension of balloons so as to stimulate atrial receptors resulted in a reflex increase in heart rate. 2. Successive distensions of one, two and three balloons positioned in the left upper and middle pulmonary vein-atrial junctions and in the left atrial appendage resulted in a progressive increase in the magnitude of this response. 3. It is concluded that the magnitude of the increase in heart rate is related to the extent of receptor area stimulated.  (+info)

Neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction of the rabbit basilar artery. (4/30)

When examined by fluorescence microscopy the rabbit basilar artery contains a rich adrenergic-like plexus at the adventitiomedial junction. The fluorescence disappears upon chronic reserpinization and bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy. Transmural stimulation of intramural nerves a results in a response which is predominantly constrictor but also contains a small, inconstant dilator component. The constrictor response is abolished by chronic reserpinization, bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy, and cold storage of the preparation. The constriction is prevented by the adrenergic neuron blocking agents guanethidine and bretylium but not by such alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agents as phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), phentolamine, and tolazoline. Our results show that doses of the three latter agents sufficient to abolish contractions to norepinephrine (NE) in concentrations of up to 10(-2) M only potentiate and prolong the contractile response to nerve stimulation. The beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, propranolol, and inhibitors of NE neuronal uptake, such as desipramine (desmethylimipramine, DMI) and cocaine, do not influence the size of the neurogenic response. These results suggest that the vasoconstrictor component of the rabbit basilar artery response to transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) is mediated via sympathetic adrenergic-like neurons, but at the same time also raise the question whether the transmission process is typical of classic adrenergic neuroeffector mechanisms.  (+info)

Cutaneous active vasodilation in humans during passive heating postexercise. (5/30)

The hypothesis that exercise causes an increase in the postexercise esophageal temperature threshold for onset of cutaneous vasodilation through an alteration of active vasodilator activity was tested in nine subjects. Increases in forearm skin blood flow and arterial blood pressure were measured and used to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance at two superficial forearm sites: one with intact alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor activity (untreated) and one infused with bretylium tosylate (bretylium treated). Subjects remained seated resting for 15 min (no-exercise) or performed 15 min of treadmill running at either 55, 70, or 85% of peak oxygen consumption followed by 20 min of seated recovery. A liquid-conditioned suit was used to increase mean skin temperature ( approximately 4.0 degrees C/h), while local forearm temperature was clamped at 34 degrees C, until cutaneous vasodilation. No differences in the postexercise threshold for cutaneous vasodilation between untreated and bretylium-treated sites were observed for either the no-exercise or exercise trials. Exercise resulted in an increase in the postexercise threshold for cutaneous vasodilation of 0.19 +/- 0.01, 0.39 +/- 0.02, and 0.53 +/- 0.02 degrees C above those of the no-exercise resting values for the untreated site (P < 0.05). Similarly, there was an increase of 0.20 +/- 0.01, 0.37 +/- 0.02, and 0.53 +/- 0.02 degrees C for the treated site for the 55, 70, and 85% exercise trials, respectively (P < 0.05). It is concluded that reflex activity associated with the postexercise increase in the onset threshold for cutaneous vasodilation is more likely mediated through an alteration of active vasodilator activity rather than through adrenergic vasoconstrictor activity.  (+info)

The effects of ventricular end-diastolic and systolic pressures on action potential and duration in anaesthetized dogs. (6/30)

1. Although it is known that mechanical events in the heart influence the duration of the cardiac action potential, there is no quantitative information on the effects of independent changes in ventricular end-diastolic and systolic pressures. 2. Experiments were carried out on open-chest anaesthetized dogs in which the autonomic nervous influences on the heart were prevented and monophasic action potentials were recorded form the epicardial surface of the left ventricle. The duration of these action potentials was taken as the interval from the upstroke to the point of 90% repolarization. 3. Elevation of left ventricular peak systolic pressure, at constant end-diastolic pressure, significantly shortened the monophasic action potential. 4. Elevation of end-diastolic pressure at constant peak systolic pressure significantly lengthened the monophasic action potential. 5. Responses were not dependent on release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve terminals because they persisted after administration of bretylium tosylate. They were also not due to myocardial ischaemia because they persisted when coronary perfusion pressure was maintained at a constant high level. 6. Simultaneous recordings of changes in myocardial segment length showed the expected responses to changes in ventricular pressures: increases in shortening in response to increases in diastolic pressure and no consistent effect from changes in systolic pressure. 7. These investigations demonstrate the independent effects of changes in systolic and end-diastolic pressures on cardiac action potential duration. This effect is likely to be an effect of the mechanical events, i.e. contraction-excitation feedback. This response may be mediated through changes in myocardial fibre tension, the consequent changes in fibre shortening, or both.  (+info)

Sympathetic, sensory, and nonneuronal contributions to the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling. (7/30)

Previous work indicates that sympathetic nerves participate in the vascular responses to direct cooling of the skin in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis further in a four-part series by measuring changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from forearm skin locally cooled from 34 to 29 degrees C for 30 min. In part 1, bretylium tosylate reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14 +/- 6.6% control CVC, first 5 min) to one of vasodilation (+19.7 +/- 7.7%) but did not affect the response at 30 min (-30.6 +/- 9% control, -38.9 +/- 6.9% bretylium; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between treatments). In part 2, yohimbine and propranolol (YP) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14.3 +/- 4.2% control) to vasodilation (+26.3 +/- 12.1% YP), without a significant effect on the 30-min response (-26.7 +/- 6.1% YP, -43.2 +/- 6.5% control; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between sites). In part 3, the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 had no significant effect on either phase of vasoconstriction (P > 0.05 between sites both times). In part 4, sensory nerve blockade by anesthetic cream (Emla) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-20.1 +/- 6.4% control) to one of vasodilation (+213.4 +/- 87.0% Emla), whereas the final levels did not differ significantly (-37.7 +/- 10.1% control, -37.2 +/- 8.7% Emla; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between treatments). These results indicate that local cooling causes cold-sensitive afferents to activate sympathetic nerves to release norepinephrine, leading to a local cutaneous vasoconstriction that masks a nonneurogenic vasodilation. Later, a vasoconstriction develops with or without functional sensory or sympathetic nerves.  (+info)

