Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Housing, AnimalAnimals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Animals, ZooGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Humpback Whale: The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.DairyingAnimals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Yukon Territory: A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.MontanaPlant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (1/4007)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Morphometric study of the equine navicular bone: variations with breeds and types of horse and influence of exercise. (2/4007)

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences.  (+info)

Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (3/4007)

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future. (4/4007)

Farm animal genetic diversity is required to meet current production needs in various environments, to allow sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Production efficiency in pastoral species is closely tied to the use of diverse genetic types, but greater genetic uniformity has evolved in intensively raised species. In poultry, breeding decisions are directed by a few multinational companies and involve intense selection, the use of distinct production lines, and very large populations. In dairy cattle, the Holstein breed dominates production. Intensive sire selection is leading to relatively rapid inbreeding rates and raises questions about long-term effects of genetic drift. Key questions in management of farm animal genetic diversity involve the distribution of potentially useful quantitative trait locus alleles among global livestock breeds. Experiments with tomato, maize, and mice suggest that favorable alleles can exist in otherwise lowly productive stocks; this cryptic variation may potentially contribute to future selection response. Genetic improvement under relatively intense unidirectional selection may involve both increases in the frequency of favorable additive alleles as well as the progressive breakdown of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms established under the stabilizing selection that is characteristic of natural populations. Recombination among closely linked regulatory loci and new, potentially favorable mutations are possible sources of long-term genetic variation. A greater understanding of the potential that these alternative mechanisms have for supporting long-term genetic improvement and of genetic relationships among global livestock populations are priorities for managing farm animal genetic diversity.  (+info)

Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects. (5/4007)

Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point.  (+info)

Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. (6/4007)

An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed.  (+info)

Effects of milk yield on biological efficiency and profit of beef production from birth to slaughter. (7/4007)

Effect of milk yield (MY) on biological efficiency and gross margin as an indicator of profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter was determined. Data included 9 yr of spring-born single male calves. Biological efficiency was calculated as carcass weight/total feed energy intake, including nonlactating and lactating intakes of cow and creep and feedlot intakes of calf. Slaughter end point was finish constant at 9 mm of fat thickness. Gross margin was determined as returns minus feed costs. Three breeding systems were analyzed: purebred Hereford (HE), large rotational (LR), and small rotational (SR). Analyses were performed separately by breeding system when differences in the effect of MY among breeding systems were significant. Increased MY was associated with increased preweaning gain (P < .001), increased weight at start of feedlot trial (P < .001), and increased hot carcass weight (P < .05). No significant (P > .10) effect of MY on age at slaughter or on carcass weight per day of age at slaughter was found. Increased MY was associated with increased cow lactating energy intake (P < .10) and negatively associated with calf creep intake (P < .01). No effects of MY on intake of the cow during the nonlactating period, calf feedlot intake, or total feed intake were found. Increased MY was associated with a reduction in backfat thickness of the cow during the lactating period (P < .01) with no change in body weight. In the subsequent nonlactating period, increasing MY was associated with increased backfat thickness (P < .10) and body weight (P < .05). No effect of MY on change in backfat or weight of cow from calving to the end of the next nonlactating period was found. No effect of MY on biological efficiency to slaughter was detected. Milk yield was positively associated with gross margin from birth to slaughter (P < .05); results were similar when cow feed prices were reduced by 30%. Increased MY was associated with increased biological efficiency to weaning in HE (P < .01) and SR (P < .10), with no effect found in LR. When feeding cows to requirements, milk yield has a positive effect on the profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter.  (+info)

Modulation of allospecific CTL responses during pregnancy in equids: an immunological barrier to interspecies matings? (8/4007)

Maternal immune recognition of the developing conceptus in equine pregnancy is characterized by the strongest and most consistent alloantibody response described in any species, a response directed almost exclusively against paternal MHC class I Ags. This work investigated the cellular immune response to paternal MHC Ags in pregnant and nonpregnant horses and donkeys, and in horses carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses. We observed profound decreases in classical, MHC-restricted, CTL activity to allogeneic paternal cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both horse mares and donkey jennets carrying intraspecies pregnancies, compared with cells from nonpregnant controls. This is the first evidence in a randomly bred species for a generalized systemic shift of immune reactivity away from cellular and toward humoral immunity during pregnancy. Surprisingly, mares carrying interspecies hybrid mule conceptuses did not exhibit this transient, pregnancy-associated decrease in CTL activity. The failure of interspecies pregnancy to down-regulate cellular immune responses may be a heretofore-unrecognized, subtle barrier to reproductive success between species.  (+info)

It can be argued that sire selection is the single most important element of a successful breeding program. Of course, it goes without saying that you must first have established the breeding objectives for your herd. This is where the two national genetic selection indexes, LPI and Pro$, have a critical role to play. Canadian Dairy Network (CDN) and each breed association provides lists of top animals... proven sires, genomic young bulls, cows and heifers, ranked based on their LPI and Pro$. These indexes have been developed and implemented to guide Canadian producers in terms of setting their breeding goals and then realizing them.. Optimum Sire Selection Strategy. The ideal strategy for producers to achieve their breeding objectives is first to rank sires based on your preferred selection index. Once the highest sires for that index are identified, then the second step is to determine how to best incorporate them in your herd by avoiding matings that result in too much inbreeding and/or a ...
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
The Indonesia Cattle Breeding Program (ICB), which commenced in February 2016, is a program established under the auspices of the Indonesia-Australia Partnership on Food Security in the Red Meat and Cattle Sector (the Partnership), with the purpose of promoting sustainable commercial scale beef cattle breeding in Indonesia. The project aims to pilot a range of different breeding models with private sector partners to assess commercially sustainable approaches that can be up-scaled to facilitate investment, innovation and expansion of the beef cattle breeding industry in Indonesia.
The majority of beef breed associations have made (or are currently making) substantial changes to their National Cattle Evaluation. These changes ultimately benefit commercial bull buyers by providing improved
Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46 Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock. Selecting for breeding animals with superior EBV in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, or with other desirable traits has revolutionized livestock production throughout the world. The scientific theory of animal breeding incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics, and recently molecular genomics and is based on the pioneering work of Sewall Wright, Jay Lush, and Charles Henderson. Breeding stock is a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred animals, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and presumably superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, when breeding swine the ...
Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is ...
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Advances in Animal Breeding ISSN 9371-4726 Vol. 1 (3), pp. 024-028, July, 2017. © International Scholars Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines of milk yield and the breeding values of the cows. *Pervez Benazir, Nusrat Ali Zardari and Malala Afridi. Department Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.. E-mail: [email protected] Accepted 20 June, 2017. Abstract. A total of 937 pedigree, breeding and performance records of 567 Friesian cows at the Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey Dist. Kasur (Pakistan) spanning the years 1982-2001 were analyzed using Best Linear Unbiased Predictions procedure. Individual animal models were fitted to total milk yield from all lactations to estimate breeding values by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology. Milk yield and lactation length averaged 3391.66 ± 137.97 kg and 278.40 ± 90.17 days, respectively. The estimated breeding values for milk yield ranged from -354 to 503 ...
Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding by Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics published September 2005. The ISBN is 9780643093003. The publisher is CSIRO Publishing. Buy Application of New Genetic Technologies to Animal Breeding from CSIRO PUBLISHING online.
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for weekly body weight of feed intake of individually fed beef bulls at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models (RRM). The model for cumulative feed intake included the fixed linear regression on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 day) for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials were included for the additive genetic effect of the animal and the additional random effect of weaning-herd-year (WHY) and on fourth order for the additional random permanent environmental effect of the animal. The model for body weights included the fixed linear regression on fourth order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth order orthogonal Legendre ...
Overview press publications with toplists of bulls. The file with breeding values of sire opens when clicking on download. The lists are sorted according to NVI with the exception of the beef merit index. Sire that are not included in the toplists can be found with the function Sire Search.. Information on the publication. For information about the publication, see News. The national toplists contains breeding values based on Dutch/Flemish daughter information. The Interbull toplists contains converted breeding values based on information from abroad. The genomic toplists contains breeding values based on pedigree information combined with genomic information. The combined toplists contains the top 500 bulls on NVI-base from the described list ...
Agreed strategy to influence prevalence of a defined phenotype in a defined population. Breeding programs for specific traits have been established in many countries. They are most commonly restricted to inherited disorders. Disease-specific breeding programs have been instituted for such disorders as hip dysplasia, hereditary eye defects, and a number of other conditions possible to reveal by phenotypic or genotypic screening methods. Their values are indisputable, but they do not account very well for breed variations in prevalence, population structure, and other traits. The goal for planned, organized, and agreed breeding plans is broader than just a few specified genetic disorders.. This presentation will review Swedish experiences to establish breed-specific breeding programs, taking into account not only disease-specific breeding programs but also how to handle other undesired as well as desired traits and how to adapt them to population structure and other differences between various ...
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Introduction. In the scenario of dairy cattle genetic selection, the possibility to improve breeding value estimation is driving the research aimed at replacing the use of cumulative lactation records by test day (TD) measurements. Random regression (RR) models have been widely studied and evaluated for genetic evaluation at national level in many countries. RR models have the advantage of flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of the lactation curve. Currently, 11 countries are using TD records in their genetic evaluation systems for production in dairy cattle. Among them, eight countries use RR models (Interbull, 2008).. The random regression allows to fit sub-models for adjusting the lactation curve, assumes a structure for genetic and environmental variation specific to individual TD yields and variable correlation between TD yields (Schaeffer, 2004). The use of TD records greatly increases the amount of data to be analyzed, thus requiring the ...
