The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sexual activities of animals.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Diseases of plants.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The number of males per 100 females.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.
The physical measurements of a body.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (1/4007)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Morphometric study of the equine navicular bone: variations with breeds and types of horse and influence of exercise. (2/4007)

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences.  (+info)

Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (3/4007)

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future. (4/4007)

Farm animal genetic diversity is required to meet current production needs in various environments, to allow sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Production efficiency in pastoral species is closely tied to the use of diverse genetic types, but greater genetic uniformity has evolved in intensively raised species. In poultry, breeding decisions are directed by a few multinational companies and involve intense selection, the use of distinct production lines, and very large populations. In dairy cattle, the Holstein breed dominates production. Intensive sire selection is leading to relatively rapid inbreeding rates and raises questions about long-term effects of genetic drift. Key questions in management of farm animal genetic diversity involve the distribution of potentially useful quantitative trait locus alleles among global livestock breeds. Experiments with tomato, maize, and mice suggest that favorable alleles can exist in otherwise lowly productive stocks; this cryptic variation may potentially contribute to future selection response. Genetic improvement under relatively intense unidirectional selection may involve both increases in the frequency of favorable additive alleles as well as the progressive breakdown of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms established under the stabilizing selection that is characteristic of natural populations. Recombination among closely linked regulatory loci and new, potentially favorable mutations are possible sources of long-term genetic variation. A greater understanding of the potential that these alternative mechanisms have for supporting long-term genetic improvement and of genetic relationships among global livestock populations are priorities for managing farm animal genetic diversity.  (+info)

Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects. (5/4007)

Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point.  (+info)

Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. (6/4007)

An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed.  (+info)

Effects of milk yield on biological efficiency and profit of beef production from birth to slaughter. (7/4007)

Effect of milk yield (MY) on biological efficiency and gross margin as an indicator of profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter was determined. Data included 9 yr of spring-born single male calves. Biological efficiency was calculated as carcass weight/total feed energy intake, including nonlactating and lactating intakes of cow and creep and feedlot intakes of calf. Slaughter end point was finish constant at 9 mm of fat thickness. Gross margin was determined as returns minus feed costs. Three breeding systems were analyzed: purebred Hereford (HE), large rotational (LR), and small rotational (SR). Analyses were performed separately by breeding system when differences in the effect of MY among breeding systems were significant. Increased MY was associated with increased preweaning gain (P < .001), increased weight at start of feedlot trial (P < .001), and increased hot carcass weight (P < .05). No significant (P > .10) effect of MY on age at slaughter or on carcass weight per day of age at slaughter was found. Increased MY was associated with increased cow lactating energy intake (P < .10) and negatively associated with calf creep intake (P < .01). No effects of MY on intake of the cow during the nonlactating period, calf feedlot intake, or total feed intake were found. Increased MY was associated with a reduction in backfat thickness of the cow during the lactating period (P < .01) with no change in body weight. In the subsequent nonlactating period, increasing MY was associated with increased backfat thickness (P < .10) and body weight (P < .05). No effect of MY on change in backfat or weight of cow from calving to the end of the next nonlactating period was found. No effect of MY on biological efficiency to slaughter was detected. Milk yield was positively associated with gross margin from birth to slaughter (P < .05); results were similar when cow feed prices were reduced by 30%. Increased MY was associated with increased biological efficiency to weaning in HE (P < .01) and SR (P < .10), with no effect found in LR. When feeding cows to requirements, milk yield has a positive effect on the profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter.  (+info)

Modulation of allospecific CTL responses during pregnancy in equids: an immunological barrier to interspecies matings? (8/4007)

Maternal immune recognition of the developing conceptus in equine pregnancy is characterized by the strongest and most consistent alloantibody response described in any species, a response directed almost exclusively against paternal MHC class I Ags. This work investigated the cellular immune response to paternal MHC Ags in pregnant and nonpregnant horses and donkeys, and in horses carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses. We observed profound decreases in classical, MHC-restricted, CTL activity to allogeneic paternal cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both horse mares and donkey jennets carrying intraspecies pregnancies, compared with cells from nonpregnant controls. This is the first evidence in a randomly bred species for a generalized systemic shift of immune reactivity away from cellular and toward humoral immunity during pregnancy. Surprisingly, mares carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses did not exhibit this transient, pregnancy-associated decrease in CTL activity. The failure of interspecies pregnancy to down-regulate cellular immune responses may be a heretofore-unrecognized, subtle barrier to reproductive success between species.  (+info)

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the pelvis. In a normal hip joint, the ball (the head of the femur) fits snugly into the socket (the acetabulum). However, in dogs with hip dysplasia, the ball and socket may not fit together properly, causing the joint to become loose or unstable. This can lead to inflammation, pain, and degenerative changes in the joint over time.

There are two main types of hip dysplasia in dogs: developmental hip dysplasia and degenerative hip dysplasia. Developmental hip dysplasia occurs when the hip joint does not form properly during fetal development, while degenerative hip dysplasia is caused by wear and tear on the joint over time.

The symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Lameness or difficulty walking
* Pain or discomfort
* Stiffness or limited mobility
* Difficulty rising or climbing stairs
* Decreased activity level or reluctance to exercise
* Grinding or clicking sounds when the dog moves its hip joint

Hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, radiographs (x-rays), and arthroscopy. Treatment options for the condition may include:

* Medication to manage pain and inflammation
* Weight management to reduce the strain on the joint
* Surgery to repair or replace the damaged joint
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength

Preventative measures such as feeding a balanced diet, providing plenty of exercise and weight management can help to reduce the risk of developing hip dysplasia in dogs. However, if the condition does occur, early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the symptoms and improve the dog's quality of life.

Dystocia is a term used to describe abnormal or difficult labor, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as fetal size, position, or gestational age. It is characterized by slow progress of labor, prolonged labor, or failure of the cervix to dilate adequately. Dystocia can lead to complications such as fetal distress, infection, or excessive maternal bleeding.

There are several types of dystocia, including:

1. Prolonged latent phase dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the early stages of labor are prolonged, often due to the fetus being in an unfavorable position or having a slower than average rate of growth.
2. Arrest of descent dystocia: In this type of dystocia, the fetus's head is dilated but fails to progress further down the birth canal, often due to fetal distress or abnormal fetal positioning.
3. Cervical dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the cervix does not dilate adequately during labor, making it difficult for the baby to pass through the birth canal.
4. Fetal dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the fetus is unable to move down the birth canal due to its size or position, often causing fetal distress.
5. Maternal dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the mother experiences difficulty during labor, such as a narrow pelvis or excessive fatigue.

Dystocia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Fetal size or position: The fetus may be too large or in an abnormal position, making it difficult to pass through the birth canal.
2. Maternal factors: The mother may have a narrow pelvis, excessive fatigue, or other medical conditions that can cause difficulty during labor.
3. Infection: Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections can cause dystocia.
4. Previous uterine surgery: Scar tissue from previous surgeries can make it difficult for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
5. Placental problems: Abnormalities with the placenta, such as placenta previa or placental abruption, can cause dystocia.

Dystocia can be treated in several ways, depending on the underlying cause. These may include:

1. Prostaglandin: This medication is used to stimulate contractions and soften the cervix, making it easier for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
2. Oxytocin: This hormone can be used to stimulate uterine contractions and help the baby move down the birth canal.
3. Forceps or vacuum extraction: These instruments may be used to assist with delivery, especially if the baby is experiencing fetal distress.
4. Cesarean section: In some cases, a C-section may be necessary if dystocia cannot be resolved through other means.
5. Fetal monitoring: Close monitoring of the fetus's heart rate and other vital signs can help identify any issues that may arise during labor.

It is important to note that dystocia can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and baby, such as fetal distress, infection, and postpartum hemorrhage. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately if signs of dystocia are present or if labor is not progressing as expected.

Tetraploidy can be caused by various factors such as:

1. Polyploidy: This is a condition where an individual has more than two sets of chromosomes, including tetraploidy.
2. Chromosomal abnormalities: Such as aneuploidy, where there is an extra or missing copy of a specific chromosome.
3. Genetic disorders: Such as Down syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
4. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation can increase the risk of tetraploidy.

Symptoms of tetraploidy can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Growth delays: Children with tetraploidy may experience slowed growth and development.
2. Intellectual disability: Some individuals with tetraploidy may have cognitive impairments and learning difficulties.
3. Physical abnormalities: Tetraploidy can result in a variety of physical characteristics, such as short stature, thinning hair, and distinctive facial features.
4. Increased risk of health problems: Individuals with tetraploidy may be more susceptible to certain health issues, such as heart defects, hearing loss, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of tetraploidy is typically made through chromosomal analysis, which can be performed on a blood or tissue sample. Treatment for tetraploidy is not always necessary, but may include:

1. Monitoring growth and development: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help track the child's growth and development.
2. Speech and language therapy: Children with tetraploidy may benefit from speech and language therapy to address any communication difficulties.
3. Occupational therapy: Individuals with tetraploidy may need occupational therapy to help them develop skills and abilities.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage associated health problems, such as heart defects or seizures.

It is important to note that every individual with tetraploidy is unique and may have a different experience and outcome. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with tetraploidy can lead fulfilling lives.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

1. Heartworms: A parasite that infects the heart and lungs of dogs and cats, causing respiratory problems and potentially leading to heart failure.
2. Tapeworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
3. Mites: Small, eight-legged parasites that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in animals.
4. Lice: Small, wingless parasites that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
5. Hookworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, anemia, and other symptoms.
6. Roundworms: A common type of parasite that can infect animals, causing a range of symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
7. Ticks: Blood-sucking parasites that can transmit diseases to animals, such as Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.
8. Fleas: Small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
9. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing skin lesions and other symptoms.
10. Babesiosis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing fever, anemia, and other symptoms.