Delayed threshold for active cutaneous vasodilation in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (8/30)

Epidemiological evidence suggests decreased heat tolerance in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but it is not known whether the mechanisms involved in thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow are altered in these patients. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with T2DM have a delayed internal temperature threshold for active cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating compared with healthy control subjects. We measured skin blood flow using laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), internal temperature (T or) via sublingual thermocouple, and mean arterial pressure via Finometer at baseline and during whole body heating in 9 T2DM patients and 10 control subjects of similar age, height, and weight. At one LDF site, sympathetic noradrenergic neurotransmission was blocked by local pretreatment with bretylium tosylate (BT) to isolate the cutaneous active vasodilator system. Whole body heating was conducted using a water-perfused suit. There were no differences in preheating T(or) between groups (P > 0.10). Patients with T2DM exhibited an increased internal temperature threshold for the onset of vasodilation at both untreated and BT-treated sites. At BT-treated sites, T or thresholds were 36.28 +/- 0.07 degrees C in controls and 36.55 +/- 0.05 degrees C in T2DM patients (P < 0.05), indicating delayed onset of active vasodilation in patients. Sensitivity of vasodilation was variable in both groups, with no consistent difference between groups (P > 0.05). We conclude that altered control of active cutaneous vasodilation may contribute to impaired thermoregulation in patients with T2DM.  (+info)

In case of contact with eyes, flush with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Assure adequate flushing by separating the eyelids with fingers. Call a physician ...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of Chinese herbal formulation PHY906 when given together with sorafenib tosylate in treating patients with advanced liver cancer. Biological therapies, such as Chinese herbal formulation PHY906, may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow the growth of tumors. Sorafenib tosylate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Sorafenib tosylate may also stop the growth of liver cancer by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Giving Chinese herbal formulation PHY906 together with sorafenib tosylate may work better in treating advanced liver cancer ...
Bretylium tosylate (Bretylol) has recently been approved for parenteral use against resistant ventricular arrhythmias. The pharmacologic action of bretylium is complex, and its antiarrhythmic action differs significantly from other drugs. Bretylium is an adrenergic neuronal blocking agent taken up selectively at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals, where it initially releases norepinephrine (sympathomimetic effect) and then produces adrenergic neuronal blockade. It has direct cardiac membrane effect to prolong action potential duration and effective refractory period but, unlike other membrane active antiarrhythmic agents, does not depress conduction velocity or automaticity. Bretylium increases ventricular fibrillation threshold and prevents the decrease in ventricular fibrillation threshold associated with myocardial ischemia. It does not depress myocardial contractility. Clinical studies have shown parenteral bretylium to be effective in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias, particularly ...
RATIONALE: Sorafenib tosylate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. It is not yet known whether sorafenib tosylate is more effective when given with or without gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin in treating patients with liver cancer.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying sorafenib tosylate to see how well it works when given with or without gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin in treating patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic liver cancer. ...
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Drugs. The following drugs were used: bretylium tosylate (Burroughs Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC); (-)-cocaine hydrochloride (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), desipramine hydrochloride (Ciba-Geigy AG, Basel, Switzerland); 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-1-propanone (U-0521; The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, MI); (-)-norepinephrine hydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); (-)-[7-3H] (N)norepinephrine hydrochloride (specific activity, 12.0-14.9 Ci/mmol; PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Boston, MA); pargyline hydrochloride (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL); and reboxetine hydrochloride, a racemic mixture of (-)-R,R-and (+)-S,S-(2-[α[2-ethoxyphenoxy]benzyl]-morpholine hydrochloride (synthesized in the Department of Medicinal Chemistry, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark).. Stock solutions were prepared in twice-distilled water (bretylium, cocaine, desipramine, norepinephrine, [3H]norepinephrine, and pargyline). The stock solutions were diluted with physiological salt solution (PSS) to the ...
COA of Sorafenib Tosylate contains the actual results obtained from testing performed as part of quality control. View our Sorafenib Tosylate specific physical and chemical properties, and analytical data.
To 15.2 g vanillin (0.1 mol) a calculated amount of kalihydrat (probably KOH) was added and dissolved in 75 ml MeOH. 18 g methyl tosylate (0.1 mol) and heated on a water bath for 1.5 h to reflux. As soon as the the light yellow, clear solution starts boiling the potassium salt of methyl toluenesulfonic acid starts to precipitate. After 1.5 h everything is poured in about 300 ml of H2O. First there is a white emulsion which starts to separate a light yellow oil. The aqeuous solution and the oil is extracted exhaustive with Et2O, the organic phase is washed twice with 10 ml 5% aqeuous KOH to remove unreacted vanillin. The organic phase turns almost colourless, the alkaline solution is light yellow. The organic phase is washed with H2O, dried with freshly sulphate (probably MgSO4 or Na2SO4) and evaporated. The oily residue solidifies on cooling (melting point: 42-43°C ...
