Any tests done on exhaled air.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
The act of BREATHING out.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A malabsorption syndrome that is associated with a blind loop in the upper SMALL INTESTINE that is characterized by the lack of peristaltic movement, stasis of INTESTINAL CONTENTS, and the overgrowth of BACTERIA. Such bacterial overgrowth interferes with BILE SALTS action, FATTY ACIDS processing, MICROVILLI integrity, and the ABSORPTION of nutrients such as VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.
One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.
An autosomal recessive disorder affecting DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DEHYDROGENASE and causing familial pyrimidinemia. It is characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Even a partial deficiency in the enzyme leaves individuals at risk for developing severe 5-FLUOROURACIL-associated toxicity.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
A MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
The S-isomer of omeprazole.
A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.

Prior protein intake may affect phenylalanine kinetics measured in healthy adult volunteers consuming 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1. (1/2097)

Study of the amino acid metabolism of vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, children and patients, is needed. Our existing protocol is preceded by 2 d of adaptation to a low 13C formula diet at a protein intake of 1 g. kg-1. d-1 to minimize variations in breath 13CO2 enrichment and protein metabolism. To expand on our potential study populations, a less invasive protocol needs to be developed. We have already established that a stable background 13CO2 enrichment can be achieved on the study day without prior adaptation to the low 13C formula. Therefore, this study investigates phenylalanine kinetics in response to variations in prior protein intake. Healthy adult subjects were each fed nutritionally adequate mixed diets containing 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 g protein. kg-1. d-1 for 2 d. On d 3, subjects consumed an amino acid-based formula diet containing the equivalent of 1 g protein. kg-1. d-1 hourly for 10 h and primed hourly oral doses of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine for the final 6 h. Phenylalanine kinetics were calculated from plasma-free phenylalanine enrichment and breath 13CO2 excretion. A significant quadratic response of prior protein intake on phenylalanine flux (P = 0.012) and oxidation (P = 0.009) was identified, such that both variables were lower following adaptation to a protein intake of 1.4 g. kg-1. d-1. We conclude that variations in protein intake, between 0.8 and 2.0 g. kg-1. d-1, prior to the study day may affect amino acid kinetics and; therefore, it is prudent to continue to control protein intake prior to an amino acid kinetics study.  (+info)

Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (2/2097)

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

Orally exhaled nitric oxide levels are related to the degree of blood eosinophilia in atopic children with mild-intermittent asthma. (3/2097)

Increased levels of nitric oxide have been found in expired air of patients with asthma, and these are thought to be related to the airway inflammatory events that characterize this disorder. Since, in adults, bronchial inflammatory changes are present even in mild disease, the present study was designed to evaluate whether a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma could have increased exhaled air NO concentrations. Twenty-two atopic children (aged 11.1+/-0.8 yrs) with mild-intermittent asthma, treated only with inhaled beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists on demand and 22 age-matched controls were studied. NO concentrations in orally exhaled air, measured by chemiluminescence, were significantly higher in asthmatics, as compared to controls (19.4+/-3.3 parts per billion (ppb) and 4.0+/-0.5 ppb, respectively; p<0.01). Interestingly, 14 out of 22 asthmatic children had NO levels >8.8 ppb (i.e. >2 standard deviations of the mean in controls). In asthmatic patients, but not in control subjects, statistically significant correlations were found between exhaled NO levels and absolute number or percentage of blood eosinophils (r=0.63 and 0.56, respectively; p<0.01, each comparison). In contrast, exhaled NO levels were not correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced expiratory flows at 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) or forced vital capacity (FVC), either in control subjects, or in asthmatic patients (p>0.1, each correlation). These results suggest that a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma may have airway inflammation, as shown by the presence of elevated levels of nitric oxide in the exhaled air. The clinical relevance of this observation remains to be established.  (+info)

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. (4/2097)

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.  (+info)

Increased exhaled nitric oxide on days with high outdoor air pollution is of endogenous origin. (5/2097)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of outdoor air pollution on exhaled levels of endogenously released nitric oxide. To exclude bias from exogenous NO in the recovered exhaled air (residual NO or NO in dead volume) an experimental design was used that sampled NO of endogenous origin only. The validity of the presented experimental design was established in experiments where subjects were exposed to high levels of exogenous NO (cigarette smoke or 480 microg x m(-3) synthetic NO). Subsequent 1 min breathing and a final inhalation of NO-free air proved to be sufficient to attain pre-exposure values. Using the presented method detecting only endogenous NO in exhaled air, 18 subjects were sampled on 4 separate days with different levels of outdoor air pollution (read as an ambient NO level of 4, 30, 138 and 246 microg x m(-3)). On the 2 days with highest outdoor air pollution, exhaled NO was significantly (p<0.001) increased (67-78%) above the mean baseline value assessed on 4 days with virtually no outdoor air pollution. In conclusion, the level of endogenous nitric oxide in exhaled air is increased on days with high outdoor air pollution. The physiological implications of this findings need to be investigated further.  (+info)

LMR spectroscopy: a new sensitive method for on-line recording of nitric oxide in breath. (6/2097)

Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LMRS) is a sensitive and isotope-selective technique for determining low concentrations of gaseous free radicals with high time resolution. We used this technique to analyze the nitric oxide (NO) concentration profile while simultaneously measuring the flow and expired volume during several single breathing cycles. Eight healthy, nonallergic volunteers were investigated. An initial NO peak was found in all breathing cycles before the NO concentration dropped to a relatively stable plateau in the late phase of expiration. The nasal NO peak was significantly higher than the oral NO peak. The nasal NO plateau was always higher than the oral NO plateau. The height of the initial nasal and oral NO peak rose with increasing duration of breath hold, whereas the late expiratory NO plateau changed only little for either the nasal or the oral breathing cycles. Our findings demonstrate, in line with other reports using other techniques, that the nose is the primary source for NO within the airways.  (+info)

Outcome of carotid artery occlusion is predicted by cerebrovascular reactivity. (7/2097)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining prognostic indications in patients with internal carotid occlusion on the basis of intracranial hemodynamic status, presence of previous symptoms of cerebrovascular failure, and baseline characteristics. METHODS: Cerebral hemodynamics were studied with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Cerebrovascular reactivity to apnea was calculated by means of the breath-holding index (BHI) in the middle cerebral arteries. Sixty-five patients with internal carotid artery occlusion were followed-up prospectively (median, 24 months), 23 patients were asymptomatic and 42 symptomatic (20 with transient ischemic attack and 22 with stroke). RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 11 symptomatic patients and 1 asymptomatic patient had another ischemic event ipsilateral to carotid occlusion. Among factors considered, only lower BHI values in the middle cerebral arteries ipsilateral to carotid occlusion and older age were significantly associated with the risk of developing symptoms (P=0.002 and P=0.003, respectively; Cox regression multivariate analysis). Based on our data, a cut point of the BHI value for distinguishing between pathological and normal cerebrovascular reactivity was determined to be 0.69. All patients except one, who developed TIA or stroke during the follow-up period, had BHI values ipsilateral to carotid occlusion of <0.69. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity is predictive for cerebral ischemic events in patients with carotid occlusion.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (8/2097)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Gastric emptying is the process by which the stomach empties its contents into the small intestine. In medical terms, it refers to the rate and amount of food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This process is regulated by several factors, including the volume and composition of the meal, hormonal signals, and neural mechanisms. Abnormalities in gastric emptying can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, such as gastroparesis, where the stomach's ability to empty food is delayed.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide, specifically a non-absorbable sugar, used in the treatment of chronic constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It works as an osmotic laxative by drawing water into the large intestine, promoting bowel movements and softening stool. In the case of hepatic encephalopathy, lactulose is metabolized by colonic bacteria to produce acidic byproducts that lower the pH in the gut, which helps prevent the absorption of harmful substances like ammonia into the bloodstream.

Aminopyrine is a type of medication known as a non-opioid analgesic, which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that was widely used in the past, but its use has been limited or discontinued in many countries due to the risk of rare but serious side effects such as agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can make individuals more susceptible to infections.

Chemically, aminopyrine is an aromatic heterocyclic compound containing a pyridine ring substituted with an amino group and a phenyl group. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that mediate pain and inflammation. By reducing prostaglandin levels, aminopyrine helps to alleviate pain and reduce fever.