Parasitic diseases in animals are often diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the infection, but may include antiparasitic medications, antibiotics, and supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Prevention is key in avoiding parasitic diseases in animals, and this can be achieved through regular deworming and vaccination programs, as well as taking measures to reduce exposure to parasites such as fleas and ticks.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

Lithium Breeding (sex act) Breeding back, a breeding effort to re-assemble extinct breed genes Breeding pair, bonded animals ... Look up Breeding or breeding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Breeding is sexual reproduction that produces offspring, ... a planned breeding of animals or plants Breeding season, the period during each year when a species reproduces Captive breeding ... Good breeding (disambiguation) Hybrid (biology), breeding between dissimilar parents Inbreeding, breeding between close ...
Breeding died in his home at the age of 72. "Marv Breeding Statistics and History". " Retrieved May 20, ... Breeding worked as a manufacturer's representative and eventually started Marve Breeding Enterprises, which included M&B ... Marv Breeding at Baseball Almanac Marv Breeding at Pura Pelota (Venezuelan Professional Baseball League) Wetzel, Michael ( ... Breeding reached the major leagues in 1960 with the Orioles, spending three years with them before moving to the Washington ...
... what kind of work it was bred to do). Individual breed clubs, whose members write the breed standard for their breed, decide ... other breed standards accept the scissor bite. The all-breed judge must know which bite is or is not a fault for each breed ... In animal breed standards, a fault is an aspect of appearance or temperament that is considered detrimental to the breed type ... Other breeds such as the Flat-coated Retriever only black and liver are acceptable, but yellow is a disqualification. The breed ...
Big Finish Productions - Dust Breeding Dust Breeding on Tardis Data Core, an external wiki (Articles with short description, ... Dust Breeding is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series ... The name of the planet Duchamp 331 is almost certainly a reference to artist Marcel Duchamp, and Dust Breeding a reference to ...
The breed's decreased use was due primarily to the mechanization of agriculture and the adoption of major breeds, which yield ... The first actual captive breeding programs were only started in the 1960s. These programs, such as the Arabian Oryx breeding ... The breeding of species of conservation concern is coordinated by cooperative breeding programs containing international ... Captive breeding program helps save tortoises species, retrieved 2020-09-17 "Tortoise Breeding and Rearing Programs". Galapagos ...
... is the application of molecular biology tools, often in plant breeding and animal breeding. In the broad ... More often, however, molecular breeding implies molecular marker-assisted breeding (MAB) and is defined as the application of ... This provides limitless opportunities in breeding crop plants. Voosen P (2009) Molecular Breeding Makes Crops Hardier and More ... Selection can be based on genomic selection predictions, potentially leading to more rapid and lower cost gains from breeding. ...
... is the first EP by Bloodbath. It was released on 8 February 2000 by Century Media Records. Breeding Death was ... Blakkheim (December 20, 2009). "'BREEDING DEATH ... "Breeding Death: Bloodbath". Retrieved March 24, 2010. ...
In 1991, Breeding moved to finish inking Superman until 1993. During that time, Breeding was the primary finish inker (over Dan ... Official Website Brett Breeding at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original) Brett Breeding at Catskill Comics (Articles ... Breeding also contributed to the 1996 landmark one-shot Superman: The Wedding Album. In 1998, Breeding returned to Marvel ... Breeding began his career at DC Comics in 1980 on Weird War Tales, moving on to The Superman Family and Green Arrow backup ...
Speed breeding is introduced by Watson et al. 2018. Classical (human performed) phenotyping during speed breeding is also ... Classical breeding is therefore a cyclical process.[clarification needed] With classical breeding techniques, the breeder does ... Deppe, Carol (2000). Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties. Chelsea Green Publishing. ,page=237-244 "Plant breeding". Archived ... Genetics stimulated research to improve crop production through plant breeding. Modern plant breeding is applied genetics, but ...
... reduces the costs of many maternal investments for breeding members. Helpers aid the breeding females with ... This suggests cooperative breeding evolved from noncooperative breeding monotocy to cooperative breeding polytocy. Today, there ... This enables the breeding female to retain energy to be used within a new breeding attempt. Overall, the addition of helpers to ... Cooperative breeding encompasses a wide variety of group structures, from a breeding pair with helpers that are offspring from ...
Breeding, storekeeper, U.S. Navy, of Byrd Station, 1967. "Breeding Nunatak". Geographic Names Information System. United States ... Breeding Nunatak (77°4′S 142°28′W / 77.067°S 142.467°W / -77.067; -142.467Coordinates: 77°4′S 142°28′W / 77.067°S 142.467° ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Breeding Nunatak". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
The cost of breeding is quite high and thus only selected breeders do it in volume. Not all species are suited for breeding in ... Captive bred monkeys may be intentionally bred by their owners. A person who intentionally mates monkeys to produce babies is ... Breeding outside of zoos is typically done for commercial gain. Monkeys have been bred in captivity for hundreds of years. ... "To breed or not to breed? Health Canada faces a monkey dilemma" (PDF). Canadian Medical Association Journal. 157 (9): 1192. 1 ...
... is not to be confused with dedomestication. It must be kept in mind that a breeding-back breed may be very ... where many breeding-back attempts take place, this predator population is largely absent. Bred-back breeds are desirable in ... These new breeds may be viewed as breeding-back attempts as well. Although extinct, Japanese wolf DNA survives in the modern ... Breeding back is a form of artificial selection by the deliberate selective breeding of domestic (but not exclusively) animals ...