RATIONALE: Sorafenib tosylate and everolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Sorafenib tosyla
Product Description Model NO.: hangzhou royall Customized: Non-Customized Suitable for: Elderly, Children, Adult Purity: |99% CAS: 475207-59-1 Grade Standard: Medicine Grade Shelf Life: 2years Standard: USP Ep Jp etc Appearance: White Powder Transport Package: by Sea, by Air, by Express Origin: Zhejiang, China Powder: Yes Certification: GMP, HSE, ISO 9001, USP, BP State: Solid Product Name: Sorafenib Tosylate Type: Antineoplastic Agents Assay: HPLC 99% Application: Pharma Intermediate Package: 1/5/10/20/25 Kg/Drum/CTN/Bag Trademark: royall Specification: 99%min HS Code: 42356122…
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A look at the following clinical trial: Sorafenib Tosylate With or Without Pravastatin in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer and Cirrhosis
LY 2584702 tosylate | S6K1 inhibitor | LY 2779964 | LY2584702 | LY2779964 | CAS [1082949-68-5] - [1082949-67-4] | Axon 2464 | Axon Ligand™ with >98% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
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It is unknown whether and to what extent changes in various endothelial functions and adrenergic responsiveness are related to the development of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, endothelium-dependent hemostatic factors, and one and two adrenergic vasoconstrictor responses were determined in type 1 patients with and without microvascular complications. A total of 34 patients with type 1 diabetes were studied under euglycemic conditions on two occasions (11 without microangiopathy, 10 with proliferative and preproliferative retinopathy previously treated by laser coagulation, 13 with microalbuminuria, and 12 healthy volunteers also were studied). Forearm vascular responses to brachial artery infusions of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine (ACh), clonidine, and phenylephrine were determined. The ACh infusions were repeated during coinfusion of L-arginine. Furthermore, ...
RATIONALE: Studying samples of blood from patients with cancer in the laboratory may help doctors learn more about changes that occur in DNA and identif
In the past two decades, normal endothelial function has been identified as integral to vascular health. The endothelium produces numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor compounds that regulate vascu
We are a manufactory for Edoxaban API and its pharmaceutical intermediate. More product infomation, pls contact us: info(at)ansionpharma.com; www.ansionpharma.com Our Products: Chemical Name Edoxaban (tosylate Monohydrate)...
We are a manufactory for Edoxaban API and its pharmaceutical intermediate. More product infomation, pls contact us: info (at)ansionpharma.com; www.ansionpharma.com Our Products: Chemical Name Edoxaban (tosylate Monohydrate)...
Gefitinib 184475-35-2 White or off white crystalline powder ≥99% Sorafenib tosylate 475207-59-1 - Erlotinib Hcl 183319-69-9|Dasatinib monohydrate 863127-77-9 Details.
Bretylium (also bretylium tosylate) is an antiarrhythmic agent. It blocks the release of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. In effect, it decreases output from the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. It also acts by blocking K+ channels and is considered a class III antiarrhythmic. The dose is 5-10 mg/kg and side effects are high blood pressure followed by low blood pressure and ventricular ectopy. Originally introduced in 1959 for the treatment of hypertension. Its use as an antiarrhythmic for ventricular fibrillation was discovered and patented by Marvin Bacaner in 1969 at the University of Minnesota. The American Heart Association removed bretylium from their 2000 ECC/ACC guidelines due to its unproven efficacy and ongoing supply problems. Many have cited these supply problems as an issue of raw materials needed in the production of Bretylium. By the release of the AHA 2005 ECC/ACC guidelines there is no mention of Bretylium and it is virtually unavailable throughout most of the world. As ...
3-but-2-ynyl-5-methyl-2-piperazin-1-yl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazo(4,5-d)pyridazin-4-one tosylate: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor; structure in first source
Valbenazine, also known as NBI-98854 and MT-5199, is a potent and selective VMAT2 inhibitor. NBI-98854 is effective in regulating the levels of dopamine release during nerve communication, while at the same time having minimal impact on the other monoamines. NBI-98854 is promising agent for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.NBI-98854 significantly improved tardive dyskinesia and was well tolerated in patients. These results support the phase 3 clinical trials of NBI-98854 now underway.
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of sorafenib tosylate and vorinostat when given together with gemcitabine hydrochloride, paclitaxel
From BioPortfolio: -- Planned submission of NDA for glycopyrronium tosylate (formerly DRM04) in 2H17 on schedule after pre-NDA meeting with FDA ---- Management to host webcast and...
The present invention relates to 4-((6bR,10aS)-3-methyl-2,3,6b,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[3′,4′:4,5]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]quinoxalin-8(7H)-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-butanone tosylate salt in crystalline and in solid forms, the method of making and using such crystals.
Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), acclimated to 5 °C, were equipped with ultrasonic transmitters which allowed the continuous monitoring of their vertical movements and heart rate. Fish were then placed in a 125 m3 tower tank in which the various thermal conditions they encounter in their natural environment were reproduced. Physiological and behavioural responses of cod were followed in parallel to the induced environmental changes. The experimental conditions studied in the tower tank were also reproduced in a swimming respirometer, where oxygen consumption and heart rate could be monitored within the activity range of a free-swimming animal. In a homogeneous water column, a rise in temperature induced marked increases in fish swimming activity, heart rate and heart beat-to-beat variability. In a thermally stratified environment, voluntary activity also increased when the thermal structure of the water column was altered, though no temperature-dependent changes in heart rate were observed. ...
A net energy gain (NEG) model was used to assess the effects of turbulence on the energy budget of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua larvae, feeding on copepod nauplii at different concentrations. The geometry of their prey search space was parameterised as either a sphere, hemisphere (the most commonly applied in analogous studies), or wedge. Observed distributions in behaviour (e.g. move duration, pause duration, turn angles) were used as model input, and 2 facets of this behaviour (move duration and move speed) were varied to examine how parameterised changes in foraging behaviour can affect the NEG of the predator. At a prey concentration of 100 l-1, and in static water, NEG is an order of magnitude higher for a hemispherical shape relative to a wedge-shaped search volume. This difference decreases with increasing prey concentration (600 l-1), but always remains considerable. When parameterised turbulence was added, prey capture rates for a larva with a hemispherical search space increases 3 times ...