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and biotic ...
Genome-wide dense markers have been used to detect genes and estimate relative genetic values. Among many methods, Bayesian techniques have been widely used and shown to be powerful in genome-wide breeding value estimation and association studies. However, computation is known to be intensive under the Bayesian framework, and specifying a prior distribution for each parameter is always required for Bayesian computation. We propose the use of hierarchical likelihood to solve such problems. Using double hierarchical generalized linear models, we analyzed the simulated dataset provided by the QTLMAS 2010 workshop. Marker-specific variances estimated by double hierarchical generalized linear models identified the QTL with large effects for both the quantitative and binary traits. The QTL positions were detected with very high accuracy. For young individuals without phenotypic records, the true and estimated breeding values had Pearson correlation of 0.60 for the quantitative trait and 0.72 for the binary
GENES STILL IN HIDING. Traditional dairy cattle breeding is founded on production information and other phenotype information collected from animals. The greater the volume of genealogical information available, the more accurate the evaluation that can be made of an animals breeding value. Evaluation based on offspring, the progeny test, is an efficient, if slow method of acquiring reliable information on the bull genome. Progeny test information for a young bull is only obtained five years after the onset of semination.. The breeders dream is to be able to study animal genes and decide from them directly which individuals are worth selecting as parents of the future generation. Variations in the genomic loci present in the DNA of chromosomes, known as markers, can be employed in the monitoring of gene inheritance. From the available material on 12 parent bulls and their 493 sons, Nina Schulmans research identified which QTL are connected with particular economically important traits. Twelve ...
Most producers are faced with difficult decisions when choosing bulls that address the contributions of both maternal and carcass traits. Not only is there variation in the attributes of multiple breeds, but variation within a breed is substantial. By combining ultrasound and AI (artificial insemination), a producer can develop a breeding program that optimizes both maternal and carcass traits. Prior to the start of a normal breeding season (or during the first 21-30 days of the breeding season) bulls possessing high maternal traits may be selected and used in an AI system. After this time, natural service bulls, selected for carcass merit, can be used for the remainder of the breeding season. Using ultrasound, the producer may now determine which females are pregnant with AI-sired heifer calves based on the age and sex of the fetus. These females can be managed separately with the knowledge that they are pregnant with heifer calves possessing quality maternal traits that have the potential to ...
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The breeding programs widely used to supplement fisheries and conserve... Circumventing mate choice is likely to have negative consequences for...Wedekind and two co-authors had previously shown that mate choice can ...Currently most breeding programs for small populations focus on prese...Ways to incorporate mate choice into breeding programs include allowin...,Breeding,programs,should,incorporate,mate,choice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
To help address industry problems, Panthee takes a multifaceted approach - part conventional breeding, part molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS isnt genetic engineering; its simply a breeding short-cut thats especially helpful when it comes to developing disease-resistant varieties using DNA-based markers.. In conventional breeding methods, scientists would inoculate plants with a disease to see which ones are resistant, but that runs the risk of spreading the disease, Panthee explains. However, with MAS, scientists can look for what are called markers - sequences of nucleotides that make up a segment of DNA - that are near the genes of interest in the genome.. To develop a tomato resistant to tomato mosaic virus, for example, Panthee has identified the molecular marker that is tightly linked with the TMV resistance gene, so as he breeds successive generations of plants, he selects only plants that contain that marker.. "I keep on selecting plants that contain the TMV resistance ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/More_than_half_a_century_of_pedigree_cat.html?id=gcpJAAAAYAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareMore than half a century of pedigree cattle breeding in the Netherlands ...
In genomic selection, prediction accuracy is highly driven by the size of animals in the reference population (RP). Combining related populations from different countries and regions or using a related population with large size of RP has been considered to be viable strategies in cattle breeding. The genetic relationship between related populations is important for improving the genomic predictive ability. In this study, we used 122 French bulls as test individuals. The genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) evaluated using French RP, America RP and Chinese RP were compared. The results showed that the GEBVs were in higher concordance using French RP and American RP compared with using Chinese population. The persistence analysis, kinship analysis and the principal component analysis (PCA) were performed for 270 French bulls, 270 American bulls and 270 Chinese bulls to interpret the results. All the analyses illustrated that the genetic relationship between French bulls and American bulls ...
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Author: Written by Davis, K. C., M. W. Tess, D. D. Kress, D. E. Doornbos, and D. C. Anderson Journal: Journal of Animal Science, Oct 1994; 72: 2585 - 2590.. Abstract: Data collected during a 10-yr study at the Northern Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Havre, MT were used in construction of a simulation model to evaluate production systems using different breed groups. Five dam breed groups, straightbred Hereford (HH), 50% Angus-50% Hereford (AH), 25% Simmental-75% Hereford (1S3H), 50% Simmental-50% Hereford (1S1H), and 75% Simmental-25% Hereford (3S1H), were studied. The simulated system was a northern range cow-calf production system with spring calving and fall weaning. Replacement heifers were purchased and all calves were marketed at weaning. All nonpregnant females were sold in the fall. Statistical analyses of the data yielded input values (least squares means for breed group x age x sex subclasses) for cow and calf weights, pregnancy rate, dystocia, and calf survival. Pregnancy, ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
An intermediate approach between the two extremes discussed above can be obtained by using multivariate models where marker effects are allowed to be different but correlated across subpopulations. This approach has been considered in animal breeding applications involving multibreed analysis where it did not lead to a consistent improvement of prediction performance (Karoui et al. 2012; Olson et al. 2012; Makgahlela et al. 2013). However, less effort has been made to investigate the impact of population structure on estimation of marker effects in the context of genome-based prediction in plant breeding. While in animal breeding large clearly separated breeds exist, in plant breeding population structure can have very different forms and origins, including combined analysis of data from multiple, connected, breeding programs, diversity panels, and differently structured mating designs that lead to various forms of multiparental populations.. For genome-based prediction in multiple biparental ...
Genomic prediction of breeding values when modeling genotype × environment interaction using pedigree and dense molecular markers. 2012. Burgueño, J.; Campos, G. de los; Weigel, K.; Crossa, J.. Crop Science 52 (2): 707-719. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2011.06. ...
Artificial selection is a process of selective breeding that has been used by humans for thousands of years. It is the earliest form of biotechnology, where plants or animals with specific traits were selected to breed so that their desired traits could be duplicated. Over the years, selective breeding has done everything from create larger fruits to horse breeds that have specific gaits.. The advantage of selective breeding is that it uses the processes of natural selection, but under direct supervision from carefully selected animals or plants with the desired traits. There are no genetic modifications or other forms of tampering that could potentially harm people and the risk to the plant or animal is often very minimal at the same time.. The disadvantage of selective breeding is that it can take a long time for the process to work. In horse breeding, for example, the given standard to establish a new breed is to have offspring with the desired traits to be produced over the course of 7 ...
REGINA - Breed associations have been around for more than a century but today their roles are changing. Wade Shafer, executive vice-president of
Due to man-made time constraints with breed registries, many breeders want to speed up the onset of the breeding season to have foals born as close to January 1 as possible. So how do we match up the natural breeding season with the man-made operational breeding season?
Genomic selection is a new form of marker-assisted selection, which has primarily been used by large companies … but thats changing. As the technology becomes more affordable, mid-size companies are also starting to see its value.. Recently, the cost of DNA sequencing has dropped drastically giving more plant breeders access to more marker panels and platforms to cost-effectively genotype a large number of samples. These improved breeding platforms allow for new varieties to be brought to market faster and cheaper. Two such platforms are array-based genotyping and genotyping by sequencing.. Traditionally, many selections in breeding programs were made based on plant phenotypic evaluation or taking the result of a few trait-linked markers into account for quality, disease and pest resistance.. With the new technologies being used, genomic selection allows breeders to simultaneously consider the effect of all the markers in the genome to calculate the Genomic Estimated Breeding Value (GEBV), ...
Additional file 1, Table S1 shows the posterior means (standard deviations) of direct and maternal heritabilities of GL and liabilities to CD and SB for each model. Posterior distributions of direct and maternal heritabilities for the three calving traits were similar across categories of GL and between models (RMM1, RMM2 and RMM3) and were also similar to their counterparts from the SMM. The posterior mean of direct heritability of GL was higher than that for maternal heritability (0.39 vs. 0.08-0.07); corresponding estimates for CD (0.08-0.10 vs. 0.07-0.08) and SB (0.05-0.08 vs. 0.08-0.11) were smaller than those for direct heritability and similar between them. Heritability estimates were within the range of values reported in previous studies [15-17]; estimates for CD and SB were higher than those used in routine genetic evaluations of CD and SB in US Holsteins, except for the direct heritability of CD [18, 19].. Features of the posterior distributions of genetic correlations in the four ...
SPECIAL REPORT / New plant breeding techniques focus on developing new seed traits within a given species through genetic engineering. A troubling question for policymakers is whether these techniques should fall under GMO legislation.
Read "Mind the gap: analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The genetic evaluation of some economic traits by nature is applied for the categorical data following the discrete distribution such as calving difficulty. Janss and Foulley (1993) used a Bayesian method for bivariate genetic evaluation of both continuous and discrete natures. Wang et al. (1997) implemented a fully Bayesian analysis via Gibbs sampling to infer the genetic merit and the genetic parameters in a joint analysis of calving ease and birth weight. Abdallah and McDaniel (2000) reported that the heritability estimate of days open was 0.03. In this study, the genetic parameters of heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using the bivariate threshold animal model via Gibbs sampling for both discrete and continuous natures of calving difficulty and days open.. ...