Optimising is usually carried out at the following levels: breeding strategy (appropriate intensity of breeding, breeding ... Choice of a suitable breeding strategy and mating design is a key decision in any breeding program. Kiss (1986) used a 2-level ... the breeding of trees, with the exception of fruit trees, is a relatively recent occurrence. A typical forest tree breeding ... then breeding from selections to expand the population with improved characteristics. Breeding strategies vary with species and ...
Breeding is the first EP by American indie band Dirty Little Rabbits. It was released on August 15, 2007, for sale exclusively ... breeding". Looney Tunes. Archived from the original on 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2008-06-11. v t e (Articles needing additional ...
A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and ... Animal husbandry Captive breeding European Endangered Species Programme Ex-situ conservation Eugenics Selective breeding (CS1 ... Horse breeders try to produce fast racehorses through breeding programs. Conservationists use breeding programs to try to help ... could design a breeding program so that only the vines whose grapes make the very best wine are allowed to breed. " ...
"Tritium Breeding". ITER. Giancarli, Luciano (5 June 2017). "Tritium breeding systems enter preliminary design phase". ITER. ( ... successful breeding of the tritium in commercial quantities is a requirement. Breeding blanket designs are mostly based on ... The tritium breeding blanket (also known as a fusion blanket, lithium blanket or simply blanket), is a key part of many ... Six different tritium breeding systems, known as Test Blanket Modules (TBM) wil be tested in ITER. "Tritium" (PDF). FAS/DoD. ...
True breeding pairs are quite common in birds. Breeding pair arrangements are rare in mammals, where the prevailing patterns ... Breeding pair is a pair of animals which cooperate over time to produce offspring with some form of a bond between the ... True breeding pairs are usually found only in vertebrates, but there are notable exceptions, such as the Lord Howe Island stick ... True breeding pairs are rare in amphibians or reptiles, although the Australian Shingleback is one exception with long-term ...
In animal breeding, a breeding mount or phantom mount is an imitation of a female animal used to hold an artificial vagina for ... In use, the male animal is encouraged to mount the breeding mount as if he were copulating with a female. Breeding mounts are ... Reproductive technology v t e (Animal breeding, Livestock, Artificial insemination, All stub articles, Veterinary medicine ... to bring the male to full sexual arousal so that he is ready to mount the breeding mount. In the case of horses, this is known ...
The breed of the horse is sometimes secondary when breeding for a sport horse, but some disciplines may prefer a certain breed ... Test breedings have been done with draft horse stallions bred to small mares with no increase in the number of difficult births ... Breeds such as the Lipizzan and the now extinct Neapolitan horse were developed from Spanish-bred horses for this purpose, and ... If the mare is not pregnant, she may be bred again during her next cycle. It is considered safe to breed a mare to a stallion ...
For example, space-bred wheat saw a large growth in seed germination in compared to its Earth-bound control, but space-bred ... Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals, radiation, or ... Exposing plants to radiation is sometimes called radiation breeding and is a sub class of mutagenic breeding. Radiation ... Most of these so-called conventional plant breeding methods (such as gene transfer by pollination, mutation breeding, cell ...
... can take the following forms: Selective breeding of rare breeds and rare pedigrees, particularly ... Rare breeds that suffer life-threatening genetic deficiencies can be intentionally cross-bred with other breeds that have the ... either of a rare breed, or of rare pedigrees within a breed. Preservation breeding can have several purposes: Protection of ... Breeding back Conservation genetics "The key requirement for preservation breeding". The Institute of Canine Biology. Retrieved ...
... is sexual reproduction within a species. It can refer to: Selective breeding of plants or animals by ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Intraspecific breeding. If an internal link led you here, you ... humans, to choose desirable traits Hybridization, when both parents are members of the same species Breeding (disambiguation) ...
Some examples are problems with breathing in the Pug breed and Pekingese breed, spinal problems in the Dachshund breed, and ... dog breeding became more rigorous and many breeds were developed during this time. Dog breeding became more systematic to ... Breeders may also breed dogs for profit, for show, because of an interest in a particular breed, or to correct some issue and ... Line breeding is the planned breeding of dogs with their relatives. This is done to strengthen the appearance of specific ...
Breeding is an unincorporated community in Adair County, Kentucky, United States. Its elevation is 1001 feet (305 m). "Breeding ... U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Breeding, Kentucky v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... may refer to: Purebred, "cultivated varieties" of a species Etiquette, the socially reinforced standards of ... traits through various forms of intervention This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Good breeding. ...
... , at 201-211 N. Main St. in Monticello, Kentucky, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988 ... "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Hotel Breeding / WNM-46". National Park Service. Retrieved February 27, 2018 ...
Animal breeding Animal husbandry Breed registry Breeding back Captive breeding Culling Eugenics Experimental evolution Gene ... whereas mixed breeds are a mix of several breeds, often unknown. Animal breeding begins with breeding stock, a group of animals ... Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to ... and other characteristics are known as particular breeds or pure breeds, and they are bred through culling animals with ...