It's important to note that due to its potential side effects, aminopyrine is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and other safer and more effective medications are available for pain relief and fever reduction.

Caprylates are the salts or esters of capric acid, a saturated fatty acid with a chain length of 8 carbon atoms. In medical and biological contexts, caprylate refers to the anion (negatively charged ion) form of capric acid, which has the chemical formula C8H17O2-. Caprylates are used in various applications, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products.

Some examples of caprylate compounds include:

* Sodium caprylate (sodium octanoate): a sodium salt commonly used as a preservative and flavor enhancer in foods.
* Calcium caprylate (calcium octanoate): a calcium salt used as an emulsifier in food products and as a stabilizer in cosmetics.
* Caprylic acid/caprylate triglycerides: esters of glycerin with caprylic acid, used as emollients and solvents in skin care products and pharmaceuticals.

Caprylates have antimicrobial properties against certain bacteria, fungi, and viruses, making them useful in various medical applications. For instance, sodium caprylate is sometimes used as an antifungal agent to treat conditions like candidiasis (yeast infections). However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using caprylates for medicinal purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Lactose intolerance is a digestive condition in which the body has difficulty digesting lactose, a sugar found in milk and dairy products. This occurs due to a deficiency or insufficiency of lactase, an enzyme produced by the small intestine that breaks down lactose into simpler sugars (glucose and galactose) for absorption. When there is not enough lactase to digest the consumed lactose, it passes undigested into the large intestine, where it is fermented by bacteria, leading to various gastrointestinal symptoms.

The symptoms of lactose intolerance may include bloating, cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and gas, usually occurring within 30 minutes to two hours after consuming dairy products. The severity of these symptoms can vary depending on the amount of lactose consumed and an individual's level of lactase deficiency or insufficiency.

Lactose intolerance is not life-threatening but can cause discomfort and may affect a person's quality of life. It is essential to manage the condition through dietary modifications, such as consuming smaller amounts of dairy products, choosing lactose-free or reduced-lactose options, or using lactase enzyme supplements before eating dairy products. In some cases, a healthcare professional may recommend additional management strategies based on an individual's specific needs and medical history.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Clarithromycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. It is a member of the macrolide antibiotic family, which works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Clarithromycin is available by prescription and is often used in combination with other medications to treat conditions such as Helicobacter pylori infection and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.

The medical definition of clarithromycin is:

"A antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, belonging to the macrolide antibiotic family. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and is available by prescription."

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles is a class of chemical compounds that have both a pyridinylmethylsulfinyl group and a benzimidazole ring in their structure. Pyridinylmethylsulfinyl refers to a functional group consisting of a sulfinyl group (-S(=O)-) attached to a methyl group (-CH2-) that is, in turn, attached to a pyridine ring. Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a fused benzene and imidazole ring.

These types of compounds have been studied for their potential biological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor properties. However, it's important to note that medical definitions typically refer to specific substances or classes of substances that have established clinical use or are under investigation for therapeutic purposes. As such, 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles do not have a recognized medical definition in this sense.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Bismuth is a heavy, brittle, white metallic element (symbol: Bi; atomic number: 83) that is found in various minerals and is used in several industrial, medical, and household products. In medicine, bismuth compounds are commonly used as antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer agents due to their antibacterial properties. They can be found in medications like Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate. It's important to note that bismuth itself is not used medically, but its compounds have medical applications.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Gastrointestinal transit refers to the movement of food, digestive secretions, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. This process involves several muscles and nerves that work together to propel the contents through the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

The transit time can vary depending on factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, hydration levels, and overall health. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit can lead to various conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and malabsorption. Therefore, maintaining normal gastrointestinal transit is essential for proper digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall health.

Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by parasites or bacteria. According to the Medical Dictionary, it is defined as:

"A synthetic nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent, similar to metronidazole, that is active against a wide range of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. It is used in the treatment of various clinical conditions, including bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and pseudomembranous colitis."

Tinidazole works by interfering with the DNA of the microorganisms, which leads to their death. It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed for a duration of 2-5 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, and changes in taste sensation.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Chylomicron remnants are the small, dense lipoprotein particles that remain after the digestion and absorption of dietary fats in the gut. They consist of a core of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, apolipoproteins (including ApoE), and other proteins.

After a meal, dietary fats are absorbed by the intestinal cells and packaged into chylomicrons, which are released into the lymphatic system and then enter the bloodstream. The triglycerides in the chylomicrons are progressively hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase in the capillaries of various tissues, resulting in the formation of chylomicron remnants.

Chylomicron remnants contain a higher proportion of cholesterol and ApoE than the original chylomicrons and are taken up by the liver via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The ApoE on the surface of the chylomicron remnants binds to specific receptors (e.g., LDL receptors, LDL receptor-related proteins) on the hepatocytes, leading to their internalization and degradation in the liver.

Abnormalities in chylomicron metabolism can lead to hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

The lactose tolerance test is a medical procedure used to determine the body's ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. In this test, a patient is given a liquid that contains a high amount of lactose to drink. Blood samples are then taken over a two-hour period following the consumption of the lactose solution. These blood samples are tested for glucose levels.

If the body is able to digest lactose properly, the lactose will be broken down into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream, resulting in an increase in blood glucose levels. However, if the body has difficulty digesting lactose (lactose intolerance), little or no increase in blood glucose levels will be observed.

A positive lactose tolerance test indicates that the individual can tolerate lactose and has a functioning lactase enzyme in their small intestine. A negative result suggests lactose intolerance, which is often due to insufficient lactase production. This condition can lead to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps after consuming dairy products.

Lansoprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. The medical definition of Lansoprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that is a selective gastric proton pump inhibitor, which suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. It is used as an effective therapy for various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lansoprazole is available in the form of capsules or oral granules for delayed-release oral administration.

Here's a brief overview of its mechanism of action:

* Lansoprazole is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the parietal cells in the stomach, where it is converted into its active form.
* The active form of lansoprazole binds to and inhibits the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system, which is responsible for pumping hydrogen ions (protons) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the stomach, where they combine with chloride ions to form hydrochloric acid.
* By inhibiting this proton pump, lansoprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to relieve symptoms and promote healing of gastrointestinal disorders.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Sulfoxides are organic compounds characterized by the functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and a carbon atom. The general structure is R-S(=O)O-R', where R and R' represent alkyl or aryl groups. They are often formed by the oxidation of sulfides, which contain a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. Sulfoxides have a trigonal pyramidal geometry at the sulfur atom due to the presence of two electron-withdrawing oxygen atoms. They exhibit properties of both polar and nonpolar compounds, making them useful as solvents and intermediates in organic synthesis.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

Acetamides are organic compounds that contain an acetamide functional group, which is a combination of an acetyl group (-COCH3) and an amide functional group (-CONH2). The general structure of an acetamide is R-CO-NH-CH3, where R represents the rest of the molecule.

Acetamides are found in various medications, including some pain relievers, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants. They can also be found in certain industrial chemicals and are used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of acetamides can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Chronic exposure has been linked to more serious health effects, including liver and kidney damage. Therefore, handling and use of acetamides should be done with appropriate safety precautions.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Gastroparesis is a gastrointestinal disorder that affects the stomach's normal motility, resulting in the delayed emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine. The term "gastroparesis" literally means "stomach paralysis," although the stomach doesn't actually become paralyzed in this condition. Instead, the muscles of the stomach wall become weakened or damaged, leading to a decrease in their ability to contract and push food through the digestive tract effectively.

The causes of gastroparesis can vary, but some common reasons include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), viral infections, surgery involving the vagus nerve (which controls stomach muscle contractions), certain medications (such as narcotics, antidepressants, and high blood pressure drugs), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), scleroderma, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Amyloidosis.

Symptoms of gastroparesis may include nausea, vomiting, feeling full quickly after starting to eat, bloating, heartburn, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and unintended weight loss. These symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and make it difficult for them to maintain proper nutrition.

