The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sexual activities of animals.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Diseases of plants.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The number of males per 100 females.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
The physical measurements of a body.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (1/4007)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Morphometric study of the equine navicular bone: variations with breeds and types of horse and influence of exercise. (2/4007)

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences.  (+info)

Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (3/4007)

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future. (4/4007)

Farm animal genetic diversity is required to meet current production needs in various environments, to allow sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Production efficiency in pastoral species is closely tied to the use of diverse genetic types, but greater genetic uniformity has evolved in intensively raised species. In poultry, breeding decisions are directed by a few multinational companies and involve intense selection, the use of distinct production lines, and very large populations. In dairy cattle, the Holstein breed dominates production. Intensive sire selection is leading to relatively rapid inbreeding rates and raises questions about long-term effects of genetic drift. Key questions in management of farm animal genetic diversity involve the distribution of potentially useful quantitative trait locus alleles among global livestock breeds. Experiments with tomato, maize, and mice suggest that favorable alleles can exist in otherwise lowly productive stocks; this cryptic variation may potentially contribute to future selection response. Genetic improvement under relatively intense unidirectional selection may involve both increases in the frequency of favorable additive alleles as well as the progressive breakdown of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms established under the stabilizing selection that is characteristic of natural populations. Recombination among closely linked regulatory loci and new, potentially favorable mutations are possible sources of long-term genetic variation. A greater understanding of the potential that these alternative mechanisms have for supporting long-term genetic improvement and of genetic relationships among global livestock populations are priorities for managing farm animal genetic diversity.  (+info)

Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects. (5/4007)

Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point.  (+info)

Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. (6/4007)

An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed.  (+info)

Effects of milk yield on biological efficiency and profit of beef production from birth to slaughter. (7/4007)

Effect of milk yield (MY) on biological efficiency and gross margin as an indicator of profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter was determined. Data included 9 yr of spring-born single male calves. Biological efficiency was calculated as carcass weight/total feed energy intake, including nonlactating and lactating intakes of cow and creep and feedlot intakes of calf. Slaughter end point was finish constant at 9 mm of fat thickness. Gross margin was determined as returns minus feed costs. Three breeding systems were analyzed: purebred Hereford (HE), large rotational (LR), and small rotational (SR). Analyses were performed separately by breeding system when differences in the effect of MY among breeding systems were significant. Increased MY was associated with increased preweaning gain (P < .001), increased weight at start of feedlot trial (P < .001), and increased hot carcass weight (P < .05). No significant (P > .10) effect of MY on age at slaughter or on carcass weight per day of age at slaughter was found. Increased MY was associated with increased cow lactating energy intake (P < .10) and negatively associated with calf creep intake (P < .01). No effects of MY on intake of the cow during the nonlactating period, calf feedlot intake, or total feed intake were found. Increased MY was associated with a reduction in backfat thickness of the cow during the lactating period (P < .01) with no change in body weight. In the subsequent nonlactating period, increasing MY was associated with increased backfat thickness (P < .10) and body weight (P < .05). No effect of MY on change in backfat or weight of cow from calving to the end of the next nonlactating period was found. No effect of MY on biological efficiency to slaughter was detected. Milk yield was positively associated with gross margin from birth to slaughter (P < .05); results were similar when cow feed prices were reduced by 30%. Increased MY was associated with increased biological efficiency to weaning in HE (P < .01) and SR (P < .10), with no effect found in LR. When feeding cows to requirements, milk yield has a positive effect on the profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter.  (+info)

Modulation of allospecific CTL responses during pregnancy in equids: an immunological barrier to interspecies matings? (8/4007)

Maternal immune recognition of the developing conceptus in equine pregnancy is characterized by the strongest and most consistent alloantibody response described in any species, a response directed almost exclusively against paternal MHC class I Ags. This work investigated the cellular immune response to paternal MHC Ags in pregnant and nonpregnant horses and donkeys, and in horses carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses. We observed profound decreases in classical, MHC-restricted, CTL activity to allogeneic paternal cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both horse mares and donkey jennets carrying intraspecies pregnancies, compared with cells from nonpregnant controls. This is the first evidence in a randomly bred species for a generalized systemic shift of immune reactivity away from cellular and toward humoral immunity during pregnancy. Surprisingly, mares carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses did not exhibit this transient, pregnancy-associated decrease in CTL activity. The failure of interspecies pregnancy to down-regulate cellular immune responses may be a heretofore-unrecognized, subtle barrier to reproductive success between species.  (+info)

It can be argued that sire selection is the single most important element of a successful breeding program. Of course, it goes without saying that you must first have established the breeding objectives for your herd. This is where the two national genetic selection indexes, LPI and Pro$, have a critical role to play. Canadian Dairy Network (CDN) and each breed association provides lists of top animals... proven sires, genomic young bulls, cows and heifers, ranked based on their LPI and Pro$. These indexes have been developed and implemented to guide Canadian producers in terms of setting their breeding goals and then realizing them.. Optimum Sire Selection Strategy. The ideal strategy for producers to achieve their breeding objectives is first to rank sires based on your preferred selection index. Once the highest sires for that index are identified, then the second step is to determine how to best incorporate them in your herd by avoiding matings that result in too much inbreeding and/or a ...
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
A model Indigenous Thai beef cattle breeding structure consisting of nucleus, multiplier and commercial units was used to evaluate the effect of changes in heritabilities of and genetic correlations between adaptation traits on genetic gain and profitability. A breeding objective that incorporated adaptation was considered. Two scenarios for improving both the production and the adaptation of animals where also compared in terms of their genetic and economic efficiency. A base scenario was modelled where selection is for production traits and adaptation is assumed to be under the forces of natural selection. The second scenario (+Adaptation) included all the information available for base scenario with the addition of indirect measures of adaptation. These measures included tick count (TICK), faecal egg count (FEC) and rectal temperature (RECT). Therefore, the main difference between these scenarios was seen in the records available for use as selection criteria and hence the level of ...
The majority of beef breed associations have made (or are currently making) substantial changes to their National Cattle Evaluation. These changes ultimately benefit commercial bull buyers by providing improved
Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46 Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46
The University of the Free State (UFS), in conjunction with the University of Stellenbosch (US) and the Institute for Animal Production, recently hosted Dr Arthur Gilmour, well-known biometrician from New South Wales, Australia. Dr Gilmour presented a two-day workshop at the UFS on the application of Arthurs Restricted Maximum Likelihood (ASREML) to common animal breeding problems. ASREML is a software programme suitable for among others the estimation of genetic and environmental variances and co-variances in animal breeding and is the preferred software package for animal breeding experimentation. The workshop was attended by post-graduate students and researchers in animal breeding from different universities. At the workshop were, from the left: Dr Gilmour, Ms Puleng Matebesi (M.Sc. student at the UFS), Prof. Japie van Wyk (Divisional Head of Animal Breeding at the UFS Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences and one of the organisers of the workshop), Prof. Herman van ...
The objective of this study is to apply the bioeconomic model described in a companion study for the calculation of the economic weights of traits of pig breeds involved in the three-way crossing system of The Czech National Program for Pig Breeding. Dam breeds, Czech Large White (CLW) in the dam position and Czech Landrace (CL) in the sire position, and sire breed, Pietrain (PN), were chosen for the calculation. The most common integrated production system was modeled with artificial insemination of gilts and sows, using boars only for estrus stimulation. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and were reared in a nursery until the age of 84 days. All replacement gilts and boars were reared within the breeding system. The greatest part of the surplus female and male pigs was finished to a fixed slaughter weight; a small percentage was sold as piglets after nursery or as breeding gilts and boars. Economic weights of 14 production and functional traits were calculated for all three breeds, taking ...
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock. Selecting for breeding animals with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or with other desirable traits has revolutionized livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genomics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson. Breeding stock is a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the ...
The importance of region by sire, herd within region by sire and contemporary group within herd by sire interactions were evaluated for 68,271 birth weight, 247,943 weaning weight and 98,790 postweaning gain records supplied by the American Polled Hereford Association. Variance components for sire, region by sire, herd within region by sire, contemporary group within herd by sire and error were estimated using Henderson Method 3 estimation procedures. Sire by region, herd within region by sire and contemporary group within herd by sire variance estimates divided by the sire variance estimates were .57, .93 and 1.71, respectively, for weaning weight, -1.00, -.14 and 1.29, respectively, for birth weight, and -1.19, .14 and 1.22, respectively, for postweaning gain;The average genetic correlation estimates of weaning weight sire expected differences (EPDs) across regions was .64. This value expresses the correlation among progeny of the same sire after the sire evaluation model had accounted for the
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Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is ...
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Advances in Animal Breeding ISSN 9371-4726 Vol. 1 (3), pp. 024-028, July, 2017. © International Scholars Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines of milk yield and the breeding values of the cows. *Pervez Benazir, Nusrat Ali Zardari and Malala Afridi. Department Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.. E-mail: [email protected] Accepted 20 June, 2017. Abstract. A total of 937 pedigree, breeding and performance records of 567 Friesian cows at the Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey Dist. Kasur (Pakistan) spanning the years 1982-2001 were analyzed using Best Linear Unbiased Predictions procedure. Individual animal models were fitted to total milk yield from all lactations to estimate breeding values by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology. Milk yield and lactation length averaged 3391.66 ± 137.97 kg and 278.40 ± 90.17 days, respectively. The estimated breeding values for milk yield ranged from -354 to 503 ...
Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding by Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics published September 2005. The ISBN is 9780643093003. The publisher is CSIRO Publishing. Buy Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding from CSIRO PUBLISHING online.
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for weekly body weight of feed intake of individually fed beef bulls at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models (RRM). The model for cumulative feed intake included the fixed linear regression on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 day) for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials were included for the additive genetic effect of the animal and the additional random effect of weaning-herd-year (WHY) and on fourth order for the additional random permanent environmental effect of the animal. The model for body weights included the fixed linear regression on fourth order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth order orthogonal Legendre ...
Overview press publications with toplists of bulls. The file with breeding values of sire opens when clicking on download. The lists are sorted according to NVI with the exception of the beef merit index. Sire that are not included in the toplists can be found with the function Sire Search.. Information on the publication. For information about the publication, see News. The national toplists contains breeding values based on Dutch/Flemish daughter information. The Interbull toplists contains converted breeding values based on information from abroad. The genomic toplists contains breeding values based on pedigree information combined with genomic information. The combined toplists contains the top 500 bulls on NVI-base from the described list ...
Agreed strategy to influence prevalence of a defined phenotype in a defined population. Breeding programs for specific traits have been established in many countries. They are most commonly restricted to inherited disorders. Disease-specific breeding programs have been instituted for such disorders as hip dysplasia, hereditary eye defects, and a number of other conditions possible to reveal by phenotypic or genotypic screening methods. Their values are indisputable, but they do not account very well for breed variations in prevalence, population structure, and other traits. The goal for planned, organized, and agreed breeding plans is broader than just a few specified genetic disorders.. This presentation will review Swedish experiences to establish breed-specific breeding programs, taking into account not only disease-specific breeding programs but also how to handle other undesired as well as desired traits and how to adapt them to population structure and other differences between various ...
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|b|Table of contents|/b| 1 Introduction 2 The black box of quantitative genetics for phenotype-based breeding programmes 3 The principle of using molecular information for genetic improvement 4 The use of molecular information in selection: genetic tests 5 Phenotyping and genotyping requirements for genomic selection (GS) or marker-assisted selection (MAS) 6 Other benefits of molecular information for swine breeding programmes 7 Summary 8 Future prospects and challenges 9 Where to look for further information 10 References
Introduction. In the scenario of dairy cattle genetic selection, the possibility to improve breeding value estimation is driving the research aimed at replacing the use of cumulative lactation records by test day (TD) measurements. Random regression (RR) models have been widely studied and evaluated for genetic evaluation at national level in many countries. RR models have the advantage of flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of the lactation curve. Currently, 11 countries are using TD records in their genetic evaluation systems for production in dairy cattle. Among them, eight countries use RR models (Interbull, 2008).. The random regression allows to fit sub-models for adjusting the lactation curve, assumes a structure for genetic and environmental variation specific to individual TD yields and variable correlation between TD yields (Schaeffer, 2004). The use of TD records greatly increases the amount of data to be analyzed, thus requiring the ...
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and biotic ...
Genome-wide dense markers have been used to detect genes and estimate relative genetic values. Among many methods, Bayesian techniques have been widely used and shown to be powerful in genome-wide breeding value estimation and association studies. However, computation is known to be intensive under the Bayesian framework, and specifying a prior distribution for each parameter is always required for Bayesian computation. We propose the use of hierarchical likelihood to solve such problems. Using double hierarchical generalized linear models, we analyzed the simulated dataset provided by the QTLMAS 2010 workshop. Marker-specific variances estimated by double hierarchical generalized linear models identified the QTL with large effects for both the quantitative and binary traits. The QTL positions were detected with very high accuracy. For young individuals without phenotypic records, the true and estimated breeding values had Pearson correlation of 0.60 for the quantitative trait and 0.72 for the binary
GENES STILL IN HIDING. Traditional dairy cattle breeding is founded on production information and other phenotype information collected from animals. The greater the volume of genealogical information available, the more accurate the evaluation that can be made of an animals breeding value. Evaluation based on offspring, the progeny test, is an efficient, if slow method of acquiring reliable information on the bull genome. Progeny test information for a young bull is only obtained five years after the onset of semination.. The breeders dream is to be able to study animal genes and decide from them directly which individuals are worth selecting as parents of the future generation. Variations in the genomic loci present in the DNA of chromosomes, known as markers, can be employed in the monitoring of gene inheritance. From the available material on 12 parent bulls and their 493 sons, Nina Schulmans research identified which QTL are connected with particular economically important traits. Twelve ...
Most producers are faced with difficult decisions when choosing bulls that address the contributions of both maternal and carcass traits. Not only is there variation in the attributes of multiple breeds, but variation within a breed is substantial. By combining ultrasound and AI (artificial insemination), a producer can develop a breeding program that optimizes both maternal and carcass traits. Prior to the start of a normal breeding season (or during the first 21-30 days of the breeding season) bulls possessing high maternal traits may be selected and used in an AI system. After this time, natural service bulls, selected for carcass merit, can be used for the remainder of the breeding season. Using ultrasound, the producer may now determine which females are pregnant with AI-sired heifer calves based on the age and sex of the fetus. These females can be managed separately with the knowledge that they are pregnant with heifer calves possessing quality maternal traits that have the potential to ...
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of genomic information on the genetic evaluation of hip height in Brahman cattle using different matrices built from genomic and pedigree data. Hip height measurements from 1,695 animals, genotyped with high-density SNP chip or imputed from 50 K high-density SNP chip, were used. The numerator relationship matrix (NRM) was compared with the H matrix, which incorporated the NRM and genomic relationship (G) matrix simultaneously. The genotypes were used to estimate three versions of G: observed allele frequency (HGOF), average minor allele frequency (HGMF), and frequency of 0.5 for all markers (HG50). For matrix comparisons, animal data were either used in full or divided into calibration (80 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of Individual Sensitivities to Ethanol in Selective Breeding Experiments. T2 - Difference Scores Versus Regression Residuals. AU - Crabbe, John C.. AU - Weigel, Ronald M.. PY - 1987/12. Y1 - 1987/12. N2 - Nagoshi et al. (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 10:343-349, 1986) have argued recently that the use of postdrug minus predrug difference scores to assess individual variability in sensitivity or tolerance to ethanol is not to be recommended. Unreliability of variables can result in biased estimates of response to treatment. Instead of difference scores, they recommend using residual scores from the regression of posttreatment on pretreatment measures. We were interested in the consequences of employing difference scores versus regression residuals for a related, but different purpose: the choice of individual animals to be mated for a selective breeding study. The availability of data from such a selective breeding experiment ongoing in the laboratory of one of us (JCC) ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic evaluation of the longevity of the Holstein population in Japan using a Weibull proportional hazard model. AU - Sasaki, Osamu. AU - Aihara, Mitsuo. AU - Hagiya, Koichi. AU - Nishiura, Akiko. AU - Ishii, Kazuo. AU - Satoh, Masahiro. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to confirm the stability of the genetic estimation of longevity of the Holstein population in Japan. Data on the first 10 lactation periods were obtained from the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan. Longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving until culling or censoring. DATA1 and DATA2 included the survival records for the periods 1991-2003 and 1991-2005, respectively. The proportional hazard model included the effects of the region-parity-lactation stage-milk yield class, age at first calving, the herd-year-season, and sire. The heritabilities on an original scale of DATA1 and DATA2 were 0.119 and 0.123, respectively. The estimated transmitting ...
A heated debate is currently taking place in the scientific community about the use of two distinct breeding approaches: the conventional breeding (based on crossing and selection assisted by molecular-selective technologies such as MAS and MAB) and the breeding that uses the new techniques made available by the modern biotechnologies (an alternative or complementary way to reach goals that are not achievable by conventional breeding). This second approach allows the transfer of resistance genes to pathogens or to abiotic stresses (such as drought, salinity and weather anomalies) as well as the improvement of the fruit nutritional value without affecting the quality standards of cultivars. Today, in addition to the classic transgenic approach (GMOs), the new plant breeding technologies (NPBT), such as genome editing and cisgenesis, are available. The genome sequence of the main fruit tree species and the support of specific molecular markers for the identification of gene responsible for ...
Red meat is an important dietary source that provides part of the nutritional requirements. Intramuscular fat, known as marbling, is located throughout skeletal muscle. Marbling is a trait of major economic relevance that positively influences sensory quality aspects. The aim of the present study was to identify and better understand biological pathways defining marbling in beef cattle. Pathway analysis was performed in PathVisio with publicly available transcriptomic data from semitendinosus muscle of well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. Moreover, for Bos taurus we created a gene identifier mapping database with bridgeDb and a pathway collection in WikiPathways. The regulation of marbling is possibly the result of the interplay between signaling pathways in muscle, fat, and intramuscular connective tissue. Pathway analysis revealed 17 pathways that were significantly different between well-marbled and lean-marbled beef. The MAPK signaling pathway was enriched, and the signaling pathways that play a role
Beef Cattle Management - With Information on Selection, Care, Breeding and Fattening of Beef Cows and Bulls by Skelley, William C. and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at
Abstract: Connectedness between herds plays a very important role in cross-herd genetic evaluation in pig breeding. The connectedness between herds in Beijing region was evaluated to assess the efficiency of regional joint breeding system in China. In current study, data on age at 100 kg in Large White and Landrace were collected and Connectedness Rating (CR) method was employed to measure the connectedness between herds. Results showed that most herds have genetic connection with other herds. There were 17 and 10 herds, out of totally 19 and 13 herds of Large White and Landrace, respectively were connected with at least one other herd within breed. However, the average CR in Beijing was relatively low (0-4.80%), the strong connectedness only existed among few herds; therefore, regional cross-herd genetic evaluation by far is not practicable. More intense efforts are needed to establish and enhance the connectedness between herds by means of extensive use of Artificial Insemination (AI), ...
