Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Self-Examination: The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.TurkeyHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Patient Escort Service: A special service provided by volunteers to accompany patients who need help in moving about the health facility.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.MinnesotaResearch Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Archives

Factors associated with screening mammography and breast self-examination intentions. (1/211)

The factors associated with the use of two methods for the early detection of breast cancer were assessed using a theoretical framework derived from the theory of reasoned action and the Health Belief Model. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years, randomly selected from the telephone directory of a provincial city in Victoria, Australia. The model explained 47% of the variance in intentions to have a mammogram and 22% of the variance in intentions to practise breast self-examination (BSE). The data supported the prediction that different variables would be associated with each method of early detection of breast cancer. Intentions to have a mammogram were associated with perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knowing a woman who has had a mammogram, previous mammography history and Pap test history. Intentions to do BSE were associated with self efficacy, knowledge of breast cancer issues, concern about getting breast cancer and employment status. Both screening methods were associated with prior behaviour and concern about getting breast cancer.  (+info)

Detection of metachronous breast carcinoma: the role of follow-up? (2/211)

Second primary (metachronous) breast carcinoma occurs at a rate of approximately 1% per year. Early detection of metachronous carcinomas will optimise the chances of curative treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the method of detection of metachronous carcinomas, so that efforts to detect these tumours can be made more focused. Thirteen patients presented twice to a surgical department in a 7-year period with second primary breast carcinomas. The means of detection of the second primary carcinoma was identified in each case. Eleven of the patients presented with new symptoms which they had noticed themselves. The remaining two carcinomas were detected mammographically, and their presence was confirmed on clinical examination. In no case was the second primary carcinoma detected by clinical examination alone. Metachronous carcinoma is unlikely to be detected by routine clinical examination, but rapid assessment of new symptoms should be facilitated. Follow-up mammography at regular intervals should also improve early detection of metachronous breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Receptivity of a worksite breast cancer screening education program. (3/211)

A breast cancer screening education program was offered to 97 major worksites in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Worksites could design a program by choosing components that consisted of (1) brochures, (2) breast cancer education classes taught by program staff or (3) sending company nurses to be trained by program staff to then teach employees at the worksite. A total of 63 out of the original 97 companies (65%) accepted and offered a program to their employees. Worksites that chose to sponsor a program were more likely to have already sponsored breast cancer education programs at their worksites (P = 0.027) or to have a medical department (P = 0.006). The type of component selected was significantly associated with a history of sponsoring other health education programs (P < 0.001). Fourteen worksites chose the more intensive component, the training of a company nurse. More than half of the worksites that had never sponsored and had no plans to sponsor worksite breast education programs were receptive to our program (43 of 73, 59%). The majority of these sites (67%) chose the brochure. These results indicate that worksites are receptive to offering breast cancer educational programs if varying types of components can be selected.  (+info)

GPs' management of women seeking help for familial breast cancer. (4/211)

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain how often patients seek help for familial breast cancer in primary care, and to identify GPs management of these patients, in order to see whether guidelines are followed. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. GPs (n = 202) attending a postgraduate education programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included questions about the number of patients seeking help for familial breast cancer within the last 3 months and about their management strategies. RESULTS: About 80% of the GPs reported that they referred women with concerns about familial breast cancer for further diagnostics (mammography or ultrasound). For half these referrals a plan of regular appointments was set up, and one-eighth of the referrals included breast examination by a physician. Breast self-examination was advised in 50% of the cases. Estimates given to women regarding their breast cancer risk varied considerably. There was a strong relationship between risk estimates and management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Current guidelines regarding surveillance of women with breast cancer in the family were only partly followed. These guidelines do not give sufficient information to define whether there is an increased risk for breast cancer. These guidelines need to be refined.  (+info)