Diagnosis typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and various tests such as upper endoscopy, gastric emptying studies (such as the scintigraphy scan), and manometry to assess stomach muscle function. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, medications to stimulate stomach contractions or reduce symptoms like nausea and vomiting, botulinum toxin injections, electrical stimulation of the stomach muscles, or, in severe cases, feeding tubes or surgery.

Furazolidone is defined as an antimicrobial agent with nitrofuran structure. It is primarily used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis, traveller's diarrhea, and other types of bacterial diarrhea. Furazolidone works by inhibiting certain enzymes necessary for the survival of bacteria, thereby killing or stopping the growth of the microorganisms. It is also used as a preservative in some food products.

It's important to note that Furazolidone has been associated with rare but serious side effects such as lung and liver toxicity, so its use is generally restricted to short-term therapy and under close medical supervision.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Blind Loop Syndrome is a medical condition that occurs when there is an abnormal pocket or pouch in the small intestine that allows digested food to bypass the normal digestive process. This can lead to bacterial overgrowth, malabsorption of nutrients, and various gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, cramps, diarrhea, and weight loss.

The blind loop can be caused by a number of factors, including congenital abnormalities, surgical complications, or structural changes due to diseases such as Crohn's disease or cancer. The diagnosis of Blind Loop Syndrome is often made through radiologic studies, such as a barium X-ray or CT scan, and can be confirmed with a breath test that measures the amount of hydrogen or methane gas produced by intestinal bacteria.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the overgrowth of bacteria, followed by surgery to correct the underlying anatomical abnormality. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and improve nutrient absorption.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 (H2) blocker medication that works by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces. It is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Ranitidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. Additionally, ranitidine can be used to prevent and treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by stress or injury in critically ill patients.

The medication is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it comes in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. As with any medication, ranitidine should be taken as directed by a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully monitored.

Rabeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The medical definition of Rabeprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that acts as a prodrug, being selectively converted to the active form in the acidic environment of gastric parietal cells. It suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Rabeprazole is used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets and sodium salt for oral administration.

In simpler terms, Rabeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to prevent and heal damage to the esophagus and stomach caused by excessive acid production.

The ileocecal valve, also known as the Bauhin's valve, is a vital physiological structure in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a valve located at the junction between the ileum (the final portion of the small intestine) and the cecum (the first part of the large intestine or colon). This valve functions to control the flow of digesta from the small intestine into the large intestine, preventing backflow from the colon into the small intestine. It is an essential component in maintaining proper digestive function and gut health.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Antitrichomonatal agents are a group of medications specifically used to treat infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The most common antitrichomonal agent is metronidazole, which works by disrupting the parasite's ability to reproduce and survive within the human body. Other antitrichomonal agents include tinidazole and secnidazole, which also belong to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, or topical creams, and are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals for the treatment of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and drug interactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pentanes" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a group of five-carbon alkane hydrocarbons, including n-pentane and iso-pentane. These substances can be used in medical settings as anesthetics or for medical research, but "Pentanes" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Breath holding is a physiological response where an individual holds their breath, intentionally or unintentionally, for a period of time. This can occur in various situations such as during swimming underwater, while lifting heavy weights, or in response to emotional stress or pain. In some cases, it can also be associated with certain medical conditions like seizures or syncope (fainting).

In the context of medical terminology, breath holding is often described as "voluntary" or "involuntary." Voluntary breath-holding is when an individual consciously chooses to hold their breath, while involuntary breath-holding occurs unconsciously, usually in response to a trigger such as a sudden increase in carbon dioxide levels or a decrease in oxygen levels.

It's important to note that prolonged breath-holding can be dangerous and may lead to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide), which can cause dizziness, loss of consciousness, or even more severe consequences such as brain damage or death. Therefore, it's essential not to hold one's breath for extended periods and seek medical attention if experiencing any symptoms related to breath-holding.

Mineral waters are naturally occurring waters that contain various minerals, including salts and gases. These waters can be still or sparkling, and they can vary in mineral content depending on the source. Some common minerals found in mineral waters include calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfates.

Mineral waters are often used for therapeutic purposes, as drinking or bathing in them is believed to have various health benefits. For example, some studies suggest that drinking mineral water can help improve digestion, boost the immune system, and reduce inflammation. Bathing in mineral waters, on the other hand, has been shown to help relieve muscle pain, improve circulation, and promote relaxation.

It's important to note that while mineral waters can have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. Additionally, some mineral waters may contain high levels of minerals like sodium, which may not be suitable for everyone, particularly those with certain medical conditions such as hypertension.

Spirulina is not typically considered in medical definitions, as it is a type of blue-green algae that is often used as a dietary supplement or superfood due to its high nutritional content. However, here's a brief description:

Spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a filamentous, spiral-shaped, photosynthetic cyanobacterium that grows in warm, alkaline fresh and brackish waters. It is often found in tropical and subtropical lakes with high pH values and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. Spirulina contains various nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins (including B12), minerals, carotenoids, and antioxidants like phycocyanobilin. It has been used for its potential health benefits, including boosting the immune system, reducing inflammation, supporting cardiovascular health, and providing antioxidant protection. However, it is essential to consult healthcare professionals before starting any dietary supplement regimen, as individual needs and responses may vary.

Loperamide is an antidiarrheal medication that works by slowing down the movement of the intestines. This helps to increase the time between bowel movements and reduces the amount of liquid in stools, thereby helping to relieve diarrhea. It is available over-the-counter (OTC) and by prescription, depending on the strength and formulation.

Loperamide works by binding to opioid receptors in the gut, which helps to reduce the contractions of the intestines that can lead to diarrhea. It is important to note that loperamide should not be used for longer than 2 days without consulting a healthcare professional, as prolonged use can lead to serious side effects such as constipation, dizziness, and decreased alertness.

Loperamide is also known by its brand names, including Imodium, Pepto-Bismol Maximum Strength, and Kaopectate II. It is important to follow the instructions on the label carefully when taking loperamide, and to speak with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using this medication.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. The symptoms can vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it's thought to involve a combination of factors such as muscle contractions in the intestine, abnormalities in the nervous system, inflammation in the intestines, severe infection, or changes in bacteria in the gut.

It's important to note that while IBS can cause great discomfort and distress, it does not lead to serious complications such as changes in bowel tissue or increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, it can significantly affect a person's quality of life and daily activities.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Steatorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the excessive amount of fat in stools, which can make them appear greasy, frothy, and foul-smelling. This occurs due to poor absorption of dietary fats in the intestines, a process called malabsorption. The most common causes of steatorrhea include conditions that affect the pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis, celiac disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. Symptoms associated with steatorrhea may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). The diagnosis typically involves testing stool samples for fat content and further investigations to determine the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the underlying condition and providing dietary modifications to manage symptoms.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of certain chemicals in the body. DPD is an enzyme that helps break down pyrimidines, which are building blocks of DNA, including the chemicals uracil and thymine.

People with DPD deficiency have reduced levels or completely lack DPD activity, leading to an accumulation of pyrimidines and their metabolites in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including neurological problems, gastrointestinal issues, and skin abnormalities.

DPD deficiency is often discovered in individuals who experience severe toxicity after receiving fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy, which is metabolized by DPD. In these cases, the accumulation of 5-FU can cause life-threatening side effects such as neutropenia, sepsis, and mucositis.

DPD deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to have the condition. It is estimated that DPD deficiency affects approximately 1 in 1000 individuals, but many people with the disorder may not experience any symptoms.

Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) is a chemical compound that has been historically used in medicine as a diagnostic test for kidney function. It's an acid-base indicator, which means it changes color depending on the pH of the solution it's in. In its colored form, PSP is pink, and in its uncolored form, it's colorless.

In the context of renal function testing, PSP is given to a patient orally or intravenously, and then its clearance from the body is measured through urine and blood samples. The rate at which PSP is cleared from the body can provide information about the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an important indicator of kidney function. However, this test has largely been replaced by more modern and accurate methods for measuring GFR.

It's worth noting that phenolsulfonphthalein is not a medication or therapeutic agent, but rather a diagnostic tool that has been used in the past to assess kidney function.