The breeding programs widely used to supplement fisheries and conserve... Circumventing mate choice is likely to have negative consequences for...Wedekind and two co-authors had previously shown that mate choice can ...Currently most breeding programs for small populations focus on prese...Ways to incorporate mate choice into breeding programs include allowin...,Breeding,programs,should,incorporate,mate,choice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
To help address industry problems, Panthee takes a multifaceted approach - part conventional breeding, part molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS isnt genetic engineering; its simply a breeding short-cut thats especially helpful when it comes to developing disease-resistant varieties using DNA-based markers.. In conventional breeding methods, scientists would inoculate plants with a disease to see which ones are resistant, but that runs the risk of spreading the disease, Panthee explains. However, with MAS, scientists can look for what are called markers - sequences of nucleotides that make up a segment of DNA - that are near the genes of interest in the genome.. To develop a tomato resistant to tomato mosaic virus, for example, Panthee has identified the molecular marker that is tightly linked with the TMV resistance gene, so as he breeds successive generations of plants, he selects only plants that contain that marker.. I keep on selecting plants that contain the TMV resistance ... than half a century of pedigree cattle breeding in the Netherlands ...
In genomic selection, prediction accuracy is highly driven by the size of animals in the reference population (RP). Combining related populations from different countries and regions or using a related population with large size of RP has been considered to be viable strategies in cattle breeding. The genetic relationship between related populations is important for improving the genomic predictive ability. In this study, we used 122 French bulls as test individuals. The genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) evaluated using French RP, America RP and Chinese RP were compared. The results showed that the GEBVs were in higher concordance using French RP and American RP compared with using Chinese population. The persistence analysis, kinship analysis and the principal component analysis (PCA) were performed for 270 French bulls, 270 American bulls and 270 Chinese bulls to interpret the results. All the analyses illustrated that the genetic relationship between French bulls and American bulls ...
In the past, EU legislation in the area was organised according to species, while the new regulation will provide a single body of provisions for bovine, porcine, ovine, caprine and equine species.. Some aspects of breeding covered in the rules include: the recognition of breeding organisations and private undertakings, the approval of their programmes, the entering of animals in specific breeding books and registers, performance testing and genetic evaluation, and the content of zootechnical certificates.. The new rules aim to avoid obstacles to trade resulting from national implementation of EU laws and overcome existing problems related to cross border activities of approved breed societies.. The Council says the news regulations will help preserve animal genetic resources and protect biodiversity, as well as maintaining traditional regional products. Breed societies and breeding operations will have to meet specific and strict criteria to obtain recognition and approval of their breeding ...
We are working on several breeding goals to achieve a higher agricultural yield, The aim of our breeding activities is to provide farmers with precisely those varieties that meet their needs.
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It can take 5 or more generations of careful hybridization breeding to stabilize a new species. Those breeding methods that are rarely or less commonly used for crop improvement are known as special breeding methods. Since 1900 the Mendels Laws have provided for scientific genetic breeding of plants. The modified pedigree breeding method involves the evaluation and selection of parents and hybridization to provide useful gene recombinations. Ans. The pollen is what initiates the production of seeds on the plant, which will later grow into a new generation of the species. The method is generally used for handling segregation generation may be grouped into three categories. Biotechnology is the discipline which deals with the use of living organisms or their products. In short, plant breeding is the intentional manipulation of a plant species to produce offspring with desirable characteristics. This manipulation involves either controlled pollination, genetic engineering, or both. A cultivated ...
Author: Written by Davis, K. C., M. W. Tess, D. D. Kress, D. E. Doornbos, and D. C. Anderson Journal: Journal of Animal Science, Oct 1994; 72: 2585 - 2590.. Abstract: Data collected during a 10-yr study at the Northern Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Havre, MT were used in construction of a simulation model to evaluate production systems using different breed groups. Five dam breed groups, straightbred Hereford (HH), 50% Angus-50% Hereford (AH), 25% Simmental-75% Hereford (1S3H), 50% Simmental-50% Hereford (1S1H), and 75% Simmental-25% Hereford (3S1H), were studied. The simulated system was a northern range cow-calf production system with spring calving and fall weaning. Replacement heifers were purchased and all calves were marketed at weaning. All nonpregnant females were sold in the fall. Statistical analyses of the data yielded input values (least squares means for breed group x age x sex subclasses) for cow and calf weights, pregnancy rate, dystocia, and calf survival. Pregnancy, ...
Family Three Membership is suitable for families or kennel partners who own, breed or who are just interested in the Basenji. This membership category is available to family members resident at the same address or any person who are partners in a kennel having a prefix in their joint names with a state canine controlling association; candidates may reside in any state of Australia or Worldwide. Members must be over 18 years old in order to vote and/or be nominated as an office holder.. This membership category is three yearly and memberships expire 30 June on the third year of membership. A 31 day grace period, until the 31 July, is allowed in order for members to pay subscriptions. Although membership is for a three year period members who select this category must complete a membership renewal form annually.. ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
CLAY CENTER, Neb.--With newly installed, high-speed, mass-spectrometry-based, genotyping technology from the San Diego-based company Sequenom, the US Department of Agriculture s Meat Animal Research Center here will be able to expand upon what already may be the most extensive public livestock genomics database available.
Genomic prediction of breeding values when modeling genotype × environment interaction using pedigree and dense molecular markers. 2012. Burgueño, J.; Campos, G. de los; Weigel, K.; Crossa, J.. Crop Science 52 (2): 707-719. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2011.06. ...
Artificial selection is a process of selective breeding that has been used by humans for thousands of years. It is the earliest form of biotechnology, where plants or animals with specific traits were selected to breed so that their desired traits could be duplicated. Over the years, selective breeding has done everything from create larger fruits to horse breeds that have specific gaits.. The advantage of selective breeding is that it uses the processes of natural selection, but under direct supervision from carefully selected animals or plants with the desired traits. There are no genetic modifications or other forms of tampering that could potentially harm people and the risk to the plant or animal is often very minimal at the same time.. The disadvantage of selective breeding is that it can take a long time for the process to work. In horse breeding, for example, the given standard to establish a new breed is to have offspring with the desired traits to be produced over the course of 7 ...
The estimation of (co)variance components for multiple traits with maternal genetic effects was found to be influenced by population structure. Two traits in a closed breeding herd with random mating were simulated over nine generations. Population structures were simulated on the basis of different proportions of dams not having performance records (0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.9): three genetic correlations (−0.5, 0.0 and +0.5) between direct and maternal effects and three genetic correlations (0, 0.3 and 0.8) between two traits. Three ratios of direct to maternal genetic variances, (1:3, 1:1, 3:1), were also considered. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. The proportion of dams without records had an effect on the SE of direct-maternal covariance estimates when the proportion was 0.8 or 0.9 and the true correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative. The ratio of direct to maternal genetic variances influenced the SE of the (co)variance estimates ...
Despite having never been bred towards a written breed standard until recent times, most Gotland rabbits share a distinctive ... List of rabbit breeds. References[edit]. *^ Nordens Ark on Gotland rabbits (in Swedish) Archived 2012-08-04 at the Wayback ... As a formal breed[edit]. The modern Gotland rabbit originates from these populations, the studbook having been closed since a ... As show breeds gained popularity, the farm rabbits became rarer until all but extinct. A few remaining populations were ...
Breeding[edit]. Her sire, Doctor Syntax was described by the noted racing writer "The Druid" as "...scarcely fifteen hands, ... a b Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), "Thoroughbred Breeding of the World", Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970 ...
Breeding habitat[edit]. Pickerel frogs prefer cool clear water. They breed in both temporary ponds and permanent ponds but ... The males initiate breeding by emitting their low pitched call; this call is usually so low pitched that it is often not heard ... Pickerel frogs typically emerge from hibernation around mid April with the majority of the frogs arriving at breeding ponds by ... 2001). Effects of Roads on Amphibian Community Structure at Breeding Ponds in Rhode Island. Unpublished Final Report to the ...
This breed's main purpose is for show, but in its past, it was raised for its white pelt. Also, they are the only rabbit breed ... Differences between other breeds[edit]. *Himalayans are the only breed posed stretched out (cylindrical) ... They are the only cylindrical rabbit breed. The history of the breed is partially a mystery, as there are no definite records ... The Himalayan gene (ch) has been bred into many other breeds, they lack marking modifiers so they often show up with smaller, ...
The brolga breeds throughout its range in Australia and New Guinea. The start of the breeding season is largely determined by ... Although the bird breeds well in the wild, it has proved much more problematic to get it to breed while in captivity.[5] ... wet meadows and other wetlands where they breed.[10] In south-west Victoria, breeding sites during and immediately after spring ... In the non-breeding season, they gather into large flocks, which appear to be many self-contained individual groups rather than ...
Breeding[edit]. Although lentils have been an important crop for centuries, lentil breeding and genetic research has a ... "Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ... Since the inception of The International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) breeding programme in 1977 ... It supplies landraces and breeding lines for countries around the world, supplemented by other programmes in both developing (e ...
Breeding[edit]. Breeding occurs from June to February.[2] Two to five white, oval-shaped eggs are laid in a nest is made of ...