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The average effect of social programs on outcomes such as earnings is a parameter of primary interest in econometric evaluations studies. New results on using exclusion restrictions to identify and estimate average treatment effects are presented. Identification is achieved given a minimum of parametric assumptions, initially without reference to a latent index framework. Most econometric analyses of evaluation models motivate identifying assumptions using models of individual behavior. Our technical conditions do not fit easily into a conventional discrete choice framework, rather they fit into a framework where the source of identifying information is institutional knowledge regarding program administration. This framework also suggests an attractive experimental design for research using human subjects, in which eligible participants need not be denied treatment. We present a simple instrumental variables estimator for the average effect of treatment on program participants, and show that the ...
RT @MitchWeiss1978: Kirkpatricks Four Level Evaluation Model - The Basics! - #eLearning #instructionaldesign | http://t.co/ci0Z3Gds2H | E-learning with the Ltrain
Genetic correlations between functional herd life and conformation traits are presented in Table 3. Correlations between functional herd life and body structure traits were variable. In general, body structure traits had a low to moderate negative correlation with functional herd life (-0.04 to -0.27), except for stature, where the genetic correlation was positive (0.15). Samoré et al. (2010), in a study on Italian Brown Swiss, also found low to moderate negative genetic correlations between body structure traits and functional herd life (-0.07 to -0.22). However, only body depth, dairy strength, rump angle, thurl width and rear leg side view were significantly correlated with functional herd life in the current study. The small genetic correlation between rear leg side view and functional herd life observed in the current study is consistent with the results by Vollema & Groen (1997), who reported a negative genetic correlation between rear leg side view and functional herd life (-0.17). ...
Forty-two native, new and foreign breeds were analyzed for 18 traits. Principal component (PC) analysis showed that the first three PCs accounted for 82.6% of the total variation. The first PC is a Size and Weight Factor (SWF) and accounts for 50.5% of the total variation. The second PC is a Skin and Bone Factor (SBF) and accounts for 20.8% of the variation. The third PC is a Reproduction and Fat Factor (RFF) and accounts for 11.3% of the total variation. Non-lean meat carcass traits (skin, bone and fat) are associated with reproductive performance. Plotting SBF against SWF is useful in grouping of breed groups. This grouping is in agreement with that obtained by cluster analysis. Breeds from the same geographical area tend to be in the same performance group, suggesting genetic connections in the past. Cluster analysis indicated six genetic types. New breeds showed the shortest genetic distance to the foreign contributor breeds ...
This topic outlines the importance of growth, fat and muscle to lamb profitability and in meeting carcase specifications for target markets. Variation between breeds and crossbreeding types is illustrated. The concept of heritability and genetic variation for growth and carcase traits is introduced. Genetic evaluation of animals and the national program (LAMBPLAN) are outlined together with the concept of estimated breeding values (EBVs) and indexes for evaluating the genetic merit of animals. Research results are presented that show EBVs really do work with high EBV rams producing on average higher performing progeny. The use of EBVs to select appropriate rams to produce lambs for which a high proportion will meet varying target market carcase specifications is illustrated. While the focus is on selection of the best ram it is important to remember that the sire only contributes half the genes to the lamb for growth and carcase traits and the dam contributes the other half. The genetic merit of ...
This study focuses on the value of the genetic lag associated with maintaining sows for additional parities in a commercial swine herd. Three traits were included in this study: number born alive (NBA), 21 day litter weight (W21), and days to market (D250). The economic values assigned to these traits were $22.00/pig, $0.70/lb., and $0.17/day, respectively. The genetic improvement per generation made for each trait was assumed to be 0.3 pigs, 3.0 lbs., and 3.0 days, respectively. It was estimated that the value of the genetic lag associated with retaining a sow to P3, P5, and P7 was $24.80, $46.89, and $73.97 in a herd whose seedstock supplier has a generation interval of 1.5 years. This minimal loss does not justify the costs of developing a gilt and decreased P1 production. Therefore, sows should remain in the breeding herd until culling for non-voluntary reasons or inferior production becomes necessary.
The project aims to develop a novel strategy to improve longevity and maternal traits in a pig breeding program. We will evaluate the use of genetic markers on crossbred animals to strength pig breeding. A method called genomic selection (GS) will be used, which utilizes DNA-markers for the genetic …. Läs mer ...
Citation: Wiggans, G.R., Wright, J.R., Muenzenberger, C.J., Neitzel, R.R. 2012. Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 95(Suppl. 2):267(abstr. T43). 2012. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 current linear type traits for Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is defined as a composite trait measuring the cows ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50-99 were assigned by appraisers for the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders Association beginning in June 2007. Only scores made before 69 mo of age were used. After edits, 32,710 records were available for 19,472 cows in 819 herds. The model included fixed effects for the interaction of herd and appraisal date (2109 groups); appraisal age within parity (46 groups); lactation stage within parity (21 groups), as well as random effects for animal, permanent environment and residual error. A multitrait ...
On the other hand SSR technology, includes systems such as Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at high efficiency at specific sites in the DNA of cells and organisms which can, among others, cause knockdown or knock-in genes in the genome of eukaryotes, depending on the orientation of the specific sites (loxP, FLP, etc.) which flank the targeted site. Genome and gene editing techniques offer many option in improving crop, these techniques can change from a specific single nucleotide to a full allele or by inserting a specific sequence (a gene for example) in a specific region or place in the vast genome of an organism. The precision which these techniques offer is what will eventually make them the method of choice for the scientific community in understanding molecular mechanisms and also for the breeding community for the improvement of new varieties over conventional breeding or genetic engineering methods. This technology shows enhanced ...
Specialist Building Guarantees Ltd Damp Proofing,Dry Rot Control,WoodwormTreatments,TimberPreservation, Basement Waterproofing, Cavity drainage membrane systems, Timber Repairs/Renewal, whether it be Joist replacement/bolt on or a new timber floor.. Condensation control using Heat recovery units and Mould cleaning services are also offered.. Cannon Preservation Ltd is a member of Specialist Building Guarantees Ltd, offering 10 year guarantees for Damp proofing,Timber preservation/Woodworm treatments and Cavity wall ties.. Cannon Preservation Ltd also offer 10 year guarantees for structural waterproofing, provided by Specialist Building Guarantees Ltd.. Cannon Preservation Ltd is a member of the Buy With Confidence and Norfolk Trusted Traders, both being government backed with the agreement to provide a professional,well priced and quality service.. ...
Because who wouldnt want to send a potato flying into space? Youve just landed on the worlds largest Spud Cannon Database with a creative community unlike any other. You can learn how to build yourself a potato cannon, share ideas, and ask questions. Post on the forums or in the chat! Modifying Airsoft and pellet rifles, or maybe even your old Nerf gun? You bet weve got that too. So read up, check out all the pictures, and be sure to register and show us what you got!
Because who wouldnt want to send a potato flying into space? Youve just landed on the worlds largest Spud Cannon Database with a creative community unlike any other. You can learn how to build yourself a potato cannon, share ideas, and ask questions. Post on the forums or in the chat! Modifying Airsoft and pellet rifles, or maybe even your old Nerf gun? You bet weve got that too. So read up, check out all the pictures, and be sure to register and show us what you got!
Animal breeding and Genetics. Instructor: Dr. Jihad Abdallah Lecture 1 Cells and chromosomes. Animal Cell. Cell Boundaries. Plasma Membrane: An outer covering that defines the cell boundary Slideshow 4615227 by ronni
Nick Cannon announced he will be quitting his morning radio show after docs found blood clots in his lungs. Nick Cannon, 31, announced on Feb. 15 that hell be leaving his Rollin with Nick Cannon NYC radio show on 92.3.
As all Center components will use genetically engineered mice, a central Animal Breeding Core (AB Core) will be used to meet the animal needs of all Center proj...
Working in the cannabis industry in Colorado is extremely competitive and rapidly changing. With new advancements and opportunities at every corner, we have to prioritize efficiency in our breeding program to keep up with a growing market. Conventional breeding methods take a lot of time, labor, and off-site lab testing that slows down our breeding process and costs a lot of money! Working with the Medicinal Genomics team and their youPCR system has given us the opportunity to collect imperative data about our plants in a short amount of time. With the ability to accurately detect plant gender and CBD presence from our seedlings, our selection process has become much easier. YouPCR is easy to use, and our results have been 100% accurate. We would highly recommend getting in touch with the Medicinal Genomics team and seeing what they can do for your garden ...
The key factor to progress in plant breeding is the number of genotypes that can be evaluated phenotypically (Cooper et al. 2014b). Unfortunately, field testing is slow and costly, forcing breeders to limit the number of genotypes that is phenotyped. Genomic prediction offers the potential to alleviate this limitation, allowing to broaden the pool of genotypes for selection, and thereby increasing selection intensity (Crossa et al. 2013; Windhausen et al. 2012) and efficiency of breeding programs (Heffner et al. 2010; Crossa et al. 2013; Windhausen et al. 2012; Hickey et al. 2014; Longin et al. 2015).. In genomic selection, genome-enabled genotypic or breeding values are calculated from genomic prediction models as sums of effects for large numbers of markers, often without explicitly testing individual marker-trait associations (Meuwissen et al. 2001). Genomic prediction models are developed for a target population of genotypes (TPG). The TPG describes the full collection of existing and future ...