Pancreatin is a mixture of digestive enzymes, including amylase, lipase, and proteases, naturally produced by the pancreas in humans and other mammals. These enzymes aid in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, in the small intestine. Pancreatin is often used as a replacement therapy for individuals with conditions like cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, or pancreatectomy, who have impaired pancreatic function and struggle to digest food properly. It can be obtained from animal pancreases, typically from pigs, and is available in various forms such as tablets, capsules, or powders for medical use.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Propantheline is an anticholinergic drug, which means it blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body. The specific action of propantheline is to inhibit the muscarinic receptors, leading to a decrease in glandular secretions and smooth muscle tone. It is primarily used as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it reduces gastric acid secretion.

The medical definition of 'Propantheline' can be stated as:

A belladonna alkaloid with parasympatholytic effects, used as an antispasmodic and in the treatment of peptic ulcer to reduce gastric acid secretion. It inhibits the action of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, leading to decreased glandular secretions and smooth muscle tone. Common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Flatulence is the medical term for the release of intestinal gas from the rectum, commonly known as passing gas or farting. It is a normal bodily function that occurs when the body digests food in the stomach and intestines.

During digestion, the body breaks down food into nutrients that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. However, not all food particles can be fully broken down, and some of them reach the large intestine, where they are fermented by bacteria. This fermentation process produces gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane.

The buildup of these gases in the digestive tract can cause discomfort, bloating, and the urge to pass gas. The average person passes gas about 10-20 times a day, although this can vary widely from person to person.

While flatulence is a normal bodily function, excessive or frequent passing of gas can be a sign of an underlying digestive issue such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactose intolerance, or gastrointestinal infections. If you are experiencing persistent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Glutethimide is a sedative-hypnotic drug that was previously used for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders. It belongs to the class of drugs known as non-barbiturate hypnotics. Glutethimide works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), producing a calming effect on the brain.

Due to its potential for abuse, addiction, and its narrow therapeutic index, glutethimide is no longer commonly used in clinical practice. It has been replaced by safer and more effective sleep aids with fewer side effects and lower potential for misuse.

It's important to note that the use of glutethimide should be under the strict supervision of a healthcare professional, and it should only be taken as prescribed. Misuse or overuse of this medication can lead to serious health consequences, including respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Diphenoxylate is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and an opioid analgesic, which is used in the management of diarrhea. It works by slowing down the movements of the intestines, which helps to reduce the frequency of stools and improve consistency. Diphenoxylate is often combined with atropine, a medication that helps to prevent abuse and misuse due to its unpleasant side effects when taken in large amounts.

The medical definition of Diphenoxylate can be described as:

A synthetic opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of diarrhea, which acts by slowing down the motility of the intestines and increasing the tone of the anal sphincter. It is available in combination with atropine to discourage abuse and misuse. Diphenoxylate has a chemical structure similar to that of meperidine (Demerol) and can produce opioid-like effects such as euphoria, drowsiness, and respiratory depression when taken in large amounts or combined with other CNS depressants.

It is important to note that Diphenoxylate should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider and only for the recommended duration of treatment due to its potential for addiction and dependence.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It's defined as the inflammation and damage to the mucous membranes that line the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. This condition can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and ulcers in the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Mucositis can make it difficult for patients to eat, drink, and swallow, which can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss. It can also increase the risk of infection, as the damaged mucous membranes provide an entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms.

The severity of mucositis can vary depending on the type and dose of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, as well as individual patient factors such as age, overall health status, and genetic makeup. Mucositis typically occurs within a few days to a week after starting cancer treatment and may persist for several weeks or even months after treatment has ended.

Management of mucositis typically involves a combination of strategies, including pain relief, oral hygiene measures, nutritional support, and infection prevention. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and manage infection.

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive fluid that helps to break down food, particularly proteins, and also creates an acidic environment that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the stomach.

Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, autoimmune disorders, aging, or surgical removal of the stomach. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, and malabsorption of nutrients. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and increased risk of gastrointestinal infections.

It is important to note that achlorhydria can be diagnosed through various tests, including a gastric acid analysis or a pH test. Treatment for achlorhydria may involve supplementing with hydrochloric acid or other digestive enzymes, modifying the diet, and addressing any underlying conditions.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Benzimidazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a imidazole ring. They have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of the benzimidazoles are used as antiparasitics, such as albendazole and mebendazole, which are effective against a variety of worm infestations. Other benzimidazoles have antifungal properties, such as thiabendazole and fuberidazole, and are used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, some benzimidazoles have been found to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy.

Triolein is a type of triglyceride, which is a kind of fat molecule. More specifically, triolein is the triglyceride formed from three molecules of oleic acid, a common monounsaturated fatty acid. It is often used in scientific research and studies involving lipid metabolism, and it can be found in various vegetable oils and animal fats.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Pancreatic extracts are preparations that contain digestive enzymes derived from the pancreas. These enzymes, including amylase, lipase, and trypsin, help in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, during the digestion process. Pancreatic extracts are often used in medical treatments, such as replacing deficient pancreatic enzymes in individuals with conditions like cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis to improve their nutrient absorption and overall digestive health.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

Biliopancreatic diversion is a surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. It involves creating a small pouch from the lower part of the stomach and connecting it directly to the last portion of the small intestine (ileum), bypassing the majority of the stomach and duodenum. This results in a significant reduction in food intake, as well as malabsorption of nutrients such as fats, proteins, and vitamins.

The procedure is designed to promote weight loss through restriction and malabsorption. The small pouch restricts the amount of food that can be consumed at one time, while the bypassed portion of the intestine reduces the absorption of calories from food. This results in a significant reduction in calorie intake, leading to weight loss.

However, due to the malabsorption of nutrients, patients who undergo biliopancreatic diversion are at risk for nutrient deficiencies and require lifelong supplementation with vitamins and minerals. The procedure also carries a higher risk of complications such as dumping syndrome, ulcers, and malnutrition compared to other weight loss surgeries.

It is important to note that biliopancreatic diversion should only be considered in patients who are severely obese (with a body mass index or BMI greater than 50) and have not been successful with non-surgical weight loss methods. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a team of healthcare professionals, including a bariatric surgeon, dietitian, and mental health professional.

Esomeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Esomeprazole is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid. It is also used to promote healing of erosive esophagitis, a condition in which the esophagus becomes damaged by stomach acid.

Esomeprazole is available in delayed-release capsule and suspension forms, and it is typically taken once a day. It may be prescribed or taken over-the-counter. Common side effects of esomeprazole include headache, diarrhea, nausea, and stomach pain.

It's important to note that long-term use of PPIs like esomeprazole has been associated with an increased risk of certain health problems, such as bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection. As with any medication, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking esomeprazole.

Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disorder that is most commonly found in tropical or subtropical regions. It is characterized by symptoms such as chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue, which are caused by the impaired absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

The exact cause of tropical sprue is not known, but it is thought to be related to an infection or other environmental factor that damages the lining of the small intestine. This damage can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, particularly fat-soluble vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B12, iron, and folate.

Tropical sprue is typically treated with a combination of antibiotics to eliminate any potential infectious causes, as well as a diet that is high in nutrients and low in fat. In severe cases, supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins and other nutrients may be necessary. With appropriate treatment, most people with tropical sprue are able to recover and manage their symptoms.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are necessary for the bacteria to survive and multiply. Erythromycin is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It may also be used to prevent endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) in people at risk of this condition.

Erythromycin is generally considered safe for most people, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting erythromycin.

Like all antibiotics, erythromycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Lactase is a specific enzyme that is produced by the cells lining the small intestine in humans and other mammals. Its primary function is to break down lactose, a sugar found in milk and dairy products, into simpler sugars called glucose and galactose, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Lactase is most active during infancy and early childhood, when breast milk or formula is the primary source of nutrition. However, in some individuals, lactase production decreases after weaning, leading to a condition called lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerant individuals have difficulty digesting lactose, which can result in various gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, cramps, diarrhea, and gas.

Supplemental lactase enzymes are available over the counter to help lactose-intolerant individuals digest dairy products more comfortably.