Breeding stock is a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, ... Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed is referred to as purebred breeding. Opposite to the practice of ... Canada Animal Breeding & Genetics, Cornell University, USA Animal Breeding & Genetics, Iowa State University, USA Breeding and ... For example, when breeding swine for meat, the "breeding stock should be sound, fast growing, muscular, lean, and ...
... is an album by American jazz guitarist O'Donel Levy recorded in 1972 and released on the Groove Merchant label ... Breeding of Mind - Review at AllMusic. Retrieved March 28, 2018. (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Allmusic's Jason Ankeny said: "Breeding of Mind pairs guitarist O'Donel Levy with arranger Manny Albam for a genre-defying set ... "Breeding of Mind" - 3:14 "Cherries" - 4:04 "On Broadway" (Barry Mann, Cynthia Weil, Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller) - 3:37 "Ideal ...
Diosmin is a compound that is widely distributed in citrus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diosmin on osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. The effect of diosmin on mRNA expression levels of osteogenic genes in MC3T3E1 cells were determined by RT-PCR. Diosmin regulated expression of key osteogenic genes such as dNA-binding protein inhibitor (Id1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) during osteoblast differentiation, and promoted recovery of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-reduced osteogenesis. Alizarin Red S staining was performed to evaluate mineralization. Diosmin enhanced mineralization and recovery of TNF-α-reduced osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that diosmin may enhance osteoblast differentiation and recovery of TNF-α-reduced osteoblast differentiation, and it may be a candidate for treating osteoporosis ...
He thinks hell find more tagged monarchs around the Bay area in breeding, instead of in non-breeding overwintering colonies, ... New Monarch butterfly breeding pattern inspires hope. Washington State University. Journal. Animal Migration. DOI. 10.1515/ami- ... "And seeing this winter breeding, which is something new we saw in Australia in the late 1970s, leads me to think that Monarchs ... "There has been a huge increase in caterpillars in the Bay area, indicating that those populations are breeding," he said. "The ...
Right breed for you? Beagle information including personality, history, grooming, pictures, videos, and the AKC breed standard. ... Breed Explorer. View All Breeds Find By Breed Name Select A Breed. Affenpinscher. Afghan Hound. Airedale Terrier. Akita. ... Choosing The Right Breed. * Find Your Match Answer a few simple questions and find the right dog for you ... Founded in 1884, the not-for-profit AKC is the recognized and trusted expert in breed, health, and training information for all ...
The area could be the missing winter breeding grounds of the migrating whales. ... The primary breeding grounds for humpback whales in the north Pacific are the main Hawaiian Islands, with 8,500 to 10,000 ... The increase in whale populations is something one definitely can hear in the ocean depths during the winter breeding season, ... But where they all of them went to breed during the winter has been a mystery. ...
Specimens bred in operations listed in this Register may be entitled to the exemption provided by Article VII, paragraph 4, of ... Register of operations that breed Appendix-I. animal species for commercial purposes. [see Resolution Conf. 12.10 (Rev. CoP15)] ... The absence of a reference to any Party means that it has not registered any captive-breeding operation with the Secretariat. ... The import for commercial purposes of captive-bred specimens of Appendix-I species should not be authorized if they were not ...
Individuals involved in poultry breeding, farming, and the loading and transport of poultry to processing facilities face a ... Poultry Breeding, Farming, and Transport. Individuals involved in poultry breeding, farming, and the loading and transport of ... to information and investigations about the evaluation and control of these and other potential hazards during poultry breeding ...
... Breeding values for siblings, Search ciriteria: 2a: ISO country=DE Association=6 Breeder=185 ...
Impeccably bred American Rascal heads to Ascot off impressive debut. National Treasure brings quite the crowd to Preakness ...
And its a great tool for getting the breeds right. Basically, you have genetic differences in different breeds of an animal, ... Breeding the right kind of cow has been one of the main interests of my career. Its a challenge, because the life cycle of a ... Breeding the right kind of cow. Artificial insemination, gene mapping, and DNA testing have made it possible to make bigger, ... In the 1990s, we also started to see modern techniques like gene mapping and DNA testing that help us balance our breeds. There ...
... English Bulldogs must be bred with more moderate physical features, as a new ... but over the years has been bred to be a show and companion breed with a short (brachycephalic) skull, protruding jaw, skin ... "Given the continued popularity of the breed, the body-shape of the typical pet English Bulldogs should be redefined towards ... The authors advocate that the English Bulldog breed standards should be redefined towards more moderate characteristics, ...
An overview of careers associated with equine reproduction, equine breeding, rules associated with breeding, etc. ... Specific breeds have stringent rules regarding live cover and artificial insemination. Farms may strictly house the studs with ... When semen is collected it must be processed promptly and accurately so it will be effective when used to breed a mare. ... They also serve as purchasing agents for individuals or groups purchasing horses or breedings. ...
... one of the most innovative melon breeding companies in the world, to continue expanding its position as a preferred partner in ... The seed production and breeding facilities near Avignon will complement BASFs existing network of 23 breeding stations for ... With the acquisition of the French melon breeding company ASL, BASF will continue to expand its position as a preferred partner ... one of the most innovative melon breeding companies in the world, to continue expanding its position as a preferred partner in ...
A conservative group asks the FEC for a green light on hybrid PACs.
Coordination Could Breed Control in Iraq, in ... Coordination Could Breed Control in Iraq. commentary. ( ...
Oyster breeding Oyster breeding. Plastic coated high carbon wire.. Request more info ...