The research programmes embrace modern genomics and are designed to underpin crop improvement programmes for inbreeding and outbreeding species. Methodologies developed are appropriate for a wide range of other species and our work also encompasses red kites, Welsh ponies, meat traceability, sticklebacks, snakes and woodmice.. The group benefits from close engagement with IBERS Public Good Plant Breeding Research Group which provides a test bed for hypothesis testing and integration of new breeding strategies for crop improvement.. ...
Devision of Breeding and Genetics (former name is Department of Breeding) was established in 1980s, which is undertaking the animal breeding and genetic researches. The main goal of this division is to accelerate livestock genetic improvement. Objectives ...
Techniques used in breeding programs meant to yield the perfect dairy cow may soon more accurately predict a persons genetic risk for skin cancer.
AR, Tab 9, Abstract of Offers, at 275; Tab 10, Past Performance Report, at 279; Tab 11, Relevant Experience Report, at 290.. As reflected in the source selection decision, both proposals were assigned a low risk rating under the relevant experience factor, because both offerors or their subcontractors possessed experience that was similar in size, scope, and complexity to the project here. AR, Tab 14, Source Selection Decision, at 311-12. For the past performance factor, the evaluation team assigned SDVEs proposal an outstanding rating, based solely on the evaluation of SDVEs performance. As noted by the agency, the references indicated that "SDVE was an outstanding company" that was, among other things, "extremely conscious of safety issues." The agency noted that the customers were "very happy" with SDVEs performance and that all sources contacted said they would do business with SDVE in the future. AR, Tab 14, Source Selection Decision, at 308. Smiths proposal received an above average ...
Primary objective of any plant breeding programme is selection of the best genotype from an array of breeding lines (genotypes). Conventionally, selection involves various traits that are expressed in plants (phenotypes) and the selection tools employed by the breeders involve qualitative (visual or perceivable traits) and/ or biometrical (quantitative) traits. However, since gene expression is always modified by the environment due to several adaptive reasons, selection of traits is not always as successful as it should be. This led to the thinking of selecting directly for the genes themselves, as the genes are coded on the DNA molecules that are free of environmental interference. However, selection of genes was not an easy job as it appeared to be, because of their obscure locations on the genome. Hence, this is achieved indirectly by selecting detectable DNA variations in the individual genomes, which are either associated or closely linked to the target genes, as detected by the ...
All bulls purchased after February 1st, 2019 for use as natural service sires in the Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program™ must be DNA tested to have genomic-enhanced EPDs. All bulls used as natural service sires after February 1st, 2020 must have genomic-enhanced EPDs, regardless of when they were purchased. Seedstock producers classifying bulls as Show-Me-Select qualified in sale books must have genomic-enhanced EPDs on those lots ...
From designer coral bacteria to lithium-air batteries, next year could bring a fascinating slew of environmental advancements (and challenges).
We were the first UK native breed society to devise and implement a scheme such as this and its aims are to show the qualities of our ponies in as many different disciplines as possible, thus enhancing our steadily growing reputation for good quality, useful ponies. With a breed of pony that is capable of such a diverse range of disciplines, it is an enormous task to try and establish a means of highlighting the best points of individual ponies with a fair comparison across the disciplines. The elite scheme is ambitious and it is still not perfect, and further changes may be made in the coming years as it continues to evolve. ...
Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development features an optimal balance between classical and modern tools and techniques related to plant breeding. Written...
ANGUS MEANS BUSINESS. The American Angus Association is the nations largest beef breed organization, serving more than 25,000 members across the United States, Canada and several other countries. Its home to an extensive breed registry that grows by nearly 300,000 animals each year. The Association also provides programs and services to farmers, ranchers and others who rely on Angus to produce quality genetics for the beef industry and quality beef for consumers. For more information about Angus cattle and the American Angus Association, visit www.ANGUS.org ...
Here is what Im saying. Your animal science book will say this about this breed and that about that breed. As mentioined above all of the "heritage" breeds have been here for at least 100 years. For various reasons they didnt pass the "sniff test". Im not saying that they dont have a place. Just for what ever reason they got bypassed. Black Angus and "others" got brought up. Angus has a vast selection of genetics. You can have grass fed to supreme feedlot preformance. There is a lot of advantages to the breed like calving vigor etc. Angus has done an awesome job of marketing, or a used car salesman. Other breeds do have advantages. Cross breeding does pay. I talked to a researcher at UNL about heterosis. He said, on your first cross or F1 you get 14# of extra gain at weaning over a straight bred. Now a 3 way cross, is a bigger gain in heterosis. You have to look at your marketing plan. For instance with me I use Hereford on Angus. I get a percentage of red white face calves, say 10%. Now in my ...
As part of the National Greyhound Welfare Strategy, a number of new GRNSW Greyhound Racing Rules relating to breeding and vaccination requirements will commence on 1 July 2015. These Rules are aimed at improving the health and welfare of our breeding females, and to minimise the number of greyhounds bred that may not be suitable for racing. Click here to download a consolidated list of the Rules commencing from 1 July 2015. ...
We regularly monitor the farming industry. Strong reputation in agricultural sector. Full understanding of a particular nature of B2B.
Clothing with society logo can now be ordered direct from the suppliers. You have the choice of having the full logo-with the pony or just the text. Several colours available. More lines will be added as requested ...
This textbook is suitable for self-learning, or for teaching an upper-year university course on derivative-free and blackbox optimization.
Read Genetic Analyses of Wheat and Molecular Marker-Assisted Breeding, Volume 1 Genetics Map and QTL Mapping by Jichun Tian with Rakuten Kobo. The book mainly describes the QTL mappings and efficacy analyses that are associated with wheat productivity, quality, p...
Like all the Landrace strains that are to be found in the north European countries, the British strain is white in color, has the characteristic heavy drooped ear that covers much of the face, is very long, muscular and is known for producing high quality pork. According to a pamplet published by the Landrace Breed Committee of the National Pig Breeders Association, British Landrace have been found to produce less back fat than the other British breeds in tests and have been found to have the most rapid growth in gilts and second most rapid growth in young boars. The same studies found them to be longer and to have the highest percentage of high priced cuts, with 36.5% of the side being ham and rump. The English first imported Landrace from Denmark in 1949 and used them in experimental studies. In 1953, further importations of registered breeding stock were officially made and the breed society was formed. It amalgamated with the National Pig Breeders Association in 1978. Now, in turn, England ...
Recent advances in genetic research have paved the way for more effective identification and screening of genetic diseases in the horse. With these developments come new ethical considerations with respect to breeding practices, testing, and disclosure.
Under the breeding plan conducted by NLBC, many calves are born at Iwate station. Tokachi Station has the role of bringing up candidate bulls. We gather male calves (about 7-8 months old) from Iwate station, and bring them up until we get their progeny test results. During the waiting period, we collect their semen, make frozen semen, and store them. Proven Sires are selected out of them according to their progeny test results. Now there are about 100 heads of bulls in this station ...
In this instructable Im going to teach you how to build the original hairspray powered potato cannon. Sometims it is also called a potato gun. Making this cannon...
Water Cannon News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Water Cannon From The tribunedigital-sunsentinel
NEW YORK - An 18th century cannon was found loaded with gun powder and a cannon ball Friday during a routine cleaning at the Central Park Conservancy.
The impaired fertility problem affected mainly gilts and first parity sows; however, older sows had a higher farrowing rate. Therefore the high parity profile may in the short term have been beneficial to the fertility of the herd.. It is normally stated that oestrus period in the sow lasts 24-60 hours and ovulation occurs. 38-42 hours after the onset of heat. Service should take place up to 12 hours before ovulation. A delay in mating could result in lowered embryo survival [13]. Oestrus detection occurred every 24 hours. Therefore, some gilts or sows may have been on the point of ovulation when first detected resulting in conception failure. White [19] suggested checking for signs of oestrus at least every 12 hours.. Gilts that have been moved into a boar pen for service and returned to a group pen can experience increased stress levels sufficient to cause pregnancy failure [18]. In the present case study gilts were returned immediately after service to group pens for a period of three to five ...
The American Hereford Association is second-largest U.S. beef breed associations with more than 7,000 active adult and junior members. The American Hereford Association is a not-for-profit organization.
The American Hereford Association is second-largest U.S. beef breed associations with more than 7,000 active adult and junior members. The American Hereford Association is a not-for-profit organization.
A dog breeding establishment is one where a person carries on at a premises a business of breeding dogs for sale andor a person whose bitch or bitches give birth to five or more litters in any 12-month period. Licences to breed dogs for sale are issued under the Breeding of Dogs Acts 1973 (www.opsi.gov.ukRevisedStatutesActsukpga1973cukpga_19730060_en_1) and 1991 (www.opsi.gov.ukactsacts1991Ukpga_19910064_en_1.htm) and are renewable annually
A dog breeding establishment is one where a person carries on at a premises a business of breeding dogs for sale andor a person whose bitch or bitches give birth to five or more litters in any 12-month period. Licences to breed dogs for sale are issued under the Breeding of Dogs Acts 1973 (www.opsi.gov.ukRevisedStatutesActsukpga1973cukpga_19730060_en_1) and 1991 (www.opsi.gov.ukactsacts1991Ukpga_19910064_en_1.htm) and are renewable annually
You may have always wanted to raise a litter of puppies. However, breeding your dog is a huge undertaking, which should not be done without proper preparation.
Current research in my laboratory has two principal goals, which are 1) identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers having predictive merit for production and meat quality traits in cattle, and 2) annotation of functional aspects of the bovine genome. Data from genetic studies of population of cattle have identified regions of the genome carrying variation among individuals that affects production characteristics. We have been developing DNA markers that accurately track inheritance of this variation, which we hope can be added to genetic improvement programs that would thus be better able to target specific traits for improvement. In addition, we have begun studies of an emerging class of regulatory molecules encoded by the genome called micro- RNAs, short and specific RNA sequences that appear to have the capacity to act as key regulators of growth, development, and tissue homeostasis. Focus for these studies is muscle development, growth, and repair, with some preliminary ...