... can be tested for with the urea breath test. Exhaled nitric oxide is a breath test that might signal airway inflammation such ... Breath diagnostics Breath gas analysis Breath+Tests at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... A breath test is a type of test performed on air generated from the act of exhalation. Types include: Breathalyzer - by far the ... Hydrogen breath test - it is becoming more and more common for people to undertake a medical test for clinical diagnosis of ...
Even though the test is normally known as a "hydrogen" breath test, some physicians may also test for methane in addition to ... A one-hour SIBO breath test avoids false positive results by collecting breath up to 60 minutes. Positive diagnosis for a ... "The importance of methane breath testing: a review". Journal of Breath Research (Review). 7 (2): 024001. Bibcode:2013JBR..... ... "Implementation and interpretation of hydrogen breath tests". Journal of Breath Research. 2 (4): 1-9. Bibcode:2008JBR..... ...
Rapid urease test (done on biopsy specimens after upper endoscopy) Breath test Chey, William; Wong, BC; Practice Parameters ... Both carbon-14 and carbon-13 urea breath tests have high sensitivity and specificity, though the carbon-13 test is preferred in ... Typical testing procedure (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Breath tests, ... The urea breath test is a rapid diagnostic procedure used to identify infections by Helicobacter pylori, a spiral bacterium ...
The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a ... Chhun, Stephanie (2009). "Gefitinib-phenytoin interaction is not correlated with the 14 C-erythromycin breath test in healthy ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Enzymes, Breath tests, All stub articles, ... The test allows doctors to determine or predict an individual's drug treatment outcome. Will a patient develop serious or fatal ...
It is hoped that the breath test will one day supersede the use of finger-prick blood tests and provide non-invasive diabetes ... Journal of Breath Research, 3(4) doi:10.1088/1752-7155/3/4/046004 "Diabetes breath test 'on way'". Telegraph. 2007-09-25. ... There are several new technologies being developed to diagnose and monitor diabetes by means of an acetone breath test. ... Breath diagnostics involves the analysis of a sample of human breath to monitor, diagnose, and detect diseases and conditions. ...
Breath gas analysis consists of the analysis of volatile organic compounds, for example in blood alcohol testing, and various ... Breath tests, Mathematical and theoretical biology, Respiratory system procedures). ... Exhaled breath analysis is a method in medicine for gaining information on the clinical state of an individual by monitoring ... Breath aerosol analysis consists in the sampling and analysis of particles emitted in the respiratory tract and present in ...
... pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test. JOURNAL OF BREATH RESEARCH 9:(4) p. 047112. (2015 ... Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is the exhalate from breath, that has been condensed, typically via cooling using a collection ... the analysis of the breath has many applications. Well known examples include and estimation of the breath alcohol level, but ... Exhaled breath condensate reflects not only the composition of the airway lining fluid and alveoli. EBC may also mix with ...
... is used in a number of breath tests. Asthma detection by exhaled nitric oxide Blood alcohol testing Carbon ... International Association for Breath Research (IABR) Journal of Breath Research Deep Breath Initiative Sinueslab Breath ... detection Diagnosis of bad breath Fructose malabsorption with hydrogen breath test Helicobacter pylori with urea breath test ... The area of modern breath testing started in 1971, when Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling demonstrated that human breath is a ...
Prosecutor Melbourne Inman QC told the court Hughes had fled the scene to dodge a breath test. On 9 August 2004, Hughes was ... "Footballer 'avoided breath test'". BBC News. 2 August 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2012. "Footballer crash victim may sue". BBC ... DNA tests later proved that he was not the father, though by this time his engagement to lap dancer Donna Nisbet was called off ... "No comment on report that shamed ace failed a drug test". Birmingham Post. 27 August 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2012. "Hughes ...
"Test a Tippler's Breath". Popular Science. August 1, 1927. p. 56. Retrieved 2014-01-02. William Duncan McNally in the World War ...
Yoder pleaded guilty to refusing law enforcement's request for a breath test and paid a $165 fine. In 2012, Politico reported ... Carpenter, Tim (October 23, 2010). "Yoder declined '09 breath test". Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved October 24, 2010. ... After passing a field sobriety test, Yoder declined the officer's request to take a roadside Breathalyzer test. The officer ... "Kevin Yoder Pleaded Guilty to Refusing Law Enforcement's Request For A Breath Test, refused to answer KMBC bulldog Mike ...
"Footballer on breath test charges". BBC Sport. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008. "Top footballer given driving ban". ... Berkshire and was charged with failing to provide a breath sample. He appeared at Reading Magistrates' Court on 18 January 2008 ...
"Tiger Woods found asleep in car at time of arrest; no alcohol found in breath test". ESPN. May 30, 2017. Bieler, Des (July 3, ... and ordered to undergo 50 hours of community service along with regular drug tests. He was not allowed to drink alcohol during ...
Other supporting tests include a hydrogen breath test and a stool acidity test. Other conditions that may produce similar ... In a hydrogen breath test, the most accurate lactose intolerance test, after an overnight fast, 25 grams of lactose (in a ... "Lactose Intolerance Tests and Results". WebMD. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. "Hydrogen Breath Test and Lactose ... The test takes about 2.5 hours to complete. If the hydrogen levels in the patient's breath are high, they may have lactose ...
"My Family star breath test charge". BBC. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011. "My Family actor Kris Marshall banned from ... Marshall had failed a breath test at the scene, and then refused to provide a second sample at the police station. He pleaded ... In October 2011, Marshall was charged with failing to provide a breath test after police stopped his car in the Tesco car park ...
Police breath tests later proved negative. Baldry was knighted in the 2012 Birthday Honours for public and political service. ...
Debra Morgenstern Katz (September 4, 2005). "Students' New Test Subject: Their Breath". The New York Times. Retrieved December ... In 1998, the district was the first on Long Island to approve breathalyzer testing of students. Sayville High School, Principal ...
"Could a breath test detect cancer?". The Telegraph. 29 July 2019. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 September 2019. Pilgrim, Tom (3 ... Thompson, Robert (7 September 2016). "New oesophageal cancer tests reported". Retrieved 30 May 2019. "Sarah Bohndiek , Vision ...
"Random breath testing - Data by country". World Health Organization. Retrieved 25 June 2018. Devi, G.; Castro, V. J.; Huitink, ... This can be measured by blood or breath testing. Alcohol is broken down in the human body at a rate of about 3.3 mmol/L (15 mg/ ... Many informal intoxication tests exist, which, in general, are unreliable and not recommended as deterrents to excessive ... For determining whether someone is intoxicated by alcohol by some means other than a blood-alcohol test, it is necessary to ...
Lee, John (5 October 1968). "Breath Tests Cut British Auto Deaths". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 ... as well as legislating for breathalyser tests and compulsory seat belts. In 1968, Wilson promoted Castle to become First ...
"Random breath tests for school dance". 15 October 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2022. "Local students build school in Timor". ...
2007) Breath tests and airway gas exchange. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 20:112-7. Luh SP, Chiang CH. (2007) Acute lung injury/acute ... Test articles passing muster in vitro can be evaluated in a number of in vivo models (usually in mice) of ALI including ... Additional research must be directed at developing sensitive and specific tests to identify individuals quickly after they have ... Pressure control ventilation is more versatile than volume control, although breaths should be volume limited, to prevent ...
In October 2017 she was arrested by South Wales Police after failing to provide a breath test; as a result she was banned from ... Dafydd, Aled ap (9 July 2018). "AM faces Senedd ban over breath test". Retrieved 14 April 2019 - via Dafydd, ...
These tests are capable of a 90% detection rate or more. Although hydrogen breath tests indicate poorer rates of carbohydrate ... Vega-Franco L, Meza C, Romero JL, Alanis SE, Meijerink J (1987). "Breath hydrogen test in children with giardiasis". Journal of ... The Entero-Test uses a gelatin capsule with an attached thread. One end is attached to the inner aspect of the host's cheek, ... Serological tests are not helpful in diagnosis. The CDC recommends hand-washing and avoiding potentially contaminated food and ...
"France Trying Drug to Beat Breath Test". The Daily Telegraph. 1978-09-11. p. 3. Retrieved 2023-05-01. "Chocoholic Guinea Pigs ...
"Dean Saunders wins breath test jail term appeal". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 16 ... "Dean Saunders: Former Liverpool player jailed for refusing drink-drive breath test". Sky News. 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 ... "Ex-footballer jailed for refusing breath test". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 28 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August ... for refusing to provide a roadside breath test, following reports that he had been driving erratically. The sentence was ...
Cassidy, Olivier (May 4, 2012). "Breath test challenges may get green light". The Province. Vancouver. p. A8. "B.C. drunk- ... individuals to ask the courts to order someone with whom they have had contact with during an emergency to have a health test, ...