Browse Breedings by State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho ... Breed(s). Arabian, Friesian, Hackney, Quarter Horse, Racking, …. Training. All Around, Barrel Racing, Beginner, Breaking, …. ... Breed(s). Draft, Miniature, Percheron, Pony, Quarter Horse, …. Training. Barrel Racing, Beginner, Competition, Futurity, …. ... Breed(s). Appaloosa, Pony, Quarter Horse, Quarter Pony, Welsh Pony. Training. Barrel Racing, Beginner, English Pleasure, Halter ...
Breeding Leadership aims to develop the leadership and professional skills of young people involved in the wool industry. ... BREEDING LEADERSHIP 2022. Download this form for more information. Breeding Leadership is a national program for young people ... Lifetime Ewe Management National Merino Challenge Breeding Leadership Nuffield Farming Scholarship Practical Workshops Science ... Breeding Leadership is national program for young people in all facets of the wool industry. Check out the video below to hear ...
Fluctuations in grebe breeding success from 1970 followed the same pattern as chironomid variation, with a lag of one year. ... Trends in grebe breeding success, chironomid abundance and algal populations were analysed against climate data to clarify ... Slavonian grebes in the UK: reasons for breeding success. Posted by John Jackson on May 24, 2012 3:48:02 PM ... The Slavonian grebe has a UK breeding population of only 29 pairs, found in NE Scotland only since 1908. Loch Ruthven holds the ...
Panda breeding season arrives at DCs National Zoo Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... WASHINGTON-The National Zoo says breeding season has arrived for the giant pandas after a cub was born last year but died six ... The panda house is closed during the breeding period. But visitors may see the pandas in their yards. ... are showing signs they are ready to breed. Also, Mei Xiangs hormones have been rising. ...
From Breed. *Includes trimmer, 3mm and 4mm comb, 5mm and 6mm comb, and USB charger*Trimmer measures 5.5" x 1.5" x 1.25"* ...
So, which breeds of dogs can assist? There are several small breeds known to be excellent hunters also known as ratters. "These ... 10 Dog Breeds That Chase Away Mice and Other Household Pests. By Katelyn Chef. ... Bred to hunt foxes, voles, and small rodents in England, the Russell Terrier makes for an excellent rodent hunter. They also ... The Bedlington Terrier was originally bred in England for hunting and is one of the larger terriers of the group. Hunting ...
Barramundi would reach breeding age twice as quickly under a Queensland geneticists project, which could significantly boost ... One of the big challenges for barramundi breeding programs is that they can take four to six years to mature for breeding. We ... We are aiming to speed up the process of selective breeding as much as possible and give the operators of selective breeding ... A Queensland researcher hopes his plan to speed up barramundi breeding will mean more of the Australian favourite will make it ...
Online shopping for Dog Breed Mastiff and other Pet Supplies. Same-day order processing and shipping. Compare our prices. ... Dog Breed Mastiff 2 items Orders placed by 2:30 PM Pacific Time on business weekdays are shipped the same day. Inventory is ...
Purebred dogs have a genetic structure that allows them to reproduce themselves generation after generation; these breeds have ... No one else was permitted to own one of these breeds. They were carefully bred and nurtured, and until the mid-20th century ... Breed standards. Purebred dogs are distinguished from mixed-breed animals because their genetic structure allows them to ... It is the goal of most purebred-dog fanciers to breed dogs that best represent the ideal qualities for the breed as described ...
This diversity also means a variety of different health conditions among the different breeds. ... Whether bred for their protectiveness and vigilance or their suitability to the pampered life, there is a breed of dog suitable ... Made famous by Taco Bell commercials, this tiny breed weighs in around 6 pounds or less. A gentle breed that will pair well ... Possible Health Issues in Common Dog Breeds. Medically reviewed by Kaitlyn T. Walsh, DVM - By Dale Kiefer - Updated on ...
horse breeding. Unlocking Winners posts tagged "horse breeding" Ultimate Guide To The Most Important Race on ...
In this work, we propose the implementation of genomic-assisted breeding for climate-smart coffee in Coffea canephora. This ... Altogether, this work is a blueprint for how quantitative genetics and genomics can assist coffee breeding and support the ... we provided a first step toward implementing molecular breeding to accelerate improvements in C. canephora. ...
Learn how to care for these unique dogs and the history of the breed. ... Learn all about the Miniature Dachshund breed. These dogs are proud and bold. ... So he is a great fit for me but if you dont have time to spend with your Doxie this isnt the breed for you.. Oh and yes they ... A breed dating back to at least the Middle Ages, Dachshunds-coming from the German dach, which means "badger," and hund, which ...
  • They are the ultimate motive of all our business activities and the reason why we want to make healthy eating enjoyable and sustainable by breeding new varieties that meet their expectations in taste and convenience. (
  • With the acquisition of the French melon breeding company ASL, BASF will continue to expand its position as a preferred partner in the vegetable value chain, offering highly innovative melon varieties. (
  • Whether you're interested in finding a rare small dog breed or larger varieties, you can find all the information you need to know here. (
  • Dogs were first used to assist sheepherders in the 1570s, but other varieties were bred for different herding tasks. (
  • The expansion of bean genome technologies has prompted new perspectives on generating resources and knowledge essential to research and implementing biotechnological tools for the practical operations of plant breeding programs. (
  • We are aiming to speed up the process of selective breeding as much as possible and give the operators of selective breeding programs more control over how they breed,' the aquaculture geneticist and PhD Candidate said. (
  • Dogs come in all shapes, sizes, colors, and temperaments, and this diversity has been achieved through selective breeding. (
  • However, last winter large populations of monarchs were found breeding in the San Francisco and Los Angeles areas. (