Cooperative breeding, where birds other than the breeding pair help raise the young and is common in some bird families, is ... Breeding. With few exceptions, parrots are monogamous breeders who nest in cavities and hold no territories other than their ... Large groups of escapees have the protection of a flock and possess the skills to survive and breed in the wild.[131] Some ... The intensity of this competition can limit breeding success in some cases.[66][67] Hollows created artificially by arborists ...
Breeding[edit]. These creatures may breed at any time of the year. The nest is a large (for the bird) and untidy cup made of ...
Breeding career[edit]. During his breeding career, Joe Daniels sired two stakes winning horses: Hidalgo and Hoodlum.[16] ... Bred in Kentucky, Joe Daniels won two stakes races as a two-year-old and then the Belmont as a three-year-old when he also won ... Joe Daniels was foaled in 1869 and was a chestnut stallion, bred by A. J. Alexander of Woodburn Stud in Kentucky.[1] He was the ...
Commonly affected breeds[edit]. In veterinary medicine, some canine breeds are affected by distichiasis more frequently than ... Commonly affected breeds include Poodles, Golden Retrievers, and Shih Tzus.[5] The eyelash exits through the conjunctiva of the ... Analysis of the prevalence of distichiasis in the dog breed Elo]". Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 119 (5-6): 233-7. PMID ...
Breeding[edit]. An adult with a 30-day-old chick in a cave nest near Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA ... "Last Wild California Condor Capture for Breeding Program" (PDF). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (press release). Retrieved May 6, ... The captive breeding program, led by the San Diego Wild Animal Park and Los Angeles Zoo,[65] and with other participating zoos ... Numbers rose through captive breeding and, beginning in 1991, condors were reintroduced into the wild. Since then, its ...
Creation of new breeds[edit]. Some amateur dog fans in Bulgaria creating new big dog show breed with which the Karakachan dog ... Breed standard[edit]. The official breed standard was written in 1991 and approved in 2005 by the State Commission for Animal ... These are cross-breeds of Karakachan dogs with giant breeds such as Caucasian Ovcharka, Central Asian Ovcharka, Moscow Watchdog ... Due to their conservative stock-breeding traditions, they have preserved some of the oldest breeds of domestic animals in ...
... a downturn in the usage of horses in Hungary sent many members of the breed to slaughter. Today the breed is bred by ... The breed was developed at the Imperial Stud at Mezőhegyes, Hungary by careful linebreeding. Originally bred to serve as a ... Breed characteristics[edit]. Close linebreeding during the breed's establishment and continued use of a closed studbook have ... Members of the breed have also been crossed with Furioso-North Star, Thoroughbred and Shagya Arabian blood to breed warmbloods ...
While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results, the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major ... This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties. Prior ... Breeding. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. ... Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.[48] Home cultivars are often bred for flavor ...
Association with crop breeding[edit]. Manipulation of dehiscence can improve crop yield since a trait that causes seed ... Many of the agronomically important plants have been bred for reduced shattering. ...
In 1924, the breed society was founded, and a studbook opened.[9] World War I and World War II were devastating to the breed. ... They are often used as foundation breeding stock for the Riding Pony.[15] The breed is a suitable size and temperament for a ... Lynghaug, Fran (2009), The Official Horse Breeds Standards Guide: The Complete Guide to the Standards of All North American ... Breed characteristics[edit]. The small head has large, wide-set eyes and alert ears. The body is strong, with a broad, deep rib ...
Individuals captured on Hauturu/Little Barrier Island have been successfully bred in captivity at Butterfly Creek and Auckland ... Since 2008 the Department of Conservation has been involved in a captive breeding and release programme to mitigate the risk of ...
The Taiwan Dog (Chinese: 台灣犬) is a breed or landrace of small or medium dog indigenous to Taiwan. These dogs are also known as ... Breeding problems[edit]. The Formosan Mountain Dog was originally kept by aboriginal Taiwanese as hunting dogs, but now ... This breed was the loyal companion of the ancient hunter in the wild forest. In 1980, a cooperative study was carried out by ... Due to the breed's alertness, these dogs can make good guard dogs; if not well-trained, the Formosan can become overly ...
Breeding[edit]. N. davidi shrimp reach sexual maturity when they are around 4-6 months old. Breeding only requires a sexed pair ... Neocaridina shrimp can have similar colors due to different selective breeding processes. Cross-breeding different variations ... N. davidi shrimp are easy to care for in the home freshwater aquarium and breed well. They will adapt to a wide range of water ... Female shrimp, under ideal conditions, can breed again within a few days of hatching the previous clutch.[citation needed] ...
Breeding[edit]. Great kiskadees are monogamous and defend a territory. Both sexes build the large domed nest that has a side ... It breeds in open woodland with some tall trees, including cultivation and around human habitation, mainly found in Belize, and ... The birds bred successfully and by 1976 the population on the island had expanded to around 60,000.[17] The great kiskadee is ...
The male also feeds the female during the breeding and incubation of both eggs and young,[14] and the male is the primary ... Their breeding habitat is urban and suburban areas across North America, as well as various semi-open areas in the west from ...
Chianina and one breeding herd of Sayaguesa x Podolian cattle; a second breeding herd of Sayaguesa × Podolian cattle will be ... through selective cross-breeding of local cattle breeds bearing local aurochs-genome ancestry."[68] ... began a selective breeding program to breed back the aurochs into existence from the descendant domesticated cattle. Their plan ... In accordance with the breeding aims,[64] the Auerrindprojekt has already set up two breeding herds of Watusi × ...
Breeding[edit]. The Indian golden oriole is a partial migrant. It breeds in central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The ... This oriole breeds from Baluchistan and Afghanistan along the Himalayas to Nepal. Some populations breed in the peninsular ... Indian populations are largely resident while the other populations are migratory.[10] The breeding season is April to August, ...
It was slowly bred into a meat breed of outstanding carcass quality. It is now one of the most common meat breeds in the ... The Texel breed is a white-faced breed with no wool on the head or legs. The breed is characterized by a distinctive short, ... The exact origin of the breed is unknown although it is thought to be a cross of multiple English breeds. ... These qualities have helped the Texel breed become the most popular terminal sire breed in the UK. ...
Breeding range Year-round range Wintering range Present during migration The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large ... Breeding biology and food habits of the Great Blue Heron at Heyburn State Park, Benewah County, Idaho. Master's Thesis. Univ. ... Habitat selection and time of breeding in the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). Phd Thesis. Univ. of Brit. Col. Vancouver. ... The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. ...
While pinto colored horses are not a "breed," several competing color breed registries have formed to encourage the breeding of ... Breed registries and white markings[edit]. Many breed registries do not, or at some time in the past did not, accept "cropout" ... While a pinto may be of any breed or combination of breeds, and some registries for pintos may have additional restrictions ( ... Some color breed registries accept solid horses as breeding stock, while others do not. ...
The domesticated B. mori and the wild B. mandarina can still breed and sometimes produce hybrids.[4]:342 ... It is second only to maize in exploiting the principles of heterosis and cross breeding.[citation needed] ... The breeding process of this type takes place twice annually, a feat made possible through the slightly warmer climates and the ... Silkworm breeding is aimed at the overall improvement of silkworm from a commercial point of view. The major objectives are ...
a b Monnie, J. B. (1966). Reintroduction of the trumpeter swan to its former prairie breeding range. The Journal of Wildlife ... They have not bred in years. Scientists attribute the loss in the park's population to the loss of nests and nesting sites ... In 1918 Joseph Grinnell wrote that trumpeter swans once bred in North America from northwestern Indiana west to Oregon in the U ... Feeding activity, and the birds' weights, often peaks in the spring as they prepare for the breeding season.[24] The young ...
Breeding[edit]. Chester, on the side of his sire, was a third generation colonial-bred Australian stallion. Chester's sire was ... in Chief), "Thoroughbred Breeding of the World", Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970 *^ Pring, Peter; "Analysis of Champion ... had purchased a number of well-bred colonial broodmares. He began to build up a high-quality broodmare band through the 1880s, ... Stockwell was out of the breed-shaping broodmare, Pocahontas. ... Racehorses bred in Australia. *Racehorses trained in Australia ...
... , WHY?. Breed To Improve. Breeding should only be done for the advancement of the breed. If you are thinking ... If you plan to breed or show your dog, you will want to find a knowledgeable person in the breed to show you the ropes. A ... Breeding, and doing it right, is an expensive undertaking. By the time youve picked out a good bitch, waited for her to grow ... All breeding Shelties should have this test repeated every 1-2 years of age from age 1 year to age 8 years. ...
You will do your homework and research the breed of your choice. You will breed to the AKC standards and follow your breed ... some breeders will breed 2 skip 2) Well to make another long story short. I had bred all girls. Cause I know what can happen ... So PLEASE any of you thinking of breeding, take it very seriously. It takes a very strong, sincere heart to breed. There are ... So try that for a breeding experience, I almost quit after this episode. But my strong love and dedication for the breed has ...
American beekeepers have had great success breeding gentle bees that produce lots of honey. What might happen if we add a focus ... At the 2016 North Carolina State Bee Associations first Born and Bred queen rearing workshop, not a single speaker left the ... The Western NC Queen Breeding Cooperative is dedicated to strengthening the genetics of honey bees to a self-sustaining, ... podium without stating in one way or another that strong genetics from locally bred queens is the key to breeding bees that can ...
"The North American Breeding Bird Survey". Retrieved 2010-05-27.. *^ "Birds Breeding". Archived from the original on 2010-05-16 ... The BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a national project aimed at keeping track of changes in the breeding ... A breeding bird survey monitors the status and trends of bird populations. Data from the survey are an important source for the ... The North American Breeding Bird Survey is a joint project of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Canadian ...