Breath tests have been developed to test for bacterial overgrowth. These tests are either based on bacterial metabolism of ... using the hydrogen breath test). IBS-D is associated with elevated hydrogen numbers on breath tests while IBS-C is associated ... the usual methodology of these studies involves the use of breath testing as an indirect investigation for SIBO. Breath testing ... The hydrogen breath test involves having the patient fast for a minimum of 12 hours then having them drink a substrate usually ...
Suellentrop refused to take a breath test. His blood alcohol content was 0.17%, more than twice the legal limit despite having ... making physical threats as his blood was tested for alcohol level, three hours after his life-threatening flight had been ...
... to avoid being breath tested in 1992. A detective inspector in Christchurch at the time, he returned a positive breath alcohol ... "Police chief cleared over breath test claims". New Zealand Herald. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008. "1992 traffic ... "NZ top cop refuses test zap from Taser". ninemsn. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 ... test. The traffic officer told him to leave the car and walk, standard practice at the time, according to the inquiry. He ...
... can be tested for with the urea breath test. Exhaled nitric oxide is a breath test that might signal airway inflammation such ... Breath diagnostics Breath gas analysis Breath+Tests at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... A breath test is a type of test performed on air generated from the act of exhalation. Types include: Breathalyzer - by far the ... Hydrogen breath test - it is becoming more and more common for people to undertake a medical test for clinical diagnosis of ...
Dictionary Definition: hydrogen breath test. hydrogen breath test. A test that measures the amount of hydrogen in your breath. ... If you are lactose intolerant, undigested lactose produces high levels of hydrogen in your breath.. ...
Right now two of the more commonly used methods to test someone for COVID-19 would be to either use RTK or PCR, with the former ... That being said, this doesnt mean that this test will do away with current tests. Those who test positive through this machine ... However, over in Singapore, the government has approved the use of a breath test system by Breathonix, a local startup company ... Singapore Government Approves COVID-19 Breath Test System. By Tyler Lee, on 05/24/2021 19:14 PDT ...
Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Europe. Malta. No. Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Europe. ... Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Africa. Gabon. No. Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Africa. ... Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Africa. Chad. Yes. Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Africa. ... Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Africa. Togo. No. Random breath testing (RBT) use. Published. 2016. Europe. ...
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DUI: Breath Test/Bio-Chemist. Kenn Meneely. Forensic Scientist and Laboratory Director at Willamette Valley Forensics. Located ...
Get the facts about blood alcohol tests and breath tests used by police during DWI arrests in Houston Area. For more ... Blood and Breath Tests. Blood and Breath Tests. What you need to know about DUI blood alcohol tests and breath tests. Before ... While blood tests generally are more accurate than breath tests, blood alcohol tests still can be found to be inaccurate in ... Breath tests. Breath tests are administered by blowing into the mouthpiece of a device called an Intoxilyzer. Texas uses the " ...
What Happens if You Refuse a Breath Test in Fulton County, GA? in this article and contact us today. ... The Consequences of Refusing a Breath Test. However, what happens if you refuse to submit to a breath test in Fulton County? ... Administering a Chemical Test Despite Refusal. Its important to note that even if you refuse a breath test, law enforcement ... When faced with the decision of whether to submit to a breath test or refuse it, its crucial to understand your rights and the ...
Our DWI breath test lawyers are certified on the Alcotest machine used to prosecute DUI charges in New Jersey. We represent ... Can I challenge my breath test in court?. Yes. There are a number of potential challenges to your breath test reading being ... Breath Test Results in New Jersey DWI Cases. In the vast majority of DWI prosecutions in New Jersey, the state uses a breath- ... The most common way for the State to prove a DWI charge in New Jersey is by using a breath test to show intoxication over the ...
What is SIBO? Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a serious condition affecting the small intestine. It occurs when bacteria that normall
A video with instructions on how to complete your GastroLife Hydrogen & Methane Home Breath test kit.
... the FDA issued an emergency use authorization for the first COVID-19 diagnostic test that detects chemical compounds in breath ... Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes First COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Using Breath Samples. Test provides results in ... Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes First COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Using Breath Samples ... In the study, the test was shown to have 91.2% sensitivity (the percent of positive samples the test correctly identified) and ...
Learn about other types of tests to detect SARS-CoV-2 and the appropriate settings for their use, including information on ... Positive test results from the first breath test authorized to test for SARS-CoV-2 by FDA should be interpreted as presumptive ... Breath Tests. Other diagnostic tests may be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 from non-traditional respiratory specimens, such as ... To separate tests in this category from more traditional viral tests, NAATs and antigen tests, the FDA has created a page ...
Inward leakage: test using sodium chloride (NaCl) as test agent * Inward leakage: test using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) as test ... Thanks for the interest in Second Breathtesting solutions. We have already started preparing an offer for you. ... PAPRs testing procedure RCT-APR-0025-508 NIOSH standard testing procedure for HEPA-filter of powered air purifying respirators ... Test equipment is purposed for a silica dust test requirements on HEPA filters designed for powered air-purifying respirators ( ...
Mesa Breath Test blog by a Criminal Defense Attorneys in Mesa from Skousen & Reedy, PLC. ... Are Blood & Breath Tests Always Accurate? Jun 02. When you are arrested on suspicion of driving while under the influence (DUI ... you will be required to take a breath or blood test to determine your blood alcohol content (BAC) level. While this technology ...
... can provide you with the aggressive legal counsel you need if you were arrested for a DUI based on the results of a breath test ... Challenging Breath Test Evidence in DUI. Breath tests are commonly administered during or in addition to a field sobriety test ... These types of tests seek to identify traces of alcohol in the blood, urine or from the breath. Anyone who takes a breath test ... Breath alcohol tests (such as the BAC Datamaster used in Indiana) are available to officers as a means of testing the level of ...
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Cancer breath test to be trialled in Britain. The breath biopsy device is designed to detect cancer hallmarks in molecules ... NHS reviewing thousands of cervical cancer smear tests after women wrongly given all-clear. Thousands of cervical cancer ...
How a lactose breath test from your gastroenterologist in New York, New York can help determine if you are lactose intolerant A ... What Is the Lactose Breath Test?. How a lactose breath test from your gastroenterologist in New York, New York can help ... A lactose breath test is recommended and performed by a gastroenterologist. The test can help determine if you have an abnormal ... Myron D. Goldberg in New York, New York offers a wide range of testing, including the lactose breath test. ...
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All the latest science news about exhaled breath from ... Breath test could be possible for drugs and disease. Testing ... A breath test for early-stage Parkinsons. Symptoms of Parkinsons disease include tremor, loss of smell and neuropsychiatric ... Traces of HCN are also found in human exhaled breath. Unusual high HCN concentration in the breath of cystic fibrosis ... ... Toward a coronavirus breathalyzer test. Few people who have undergone nasopharyngeal swabs for coronavirus testing would ...
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... a breath test used by traffic police to check drunken driving uses ... A 'breath test' used by traffic police to check drunken driving uses Potassium dichromatic-sulphuric acid. ... The police often use a device called a breath analyser to test drivers suspected of being drunk. The chemical basis of this ... A breath test used by traffic police to check drunken driving uses ____?. ...
This article focuses on breath alcohol testing in the workplace. ... Blood and breath alcohol concentrations are carefully regulated ... Preliminary screening breath tests versus confirmation (evidentiary) breath tests. Due analytical process for threshold ... the second breath test is performed;. *a third and final air blank analysis is performed, which must again register a no ... Incorrect breath alcohol test results in workplaces are - in our experience - an actual reality in SA due to the incorrect ...
  • Types include: Breathalyzer - by far the most common usage of this term relates to the legal breath test to determine if a person is driving under the influence of alcohol. (
  • Breath tests are commonly administered during or in addition to a field sobriety test when a law enforcement officer is suspicious that a person has been driving under the influence of alcohol. (
  • The presence of Helicobacter pylori (in peptic ulcer disease) can be tested for with the urea breath test. (
  • H. pylori infection was determined by urea breath test and iron deficiency using serum ferritin. (
  • Field sobriety tests are used by law enforcement officers to determine the level of impairment of a suspected drunk driver. (
  • This test is often performed after field sobriety tests have been administered to get an exact result of the intoxication. (