Riverside Ranch Breeding Station offers a full-service, European approved, breeding facility operating at the highest standards of equine management.
in Proceedings ICAR 2018 (2018). Recent research showed the usefulness of using estimated breeding values (EBV) for mid-infrared (MIR) based biomarkers in genetic improvement. A novel class of biomarkers was defined based on modelling ... [more ▼]. Recent research showed the usefulness of using estimated breeding values (EBV) for mid-infrared (MIR) based biomarkers in genetic improvement. A novel class of biomarkers was defined based on modelling responses of milk composition (e.g., mid-infrared (MIR) based) to stress expressed on continuous scales using reaction norm models. Heat stress is an important aspect of dairy production even in temperate climates as shown in recent studies. Implementation of genomic selection for tolerance to heat stress is therefore not only an issue for Australian dairy cattle, a country that introduced recently such an evaluation. The question remains open if using milk composition based heat stress resilience genomically enhanced EBV (GEBV) is not a viable ...
Breeding Rabbits It s very important for any rabbit owner to be responsible with their rabbits, so generally, responsible breeding should be done under the guide of a responsible, experienced breeder as a mentor. Most likely, if you need this information to help you with deliberate breeding, then you have not done it in a responsible way, which is very important to think about. That said, this information and being aware of these things will likely be of use if your rabbits have a
An independent animal breeding is to be maintained in Switzerland. The Confederation support therefore inland breeding and assist the breeders in their striving to achieve a cost-effective, qualitatively high-standing and environmentally fair production.. ...
Plant & Food Research is internationally renowned for innovation in plant breeding, with traditional breeding approaches being combined with modern genomics techniques to develop better cultivars, faster. Our researchers target new markers, genomics and breeding tools to deliver new cultivars with resistance to pests and diseases, human health attributes and novel fruits, vegetables and grains. With genomic approaches now a key element in plant research and the investigation of bacterial, fungal and insect pathogens, our need for bioinformatics has increased markedly.. In this role youll combine applied research with bioinformatics support and consultancy services to Plant & Food Research scientists and collaborators. This will include the analysis of entire genomes, contributions to scientific programmes and publications, and the development of bioinformatics tools and applications. Current priorities include the analysis of large data sets from Next Generation Sequencing and software ...
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters in the U.K. pedigree Holstein-Friesian (HF) population using an animal model (AM), and to investigate some implications of the results for genetic improvement. In a theoretical study it was shown that little bias in estimating variances components is introduced by grouping herds according to their mean (milk) production, a common practice for investigating heterogeneity of variance in dairy populations. For each of 26 large pedigree herds, comprising a total of 7720 HF cows, variances and h2 for first lactation fat yield were estimated with residual maximum likelihood (REML) using an AM. The mean fat yield was 212 kg. The mean and range of individual herd h2 estimates were 0.38 and 0.03-0.80 respectively, and the average standard error of the h2 estimates was 0.19. Using likelihood ratio (LR) tests it was found that individual herd h2 were not significantly different from each other (P> 0.05), but that phenotypic variances differed ...
Trans Ova Genetics is a beef and dairy genetics company providing assisted reproduction technologies to help livestock breeders achieve their ultimate breeding goals. Now offering reproductive services for small ruminants. Located in Iowa, Missouri, Texas, Maryland, Oklahoma, South Dakota, California, Washington
All of this is in addition to attempting to breed the next world-beater for the show ring!. Healthy, beautiful dogs that are sound in temperament and body are the aim of all dedicated dog breeders. The end result is often a compromise of various factors, including economic ones, but where soundness impacts the dogs quality of life, we must make honest attempts to decrease the incidence of any problems. Breed clubs should incorporate any available testing that can reduce the incidence of disease or improve soundness within the breed.. The more we know of all the factors affecting our breeding stock before breeding a litter, the better equipped we will be to find solutions to potential problems and reduce the number of unsound dogs being produced. This has benefits for all, but particularly for the dogs.. ...
Molecular breeding can complement traditional breeding approaches to achieve genetic gains in a more efficient way. In the present study, genetic mapping was conducted in a sorghum recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from Tx436 (a non-stay-green high food quality inbred) × 00MN7645 (a stay-green high yield inbred) and evaluated in eight environments (location and year combination) i ...
Purebred dogs are appealing for their characteristic traits, but the selective breeding process also leads to a variety of inherited diseases.
Background In genomic models that assign an individual variance to each marker, the contribution of one marker to the posterior distribution of the marker variance is only one degree of freedom (df),...
The estimates for the two traits are nearly identical, but the standard error of the second trait is larger because of the missing observation. The Estimate column in the "Solution for Random Effects" table lists the best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of the breeding values of both traits for all three animals. The p-values are missing because the default containment method for computing degrees of freedom results in zero degrees of freedom for the random effects parameter tests. ...
Domestication of Dogs Began about 50,000 years ago 14,000 years ago - artificial selection -Dogs with desired forms of traits were bred Modern breeds are the result
Markers which are listed in your results in parentheses are markers which are considered non-phylogenetic. Basically that means that those markers occur too frequently or change too frequently to be relevant to determining ancestry. These are treated as optional by mthap and do not contribute to scoring.. Markers which are listed in the haplogroup defining markers in parentheses are those marked as optional in the reference chart. This happens when the known sequences are too limited to be completely confident where the marker occurs, or where the marker frequently reverts back to the reference sequence value. These are also considered to be optional and are not scored. ...
Publications Dodds, K. G., McEwan, J. C., Brauning, R., Anderson, R. A., Van Stijn, T. C., Kristjánsson, T., et al. (2015). Construction of relatedness matrices using genotyping-by-sequencing data. BMC Genomics, 16, 1047.. Dodds, K. G., Auvray, B., Newman, S.-A. N., & McEwan, J. C. (2014). Genomic breed prediction in New Zealand sheep. BMC Genetics, 15, 92. Dodds, K. G., Auvray, B., Lee, M., Newman, S.-A. N., & McEwan, J. C. (2014). Genomic selection in New Zealand dual purpose sheep. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Dodds, K. G., Tate, M. L., & Sise, J. A. (2005). Genetic evaluation using parentage information from genetic markers. Journal of Animal Science, 83(10), 2271-2279. Dodds, K. G., & McEwan, J. C. (1997). Calculating exact probabilities of allele frequency differences in divergent selection lines. Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 12, 556-560. Dodds, K. G., Tate, M. L., McEwan, J. ...
Our classical plant breeding program involves individually hand-pollinating generations of flowers over time, to develop new and improved varieties of peppers. We carefully select and trial on the basis of flavor, appearance, uniformity, disease resistance, and productivity under a range of growing conditions. Many of our JSS-Bred peppers have gone on to become award-winning grower favorites!
Despite having never been bred towards a written breed standard until recent times, most Gotland rabbits share a distinctive ... List of rabbit breeds. References[edit]. *^ Nordens Ark on Gotland rabbits (in Swedish) Archived 2012-08-04 at the Wayback ... As a formal breed[edit]. The modern Gotland rabbit originates from these populations, the studbook having been closed since a ... As show breeds gained popularity, the farm rabbits became rarer until all but extinct. A few remaining populations were ...
Breeding[edit]. Her sire, Doctor Syntax was described by the noted racing writer "The Druid" as "...scarcely fifteen hands, ... a b Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), "Thoroughbred Breeding of the World", Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970 ...
Breeding habitat[edit]. Pickerel frogs prefer cool clear water. They breed in both temporary ponds and permanent ponds but ... The males initiate breeding by emitting their low pitched call; this call is usually so low pitched that it is often not heard ... Pickerel frogs typically emerge from hibernation around mid April with the majority of the frogs arriving at breeding ponds by ... 2001). Effects of Roads on Amphibian Community Structure at Breeding Ponds in Rhode Island. Unpublished Final Report to the ...
The brolga breeds throughout its range in Australia and New Guinea. The start of the breeding season is largely determined by ... Although the bird breeds well in the wild, it has proved much more problematic to get it to breed while in captivity.[5] ... wet meadows and other wetlands where they breed.[10] In south-west Victoria, breeding sites during and immediately after spring ... In the non-breeding season, they gather into large flocks, which appear to be many self-contained individual groups rather than ...
Breeding[edit]. Although lentils have been an important crop for centuries, lentil breeding and genetic research has a ... "Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ... Since the inception of The International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) breeding programme in 1977 ... It supplies landraces and breeding lines for countries around the world, supplemented by other programmes in both developing (e ...
Breeding[edit]. Breeding occurs from June to February.[2] Two to five white, oval-shaped eggs are laid in a nest is made of ...
Cooperative breeding, where birds other than the breeding pair help raise the young and is common in some bird families, is ... Breeding. With few exceptions, parrots are monogamous breeders who nest in cavities and hold no territories other than their ... Large groups of escapees have the protection of a flock and possess the skills to survive and breed in the wild.[131] Some ... The intensity of this competition can limit breeding success in some cases.[66][67] Hollows created artificially by arborists ...
Breeding[edit]. These creatures may breed at any time of the year. The nest is a large (for the bird) and untidy cup made of ...