Thompson, Caitlin S., Lacy A. Holowatz, and W. Larry Kenney. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine are attenuated in older humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288: R1108 -R1113, 2005. First published January 20, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00839.2004.-Cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) in response to cooling is impaired with human aging. On the basis of previous findings that older humans rely predominantly on norepinephrine (NE) for reflex VC of skin blood vessels, and that the VC effects of NE are blunted with age in many vascular beds, we tested the hypothesis that cutaneous VC responses to exogenous NE are attenuated in aged skin compared with young skin. In 11 young (18-30 yr) and 11 older (62-76 yr) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry, while local skin temperature was clamped at 34°C. At one site, five doses of NE (10 10 to 10 2 M) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis while the other site
C Newman, D Hackett, H El-Tamimi, A Maseri, G Davies; Acetylcholine Has Dose-Dependent Bimodal Effects on Coronary Blood Flow in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 45P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074045P. Download citation file:. ...
Foreign chemicals in teleost fish are primarily excreted via urine and bile. Xenobiotics and their metabolites excreted via urine are filtered in the glomerulus and/or secreted by tubular transport within the kidney. Contrary to most fish species, such as the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, the polar cod Boreogadus saida displays a complete absence of the glomerular apparatus. We examined the excretory routes in an aglomerular (B. saida) vs a glomerular (G. morhua) gadoid fish. Using an inert polysacharride as a model compound, it is demonstrated that this xenobiotic is excreted solely via the urine in G. morhua and via the bile in B. saida. ...
The duodenal epithelium secretes HC03-at higher rates than does the stomach (or more distal small intestine) and the duodenal secretion is currently accepted as the most important defence mechanism...
When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE2-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na2CO3 solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE2 was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na2CO3 solution completely compensated for the ...
Allergan Plc, TheraVida Inc., and GlaxoSmithKline Plc have one drug candidate each in the Phase II development for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Glycopyrronium tosylate is the only drug candidate that has the Phase III stage of development for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Majority of the pipeline drug candidates are being developed using the topical route of administration.. Download Report Sample at: https://www.psmarketresearch.com/market-analysis/hyperhidrosis-therapeutics-pipeline-analysis/report-sample. Major players in the market are putting more emphasis on targeting cholinergic receptors. The drug candidates used for the treatment of hyperhidrosis, act on cholinergic receptors and block its activity that interfere with sweating. For instance, Glycopyrronium tosylate, a Phase III drug candidate by Dermira, Inc. acts topically and blocks the cholinergic receptor.. Make Enquiry Before Buying the Report: ...
ABSTRACT: The performance of aquaculture escapees in the wild depends in part on how their morphology differs from that of wild fish. We compared farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua morphology to that of wild cod from the same ancestral population. Traditional and geometric morphometrics showed that farmed cod had relatively smaller fins, heads, eyes, and jaws than wild cod for a given size. Conversely, drumming muscle size and metrics of body and liver condition were greater in farmed fish. As the observed differences are likely due to phenotypic plasticity, their fitness consequences for escaped farmed fish may be transient. ...
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that play a major role in cell signalling by hydrolysing the secondary messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) throughout the body and brain. Altered cyclic nucleotide-mediated signalling has been associated with a wide array of disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, PDE5 has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease, but its precise role has not been elucidated yet. To visualize and quantify the expression of this enzyme in brain, we developed a radiotracer for specific PET imaging of PDE5. A quinoline-based lead compound has been structurally modified resulting in the fluoroethoxymethyl derivative ICF24027 with high inhibitory activity towards PDE5 (IC50 = 1.86 nM). Radiolabelling with fluorine-18 was performed by a one-step nucleophilic substitution reaction using a tosylate precursor (RCY(EOB) = 12.9% ± 1.8%; RCP > 99%; SA(EOS) = 70-126 GBq
wherein Mn is manganese. L or each L independently is a polydentate ligand, preferably a cyclic or acyclic compound containing 3 nitrogen atoms. Each X is independently a coordinating species and each μ-X is independently a bridging coordinating species, selected from the group consisting of: RO-, Cl-, Br-, I--, F-, NCS-, N3--, I3-, NH3, NR3, RCOO-, RSO3-, RSO4-, OH-, O2-, O22-, HOO-, H2O, SH-, CN-, OCN-, and S42- and combinations thereof, wherein R is a C1-C20 radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, benzyl and combinations thereof. Y is a non-coordinating counter ion. The non-coordinating counter ion Y may provide for the charge neutrality of the complex and the value of n depends upon the charge of the cationic complex and anionic counter ion Y, for example, n may be 1 or 2. Counter ion Y may for instance be an anion selected from the group consisting of RO-, Cl-, Br-, I-, F-, SO42-, RCOO-, PF6-, tosylate, triflate (CF3SO3-) and a combination thereof with R once ...
Regulation of gene expression plays a central role in embryonic development. Early stages are controlled by gametic transcripts, which are subsequently substituted with transcripts from the genome of the zygote. Transcriptomic analyses provide an efficient approach to explore the temporal gene expression profiles in embryos and to search for the developmental regulators. We report a study of early Atlantic cod development that used a genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray to examine the composition and putative roles of polyadenylated transcripts. The analyses were carried out in unfertilized oocytes, newly fertilized oocytes and embryos at the stages of mid-blastula transition and segmentation. Numerous genes transcribed in oocytes are involved in multiple aspects of cell maintenance and protection, including metabolism, signal perception and transduction, RNA processing, cell cycle, defense against pathogens and DNA damage. Transcripts found in unfertilized oocytes also encoded a large number of
Dermira, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company. The Company is focused on the development of therapeutic solutions in medical dermatology to treat skin conditions, such as hyperhidrosis, psoriasis and acne. Its portfolio includes three late-stage product candidates: Cimzia (certolizumab pegol), glycopyrronium tosylate and olumacostat glasaretil. Cimzia is an injectable biologic tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, or TNF inhibitor that is approved and marketed for the treatment of numerous inflammatory diseases spanning multiple medical specialties, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohns disease, in multiple countries, including the United States. Glycopyrronium tosylate is a small molecule anticholinergic product for topical application for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Olumacostat glasaretil is a small molecule that targets sebum production following topical application for the treatment of acne.