  • Gaetz reportedly admitted to having had two beers and refused to perform a field sobriety test or take a breath test. (
  • hand-held instruments used as preliminary screening tests of sobriety and more sophisticated evidential instruments, the results of which are accepted as evidence for prosecution of drunken drivers. (
  • Throughout the duration of just one of these checkpoints, many arrests are made for DUI based on results of field sobriety tests conducted to assess the degree of intoxication. (
  • Refusal to participate in a breath, blood or field sobriety test can sometimes result in automatic suspension of the driver's license through the principle of implied consent to the charges made. (
  • If you re having shortness of breath and dizziness, you might want to do a stress test. (
  • Constant coughing, Shortness of breath while doing normal daily activities, Excess mucus production, Feeling like you can't breathe, Not being able to take a deep breath, and Wheezing. (
  • When COPD is severe, shortness of breath and other symptoms get in the way of doing even the most basic activities, such as light housework, taking a walk, even bathing and getting dressed. (
  • If you are at risk for COPD and have a constant cough, excess mucus production, shortness of breath, or wheezing, you should be tested for the disease. (
  • Hydrogen breath test - it is becoming more and more common for people to undertake a medical test for clinical diagnosis of dietary disabilities such as fructose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, lactose intolerance and lactulose intolerance. (
  • METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients, who had performed hydrogen/methane breath testing for fructose and lactose malabsorption and had received dietary advice regarding the low FODMAP diet, were included. (
  • In addition, testing found both groups of SIBO organisms (producing methane and hydrogen) are present about half of the time. (
  • This SIBO test only measures hydrogen and methane gas. (
  • If hydrogen sulfide SIBO is suspected, assessing sulfur metabolism or using stool tests may be better options. (
  • Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, NAATs and antigen tests have been the primary diagnostic tests to identify current infection . (
  • To separate tests in this category from more traditional viral tests, NAATs and antigen tests, the FDA has created a page dedicated to other diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection. (
  • In-office, rapid stool antigen tests allow the specimen to be placed directly into a single device used for testing, and results can be read within 10 minutes. (
  • Are Preliminary Breath Test Results Always Accurate? (
  • Upon his arrest on or about August 3, 2017, police administered a preliminary breath test, which indicated Jardee's blood alcohol level was .09. (
  • Measuring the concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in exhaled breath (BrAC) provides a rapid and non-invasive way to determine the co-existing concentration in arterial blood (A-BAC). (
  • Concentration of ethanol in the breath was 98ppm 1 hour after consumption and dropped to 67ppm after 3 hours. (
  • Helicobacter pylori antigen testing is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test for H pylori infection and as a test to determine eradication after treatment. (
  • The machine has a rate of error of .02 allowable between two breath specimens. (
  • Other diagnostic tests may be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 from non-traditional respiratory specimens, such as breath. (
  • Having a Houston Area DWI defense attorney who is trained to know (and, where appropriate, to attack) the breath machine's limitations and weaknesses is the first priority if you decide to fight your Texas DWI case in court. (
  • There are several ways in which a BAC test may give an artificially higher reading as the machine's measurements can be rendered inaccurate by failure to calibrate the machine properly and timely. (
  • These types of tests seek to identify traces of alcohol in the blood, urine or from the breath. (
  • The THC levels that create impairment are not well understood and according to the NIDA, there is wide variability in how THC is metabolized by frequent users versus infrequent users which makes interpretation of a positive urine drug test a challenge (10). (
  • Breath tests are administered by blowing into the mouthpiece of a device called an Intoxilyzer. (
  • The contact-free method of sampling breath means that a mouthpiece is unnecessary and the test subject does not need to make a continuous end exhalation. (
  • Breath alcohol tests (such as the BAC Datamaster used in Indiana) are available to officers as a means of testing the level of alcohol in a drivers breath, and the results they return are often sufficient evidence to convict in a court of law. (
  • This is crucial when the results of the test will be used as evidence in a drunk driving case. (
  • The BAT is solely responsible for conducting the alcohol test and certifying the results, as well as providing important documentation to both the employee and employer. (
  • A fatal flaw is an uncorrectable error which causes the results of an alcohol test to be cancelled. (
  • The comparative nature of civil disputes with a balance of probabilities standard of proof, commonly regarded as a lower standard of proof, unfortunately, established the acceptance of alcohol test results of lesser quality in labour courts compared to the approach in the criminal courts with a beyond reasonable doubt standard of proof. (
  • Test results must be interpreted and accepted with the same circumspection as required in any analytical laboratory where quality control measures are employed to ensure accurate and reliable results. (
  • The mere fact that the test is performed outside a laboratory environment does not imply that the veracity of the test results may be compromised since it severely impacts the individual's livelihood and future. (
  • Incorrect breath alcohol test results in workplaces are - in our experience - an actual reality in SA due to the incorrect testing protocols, misuse and incorrect application of instrumentation, and a general lack of understanding of the basic measurement science applicable to breath testing equipment. (
  • These matters become even more critical when considering that most labour disputes are adjudicated by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA), where most employees cannot afford proper legal representation and to use a forensic expert to testify on the scientific accuracy and reliability of the alcohol test results. (
  • However, the breath test has been known to provide inaccurate results due to the medical conditions or physical circumstance of the driver. (
  • There are certain medical conditions that affect the results of a breath test. (
  • These are other medical conditions that can affect breath test results. (
  • Rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one technique that can be used to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from a person's breath and can provide results in as few as a couple minutes. (
  • Positive test results from the first breath test authorized to test for SARS-CoV-2 by FDA should be interpreted as presumptive and be confirmed by NAAT . (
  • This qualitative test results in a color change that indicates a positive or negative result. (
  • In the posttreatment setting, negative results indicate eradication if testing is performed at least 4 weeks after therapy is stopped. (
  • Equivocal results with the polyclonal EIA test indicate that the optical density detected falls between positive and negative cutoff values, and the test likely needs to be repeated. (
  • Breath samples from patients with or without symptoms suggestive for COVID-19 who had NAAT results were collected using Tedlar bags and were blindly analysed using BOH FTIR spectroscopy . (
  • Minit Medical Urgent Care will administer diagnostic PCR testing and will call individuals with all results, which are expected to take one to three days. (
  • The results of breath-alcohol testing are used worldwide as evidence of excessive drinking, such as when traffic offenders are prosecuted. (
  • This article reviews the principles and practice of breath-alcohol analysis and introduces the concept of standardizing the results to a secondary physiological gas (water vapor), which therefore serves as an internal standard. (
  • Circulation persisted in multiple lance case definition for MERS in Saudi Arabia requires healthcare settings over an extended period, underscoring the presence of symptoms ( 13 ), and testing is reserved pri- the importance of strengthening MERS-CoV surveillance marily for symptomatic patients, often with severe illness. (
  • Breath tests for diseases have been developed for early detection of lung cancer, breast cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis and many others, to serve as an adjunct to existing medical tests. (
  • Breath of Health: spectroscopy-based breath test for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Detection of these VOCs using a breath test could help rapidly identify COVID-19 patients . (
  • Since 1982, AlcoPro has supplied and manufactured the most accurate drug and alcohol testing instruments, kits, and supplies for professional use. (
  • I hereby authorize release of information from my DOT-regulated drug and alcohol testing records by my previous employer, listed in Section 1-B to the employer listed in Section I-A. This release is in accordance with DOT Regulation 49 CFR Part 40, section 40.25. (
  • Exhaled nitric oxide is a breath test that might signal airway inflammation such as in asthma. (
  • People who use asthma inhalers should think twice before taking a breath test, because asthma inhalers work by emitting mist containing a certain amount of alcohol into the lungs which is about one third of the mist. (
  • A trial will commence at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, England to confirm the efficacy of these breath tests. (
  • H pylori antigen testing is not typically performed within a laboratory panel but as a standalone test. (
  • In laboratory tests. (
  • Cognition and a basic understanding of the above issues will equip defence attorneys to assess the veracity of the alcohol tests performed on their clients and inform presiding officers of the pitfalls when making decisions that are critical to justice. (