Breeding career[edit]. During his breeding career, Joe Daniels sired two stakes winning horses: Hidalgo and Hoodlum.[16] ... Bred in Kentucky, Joe Daniels won two stakes races as a two-year-old and then the Belmont as a three-year-old when he also won ... Joe Daniels was foaled in 1869 and was a chestnut stallion, bred by A. J. Alexander of Woodburn Stud in Kentucky.[1] He was the ...
Commonly affected breeds[edit]. In veterinary medicine, some canine breeds are affected by distichiasis more frequently than ... Commonly affected breeds include Poodles, Golden Retrievers, and Shih Tzus.[5] The eyelash exits through the conjunctiva of the ... Analysis of the prevalence of distichiasis in the dog breed Elo]". Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 119 (5-6): 233-7. PMID ...
Breeding[edit]. An adult with a 30-day-old chick in a cave nest near Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA ... "Last Wild California Condor Capture for Breeding Program" (PDF). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (press release). Retrieved May 6, ... The captive breeding program, led by the San Diego Wild Animal Park and Los Angeles Zoo,[65] and with other participating zoos ... Numbers rose through captive breeding and, beginning in 1991, condors were reintroduced into the wild. Since then, its ...
Creation of new breeds[edit]. Some amateur dog fans in Bulgaria creating new big dog show breed with which the Karakachan dog ... Breed standard[edit]. The official breed standard was written in 1991 and approved in 2005 by the State Commission for Animal ... These are cross-breeds of Karakachan dogs with giant breeds such as Caucasian Ovcharka, Central Asian Ovcharka, Moscow Watchdog ... Due to their conservative stock-breeding traditions, they have preserved some of the oldest breeds of domestic animals in ...
While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results, the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major ... This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties. Prior ... Breeding. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. ... Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.[48] Home cultivars are often bred for flavor ...
Association with crop breeding[edit]. Manipulation of dehiscence can improve crop yield since a trait that causes seed ... Many of the agronomically important plants have been bred for reduced shattering. ...
In 1924, the breed society was founded, and a studbook opened.[9] World War I and World War II were devastating to the breed. ... They are often used as foundation breeding stock for the Riding Pony.[15] The breed is a suitable size and temperament for a ... Lynghaug, Fran (2009), The Official Horse Breeds Standards Guide: The Complete Guide to the Standards of All North American ... Breed characteristics[edit]. The small head has large, wide-set eyes and alert ears. The body is strong, with a broad, deep rib ...
Individuals captured on Hauturu/Little Barrier Island have been successfully bred in captivity at Butterfly Creek and Auckland ... Since 2008 the Department of Conservation has been involved in a captive breeding and release programme to mitigate the risk of ...
The Taiwan Dog (Chinese: 台灣犬) is a breed or landrace of small or medium dog indigenous to Taiwan. These dogs are also known as ... Breeding problems[edit]. The Formosan Mountain Dog was originally kept by aboriginal Taiwanese as hunting dogs, but now ... This breed was the loyal companion of the ancient hunter in the wild forest. In 1980, a cooperative study was carried out by ... Due to the breed's alertness, these dogs can make good guard dogs; if not well-trained, the Formosan can become overly ...
Breeding[edit]. N. davidi shrimp reach sexual maturity when they are around 4-6 months old. Breeding only requires a sexed pair ... Neocaridina shrimp can have similar colors due to different selective breeding processes. Cross-breeding different variations ... N. davidi shrimp are easy to care for in the home freshwater aquarium and breed well. They will adapt to a wide range of water ... Female shrimp, under ideal conditions, can breed again within a few days of hatching the previous clutch.[citation needed] ...
Breeding[edit]. Great kiskadees are monogamous and defend a territory. Both sexes build the large domed nest that has a side ... It breeds in open woodland with some tall trees, including cultivation and around human habitation, mainly found in Belize, and ... The birds bred successfully and by 1976 the population on the island had expanded to around 60,000.[17] The great kiskadee is ...
The male also feeds the female during the breeding and incubation of both eggs and young,[14] and the male is the primary ... Their breeding habitat is urban and suburban areas across North America, as well as various semi-open areas in the west from ...
Chianina and one breeding herd of Sayaguesa x Podolian cattle; a second breeding herd of Sayaguesa × Podolian cattle will be ... through selective cross-breeding of local cattle breeds bearing local aurochs-genome ancestry."[68] ... began a selective breeding program to breed back the aurochs into existence from the descendant domesticated cattle. Their plan ... In accordance with the breeding aims,[64] the Auerrindprojekt has already set up two breeding herds of Watusi × ...
Breeding[edit]. The Indian golden oriole is a partial migrant. It breeds in central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The ... This oriole breeds from Baluchistan and Afghanistan along the Himalayas to Nepal. Some populations breed in the peninsular ... Indian populations are largely resident while the other populations are migratory.[10] The breeding season is April to August, ...
It was slowly bred into a meat breed of outstanding carcass quality. It is now one of the most common meat breeds in the ... The Texel breed is a white-faced breed with no wool on the head or legs. The breed is characterized by a distinctive short, ... The exact origin of the breed is unknown although it is thought to be a cross of multiple English breeds. ... These qualities have helped the Texel breed become the most popular terminal sire breed in the UK. ...
Breeding range Year-round range Wintering range Present during migration The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large ... Breeding biology and food habits of the Great Blue Heron at Heyburn State Park, Benewah County, Idaho. Master's Thesis. Univ. ... Habitat selection and time of breeding in the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). Phd Thesis. Univ. of Brit. Col. Vancouver. ... The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. ...
While pinto colored horses are not a "breed," several competing color breed registries have formed to encourage the breeding of ... Breed registries and white markings[edit]. Many breed registries do not, or at some time in the past did not, accept "cropout" ... While a pinto may be of any breed or combination of breeds, and some registries for pintos may have additional restrictions ( ... Some color breed registries accept solid horses as breeding stock, while others do not. ...
... , WHY?. Breed To Improve. Breeding should only be done for the advancement of the breed. If you are thinking ... If you plan to breed or show your dog, you will want to find a knowledgeable person in the breed to show you the ropes. A ... Breeding, and doing it right, is an expensive undertaking. By the time youve picked out a good bitch, waited for her to grow ... All breeding Shelties should have this test repeated every 1-2 years of age from age 1 year to age 8 years. ...
"The North American Breeding Bird Survey". Retrieved 2010-05-27.. *^ "Birds Breeding". Archived from the original on 2010-05-16 ... The BTO/JNCC/RSPB Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a national project aimed at keeping track of changes in the breeding ... A breeding bird survey monitors the status and trends of bird populations. Data from the survey are an important source for the ... The North American Breeding Bird Survey is a joint project of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Canadian ...
A huge fun and educational webpage about horses. Come learn everything you need to know about horses and have fun doing it. We welcome all written submissions and have free link placement for other horse sites
... Steven Montgomery Thu, 10 Oct 2002 13:48:12 -0700 ...
Marshall Breedings Slides from the... by ALATechSource 1668 views * Social software presentation_hastings by ALATechSource 990 ... Marshall Breeding--TechTrends Slides * 1. Tech Trends at the ALA Annual Conference,br /,ALA TechSource Webinar ,br /,Marshall ... Breeding,br /,Director for Innovative Technology and Research,br /,Vanderbilt University Library,br /,Founder and Publisher, ...
J ` B Y N K ^ V ̈ꕔ C ܂ B S C A X ̎킨 ?? t H [ C ܂ B @Fan Lin ...
Learn more about the wheat breeding and genetics program at the UI Aberdeen Research and Extension Center operated by the ... To develop desired wheat varieties and germplasm using an integrated breeding system combining traditional and mutant breeding ... Wheat Breeding and Genetics. Five different classes of wheat are grown in Idahos diverse agricultural environment. Wheat ... The breeder teaches classes through videoconferencing and onsite on classes of Cereal Breeding and Genetics, QTL Mapping of ...
No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ... No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ... No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. Learn how to advertise, negotiate the price and decide who you can trust. Photo ...
A horse breed is a selectively bred population of domesticated horses, often with pedigrees recorded in a breed registry. ... These hybrid types are not breeds, but they resemble breeds in that crosses between certain horse breeds and other equine ... Other breeds have a partially closed stud book but still allow certain infusions from other breeds. For example, the modern ... Some breeds have been developed through centuries of crossings with other breeds, while others, such as Tennessee Walking ...
Dragon Breed (ドラゴンブリード, Doragon Burīdo) is a horizontally scrolling shooter video game produced by Irem and released in arcades ... In Japan, Game Machine listed Dragon Breed on their August 15, 1989 issue as being the fourth most-successful table arcade unit ... "Dragon Breed" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dragon_Breed&oldid=966004388" ...
Experimental breeding: Genetically diverse lines of organisms can be crossed in such a way to produce different combinations of ... Other articles where Experimental breeding is discussed: genetics: ... In genetics: Experimental breeding. Genetically diverse lines of organisms can be crossed in such a way to produce different ...
This shows the potential for breeding more ozone-tolerant varieties.. Since ozone concentrations have been rising for decades, ...
As Ive noted before, dogs are a 15,000-year reckless genetic experiment . Weve bred collies for vigilance, Rottweilers for ... This is the kind of thing that sickens me about dog breeding. This health defect were so generously treating? We caused it. ... Just as obesity has proved dangerous to human flu victims because of the weight on their chests, being bred to have a short, ... Will this teach us to stop breeding such defects into animals? Dont count on it. Some creatures are just slow to learn. ...
Breeding bird atlas: To report bird breeding activity in your neighborhood, or to get information on the breeding bird atlas ( ... Breeding Birds: California Thrasher. December 01, 1989,Clipboard researched by Kathie Bozanich Susan Davis Greene and Janice L ...