Improving quality traits and yield is the key in breeding. Our solutions help developing new and innovative cultivars to the ... NIR in breeding research and process. One of these established methods in plant breeding is Near Infrared Spectroscopy.. The ... Plant breeding research and the related seed production are an important part of the process of developing new higher-yielding ... NIR Instrumentation for routine analysis, R&D and quality control in plant breeding has been already used for a few decades. In ...
Breeding locations are often chosen for very specific requirements of shelter and proximity to food; moreover, the breeding ... Migration patterns of a mammal may sometimes govern breeding times. Mammal breeding in the wild sometimes involves the use of ... Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. This ... This breeding season is accentuated in temperate regions,[3] where prolonged aestivation or hibernation renders many amphibian ...
The country whose revolution sparked the Arab Spring is now a top breeding ground for new ISIS fighters . We take you on an ... The country whose revolution sparked the Arab Spring is now a top breeding ground for new ISIS fighters . We take you on an ...
Adaptation in Plant Breeding. Selected Papers from the XIV EUCARPIA Congress on Adaptation in Plant Breeding held at Jyväskylä ... Molecular Breeding of Forage Crops. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Molecular Breeding of Forage Crops, Lorne ... Progress in Temperate Fruit Breeding. Proceedings of the Eucarpia Fruit Breeding Section Meeting held at Wädenswil/Einsiedeln, ... Genetics and Breeding for Crop Quality and Resistance. Proceedings of the XV EUCARPIA Congress, Viterbo, Italy, September 20-25 ...
... Steven Montgomery Thu, 10 Oct 2002 13:48:12 -0700 ...
Marshall Breedings Slides from the... by ALATechSource 1668 views * Social software presentation_hastings by ALATechSource 990 ... Marshall Breeding--TechTrends Slides * 1. Tech Trends at the ALA Annual Conference,br /,ALA TechSource Webinar ,br /,Marshall ... Breeding,br /,Director for Innovative Technology and Research,br /,Vanderbilt University Library,br /,Founder and Publisher, ...
Learn more about the wheat breeding and genetics program at the UI Aberdeen Research and Extension Center operated by the ... To develop desired wheat varieties and germplasm using an integrated breeding system combining traditional and mutant breeding ... Wheat Breeding and Genetics. Five different classes of wheat are grown in Idahos diverse agricultural environment. Wheat ... The breeder teaches classes through videoconferencing and onsite on classes of Cereal Breeding and Genetics, QTL Mapping of ...
No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ... No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ... No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ...
Experimental breeding: Genetically diverse lines of organisms can be crossed in such a way to produce different combinations of ... Other articles where Experimental breeding is discussed: genetics: ... In genetics: Experimental breeding. Genetically diverse lines of organisms can be crossed in such a way to produce different ...
Breeding bird atlas: To report bird breeding activity in your neighborhood, or to get information on the breeding bird atlas ( ... Breeding Birds: California Thrasher. December 01, 1989,Clipboard researched by Kathie Bozanich Susan Davis Greene and Janice L ...
Visit Ann Breedings CaringBridge website where youll find the latest updates and a place to share messages of love, hope & ... Ann Breeding First post: Oct 27, 2017 Latest post: Feb 23, 2018 ...
Breeding Birds. blockquote {border-left: 5px solid #fff;}. Warbling vireo at Effigy Mounds National Monument NPS / J. Salesman ... Improve our understanding of breeding bird habitat relationships and the effects of management actions such as grazing, exotic ... significant temporal changes in composition and abundance of bird communities in 11 parks within the HTLN during the breeding ...
Within that single species, there are many breeds or types. ... A Speedy & Powerful Breed. One of the most influential horse ... Many breeds have adapted smaller statures. One of the worlds smallest pony breeds, the Shetland Pony, was bred to work in the ... called breeding. Along with many animal species, people have also bred plants like tomatoes and bananas to create breeds with ... Only closely related animals can be bred. For example, a horse and donkey can produce offspring (a mule), but you cannot breed ...
To that end, biodiversity of breeds and natural selection of hearty animals have given way to an emphasis on selecting for and ... In contrast to the breeding techniques of modern industrial farming, higher-welfare, pasture-based farms strive to breed ... To that end, biodiversity of breeds and natural selection of hearty animals have given way to an emphasis on selecting for and ... Farmers use great care to secure appropriate breeds of animals who are not plagued with the welfare problems outlined above and ...
If youre wondering whether keeping goats to raise for breeding stock on your small farm is right for you, learn the key ... You will need to decide what breed of goat you want to raise, and are you raising dairy goats for breeding or meat? There are ... Before deciding to breed goats for sale, consider all the possible goals for your goat farming operation and be sure that ... You can raise breeding stock while raising crossbreed goats for meat, but make sure that you have the resources-housing, ...
Genetic variation for seed yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Plant Breed. 105:117-125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Selection for seed yield in Lolium perenne L. Plant Breed. 98:149-155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Breeding for improved herbage and seed yield in Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.). In: S. Hubbard (ed.) Agricultural research ... Boelt B., Studer B. (2010) Breeding for Grass Seed Yield. In: Boller B., Posselt U.K., Veronesi F. (eds) Fodder Crops and ...
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Mutations in Plant Breeding II, , IAEA, Vienna (1968). ...
Marker-assisted breeding doesnt produce genetically modified organisms. ... Marker-assisted breeding is a conventional technique that allows breeders to track genes without using transgenic approaches. ... Marker-assisted breeding doesnt produce genetically modified organisms.. Marker-assisted breeding uses DNA markers associated ... Marker-assisted breeding is a conventional technique that allows breeders to track genes without using transgenic approaches. ...
Explained here is the biology of fish breeding, with focus on taxonomy, population management, genetics, inbreeding versus ... The author also provides extensive information on aquarium requirements, breeding triggers, and fish nutrition. Prospective ... Aquarium hobbyists who are interested in breeding fishes and invertebrates will find a bonanza of information in this profusely ... selective breeding, culling, reproductive strategies, and larval and juvenile development. ...
Title: Veterinary Guide to Horse Breeding, Author: khtyler483, Name: Veterinary Guide to Horse Breeding, Length: 1 pages, Page ...
... below to see how different breed characteristics and attributes stack up against each other. ... Cant decide which breed is right for you? ... Breeds A-Z * View All Breeds * Choosing The Right Breed * Find ... Cant decide which breed of dog is right for you? Compare dog breeds below to see how different breed characteristics and ... Breed Explorer. View All Breeds Find By Breed Name Select A Breed. Affenpinscher. Afghan Hound. Airedale Terrier. Akita. ...
According to Breeds futuristic story, human colonies are attacked by an alien race commonly called "the Breed" in the early ... Breed Preview. Brat Designs sci-fi shooter features a number of vehicles to vary up the squad-based action. We get a hands-on ... Breed promises to deliver varied gameplay in a big world, so youll probably be surprised to know that its the product of an ... The center of Breeds HUD features a compass that indicates scripted mission waypoints, and the game also has a minimap in the ...
... refers to a stock that represents the most optimal investment choice for a specific sector or industry due to its ... Understanding Best of Breed Best of breed companies are usually identified through a consensus of analysts and high profile ... What Is Best of Breed? Best of breed refers to a stock that represents the most optimal investment choice for a specific sector ... The best of breed stocks are picked from this shortlist of companies that have shown strong growth over a period of time. ...
Galik Bred Ceilidh Band - jigginyeragged! World Ceilidh Band Champions 1999-2001. Available for Weddings, functions and any ...
... selected by testing. Planning your breeding: Breeding values and inbreeding coefficient of potential offspring ... In the functions ``Breeding values selected by breeder", ``Breeding values of siblings" and ``Breeding values selected by ... The breeding values of the brood tests can also be included in the weighting factors for the total breeding value. In the ... As with the other breeding values, a calculated breeding value without own performance is displayed in brackets. ...
... selected by testing. Planning your breeding: Breeding values and inbreeding coefficient of potential offspring ... The performance index is composed of the breeding value for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming tendency in equal ... Pedigree, inbreeding coefficient and breeding values of a certain queen. * ...