The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional composition and effects of short periods with cultivated copepod nauplii versus rotifers in first-feeding. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) larvae were given four different dietary regimes in the earliest start-feedi.... ...
The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional composition and effects of short periods with cultivated copepod nauplii versus rotifers in first-feeding. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) larvae were given four different dietary regimes in the earliest start-feedi.... ...
Jarrow Formulas SAMe 400 provides a full 400 mg SAMe (net yield) from 800 mg of SAMe tosylate disulfate. SAMe 400 is manufactured under low temperature and low humidity and is enteric-coated to ensure a biologically active product. Contains More of the Active S,S Form Found in all living cells, SAMe is a metabolite of methionine (an essential amino acid). SAMe is a chiral molecule consisting of two forms: (S,S) SAMe and (R,S) SAMe. The biologically active form is the (S,S) structure, while the (R,S) structure is biologically inactive.Jarrow Formulas SAMe is made naturally by microbiological fermentation and then specially processed without chemical solvents to preserve 68-80% (S,S) SAMe, the highest active level available. SAMe has been clinically shown to have the following benefits: Joint Strength SAMe supports the production of healthy connective tissue through transulfuration.* In this process, critical components of connective tissue, known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including glucosamine
2. A medical implant according to claim 1, characterized in that the nitrostatin is a compound of general formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof ##STR00006## Wherein: R is ##STR00007## B1 and B2 are: a) a further NO-releasing group comprising one or more of --NO2, --ONO2, or cinidomine (II), b) a tosylate or mesylate group, c) a straight-chain or branched C1 to C20 alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group comprising the following: halogen atoms, hydroxy, --ONO, d) a heterocyclic saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic ring containing at least one heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and halogen atoms; the ring being additionally substituted with side chains having a straight-chain or branched alkyl containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms, e) a cycloalkylene or cycloarylene ring containing 5 to 7 carbon atoms, the ring being substituted with side chains having a straight-chain or branched alkyl containing 1 to 10 ...
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branch and an active vasodilator branch [11]. Nonthermoregulatory reflexes, which include skin blood flow responses to changes in arterial and central venous pressure and exercise stresses, also operate through the two aforementioned branches of the sympathetic nervous system; however, the glabrous/ palmar skin operates only through the vasoconstrictor branch [10,11,41]. In the auto-regulation process, throughout a specific range of arterial blood pressure, steady-state blood flow is maintained at a fairly constant level [44]. Previous reports on cutaneous circulation has shown that, independent of neural control of blood flow, glabrous/palmar skin has the ability to buffer blood pressure oscillations and demonstrates a degree of dynamic auto-regulation. Conversely, nonglabrous or hairy skin has a diminished dynamic auto regulatory capacity [42]. We first tried to relate observations in the present study to some of the physiological findings reported earlier on the cutaneous responses to ...
Lipid classes, fatty acids (FAs), and stable carbon isotopes of FAs were used to investigate dietary sources of organic carbon for juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua during settlement into eelgrass Zostera marina. Primary producers, epibenthic prey, zooplankton, and fish were collected from August to November 2002 in shallow (,10 m) eelgrass in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. Lipid data indicated that zooplankton (,80 μm) were associated with fresh organic material, while seston (5-80 μm) had high levels of bacterial FA and non-acyl lipids, typical of sedimentary material. Zooplankton, mysids, and amphipods showed a seasonal decrease in 22:6n-3 with a concomitant increased in the ubiquitous terrestrial indicators 18:2n-3 and 18:3n-3. Based on essential FA composition of prey, there was a decrease in the quality of food available to juvenile fish from August until November. Earlier (August) pelagic juveniles had higher levels of marine-sourced FA (22:6n-3) than late (November) arrivers. ...
Molecular Immunology ; Volume 54. p. 443-452. 2013. Krasnov, Aleksei; Kileng, Øyvind; Skugor, Stanko; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Afanasyev, Sergey; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Sommer, Ann-Inger; Jensen, Ingvill. ...
Inotropic and chronotropic effects of guanethidine and bretylium have been observed in heart-lung preparations made from normal and chronically reserpinized dogs. Guanethidine (0.3 to 30 mg.) in the untreated preparation had marked positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, whereas after pretreatment with reserpine it had a striking negative inotropic effect and no effect on heart rate. Guanethidine given to preparations made from animals pretreated with guanethidine had a negative inotropic effect smaller than that seen after reserpine pretreatment. Bretylium (0.3 to 30 mg.) in the untreated preparation had both positive inotropic and positive chronotropic effects. In the chronically reserpinized animal, the positive inotropic effect of bretylium persisted though it was reduced to about one-quarter of the original size. The positive chronotropic effect of bretylium in this circumstance was reversed to a negative chronotropic effect. These effects are interpreted as indirect but strong ...
Jarrow Formulas SAM-e 200 provides a full 200 mg SAM-e (net yield) from 400 mg of SAM-e tosylate disulfate. SAM-e 200 is manufactured under low temperature and low humidity and is enteric-coated to ensure a biologically active product.. Contains More of the Active S,S Form. Found in all living cells, SAM-e is a metabolite of methionine (an essential amino acid). SAM-e is a chiral molecule and consists of two forms: (S,S) SAM-e and (R,S) SAM-e. The biologically active form is the (S,S) structure, while the (R,S) structure is biologically inactive. Jarrow Formulas SAM-e is made naturally by microbiological fermentation and then specially processed without solvents to preserve 68-80% (S,S) SAM-e, the highest active level available.. SAM-e has been clinically shown to have the following benefits:. Joint Strength. SAM-e supports the production of healthy connective tissue through transulfuration. In this process, critical components of connective tissue, including glucosamine and the chondroitin ...