Management of breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease. (5/211)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, detection, pathology, management, and prognosis of breast cancer occurring after Hodgkin's disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-one cases of breast cancer in 65 survivors of Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 24.6 years for Hodgkin's disease and 42.6 years for breast cancer. The relative risk for invasive breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 6. 0) compared with an age-matched cohort. Cancers were detected by self-examination (63%), mammography (30%), and physician exam (7%). The histologic distribution paralleled that reported in the general population (85% ductal histology) as did other features (27% positive axillary lymph nodes, 63% positive estrogen receptors, and 25% family history). Although 87% of tumors were less than 4 cm, 95% were managed with mastectomy because of prior radiation. Two women underwent lumpectomy with breast irradiation. One of these patients developed tissue necrosis in the region of overlap with the prior mantle field. The incidence of bilateral breast cancer was 10%. Adjuvant systemic therapy was well tolerated; doxorubicin was used infrequently. Ten-year disease-specific survival was as follows: in-situ disease, 100%; stage I, 88%; stage II, 55%; stage III, 60%; and stage IV, zero. CONCLUSION: The risk of breast cancer is increased after Hodgkin's disease. Screening has been successful in detecting early-stage cancers. Pathologic features and prognosis are similar to that reported in the general population. Repeat irradiation of the breast can lead to tissue necrosis, and thus, mastectomy remains the standard of care in most cases.  (+info)

Breast self examination for early detection of breast cancer. (6/211)

Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women in Western countries and second most common in women of developing countries like India. In the absence of an exact aetiological agent for breast cancer, the most appropriate way of controlling it is by early detection and treatment. Of the various methods of screening for breast cancer, mammography is the method of choice but its use is limited due to high cost and unavailability. Considering this, breast self examination (BSE) is an ideal method which can be done by every woman at her leisure time with little training. Medical and paramedical professionals can act as trend setters in promoting BSE for control of breast cancer in the community.  (+info)

Practice of breast self-examination amongst women attending a Malaysian Well Person's Clinic. (7/211)

The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Effects of persuasive message order on coping with breast cancer information. (8/211)

The current study explored the impact of varying the order of message components on coping with breast cancer information. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, threat information, coping information and order of information were manipulated. College students read persuasive essays that varied in emphasis on threat of developing breast cancer and effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in averting the threat of cancer. Participants who read the high-threat message reported higher intentions to perform BSE, more rational problem solving and more hopelessness than did those who read a low-threat message. The coping information messages produced a similar pattern of results. In addition, those who read the high-coping message reported less fatalism than did participants who read the low-coping message. When threat information was presented first, the high-threat message led to less hopelessness and reliance on religious faith than when the coping information was presented first. These results demonstrate the threatening health information energizes one to act in both adaptive and maladaptive ways, and that coping information decreases the tendency to respond maladaptively to the health threat. They also suggest that the order of presentation of the information may affect the extent to which people respond adaptively.  (+info)

  • The project is designed to determine whether the experimental training protocol produces proficient clinical breast examination with women who have physical disabilities, If successful, this project has the potential to improve breast cancer screening for many of the 16 million American women whose access to CBE is limited. (
  • PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: A validated, skill-based system for clinical breast examination of physically disabled women could fill a training gap for nurses and physicians in thousands of U.S. medical schools, nursing schools, public and private clinics, and breast centers. (
  • It has been estimated that by the year 2020, approximately 70% of new cancer cases will occur among individuals in developing countries and population groups that have previously enjoyed low incidence, with a substantial fraction likely to be breast malignancies (WHO, 2018). (
  • This year, 2018, we would like to further the discussion about breast cancer types, tumor grades, stages and treatment options. (
  • Effects of health teaching in the workplace and women's knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding breast self examination. (
  • Or, the tumor is larger than five centimeters, or cancer, which can be found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy, has spread to one to three lymph nodes or near the breast bone. (
  • The method involves the woman herself looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling. (
  • So if you are like me and have felt guilty because you skip checking your breasts more often than not, you can drop that guilt. (
  • To clarify the tumor location, we have established a simply performed method of locating all of the specimens during breast reduction surgery. (
  • 9. Finally, since the breast is surrounded by lymph nodes that fight any infections and or tumor cells from it, remember to examine the nodes located in the upper border of the collar bone and arm pit. (
  • When analyzed qualitatively, i.e., positive or negative for tumor, serial marrow examinations were not useful in assessing the efficacy of antitumor treatment. (
  • [ 14 ] The breast was also the first organ in which the detection of invasive tumor neovascularity was highlighted through the application of rapid serial imaging after an injection of contrast agent. (
  • Result: Gross examination findings showed 9.4% multiplicentricity of the tumor. (
  • Mammograms are offered in a variety of locations, such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, physician's offices and mobile breast exam centres, just to name a few. (
  • Barriers to accurate and thorough examination include provider or patient discomfort, fear of misinterpretation of attention to the patient's breasts, and lack of knowledge or skill with the technique. (