  • Assess the accuracy of 'Breath of Health ' (BOH) COVID-19 Fourier-transform infra-red ( FTIR ) Spectroscopy -based breath test . (
  • Most evidential breath-alcohol analyzers are designed to capture the last portion of a prolonged exhalation, which is thought to reflect the alcohol concentration in. (
  • Adjusting the breath-alcohol concentration to water vapor concentration also compensates for variations in temperature of the expired air. (
  • She offers information about DUI, such as how intoxication is determined and how breath tests can be inaccurate. (
  • If the officer as reason to suspect that the individual is impaired by alcohol or drugs, they may ask the individual to step out of their vehicle and participate in any one of the possible tests used to determine intoxication. (
  • Earlier this year, we asked the Brio community to help us gain insight into SIBO testing - what an enthusiastic response! (
  • The SIBO test, or Lactulose test, is a breath test performed at home. (
  • After a simple 24 hour prep diet (designed to "starve" potential SIBO organisms) patients take a baseline breath sample, then drink a lactulose solution. (
  • This Lactulose breath test is considered the gold standard for non-invasive SIBO testing. (
  • Who Needs SIBO Testing? (
  • In one study using this same breath test , 84% of people diagnosed with IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) tested positive for SIBO (compared to only 20% of controls). (
  • So SIBO testing may be helpful for directing treatment in those who have or suspect they have IBS. (
  • However, the SIBO test does not identify yeast or fungal overgrowth. (
  • However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may authorize or clear tests that use other methods to detect SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • The BAT serves an important role in the success of the DOT alcohol testing program, assisting the employee in the alcohol testing process. (
  • This article focuses on breath alcohol testing in the workplace. (
  • scientifically correct analytical protocol for breath alcohol testing in the workplace. (
  • The basic premise of breath-alcohol analysis is that there is a physiological relationship between A-BAC and BrAC and close agreement between the two analytical methods. (
  • We found BOH COVID-19 breath test to be a patient -friendly, rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test with high accuracy rate and NPV that could efficiently rule out COVID-19 especially among individuals with low pre-test probability . (
  • Testing for infection eradication is more accurate when performed 4-8 weeks posttreatment. (
  • H pylori antigen testing uses one fresh random stool sample. (
  • While blood tests generally are more accurate than breath tests, blood alcohol tests still can be found to be inaccurate in some cases and can be challenged in court. (
  • It is essential to have medical records that can back up your defense to an inaccurate breath test result. (
  • This page will be updated if additional diagnostics tests are authorized or cleared by the FDA that do not fall into the NAAT (molecular) or antigen viral test categories. (
  • Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are considered the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis . (
  • Breath diagnostics Breath gas analysis Breath+Tests at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Beer, Gabriella (January 3, 2019). (
  • The test also must be given by a qualified technician, doctor, chemist, registered nurse or licensed vocation nurse in a sanitary place. (
  • A Breath Alcohol Technician, or BAT, is someone who conducts breath alcohol screening and confirmation tests on behalf of companies that fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation. (
  • There are specific Breath Alcohol Technician training requirements as outlined in the Federal regulations. (
  • BAT students must successfully complete a Breath Alcohol Technician training class covering the Federal regulations, the components and operations of a DOT-approved breath alcohol instrument, and seven error-free mock breath alcohol tests on a live subject in the presence of a qualified instructor. (
  • At the end of Breath Alcohol Technician training, students must demonstrate proficiency in the Federal regulations and on the breath alcohol instrument they will be using to conduct tests. (
  • Breath-holding spells usually are triggered by physically painful or emotionally upsetting events. (
  • Tantrums, often a component of breath-holding spells, may be prevented by distracting the child and avoiding situations known to trigger the spells. (
  • Breath-holding spells occur in less than 1% to about 5% of otherwise healthy children. (
  • Both the cyanotic and pallid forms are involuntary, which means that children are not intentionally holding their breath and have no control over the spells. (
  • Involuntary breath-holding spells are easily distinguished from uncommon, brief episodes of voluntary breath-holding by some children. (
  • NIOSH is currently developing information and resources on the topic of impairment testing as a potential adjunct or alternative to certain forms of workplace drug testing. (
  • The current strategy of breath testing and dietary advice provides a good basis to understand and adhere to the diet. (
  • Anyone who takes a breath test at the request of a police officer, and returns a result of blood alcohol content of .08 or higher, should expect to be arrested for drunk driving . (
  • The science behind how a blood alcohol test device actually works is complex, and the main three types of devices vary greatly in terms of mechanics, or how they come to an accurate result. (
  • Contact a Fort Wayne DUI defense lawyer if you have been arrested as a result of a breath test that returned a blood alcohol content of .08 or above. (
  • For instance, if the test result is 51% accurate and the standard of proof is also on a balance of probability, it would result in a 49% likelihood that the matter is decided incorrectly. (
  • The accuracy of the test result should be non-negotiable to allow a presiding officer to attribute the weight of the test result, alongside other evidence, to decide the matter on a balance of probability correctly. (
  • Therefore, it is also essential that the testing official understand the application of this piece of analytical equipment well before making a test result known, which may have dire consequences for the test subject. (
  • If you are able to show an influence that affects the accuracy of the breath test result, the court will have to rely on other forms of evidence to prove that you were intoxicated thus weakening the DUI charges against you. (
  • The result of any Substance Abuse test will be maintained by the Medical Review Officer for the company who will report whether the test result was negative or positive to the motor carrier. (
  • 15 The code for 'None' is always zero except for Alcohol Test Result. (
  • The police often use a device called a breath analyser to test drivers suspected of being drunk. (
  • No two people are alike, but why do breath tests assume that all drivers being tested for blood alcohol content have the same physiological attributes? (
  • It is theorized that, compared to traditional workplace drug testing, impairment testing may provide more immediate, actionable, accurate, and comprehensive information, allowing employers to be more proactive in minimizing risks in the workplace while maintaining more privacy and fairness for workers. (
  • Breath samples from 531 patients were analysed. (
  • One such study, reported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), found 55% more industrial accidents, 85% more injuries, and 75% greater absenteeism among employees who tested positive for marijuana compared to those who tested negative (6). (
  • Since marijuana is stored in the fatty tissue, it can be detected through drug testing several days or weeks - long after the individual has stopped experiencing any physiological effects and impaired functioning. (
  • The testing devices are not always accurate, may not have been properly maintained or calibrated, or there may have been other factors that led to a false reading in your case. (
  • Preliminary breath tests are not always accurate and no machine, nor operator of a machine, is beyond error. (
  • Officers used two types of tests that may be used later as proof that a driver was operating under the influence of alcohol. (
  • Find out about the law on drink driving, including random breath testing, powers of the Gardai and procedures if you are arrested. (
  • If you have been arrested for an OWI/DUI, it is important to make sure that your Fort Wayne criminal defense attorney has specific knowledge of how breath tests work. (
  • The test is administered by drawing a blood sample from the driver to determine the amount of alcohol in the body. (
  • The breath test is carried out using a breathalyzer to determine the blood alcohol content of a driver who is suspected of driving under the influence. (
  • Impairment testing evaluates a worker's real-time cognitive function and motor skills to determine if there is evidence that the worker may be impaired, regardless of the source of impairment. (
  • The test is called spirometry and can detect COPD early, before it becomes severe. (
  • I also understand I will be given a reasonable opportunity to confer with the company's Medical Review Officer before any positive test is reported to the company. (
  • I understand, if I test positive for use of controlled substances, I am not medically qualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle in interstate commerce. (
  • Although breath is not a specimen type that is covered by CLIA considerations, these other diagnostic tests are specifically required to be performed in authorized settings noted as "Near Patient/Point-of-Care" where the patient specimen is both collected and analyzed, such as within doctors' offices, hospitals, and mobile testing sites. (
  • During instrument proficiency training, students must train on an Evidential Breath Tester (EBT) approved by the DOT and listed on the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA), Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices . (
  • Participants should pre-register for the drive-through testing on Minit Medical's website . (