Amine Reactive PEG Derivatives and PEGylation Reagents: PEG NHS ester - N-hydroxyl succinimidyl ester (SCM, glutarate, succinate, glutaramide) PEG aldehyde - PEG propionaldehyde PEG carboxylic acid - carboxyl methyl, acetic acid, glutaric and succinic acid PEG cyanur, bromide, and chloride PEG mesylate and tosylate PEG NPC - nitrophenyl carbonate PEG epoxide - PEG glycidyl ether
Methods, formulations, and a system for improved iontophoretic administration of a drug, by, preferably, topical administration of a formulation containing an active vasodilator, rubefacient, or counterirritant agent such as capsaicin on the skin at the electrode site, or, iontophoretic administration of a vasodilator formulation or alpha blocker prior to iontophoretic administration of the drug.
In 1992 I was diagnosed with it by my Uroligist.. I was having a lot of Bladder and UTI infections to start with and he would put me on antibiotics.. It got so bad the antibiotics wasnt helping and I was in constant agony.. He decided to put me in the OR and look at my bladder on the inside and there were all the markers.. I had what they call Hunters Ulcers in the lining of my bladder and the I.C which is inflammation ,was buried beneath the lining of my bladder.. He gave me the diagnosis and told me there was no cure.. At that time they were using prescribed antihistimines and I tried those and all they did was make me sleep all day to no avail.. Over the years it waxed and waned.. It would go to sleep like a sleeping bug and wake up when I was the least expecting it.. He had also told me to watch my diet really close and stress.. they both played a big part in it.. Needless to say, I didnt know what to eat but I have surely come to find out.. Over the years Ive had several Bladder ...
In this project, light emitting diodes (LED) where added to sea pens containing farmed cod in order to investigate whether additional light influenced the timing of fish maturation, and/or the chemical, biological, cellular and textural properties of the fish musculature. This project, which took place in northern Norway, commenced November 1, 2005 and ended at the end of June 2006. After analysis, the results showed that additional LED lights effected the timing of maturation in both male and female cod. The cod subjected to additional lighting (L-group), matured approximately a month earlier than the fish in the control (ambient) sea pen (C-group). Light manipulation resulted in a peak in GSI values in the L-group female fish (35±11) in April, one month earlier than the peak in the C-group females in May (45±12). The alteration in spawning time for fish in the L-group fish resulted in lower protein values and a harder texture earlier in the season in this fish, in comparison to fish in the ...
Interim results from a randomized clinical trial for patients with desmoid tumors or aggressive fibromatosis show that the drug sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar) extended progression-free survival compared with a placebo. Based on these interim results, the data and safety monitoring board overseeing the trial recommended that the primary results of the study be released.. The trial was sponsored by the NCI, designed and conducted by the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, and supported by Bayer HealthCare AG, which provided the study drug.. Sorafenib is approved by FDA for the treatment of some patients with advanced kidney, liver, and thyroid cancer. The drug was chosen for this trial because in earlier retrospective studies of patients treated with sorafenib, desmoid tumors shrank, and patients had a reduction in pain and other symptoms.. The phase III double-blind clinical trial, designated as A091105, enrolled 87 patients with DT/DF between March 2014 and December 2016. To be eligible, ...
The first part of this thesis describes the efficient synthesis of several hypervalent iodine(III) compounds. Electron-rich diaryliodonium salts have been synthesized in a one-pot procedure, employing mCPBA as the oxidant. Both symmetric and unsymmetric diaryliodonium tosylates can be isolated in high yields. An in situ anion exchange also enables the synthesis of previously unobtainable diaryliodonium triflates.. A large-scale protocol for the synthesis of a derivative of Kosers reagent, that is an isolable intermediate in the diaryliodonium tosylate synthesis, is furthermore described. The large-scale synthesis is performed in neat TFE, which can be recovered and recycled. This is very desirable from an environmental point of view.. One of the few described syntheses of enantiopure diaryliodonium salts is discussed. Three different enantiopure diaryliodonium salts bearing electron-rich substituents are synthesized in moderate to high yields. The synthesis of these three salts shows the ...
Essential hypertension is a proinflammatory, proconstrictor disease coinciding with endothelial dysfunction and inward vessel remodeling. Using the skin circulation, our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upregulation attenuate
I have been of two minds about how to approach this. One option is to be thorough, do some research, and make a careful, reasoned argument about why the Susan G. Komen Foundationtm is a marketing consultancy masquerading as a charity, a fact only reinforced by their recent actions regarding Planned Parenthood. The other is to put my gall bladder on the keyboard, crank the Dillinger Escape Plan, and let the bile-laced invective fly. Press A for the first option or B for the second.. Thats what I thought. No one ever picks A.. As a preface, please consult Lea Goldmans outstanding, well-researched article The Big Business of Breast Cancer, which represents what may be the one and only outgoing link to Marie Claire magazine I will ever offer. It details the proliferation of scams in the charity industry (a fitting, if oxymoronic, term) that has sprouted up around breast cancer. There are many organizations that use the funds they raise primarily to raise more funds and pay handsome salaries to ...