So far my experience has been grea , Check out Colubrids Snake Breeding Startup on Indiegogo. ... I plan to start breeding colubrids in Michigan as a living. ...
Some results from the GSS on what people perceive the ideal number of children is based on social variables. Additionally, the realized number of children the respondent has. I limited the sample to whites who were 40 or older (there are people who have children past 40, but I assume that most of the discrepancy, or not, between ideal and realized will be evident by that age ...
Plant-breeding; comments on the experiments of Nilsson and Burbank (1907) (14595827329).jpg 1,468 × 2,040; 388 KB. ... Plant-breeding; comments on the experiments of Nilsson and Burbank (1907) (14779371011).jpg 1,394 × 1,990; 309 KB. ... Plant-breeding; comments on the experiments of Nilsson and Burbank (1907) (14782134522).jpg 1,450 × 2,398; 408 KB. ... Plant-breeding; comments on the experiments of Nilsson and Burbank (1907) (14782554095).jpg 1,948 × 1,392; 452 KB. ...
Visit Ann Breedings CaringBridge website where youll find the latest updates and a place to share messages of love, hope & ... Ann Breeding First post: Oct 27, 2017 Latest post: Feb 23, 2018 ...
... fruitflygreen2, fruitflygreen3, fruitflygreen1, and fruitflygreen4 Introduction:. In this project, our ... Some things that we noticed that lead to a question was, whether or not wild flies breed faster than vestigial flies? Was this ...
These types of breeding systems can be applied to most species of frogs. However, some species exhibit bizarre mating behaviors ... Explosive breeding is common to many toads, family Bufonidae. After warm spring rains, large congregations of toads assemble ... Females, which have a high likelihood of successfully mating if they even enter the breeding grounds, only come to mate once or ... The primary feature of the prolonged breeding is female choice. Males often sit from staked-out territories and use ...
Cockatiels are quite easy to breed. There are several things that can go wrong, but if you have your birds on a good healthy ... Breeding Cockatiels. Guest Author - Mavis Metcalf. Cockatiels are very popular pet birds. They are easily tamed if parent fed ... Breeding birds of any kind take a lot of time and commitment and cockatiels are no exception. Please take the time to do it ... Normally, Cockatiels are quite easy to breed. There are several things that can go wrong, but if you have your birds on a good ...
Breeding Birds. blockquote {border-left: 5px solid #fff;}. Warbling vireo at Effigy Mounds National Monument NPS / J. Salesman ... Improve our understanding of breeding bird habitat relationships and the effects of management actions such as grazing, exotic ... significant temporal changes in composition and abundance of bird communities in 11 parks within the HTLN during the breeding ...
Finding A Cure, One of the most important challenges, for health communicators today, is helping the public to understand that a flu shot will not be readily available when the next pandemic strikes. Once the virus is identified, it will take several months to produce a vaccine. In 1918, in desperation, people tried a variety of methods to cure the sick -some practical and effective, others questionable and even amusing.
Individuals involved in poultry breeding, farming, and the loading and transport of poultry to processing facilities face a ... Poultry Breeding, Farming, and Transport. Individuals involved in poultry breeding, farming, and the loading and transport of ... to information and investigations about the evaluation and control of these and other potential hazards during poultry breeding ...
View detailed information and reviews for 292 W Stone Rd in Breeding, Kentucky and get driving directions with road conditions ...
  • No limit of HORSES to breed, sell and buy. (microsoft.com)
  • A horse breed is a selectively bred population of domesticated horses, often with pedigrees recorded in a breed registry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some breeds have been developed through centuries of crossings with other breeds, while others, such as Tennessee Walking Horses and Morgans, developed from a single sire from which all current breed members descend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, powerful but refined breeds such as the Andalusian or the Lusitano developed in the Iberian peninsula as riding horses that also had a great aptitude for dressage, while heavy draft horses such as the Clydesdale and the Shire developed out of a need to perform demanding farm work and pull heavy wagons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, there are over 300 breeds of horses in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin, who had a reputation for careful breeding practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Including WohlerII by WÖHLER , 1950-1971, Liver/DkCh 159cm (DE) Hanoverian who was for many years the quintessence of dressage horses in the breeding region of Hanover. (freewebs.com)
  • Animal rights group Hakol Chai has launched a campaign against the Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry's August decision to invest NIS 750,000 in horse breeding, charging that such horses will be raised predominantly for racing and will likewise be subject to cruel consequences. (jpost.com)
  • Yet even before a bill to permit gambling on horse racing has been introduced into the Knesset, the ministry offered more than NIS 750,000 in public funds to farms willing to breed race horses. (jpost.com)
  • The ministry began to raise the level of the horse breeding industry similarly to what is accepted in Western countries, and to support the advancement of activities related to promoting the welfare of the horses - growth, multiplicity, training, treatment, living conditions and economic management," the ministry told the Post in response to Hakol Chai's allegations. (jpost.com)
  • Not only will the newly bred horses be used for racing, but they will also be used for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes, as well as bolster the economies of peripheral areas with new industry, the ministry said. (jpost.com)
  • Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, most notably in the Thoroughbred breeding industry, American- and Canadian-bred horses may also be described by the state or province in which they are foaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the horse breeding industry, the term "half-brother" or "half-sister" only describes horses which have the same dam, but different sires. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horses that fail the Racecourse Test, either because they are poor athletes or lack racing spirit, are usually poor candidates as breeding stock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, meat production breeds (draft horses) almost exclusively deals with the exportation or horses reform. (wikipedia.org)
  • The French government still distributes bonuses for the birth of foals and endangered breeds of livestock competitions or recovery sports for young horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most modern dog breeds are the products of the controlled breeding practices of the Victorian era (1830-1900), and the accurate documenting of pedigrees with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873 in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some equestrian organizations create a recording system for tracking the competition records of horses, but, though horses of any sex may be recorded, they also do not maintain breeding or progeny records. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breed shows are held for many domesticated animals, including companion animals such as cats and dogs, but also for livestock such as cattle, sheep and horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of horses, horse shows limited to a specific breed are very common, and generally include not only the conformation judging common to all animals, but also add performance classes where the animals are either ridden or shown in harness to display their training and underlying athletic ability, manners and temperament. (wikipedia.org)
  • In horses, the Appaloosa Horse Club, established in 1938, maintains a registry for Appaloosa horses, and has the goal of "preserving the horses' heritage and history" and defining the horse breed through bloodline requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • A color breed refers to groupings of horses whose registration is based primarily on their coat color, regardless of the horse's actual breed or breed type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some color breeds only register horses with a desired coat color if they also meet specific pedigree criteria, others register animals based solely on color, regardless of parentage. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, with the prevalence of DNA testing for parentage, many horses once forced into color breed status due to being born the "wrong" color and thus deemed undesirable or of questionable parentage by many regular breed registries with cropout rules can now be accepted for registration. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some mainsteam breeds, such as American Quarter Horses, Tennessee Walking Horses and American Saddlebreds include individuals of the palomino color or pinto patterns, as well as a wide variety of other colors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many horses eligible for registration with their own breed registry and of a particular color to allow color breed registration are often "double registered" with both organizations, often increasing their sale value by doing so. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses (WBFSH) connects sport horse breeding organizations with the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The WBFSH publishes official rankings of horses competing in international sport and also ranks the breeding organizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1992, the WBFSH has held the World Breeding Championships for Sport Horses, an international-level competition between the most promising young horses in the sports of dressage, show jumping, and eventing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses has several aims overseen by departments, which are managed by individual member studbooks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual meetings focus on methods of breeding sport horses, particularly regarding effective selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of Interstallion, which is run by the WBFSH, is to improve transparency and efficiency in methods of breeding sport horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant breeding , application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. (britannica.com)
  • One of the major facts that emerged during the short history of scientific breeding is that an enormous wealth of genetic variability exists in the plants of the world and that only a start has been made in tapping its potential. (britannica.com)
  • In particular, we explore the evolution of marker development for mapping, genomic approaches to selecting parent combinations and from within segregating breeding populations, exploiting diverse germplasm, tapping into genomic regions of limited recombination, and utilizing bioinformatic characterization of genetic load. (springer.com)
  • Before you breed your pug, you need to have him tested to determine his genetic background. (wikihow.com)
  • center]] #*You need to be sure your pug and the pug you are planning to breed with are not directly related in order to prevent any possible genetic defects caused by inbreeding. (wikihow.com)
  • Molecular breeding is the application of molecular biology tools, often in plant breeding and animal breeding The areas of molecular breeding include: QTL mapping or gene discovery Marker assisted selection and genomic selection Genetic engineering Genetic transformation Genotyping and creating molecular maps - genomics The commonly used markers include Simple sequence repeats (or microsatellites), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic idea is to identify genes or markers associated with genes that correlate to a phenotypic measurement and that can be used in marker assisted breeding / selection Marker assisted selection or genetic selection Once genes or markers are identified, they can be used for genotyping and selection decisions can be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical breeding relies largely on homologous recombination between chromosomes to generate genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tree breeding is the application of genetic, reproductive biology and economics principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimising is usually carried out at the following levels: breeding strategy (appropriate intensity of breeding, breeding population structure and size, plan for maintenance of genetic diversity), breeding methods (mating type, testing and selection methods, testing population size and time) and deployment methods of the genetically improved material (seed orchards and clonal forestry: genetic contribution, size). (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection strategies have been compared for annual progress in long-term breeding at a given annual cost considering genetic gain, gene diversity, cost components, and time components. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been extensive studies of these conditions, commonly sponsored by breed clubs and dog registries, while specialised breed clubs provide information of common genetic defects for their breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the German Shepherd Dog national breed club in Germany is a registry that recognizes that hip dysplasia is a genetic defect for dogs of this breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010). Breeding strategies for sustainable management of animal genetic resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strawberry growers have employed many breeding techniques, starting with traditional plant breeding and then moving on to molecular breeding and genetic engineering in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic Engineering in Plants and the "New Breeding Techniques (NBTs)" Inherent risks and the need to regulate" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeds are formed through genetic isolation and either natural adaptation to the environment or selective breeding, or a combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, all specimens of the same breed carry several genetic characteristics of the original foundation animal(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, avoiding animals carrying characteristics, not typical and/or undesirable for the breed, known as faults or genetic defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultivar Landrace Plant variety (disambiguation) Purebred Race (biology) Selective breeding Subspecies Strain (biology) Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture The state of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following working groups are active: the Genetic-Statistic Committee the Animal Genetics Advisory Board the Working Group for Foodstuffs of Animal Origin the Drafting Committee and the Editorial Staff of the journal Animal Breeding Students of animal science are supported with stipendia and financial aid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study found that dog breeds were so genetically distinct that 99% of individual dogs could be correctly assigned to their breed based on their genotype, indicating that breeding barriers (pure-bred breeding) has led to distinct genetic units. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, a study looked at 49,000 Single nucleotide polymorphisms that gave a genome-wide coverage of 1,375 dogs representing 35 breeds, 19 wolves, and previous published genetic signatures of other breeds, giving a total of 121 breeds covered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some dysplastic dogs may move normally with no outward signs of a problem but still should not be bred. (angelfire.com)
  • An accessible bitch in heat can lead to unplanned breedings, not to mention fights among dogs frantic to get to her. (angelfire.com)
  • Just as obesity has proved dangerous to human flu victims because of the weight on their chests, being bred to have a short, bent respiratory tract is dangerous for dogs. (slate.com)
  • While Pointers were bred to be hunting dogs, they are perfectly content to be given adequate exercise by other means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pugs are one of the most engaging and sassy breed of dogs. (wikihow.com)
  • Category:Breeding Dogs]] [[Category:Pugs]] ==Steps== ===Deciding to Breed Your Pug=== #Examine your motivations for breeding. (wikihow.com)
  • You must have a dog breeding licence if you breed and sell dogs. (medway.gov.uk)
  • The licence is required under the Breeding of Dogs Act 1973 and will be valid for 1 year. (medway.gov.uk)
  • Further, since many domestic animals show a behaviour that is derived from their wild ancestors (such as the herding instinct of cattle or the social instincts of dogs), and are fit to survive under natural circumstances, as evidenced by the many feral populations of many domestic animals, it can be presumed that back-bred animals will function like their wild ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial selection in dog breeding has influenced behavior, shape, and size of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enraged steers, specially bred for their aggressive nature, were used to test the keenness of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other uses of the term breed when referring to dogs may include pure breeds, cross-breeds, mixed breeds and natural breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same standard has been found in the remains of sled dogs from this region 2,000 ago and in the modern Siberian Husky breed standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeology has revealed dog remains of various sizes but there does not appear to have been distinctive breeds until 3,000-4,000 years ago when greyhound-type dogs were depicted on pottery and paintings in Egypt and Western Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mastiff-type dogs were kept for guarding and hunting, and short-legged dogs were also bred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancient breed of dogs was a term once used for a group of dog breeds by the American Kennel Club, but no longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, a study looked at the microsatellites of 414 purebred dogs representing 85 breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study found that the Pharaoh Hound and Ibizan Hound were not as old as believed but had been recreated from combinations of other breeds, and that the Norwegian Elkhound grouped with the other European dogs despite reports of direct Scandinavian origins dating back 5,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, a study looked at 48,000 Single nucleotide polymorphisms that gave a genome-wide coverage of 912 dogs representing 85 breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also entities which refer to themselves as registries, but which are thinly veiled marketing devices for vendors of puppies and adult dogs, as well as a means of collecting registration fees from novice dog owners unfamiliar with reputable registries and breed clubs. (wikipedia.org)
  • it allows new breeds to develop under its Foundation Stock Service, but such dogs are not eligible for competition in AKC conformation shows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gundogs are traditionally divided into three classes: retrievers, flushing dogs, and pointing breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the pure pointing and setting breeds, many versatile dogs were bred for working in dense cover, and traditionally have docked tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Federation Cynologique Internationale regulates breed standards for dogs internationally, but the largest dog registry, the American Kennel Club, does not belong to the international body and uses its own breed standard format. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breed type Breed standard (dogs) Equine conformation American Standard of Perfection Animal husbandry Animal fancy Cattle judging Selective breeding Fault (dog) A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALPACA BREED TYPE AND STANDARDS, By Jude Anderson, Maggie Krieger, and Mike Safley, The Alpaca Library from Northwest Alpacas Archived April 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • For breed shows specifically for dogs, see conformation show. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breeds on the list have been promoted at events such as Discover Dogs and Crufts, and by asking that owners of these breeds mate their dogs rather than having them spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most marked drop in popularity is that of the Sealyham Terrier, which registered 1,084 breeds in 1938, but by 2004 was registering only sixty dogs a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many giant breeds are mature, soft and relaxed dogs as adults and require less exercise than most smaller dogs, so they can make better pets for small living arrangements, such as apartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant breeds often have health-related disadvantages when compared to smaller dogs and caring for them is usually more expensive than for smaller dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Breed's futuristic story, human colonies are attacked by an alien race commonly called "the Breed" in the early 27th century, and Earth sends out a large United Space Corps (USC) fleet to their defense. (gamespot.com)
  • Domestic animal breeds commonly differ from country to country, and from nation to nation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A live performance of "Breed" from 31 October, 1991 at the Paramount Theatre, Seattle was released on the live video compilation Live! (wikipedia.org)
  • A large proportion of the female yak population is required simply to replace the pure-bred yak - even if the size of that population were to remain static and not increase, as seems often desired by herders. (fao.org)
  • One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in 1791 and traced back to the Arabian stallions imported to England from the Middle East that became the foundation stallions for the breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Requirements for the breeding of registered purebreds vary between breeds, countries, kennel clubs and registries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kennel clubs always maintain registries, either directly or through affiliated dog breed clubs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horse breeding also has such problematic registries, particularly for certain color breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many such questionable registries are incorporated as for-profit commercial businesses, in contrast to the formal not-for-profit status of most reputable breed clubs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to DNA verification of parentage, today many mainstream breed registries that once excluded certain coat colors will now accept them as long as the animal can be proved pureblooded. (wikipedia.org)
  • But while the breeding program has been an unquestionable success, that success in some ways only highlights past failures to preserve wild panda habitat, and to properly prepare captive-bred pandas for reintroduction into the wild. (newsweek.com)
  • A successful captive breeding program by US F&W with a bobwhite quail generated the creation of a wildlife refuge in southern Arizona to allow its successful reintroduction. (umich.edu)
  • The breed includes several bloodlines that can be interbred to sustain the breed in whole without weakening the gene pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • We prefer sturdier, heritage chicken breeds, capable of free-ranging and foraging much of their own feed. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Traditional chicken breeds would reach market weight by 14 weeks of age or older, but through intensive, selective breeding, modern commercial broilers can reach market weight at only 5 or 6 weeks of age. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Unfortunately, even flocksters seeking traditional, well-rounded chicken breeds are likely in for a rude surprise when they order a batch of Wyandottes, Plymouth Rocks or other heritage chicks from commercial hatcheries. (motherearthnews.com)
  • In the American Poultry Association breed standards for poultry, for example, ducks and geese are divided by weight, and chicken breeds are divided by size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection for seed yield in Lolium perenne L. Plant Breed. (springer.com)
  • Apart from a scheme involving selection in crossbreds of wild yak with domestic yak in a process of breed development (see Chapter 2), no information has become available on rigorous selection programmes consistently applied for the improvement of the performance of yak in China. (fao.org)
  • Crosses of domestic yak with wild yak are also thought to provide a basis for selection in new breed formation (cf. (fao.org)
  • Selection can be based on genomic selection predictions, potentially leading to more rapid and lower cost gains from breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical forest tree breeding program starts with selection of superior phenotypes (plus trees) in a natural or planted forest. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two approaches or types of artificial selection, or selective breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • By "breeding the best to the best", employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline or "breed" superior in certain respects to the original base stock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection of Swine Breeding Stock" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Federico Tesio The Racecourse Test means that the most important selection criteria for breeding the Thoroughbred is the ability displayed on the racetrack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horse breeding is entirely within the agricultural sector since 2005, it is subject to rules regarding the identification, sale, selection of breeding techniques and monitoring of births. (wikipedia.org)
  • A selection from the Olde English Bulldogge breed is recognized by the United Kennel Club as of January 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cattle, breed standards allow for comparisons and the selection of the best breeds to raise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central Sheep Breeding Farm, Hisar is a public funded agricultural research, breeding and education institute located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana that offers educational courses in Shearing Training and Sheep Management & Production Training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic prediction combines marker data with phenotypic and pedigree data (when available) in an attempt to increase the accuracy of the prediction of breeding and genotypic values. (wikipedia.org)
  • William Farrer revolutionized wheat farming in Australia with the widespread release in 1903 of the fungus resistant "Federation" strain of wheat, which was developed as a result of his plant breeding work over a period of twenty years using Mendel's theories. (wikipedia.org)