  • The UK Breeding Bird Survey is administered by the British Trust for Ornithology , the Joint Nature Conservation Committee , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds . (
  • The North American Breeding Bird Survey was launched in 1966 after the concept of a continental monitoring program for all breeding birds had been developed by Chandler Robbins and his associates from the Migratory Bird Population Station. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is the primary source for critical quantitative data to evaluate the status of continental bird species, keeping common birds common and helping fuel a $75 billion wildlife watching industry. (
  • A Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA) is a collection of data about all of the birds that breed in a particular state or region. (
  • The Massachusetts Breeding Bird Atlas 1 project was a monumental effort to map the distribution of the breeding birds in the Commonwealth, and was the first of its kind in the United States. (
  • Total counts of breeding birds in 2018. (
  • During June, as the nesting season of birds shifts into high gear across much of the United States and Canada, a small army of birders hits the road to conduct the North American Breeding Bird Survey. (
  • The effect of climate change on the breeding season of birds has been documented before, but in a limited context. (
  • We know that many birds are breeding earlier as temperatures get warmer," Watts said. (
  • What we don't know is if seed-eating birds are shifting the timing of breeding too. (
  • The birds could be changing their breeding timing to match the availability of seeds. (
  • This shift could even be beneficial if birds take advantage of the longer breeding season to make multiple nests and have more offspring. (
  • But as climate continues to change, we could reach a point where birds are no longer able to either time breeding appropriately, or food resources could change in such a way that it has negative impacts on breeding. (
  • Many of us who keep backyard flocks are aware that industrial chicken breeds from commercial hatcheries aren't the best option if we're hoping to raise self-reliant birds. (
  • The North American Breeding Bird Survey is a joint project of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Canadian Wildlife Service . (
  • The Challenge: Many critical wildlife surveys, such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), are analyzed using complex hierarchical models. (
  • The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) provide continent-scale information on breeding and wintering. (
  • The Challenge: Since 1966, the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has filled a vital role in identifying at-risk bird species for Federal, State, and private entities. (
  • And by the way the service piece of this is huge," said Hewlett Packard Enterprise CEO Antonio Neri told attendees at The Channel Company's 2018 Best of Breed Conference. (
  • Cadent's Stephanie Mitchko-Beale implored solution providers at CRN's 2018 Best of Breed Conference to get behind blockchain, saying that it's a "long-term growth play" that can improve transparency in business. (
  • At CRN's Best of Breed 2018, CB Technologies CEO Kelly Ireland shared how solution providers can successfully transform their companies in the digital age. (
  • Aruba Co-Founder Keerti Melkote took the stage at The Channel Company's 2018 Best Of Breed (BoB) Conference to talk about digital transformation, his own journey to the United States, his experience as a disrupter and where the next big opportunity lies for the channel. (
  • Lenovo is making big bets with the channel, overhauling its programs, realigning partner resources and refocusing on its customers, Executive Director and Channel Chief Rob Cato said at the 2018 Best of Breed Conference in Philadelphia. (
  • Keynotes by VMware CEO Pat Gelsinger and Chief Economist at Moody's Analytics Mark Zandi steal the spotlight on the first day of the 2018 Best of Breed Conference. (
  • Your customers are looking for more, and just giving them another warm blanket, expecting that's going to stop bullets doesn't do it," said VMware CEO Pat Gelsinger at the 2018 Best of Breed conference. (
  • I think security [vendors have] failed our customers in the past," said VMWare CEO Pat Gelsinger during his keynote at 2018 Best of Breed Conference on Monday. (
  • At the 2016 North Carolina State Bee Association's first 'Born and Bred' queen rearing workshop, not a single speaker left the podium without stating in one way or another that strong genetics from locally bred queens is the key to breeding bees that can survive on their own without treatments. (
  • Research at the Aberdeen Research and Extension Center focuses on developing an accelerated and internationally recognized wheat breeding and genetics program. (
  • The breeder teaches classes through videoconferencing and onsite on classes of Cereal Breeding and Genetics, QTL Mapping of Cereal Crops and graduate seminars. (
  • The buck contributes 50 percent of the genetics of all his kids, of course, and one buck can breed up to 50 does. (
  • Updated weekly online, Animal Breeding Abstracts is a fully searchable abstracts database delivering all the new highly-targeted, searchable summaries covering key English and non-English language journal articles, reports, conferences and books on animal breeding and genetics. (
  • Derived from CAB Abstracts , Animal Breeding Abstracts provides the latest information on animal production including, animal husbandry, animal genetics, molecular genetics, animal reproduction, as well as reproductive diseases and disorders. (
  • Although Austrian monk Gregor Mendel's pea plant experiments quietly laid the basic foundations of genetics in the mid-19th century, his work was rediscovered and applied to crop breeding only at the beginning of the 20th century. (
  • I nterest in the breed is continuing to grow, with several dairy Shorthorn bulls now available by AI from Dovea Genetics, Progressive, and ABS Ireland. (
  • Included papers offer a unique collection of ideas and breakthroughs in the fields of fodder crops and amenity grasses breeding and genetics, as well as in the creative and innovative application of new tools in practical breeding. (
  • By the 1700s, European breeders began to crossbreed Arabian horses with native horses, developing breeds such as the Thoroughbred racehorse and Quarter Horse. (
  • Throughout history, horse breeders have only tried to produce larger, faster breeds. (
  • There are many farmers who raise full-blooded Boer goats to be sold as breeding stock for both new and existing breeders. (
  • Marker-assisted breeding is a conventional technique that allows breeders to track genes without using transgenic approaches. (
  • The Australian Poll Gene Marker test which is helping Australian cattle breeders select the best breeding cattle for their herds. (
  • We also include the practical experience and opinion of commercial breeders to provide insight into common and applied breeding practices. (
  • The author also wants to express her gratitude to the breeding companies and ornamental plant breeders who gave valuable information and an insight on their experiences with disease resistance breeding. (
  • Besides the fact of the shelters being stuffed full, rescues being bombarded, thousands of dogs being euthanized daily, think about the people who may get a puppy from one of the breeders who don't health test and care about their breedings, and end up with a dog like I did. (
  • breeders should be trying to produce the healthiest dogs they can and not over breed. (
  • The BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a national project aimed at keeping track of changes in the breeding populations of widespread bird species in the UK . (
  • Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. (
  • This terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity . (
  • moreover, the breeding season is a particular time window that has evolved for each species to suit species anatomical, mating -ritual, or climatic and other ecological factors. (
  • [1] Many species migrate considerable distances to reach the requisite breeding locations. (
  • This breeding season is accentuated in temperate regions, [3] where prolonged aestivation or hibernation renders many amphibian species inactive for prolonged periods. (
  • Within that single species, there are many breeds or types. (
  • Along with many animal species, people have also bred plants like tomatoes and bananas to create breeds with desirable traits. (
  • Studies the breeding behavior of three species of seabird on tropical islands: the red-tailed tropic bird, the sooty tern, and the white, or fairy, tern. (
  • Captive breeding and subsequent re-introduction of a threatened species is an important and in some cases very successful tool for species conservation. (
  • captive breeding, gene and seed banks, zoos and aquaria and all other forms of maintaining species artificially and off-site. (
  • Although some species can be very hard to breed, captive breeding has a high success rate. (
  • 19% of all mammals, 10% of all bird species have been bred in captivity. (
  • NRE 220 students often react negatively to the degree of handling/intervention associated with captive breeding, and apparently would prefer to see species go extinct. (
  • This work gives us a rare glimpse in the detailed changes in our breeding birdlife, and tells the story of each species history in the state. (
  • Read species accounts, view maps and data from Massachusetts' first Breeding Bird Atlas. (
  • It is a defining year when a new species is added to the Farnes breeding bird list, so the discovery of a Canada goose nest caused quite a stir among the Rangers. (
  • Captive breeding is not a solution to species going extinct because sustainable growth must be accompanied by protection of habitats and that would require significant human effort and change that just isn't happening. (
  • The wide range of breeding programs for forage and amenity species, as well as new breeding methods and techniques, is rapidly expanding the boundaries and is making it possible to achieve outstanding breeding results. (
  • Plant breeding research and the related seed production are an important part of the process of developing new higher-yielding varieties of crops. (
  • One of these established methods in plant breeding is Near Infrared Spectroscopy. (
  • NIR Instrumentation for routine analysis, R&D and quality control in plant breeding has been already used for a few decades. (
  • In the last years these NIR sensors and the related calibrations for use in plant breeding have been optimized for providing high accuracy and precision. (
  • Due to good and reliable results in measuring moisture, protein and other important parameters Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) can be considered as one of the standard methods in plant breeding programs. (
  • Improve our understanding of breeding bird habitat relationships and the effects of management actions such as grazing, exotic plant removal and prescribed fire regimes on bird populations, by correlating changes in bird community composition and abundance with changes in habitat variables. (
  • Selection for seed yield in Lolium perenne L. Plant Breed. (
  • The relationship between progeny seed yield in drilled plots and maternal spaced-plant traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Plant Breed. (
  • Marker-assisted breeding uses DNA markers associated with desirable traits to select a plant or animal for inclusion in a breeding program early in their development. (
  • For food crops, huge efforts are made to develop plant pathology research and breeding. (
  • Plant breeding , application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. (
  • the biological factors underlying plant breeding are dealt with in the article heredity . (
  • Plant breeding is an ancient activity, dating to the very beginnings of agriculture . (
  • Such tentative selective methods were the forerunners of early plant-breeding procedures. (
  • The results of early plant-breeding procedures were conspicuous . (