Its mentioned in the anime that the girls nervous system has fiber optic cable integrated into it. (Alright, Fermei mentions the girls having fiber optic cabl
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal inactivation parameters for alkaline proteinases from north sea cod (Gadus morhua) and bovine α-chymotrypsin. AU - Amiza, Mat Amin. AU - Apenten, Richard KO. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The heat inactivation of a mixture of alkaline proteinases from North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) viscera and bovine α-chymotrypsin were compared at 40-60°C, pH 8.0. Fish digestive proteinases were at least 10-fold less heat resistant than chymotrypsin mainly as a result of a lower apparent activation enthalpy (ΔH#) for the thermoinactivation of the former proteinases.. AB - The heat inactivation of a mixture of alkaline proteinases from North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) viscera and bovine α-chymotrypsin were compared at 40-60°C, pH 8.0. Fish digestive proteinases were at least 10-fold less heat resistant than chymotrypsin mainly as a result of a lower apparent activation enthalpy (ΔH#) for the thermoinactivation of the former proteinases.. U2 - 10.1002/jsfa.2740660317. DO - ...
L-tyrosine benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonate;53587-11-4;(S)-benzyl 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate 4-methylbenzenesulfonate;H-l-tyr-obzl tos;H-tyr-obzl p-tosylate;H-tyr-obzl tos;H-tyr-obzl tos-oh;L-tyrosine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate;L-tyrosine benzyl ester 4-toluenesulfonate salt;L-tyrosine benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonate;L-tyrosine benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonate salt;L-tyrosine benzyl ester p-tosylate;L-tyrosine benzyl ester tosylate;Paragos 300150;Tyr-obzl tosoh;Tyrosine benzyl ester tosylate;TS82241.Tetrahedron
The effect of a new coronary vasodilator (Persantin), which produces a marked increase in coronary blood flow (up to 159 per cent in normal animals) without increasing cardiac contractility or cardiac work, has been studied in the experimental animal. This is associated with a marked decrease in coronary resistance. There is an increase in the coronary venous oxygen content and a decrease in the coronary A-V oxygen difference; the cardiac output is only slightly affected. Increase in the coronary blood flow has also been observed in dogs in which coronary in sufficiency has been produced by coronary ligation and by narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery by the application of casein rings. This was accompanied by no significant increase in cardiac work.. ...
Synonyms for Gadus morhua in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Gadus morhua. 1 synonym for Gadus morhua: Atlantic cod. What are synonyms for Gadus morhua?
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ShockWatch just introduced a new version of the ColdMark2 that activates at a temperature threshold of 0°C. With this new, lower temperature indicator
The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures, and the EB cod was considered one of the most successful stock recoveries in recent times. In contrast to this optimistic view, the analytical stock assessment failed in 2014, leaving the present stock status unclear. Deteriorated quality of some basic input data for stock assessment in combination with changes in environmental and ecological conditions has led to an unusual situation for cod in the Baltic Sea, which poses new challenges for stock assessment and management advice. A number of adverse developments such as low nutritional condition and disappearance of larger individuals indicate that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod ...
Hepatoblastoma Clinical Research Trial Listings in Oncology Pediatrics/Neonatology Hepatology (Liver, Pancreatic, Gall Bladder) on CenterWatch
... bretylium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.333.150 --- bretylium tosylate MeSH D02.092.877.233 --- betalains MeSH D02.092.877.233 ... bretylium compounds MeSH D02.675.276.175.150 --- bretylium tosylate MeSH D02.675.276.190 --- cetrimonium compounds MeSH D02.675 ...
... (also bretylium tosylate) is an antiarrhythmic agent. It blocks the release of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. In ... As of June 8, 2011 bretylium tosylate is permanently no longer available in the US after request of Hospira Inc. to withdraw ... www.federalregister.gov/articles/2011/12/19/2011-32367/determination-that-bretylium-tosylate-injection-50-milligramsmilliliter- ... Bretylium should be used only in an ICU or Emergency Department setting and should not be used elsewhere due to its dramatic ...
What is bretylium tosylate? Meaning of bretylium tosylate medical term. What does bretylium tosylate mean? ... Looking for online definition of bretylium tosylate in the Medical Dictionary? bretylium tosylate explanation free. ... bretylium tosylate. bretylium tosylate. [britil′ē·əm] an antiarrhythmic agent. indication It is prescribed in the treatment of ... Bretylium tosylate , definition of bretylium tosylate by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Prevention of Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia with Oral Bretylium Tosylate REX N. MACALPIN, M.D.; EDWIN G. ZALIS, M.D.; ... The initiation of therapy with bretylium tosylate abruptly terminated the recurrences of arrhythmia, and the patient has had no ... Prevention of Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia with Oral Bretylium Tosylate. Ann Intern Med. 1970;72:909-912. doi: https://doi ...
BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE IN DEXTROSE 5%. bretylium tosylate. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 019005-002. Apr 29, 1986. DISCN. No. No. ➠ Sign Up ... BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE IN DEXTROSE 5%. bretylium tosylate. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 019005-003. Apr 29, 1986. DISCN. No. No. ➠ Sign Up ... BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE IN DEXTROSE 5%. bretylium tosylate. INJECTABLE;INJECTION. 019005-001. Apr 29, 1986. DISCN. No. No. ➠ Sign Up ... BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE IN DEXTROSE 5% Drug Profile. « Back to Dashboard. When do Bretylium Tosylate In Dextrose 5% patents expire, ...
N-Ethyl-N-(o-bromobenzyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium tosylate. *Benzenemethanaminium, 2-bromo-N-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-, salt with 4- ...
Bretylium Tosylate Injection. What is this drug used for?. *It is used to treat certain types of abnormal heartbeats. ...
New Drugs: Bretylium Tosylate: A Newly Available Antiarrhythmic Drug for Ventricular Arrhythmias ROBERT H. HEISSENBUTTEL, M.D ... Bretylium tosylate (Bretylol) has recently been approved for parenteral use against resistant ventricular arrhythmias. The ... New Drugs: Bretylium Tosylate: A Newly Available Antiarrhythmic Drug for Ventricular Arrhythmias. Ann Intern Med. 1979;91:229- ... Bretylium is an adrenergic neuronal blocking agent taken up selectively at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals, where it ...