  • The only way to count breeding populations last winter was to look at online citizen scientist observations, supported by limited field work, James said. (
  • There has been a huge increase in caterpillars in the Bay area, indicating that those populations are breeding," he said. (
  • The increase in whale populations is something one definitely can hear in the ocean depths during the winter breeding season, as male humpbacks sing during courtship. (
  • Trends in grebe breeding success, chironomid abundance and algal populations were analysed against climate data to clarify whether climate was the key factor behind all of these fluctuations. (
  • Il est hautement transmissible et, bien qu'il soit normalement autolimitatif, il pourrait être problématique en raison de son potentiel à provoquer des maladies dans certaines populations humaines. (
  • Heat and rainfall can increase stagnant water, enhancing mosquitoes' breeding and growing grounds and enabling them to transmit many more infections. (
  • For example, droughts reduced the breeding grounds of mosquitoes, reducing the prevalence of malaria and chikungunya. (
  • Some Herding breeds drive the flock by barking, circling, and nipping at the heels, while others simply confront the flock with a silent stare, which also proves effective. (
  • On July 23, 2009, in the Valparaiso Region of Chile, 1 flock (A1) from a commercial turkey breeding farm (farm A) started to show a measurable decrease in egg production and shell quality ( Figure 1 ). (
  • The English Bulldog was originally developed as a muscular and athletic dog for bull-fighting, but over the years has been bred to be a show and companion breed with a short (brachycephalic) skull, protruding jaw, skin folds, and squat, heavy build. (
  • Nicknamed as doxies, they hunt (and co-habitat) better in pairs, so adopting more than one of this companion breed for the household is ideal. (
  • They were bred to hunt in packs, so they enjoy company and are generally easygoing. (
  • Bred to hunt foxes, voles, and small rodents in England, the Russell Terrier makes for an excellent rodent hunter. (
  • They also serve as purchasing agents for individuals or groups purchasing horses or breedings. (
  • Reproductive researchers - These individuals study the reproductive system of the horse to better understand how it functions and best management for horses in a breeding situation. (
  • A mystery for whale researchers has been where the whales feeding in the summer in the Bering Sea and in the Aleutians off Alaska went in the winter to breed - many just didn't show up in the known wintering grounds," said researcher Marc Lammers, a marine biologist at the University of Hawaii. (
  • Even small amounts can be a breeding fluid. (
  • Heterosis refers to the tendency for a cross-bred hybrid animal to often have better traits (like weight or longevity) than its parents. (
  • Hunting traits aside, this breed is often compared to a lamb for its striking resemblance to one. (
  • The Herding breeds are livestock-oriented, although they are versatile in protecting and serving humans in other ways. (
  • It seems that Monarchs are evolving or adapting, likely to the changing climate, by changing their breeding patterns. (
  • And seeing this winter breeding, which is something new we saw in Australia in the late 1970s, leads me to think that Monarchs will adapt well to the changing climate in the western US. (
  • One of the questions of interest was whether grebe breeding success was influenced by climate variability year by year. (
  • A Queensland researcher hopes his plan to speed up barramundi breeding will mean more of the Australian favourite will make it onto plates sooner. (
  • In England the cavalier King Charles spaniel , a bred-down version of a sporting spaniel, was the favourite pet of many royal families. (
  • Founded in 1884, the not-for-profit AKC is the recognized and trusted expert in breed, health, and training information for all dogs. (
  • However, there are known breeds of dogs that will help chase mice, rats, and other vermin away. (
  • So, which breeds of dogs can assist? (
  • These dogs, even the compact breeds, are strong and muscular, possessing proud carriage of head and neck. (
  • Numerous distinct breeds of Canis lupus familiaris exist today, owing to dogs' remarkable adaptability and genetic fluidity. (
  • These findings established the occurrence of dermatophytosis in dogs kept for companionship (i.e., pets), security and breeding purposes in one northern and southern States of Nigeria. (
  • Farms may strictly house the studs with the mares brought in for breeding or may offer boarding services for mares from breeding to foaling. (
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in breeding turkeys on 2 farms in Valparaiso, Chile. (
  • He is now working with citizen scientists to collect more data on winter breeding in California that can show this evolution and adaptability. (
  • The primary breeding grounds for humpback whales in the north Pacific are the main Hawaiian Islands, with 8,500 to 10,000 whales migrating to Hawaii every winter. (
  • The researchers are now analyzing the structures of the whale songs from the northwestern and main Hawaiian Islands to see if the humpbacks in this new area are an extension of the existing population or a separate breeding stock altogether. (
  • Breeding the right kind of cow has been one of the main interests of my career. (
  • Seedstock" producers raise breeding animals, using techniques like artificial insemination and embryo transfer. (
  • Specific breeds have stringent rules regarding live cover and artificial insemination. (
  • The Slavonian grebe has a UK breeding population of only 29 pairs, found in NE Scotland only since 1908. (
  • The larger numbers of reported sightings of winter breeding monarchs around the San Francisco Bay area prompted James to write a new commentary article in the journal Animal Migration . (
  • The Bedlington Terrier was originally bred in England for hunting and is one of the larger terriers of the group. (
  • While some larger breeds may live an average of 10 to 12 years, Jack Russells (and closely related Parson Russell Terriers) may live 14 to 16 years, provided they receive adequate, regular exercise. (
  • Individuals involved in poultry breeding, farming, and the loading and transport of poultry to processing facilities face a number of potential health hazards. (