  • In the mid-1800s Gregor Mendel outlined the principles of heredity using pea plants and thus provided the necessary framework for scientific plant breeding. (
  • Plant breeding is an important tool in promoting global food security, and many staple crops have been bred to better withstand extreme weather conditions associated with global warming , such as drought or heat waves . (
  • All breeding techniques, from before Mendel's time until today, exploit modifications to plant DNA. (
  • The public debate on genetic engineering in agriculture is largely characterised by misinformation, myths and a confused understanding of nature, writes plant breeding and gene editing expert, Professor Hans-Jörg Jacobsen (PhD). (
  • The French government has been ordered to adapt its policy on plants developed using certain new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs), namely gene editing and in-vitro mutagenesis, in order to adhere to stricter rules for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), a French. (
  • Despite the ongoing legal uncertainty over the future of new plant breeding innovation in Europe, US agricultural company Corteva Agriscience has signed the first major deal on genome editing tools with French seed producer Vilmorin & Cie. (
  • After the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruling that organisms obtained by new plant breeding techniques (NBTs) should, in principle, fall under the GMO Directive, the Council of the EU has requested a study from the Commission to clarify the situation. (
  • It is much easier for larger companies to implement new GM legislation, but it's the smaller ones that are most affected by the recent gene-editing ruling, the chair of the agriculture committee (AGRI) MEP, Norbert Lins, told at the sidelines of a recent plant breeding conference. (
  • Here's a brief-but detailed-outline of what goes into breeding your favorite plant. (
  • The research of Plant breeding is organized in five main themes with emphasis on crop plants although whenever possible and useful Arabidopsis is included or used. (
  • We are developing methods to make plant breeding more efficient, such as molecular markers and other improved identification, selection and transformation methods. (
  • Plant Breeding is a collaboration between the business unit Plant Breeding of Wageningen Plant Research and the Chair Group Plant Breeding. (
  • Plant Breeding counts more than 120 employees together with a large number of guest workers. (
  • Plant Breeding ontwikkelt verschillende software en tools. (
  • i have successfully breed 5 strands of guppies in a 20 gallon tank with a power filter and some java moss and any other type of plant you want and of course add water If you want the fry (newborns)to have a better chance of survival, get a breeder container and place the preg. (
  • One of the world's smallest pony breeds, the Shetland Pony, was bred to work in the coal mines hauling coal cars. (
  • The challenging title of the book focuses on breeding of quantitative traits, which directly impact the profitability and sustainability of grasslands and fodder crops production, as well as on multidisciplinary approach in grassland research and utilisation. (
  • Most conservation energy has gone into breeding programs, which produce captive panda cubs to delight zoo visitors and serve the government's diplomatic dances. (
  • But while the breeding program has been an unquestionable success, that success in some ways only highlights past failures to preserve wild panda habitat, and to properly prepare captive-bred pandas for reintroduction into the wild. (
  • Captive breeding programs might help scientists win the numbers game, but they hold little prospect of revitalizing the wild population. (
  • Biologically, the captive-bred animals are pandas, but behaviorally they've morphed into fakes. (
  • But, captive breeding saved the bison. (
  • A successful captive breeding program by US F&W with a bobwhite quail generated the creation of a wildlife refuge in southern Arizona to allow its successful reintroduction. (
  • Despite these statistics, captive breeding has its critics. (
  • Petition: End Captive Elephant Breeding at St. Louis Zoo! (
  • So it may seem like the captive Asian elephant breeding at the St. Louis Zoo is a good idea. (
  • Sign now to tell the St. Louis Zoo to end their irresponsible captive breeding of Asian elephants program immediately. (
  • If you are thinking about breeding your dog, consult your breeder for advice. (
  • In the functions ``Breeding values selected by breeder", ``Breeding values of siblings" and ``Breeding values selected by testing" these breeding values are only displayed if the selection box 'SMR breeding values' was ticked in the selection mask. (
  • In the filter mask ``Breeding values selected by breeder" you can also select filter criterion that the queen's own performance must be present. (
  • You must renew your dog breeding licence every year, before the expiry date, if you wish to continue as a dog breeder. (
  • Breeding of two or more JAX strains to generate unique breeder pairs. (
  • Watch leading sport horse breeder Lisa Lourie explain the many factors horse owners should consider when contemplating breeding their mares. (
  • As a leading breeder of sport horses and owner of Spy Coast Farm, Lisa Lourie shares her expertise with owners who are considering the long-term and expensive commitment of breeding, starting with the first and perhaps most important question: "Why do I want to breed my mare? (
  • The licence is required under the Breeding of Dogs Act 1973 and will be valid for 1 year. (
  • Created and indexed by subject specialists Animal Breeding Abstracts includes a fully searchable backfile to 1973 of over 385,000 research summaries with more than 18,000 full text documents. (
  • His father, Joe, established the Rare Breeds Trust in 1973,and they have been a core attraction at their Cotswold Farm Park, and a part of the Henson family story ever since. (
  • Some dysplastic dogs may move normally with no outward signs of a problem but still should not be bred. (
  • An accessible bitch in heat can lead to unplanned breedings, not to mention fights among dogs frantic to get to her. (
  • First of all let me start by saying, if you have a heart and even half a concious, and a true love for animals, you won't attempt breeding dogs just to make money on thier reproductive systems. (
  • Secondly, if you do truely want to breed quality animals to produce something competetive for the show ring, you won't just throw two dogs together and let them breed. (
  • Just as obesity has proved dangerous to human flu victims because of the weight on their chests, being bred to have a short, bent respiratory tract is dangerous for dogs. (
  • Do we need to breed more dogs? (
  • Before humans bred dogs for certain jobs or physical traits, all dogs resembled their common ancestor, the wolf. (
  • 1. Not a single reputable national humane or canine organization supports banning breeds of dogs. (
  • They allow for the pre-emptive seizure of dogs used for any type of harassment, intimidation, or illegal activity, regardless of breed. (
  • Pugs are one of the most engaging and sassy breed of dogs. (
  • Category:Breeding Dogs]] [[Category:Pugs]] ==Steps== ===Deciding to Breed Your Pug=== #Examine your motivations for breeding. (
  • You must have a dog breeding licence if you breed and sell dogs. (
  • Aeroflot has registered its own Shalaika breed of sniffer dogs with the Russian Cynological Federation. (
  • The breed was developed for Aeroflot's security by Klim Sulimov , a renowned Russian biologist, and since 2001 Shalaikas have supported the airline's dog service as sniffer dogs. (
  • There were not people everywhere breeding dogs constantly as there was no money to be made! (
  • Showing or working is no guarantee, but at least your dogs are proving to be what the breed is supposed to be. (
  • In this day and age, I feel anyone considering breeding should be doing something with thier dogs to prove them worthy of reproducing. (
  • we need to do our part in keeping dogs out of the shelters, helping in rescue with the breed of our choice. (
  • So, I apologize for the ramble, but just was blown away at the number of breeding posts lately and the number of PM's I've gottten saying that testing and proving dogs is not needed! (
  • PARIS/NICE (Reuters) - France's highest administrative court on Monday overturned a ban on breeding killer whales and dolphins in captivity after ruling there had been irregularities in the decree putting the legislation into place. (
  • Animal rights group Hakol Chai has launched a campaign against the Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry's August decision to invest NIS 750,000 in horse breeding, charging that such horses will be raised predominantly for racing and will likewise be subject to cruel consequences. (
  • The increase in funds toward horse breeding, Hakol Chai argued in a statement on Monday, is in reality a ministerial effort to promote the establishment of horse racing and gambling without due legislation, stemming from a government decision to establish Israel's first hippodrome in 2004. (
  • While the Agriculture Ministry did confirm that its increased efforts to strengthen the horse breeding industry do stem partially from the 2004 hippodrome decision, a ministry representative told The Jerusalem Post the office has no part in promoting gambling. (
  • The ministry began to raise the level of the horse breeding industry similarly to what is accepted in Western countries, and to support the advancement of activities related to promoting the welfare of the horses - growth, multiplicity, training, treatment, living conditions and economic management," the ministry told the Post in response to Hakol Chai's allegations. (
  • Some of these UF clones have been used as key progenitors for breeding resistance/tolerance to Frosty Pod and Black Pod diseases in the Americas. (
  • Here we offer an overview of disease resistance breeding in ornamental plants. (
  • Anaïs G, Darrasse A, Prior P (2000) Breeding anthuriums ( Anthurium andreanum L.) for resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. (
  • We want breeds that retain natural resistance to disease and climate stresses. (
  • ITHACA, N.Y. - A $300,000 investment from New York state has paved the way for a new hops breeding program at Cornell AgriTech, which will grow and develop signature New York hops varieties - selected for high yield, preferred flavors and disease resistance - in support of the state's $3.4 billion craft brewing industry. (
  • Spaying or neutering will prevent accidental breedings and may even prolong your dog's life. (
  • if it was bred, even accidental, the pups were given away to friends and family or culled. (
  • Bulls of local breeds of cattle are used for natural service. (
  • But for hybridizing of yak with relatively high-yielding "exotic" breeds of cattle, the use of AI with frozen semen is normal, as the bulls of these breeds have not, in the past, survived for long in the mountainous regions. (
  • In the case of the D.C. proposal, at least two breeds described as "pit bulls" appear nowhere on Department of Health dog-bite statistics. (
  • 5. Last summer's meeting of the Society of Anthrozoology devoted an entire session to the question of "dangerous breeds" and found no evidence to support the contention that "pit bulls" are genetically dangerous. (
  • There was a noted increase in demand for beef Shorthorn bulls last spring, for crossing with continental breeds and breeding replacements for the suckler herd. (
  • To develop desired wheat varieties and germplasm using an integrated breeding system combining traditional and mutant breeding methods with doubled haploid production and molecular marker-assisted selection. (
  • This approach dramatically reduces the time required to identify varieties or breeds which express the desired trait in a breeding program. (
  • Humans produced these breeds over many generations by mating individuals with certain traits. (
  • Through artificial selection, humans have produced these breeds by mating horses with desired traits--like strength and size for workhorses and speed for racehorses. (
  • When these traits get passed down to over many generations, a new breed is produced. (