Remifentanil Hydrochloride reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
Comparing the effectiveness of methoxamine and bretylium tosylate on electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation in dogs ... Post a Comment for Comparing the effectiveness of methoxamine and bretylium tosylate on electrically-induced ventricular ... Add tags for Comparing the effectiveness of methoxamine and bretylium tosylate on electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation ... Comparing the effectiveness of methoxamine and bretylium tosylate on electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation in dogs. ...
bretylium tosylate. Medical browser ? *▲. *adrenaline junkie. *adrenaline receptors. *adrenaline television. *adrenalinemia. * ...
Bretylium tosylate: http://www.medicinenet.com/bretylium_tosylate-injection/article.htm; [online] retrieved from the internet ... Krieglstein, "The influence of bretylium tosylate on the intraocular pressure of the rabbit" Graefes Archiv. Ophthalmologie 197 ... wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of bretylium and methylapogalanthamine. ... bretylium, reserpine, phenoxybenzamine, or guanethidine, will relieve SMP using the method according to the present invention. ...
Bretylium. Bretylium Tosylate. Calcitriol. Calcitriol. Calcium Folinat Bigmar. Folic Acid (Calcium Folinate). ...
... • Bretylium tosylate • Bunaftine • Dofetilide • Ibutilide • Sotalol. class IV. Verapamil • Diltiazem. see Calcium ...
Bretylium (also bretylium tosylate) is an antiarrhythmic agent. It blocks the release of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. In ... As of June 8, 2011 bretylium tosylate is permanently no longer available in the US after request of Hospira Inc. to withdraw ... www.federalregister.gov/articles/2011/12/19/2011-32367/determination-that-bretylium-tosylate-injection-50-milligramsmilliliter- ... Bretylium should be used only in an ICU or Emergency Department setting and should not be used elsewhere due to its dramatic ...
386786 - Bretylium tosylate: a review.. Publication Detail: Type: Journal Article; Review Journal Detail: Title: Molecular ...
Bretylium Tosylate In Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container - injectable, injection (400mg/100ml) - Bretylium Tosylate (Bretylium ...
Bretylium Tosylate - injectable, injection (50mg/ml) - Bretylium Tosylate (Bretylium Tosilate) * Caffeine Citrate - solution, ...
380436 - Bretylium tosylate: a newly available antiarrhythmic drug for ventricular arrhythmias.. 25351576 - Microrna induced ...
6898604 - Bretylium tosylate in the management of recurrent ventricular fibrillation complicating.... 8606274 - Early discharge ...
Bretylium tosylatePDL. I. DEC / 13. Brexpiprazole or its saltsPDL. I. APR / 17. ...
6921188 - Bretylium tosylate--induced stabilization of electrical systole duration in patients wi.... 16125488 - Usefulness of ...
Drugs. The following drugs were used: bretylium tosylate (Burroughs Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC); (-)-cocaine ... Effect of Reboxetine and Cocaine on the Inhibitory Action of Bretylium. Bretylium (10-6 M) blocked the stimulation-evoked ... bretylium, 10-6 M; ○, untreated. The arrow indicates addition of bretylium (10-6 M). A, ▴, pretreated with reboxetine (10-7 M ... Reboxetine (10-7 M) and cocaine (10-5 M) prevented the inhibitory action of bretylium (10-6 M). Reboxetine (10-8-10-5 M), ...
Goldberger A L et al., "Vagally-mediated atrial fibrillation in dogs: conversion with bretylium tosylate," Int J Cardiol 13 (1 ...
ANI Announces Plans to Launch Bretylium Tosylate Injection, USP 500mg/10ml (50mg/ml) for Ventricular Arrhythmias PR Newswire. ... ANI Pharmaceuticals Announces Launch of Bretylium Tosylate Injection, USP 50 mg/mL PR Newswire. ...
... bretylium tosylate, quinidine sulfate and quinidine gluconate; drugs used in the treatment of hypertension such as propranolol ...
... bretylium tosylate, quinidine sulfate and quinidine gluconate; therapeutic agents used in the treatment of hypertension such as ...
  • BAUDETTE, Minn., Oct. 31, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("ANI") (Nasdaq: ANIP) today announced that its partner Pharmaceutics International Inc. (Pii) has received FDA approval of a Prior Approval Supplement for Bretylium Tosylate Injection, USP 500mg/10ml (50mg/ml). (insidertracking.com)
  • Bretylium should be used only in an ICU or Emergency Department setting and should not be used elsewhere due to its dramatic actions and its predominant side effect of hypotension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bretylium Tosylate In Dextrose 5% is a drug marketed by Abbott , B Braun , Baxter Hlthcare , and Hospira Inc . and is included in four NDAs. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • when methoxamine was used than when no drug therapy or bretylium were used . (musc.edu)
  • Bretylium will remain on the FDA's discontinued drug list since its withdrawal was not the result of a safety or effectiveness concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The change in flow was studied after (a) injections of atropine and propranolol (a beta adrenergic blocking drug), (b) injections of phenoxybenzamine (an alpha blocking drug) and (c) bretylium tosylate (an adrenergic neurone blocking drug). (gla.ac.uk)
  • When do Bretylium Tosylate In Dextrose 5% patents expire, and when can generic versions of Bretylium Tosylate In Dextrose 5% launch? (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • The American Heart Association removed bretylium from their 2000 ECC/ACC guidelines due to its unproven efficacy and ongoing supply problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiation of therapy with bretylium tosylate abruptly terminated the recurrences of arrhythmia, and the patient has had no episodes for 20 months while taking 400 mg, by mouth, every 8 hr. (annals.org)