  • English Bulldogs must be bred with more moderate physical features, as a new study reports that the breed is significantly less healthy than other dog breeds. (
  • The authors also report that only 9.7% of English Bulldogs in this study were aged over eight years old compared to 25.4% of other dog breeds. (
  • The study shows that grebe breeding success is linked with chironomid abundance and chironomid abundance is linked with total phosphorus. (
  • This study aimed to resequence the entire genome ( whole genome sequencing -WGS) of 40 bean genotypes selected based on their significance in breeding programs worldwide, with the objective of generating an extensive database for the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ). (
  • Key Breeding Sites of Dengue Vectors in Hanoi, Vietnam, 1994-1997. (
  • Screven Horse Breeding by, part of the, LLC group of websites. (
  • The Toy group is composed of those canines that were bred specifically to be companion animals. (
  • It's difficult for us to change our breeding program rapidly, but that's where we're benefiting from a lot of advances in technology and in research. (
  • The authors suggest that future research could compare the predisposition of disorders between English Bulldogs with more moderate physical features compared to those with extreme physiques in order to assess potential welfare gains from breeding for less drastic characteristics. (
  • Australia is a net importer of barramundi, and James Cook University's Jarrod Guppy aims to apply cutting-edge genetic techniques to creat a next-generation breed after receiving a $470,000, three-year research fellowship from the Australian Research Council. (
  • But one of the qualifications to get in that program is that they have to be from black-hide cattle, which are not as heat-tolerant as some other breeds. (
  • The owners' decision to pursue the divestment of their company to their long-term partner, BASF, will secure the continuation of the most innovative melon breeding program. (
  • Breeding Leadership is a national program for young people in all facets of the wool industry and aims to develop the leadership and professional skills of young people involved in the wool industry. (
  • Established in 2002 by the South Australian Stud Merino Breeders Association, Breeding Leadership became a national program through the Australian Association of Stud Merino Breeders in 2004. (
  • Breeding Leadership is national program for young people in all facets of the wool industry. (
  • Mr Guppy is partnering with Mainstream Aquaculture, the world's largest barramundi breeding company. (
  • During the following 2 weeks, similar signs were observed in 3 other flocks (A2, A3, A4) at farm A and 2 flocks (B1 and B4) on another turkey breeding farm (farm B) 50 km away, both belonging to the same company. (
  • This section provides links to information and investigations about the evaluation and control of these and other potential hazards during poultry breeding, farming, and transport. (
  • They were carefully bred and nurtured, and until the mid-20th century they were not allowed to be exported out of their countries of origin. (
  • Health issues with this energetic breed are relatively few, provided the animal gets plenty of daily exercise. (
  • The panda house is closed during the breeding period. (
  • However, what is most concerning is that so many of the health conditions that English Bulldogs suffer from, such as skin fold dermatitis and breathing problems, are directly linked to the extreme structure of their bodies that has been selectively bred for. (
  • CDC and health officials from Wisconsin and Illinois are conducting an investigation of Seoul virus infections among pet rats and persons exposed to rats at rat-breeding facilities in Wisconsin and Illinois. (
  • Poverty breeds ill-health which further perpetuates poverty. (
  • Poverty is the world's greatest killer and the major cause of ill-health and suffering.3 The ill-health bred by poverty further leads to work absenteeism, reduced productivity and diminished earnings. (
  • And it's a great tool for getting the breeds right. (
  • Check out the video below to hear from past participants about what they think is so great about going to Breeding Leadership. (
  • WASHINGTON-The National Zoo says breeding season has arrived for the giant pandas after a cub was born last year but died six days later. (
  • One of the big challenges for barramundi breeding programs is that they can take four to six years to mature for breeding. (
  • The seed production and breeding facilities near Avignon will complement BASF's existing network of 23 breeding stations for vegetable seeds worldwide and will be the first station for R&D activities, such as breeding and screening, located in France. (
  • A follow-up investigation of rat breeders who supplied the initial patient's rats revealed six additional human cases of Seoul virus infections occurring at two Illinois rat-breeding facilities. (
  • These breeds are excellent guards, used in the military and law enforcement, or for personal protection. (
  • The team concludes that breeding success of the grebe depends on food availability in the form of chironomids at Loch Ruthven. (
  • He thinks he'll find more tagged monarchs around the Bay area in breeding, instead of in non-breeding overwintering colonies, as happened last winter. (
  • A. arabiensis breeding in this area has become perennial as a result of crop irrigation. (
  • Of particular interest, 7841 SNPs were identified in 85% of the putative plant disease defense-related genes , presenting a valuable resource for crop breeding efforts. (
  • Herding breeds are quick and agile, able to work on any terrain, and well-suited for short bursts of high speed. (
  • Herding breeds are intelligent and lively, making fine family pets or obedience competitors. (
  • Thank you, Dr. Breeding, for taking the time and having the interest to share your personal story and to go beyond that by helping to eliminate barriers for the patients. (
  • The authors advocate that the English Bulldog breed standards should be redefined towards more moderate characteristics, without which there may be a risk that the breeding of this type of dog is banned in the UK. (
  • Nunhem, the Netherlands - On Wednesday, October 28, 2020 BASF has formally agreed to acquire ASL, one of the most innovative melon breeding companies in the world, to continue expanding its position as a preferred partner in the fruit and vegetable value chain. (