  • To that end, biodiversity of breeds and natural selection of hearty animals have given way to an emphasis on selecting for and institutionalizing a small handful of genetic traits that help maximize production and profit. (
  • From now on the breeding values for the results of brood investigations are available, namely for the 3 traits SMR (suppressed mite reproduction), recapping (proportion of recapped cells), recapping infected (proportion of recapped cells infected with Varroa mites). (
  • When you breed your own flock, you can choose which traits to select for, such as cold-hardiness. (
  • To meet those goals, we choose to raise heritage chicken breeds, expecting they'll offer the traits that made such breeds popular on homesteads for generations, including longevity, the inclination to forage, immune system integrity, and, of course, reliable production of high-quality meat and eggs. (
  • The poultry industry has proved quite capable of breeding for the select traits it wants to improve. (
  • There is circumstantial evidence that some inbreeding is likely to have occurred with yak as a result of traditional pure-breeding methods and, in some countries, because of insufficient interchange of breeding stock across national boundaries. (
  • In an interview with EURACTIV Germany , Dr Ludger Breloh, the managing director of the egg breeding company Seleggt Gmbh, spoke about Germany's recent decision to allow the mass killings of young male chickens and how his company's Seleggt process could be used as a bridging technology until more commercially viable methods are found. (
  • Learn about heritage chicken breeding methods to achieve a hardy and productive flock. (
  • No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. (
  • There are over 200 breeds of horses, from the massive Belgian Draft to the slender, speedy Thoroughbred. (
  • Yet even before a bill to permit gambling on horse racing has been introduced into the Knesset, the ministry offered more than NIS 750,000 in public funds to farms willing to breed race horses. (
  • Not only will the newly bred horses be used for racing, but they will also be used for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes, as well as bolster the economies of peripheral areas with new industry, the ministry said. (
  • Lourie's goal was, and is, to grow America's Warmblood breeding industry and to establish a low-cost structure to develop young sport horses. (
  • Spy Coast Farm specializes in the breeding and development of top-quality performance horses with three locations in Lexington, K.Y., Tryon, N.C., and Wellington, Fla. Learn more about Spy Coast Farm by vising their website and following them on Facebook and Instagram . (
  • Traditional chicken breeds would reach market weight by 14 weeks of age or older, but through intensive, selective breeding, modern commercial broilers can reach market weight at only 5 or 6 weeks of age. (
  • The protection and promotion of the UK's native rare breeds is something that's in Adam Henson's blood. (
  • The farm now grows wheat, spring barley and oilseed rape, runs a flock of 400 commercial ewes and has the UK's leading collection of rare breeds, many of which are in demand for film sets and advertisements. (
  • Following his baseball retirement in 1968, Breeding worked as a manufacturer's representative and eventually started Marve Breeding Enterprises, which included M&B Industries machine shop in Decatur. (
  • Our zebrafish breed fine at 29C. (
  • We are developing instruments for the detection, quantification and efficient utilisation of genetic variation for research into functional biodiversity and crop breeding. (
  • Toronado - A New Breed," SAE Technical Paper 660154, 1966, . (
  • Personally I would rather have a strong even tempered dog bred on a farm even if there is no pedigree from 1910. (
  • In the pedigree browser the breeding values of the brood tests are displayed when they are available. (
  • Marker-assisted breeding doesn't produce genetically modified organisms. (
  • It was also a good breeding year for puffins with low rainfall and calm conditions in mid-June to July resulting in high productivity. (
  • We prefer sturdier, heritage chicken breeds, capable of free-ranging and foraging much of their own feed. (
  • Determining If Your Pug Is Right For Breeding=== #Watch your pug's temperament. (
  • center]] #*If your dog has any emotional or temperament issues, you should rethink breeding him or her. (
  • In the old days, unless a dog proved worthy by working or having an excellent temperament, it wasn't bred. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • List based on the number of dog breeds registered with the Kennel Club in 2016. (
  • Piracicaba (Brazil) (AFP) - Scientists in Brazil are preparing to release millions of factory-bred mosquitoes in an attempt to wipe out their distant cousins that carry tropical diseases. (
  • While female mosquitoes are kept for breeding, male mosquitoes of the OX513A breed -- especially developed by Oxitec in 2002 -- are released to mate with females in the wild, produce short-lived offspring, then die. (
  • Farmers use great care to secure appropriate breeds of animals who are not plagued with the welfare problems outlined above and are suited to a more natural life outdoors on pasture. (
  • If goats are in short supply in your area, you might consider raising breeding stock to sell to other goat farmers. (
  • Some goat farmers say that for breeding stock, connecting with 4H and FFA can be a fruitful venture. (
  • I propose that we homesteaders and small-scale farmers take heritage chicken breeding into our own hands, and that we support the improvement-breeding efforts of farm-scale hatcheries. (
  • You will do your homework and research the breed of your choice. (
  • The next step is to do your own research into why that company is considered best of breed by that person or group. (
  • Panda pregnancies are hard to spot, lasting anything from 80 to 300 days, but once scientists know a panda is pregnant, "we will husband her, to ensure she's really peaceful," says Zhang Zhihe, director of the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding. (
  • Animal Breeding Abstracts is a fully searchable abstracts database of internationally published research into animal production. (
  • The U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center oversees the Breeding Bird Survey from its headquarters in Laurel, Maryland. (
  • A large proportion of the female yak population is required simply to replace the pure-bred yak - even if the size of that population were to remain static and not increase, as seems often desired by herders. (
  • The Shalaika is a Russian jackal-dog hybrid originating from an initial cross-breed of two Lapponian Herders and two Turkmen golden jackals. (
  • Judged purely by numbers, the breeding program is undoubtedly a success story. (
  • The program - to be led by Larry Smart, professor of horticulture in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences - will integrate AgriTech expertise to help the state's hops growers overcome breeding and disease-management challenges. (
  • Consumers want 'new and different,' and this is why a hops breeding program is needed in New York state. (
  • This breeding program will play a crucial role in providing hops to help brewers further demonstrate our own regional strengths and our own preferred styles. (
  • There are only 35,000 of these elephants world wide, but this breeding program won't help. (
  • Sign the petition to ask the zoo to do the ethical thing and stop their breeding program. (
  • Found off the west Australian coast, the flathead perch is both difficult to catch and hard to breed, but a team of Geraldton aqua-culturists has raised twenty one fish to sell around the world. (
  • Identify significant temporal changes in composition and abundance of bird communities in 11 parks within the HTLN during the breeding season. (
  • It seems the cats, in a randy mood during breeding season, had gotten aggressive and broken their teeth on the chain-link fences of their enclosure (the zoo has since installed Plexiglas). (
  • The state is divided into 1,055 equal map blocks, and each block is observed for at least 20 hours during breeding season. (
  • Before the 1963 season Breeding was sent to the new Washington Senators in a five-players deal, playing at third and second bases. (
  • In a four-season majors career, Breeding was a .250 hitter with seven home runs and 92 RBI in 415 games. (
  • James Serpell, a scholar at the University of Pennsylvania, stated, "Although they look different, dog 'breeds' have no more scientific basis than do 'races' among humans. (
  • We "flocksters" often prefer to harvest meat and eggs from the same flock, so we're more interested in dual-purpose breeds than in industrial hybrids with either astounding laying or growth rates. (
  • Far too often, the chickens raised from those chicks don't measure up to expectations based on breed descriptions established by the American Poultry Association's Standards of Perfection . (
  • Annual examination of all breeding animals will ensure that he/she is free of hereditary eye disorders. (
  • Will this teach us to stop breeding such defects into animals? (
  • Judging by the number of animals requiring homes at the SPCA and other animal shelters I would have thought selecting an animal from these institutions would help decrease the number of animals put to sleep unnecessarily, rather than breeding more. (
  • Only closely related animals can be bred. (
  • In contrast to the breeding techniques of modern industrial farming , higher-welfare, pasture-based farms strive to breed animals who are healthy and hearty. (
  • In A Breed Apart, Adam Henson takes readers on a very personal journey around the nation, discovering the animals that have shaped our lives and our land throughout the centuries. (
  • Breeding is sexual reproduction that produces offspring, usually animals or plants. (
  • Oxitec does not yet have a sales permit from Brazil's Anvisa health authorities, and there are no epidemiological studies showing whether mosquito-carried diseases drop after the factory-bred insects are released. (
  • Consider all the consequences-and expenses-of breeding a litter before you do so. (
  • I was kinda worried about Dolly accepting the babies after the surgery as she was 4 years old, never been bred or had a litter and sometimes moms don't accept pups after coming out of anethesia. (
  • So the next time you enjoy a piece of corn, give thanks to the Native Americans for their successful breeding techniques. (
  • The author's multicolored flock of Icelandic chickens, also known as "Icies," have been bred to meet his specific conditions and management techniques. (
  • American beekeepers have had great success breeding gentle bees that produce lots of honey. (
  • We look at a local effort to breed bees that are not susceptible to the mite that causes worker bees in a colony to disappear. (
  • Since new breeding technologies such as gene editing are still new and evolving, risk assessments and regulations also need to be evolving, says a molecular biologist for Bayer Life Science company. (
  • Some believe the recessive gene for long hair was introduced into the European Siamese gene pool after World War I. Since the Siamese was nearly obliterated during the war, other breeds and some mixed-breed domestic cats were used to revitalize the breed. (
  • BBS data is quite difficult to analyze given that the survey does not produce a complete counting of the breeding bird populations but more like a relative abundance index. (
  • For example, a horse and donkey can produce offspring (a mule), but you cannot breed a horse and a cow. (
  • center]] #*This means that you want to breed your pug in order to produce more happy, healthy pug specimens. (
  • In this case this setting acts as a filter - only queens for which the breeding values have been calculated are displayed. (
  • It can take several weeks to process an evaluation so this should be done well in advance of when you plan to breed the animal. (
  • If you plan to breed or show your dog, you will want to find a knowledgeable person in the breed to show you the ropes. (
  • The pug you plan to breed with yours should also be well behaved and even tempered. (