The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.
The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Factors associated with screening mammography and breast self-examination intentions. (1/211)

The factors associated with the use of two methods for the early detection of breast cancer were assessed using a theoretical framework derived from the theory of reasoned action and the Health Belief Model. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years, randomly selected from the telephone directory of a provincial city in Victoria, Australia. The model explained 47% of the variance in intentions to have a mammogram and 22% of the variance in intentions to practise breast self-examination (BSE). The data supported the prediction that different variables would be associated with each method of early detection of breast cancer. Intentions to have a mammogram were associated with perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knowing a woman who has had a mammogram, previous mammography history and Pap test history. Intentions to do BSE were associated with self efficacy, knowledge of breast cancer issues, concern about getting breast cancer and employment status. Both screening methods were associated with prior behaviour and concern about getting breast cancer.  (+info)

Detection of metachronous breast carcinoma: the role of follow-up? (2/211)

Second primary (metachronous) breast carcinoma occurs at a rate of approximately 1% per year. Early detection of metachronous carcinomas will optimise the chances of curative treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the method of detection of metachronous carcinomas, so that efforts to detect these tumours can be made more focused. Thirteen patients presented twice to a surgical department in a 7-year period with second primary breast carcinomas. The means of detection of the second primary carcinoma was identified in each case. Eleven of the patients presented with new symptoms which they had noticed themselves. The remaining two carcinomas were detected mammographically, and their presence was confirmed on clinical examination. In no case was the second primary carcinoma detected by clinical examination alone. Metachronous carcinoma is unlikely to be detected by routine clinical examination, but rapid assessment of new symptoms should be facilitated. Follow-up mammography at regular intervals should also improve early detection of metachronous breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Receptivity of a worksite breast cancer screening education program. (3/211)

A breast cancer screening education program was offered to 97 major worksites in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Worksites could design a program by choosing components that consisted of (1) brochures, (2) breast cancer education classes taught by program staff or (3) sending company nurses to be trained by program staff to then teach employees at the worksite. A total of 63 out of the original 97 companies (65%) accepted and offered a program to their employees. Worksites that chose to sponsor a program were more likely to have already sponsored breast cancer education programs at their worksites (P = 0.027) or to have a medical department (P = 0.006). The type of component selected was significantly associated with a history of sponsoring other health education programs (P < 0.001). Fourteen worksites chose the more intensive component, the training of a company nurse. More than half of the worksites that had never sponsored and had no plans to sponsor worksite breast education programs were receptive to our program (43 of 73, 59%). The majority of these sites (67%) chose the brochure. These results indicate that worksites are receptive to offering breast cancer educational programs if varying types of components can be selected.  (+info)

GPs' management of women seeking help for familial breast cancer. (4/211)

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain how often patients seek help for familial breast cancer in primary care, and to identify GPs management of these patients, in order to see whether guidelines are followed. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. GPs (n = 202) attending a postgraduate education programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included questions about the number of patients seeking help for familial breast cancer within the last 3 months and about their management strategies. RESULTS: About 80% of the GPs reported that they referred women with concerns about familial breast cancer for further diagnostics (mammography or ultrasound). For half these referrals a plan of regular appointments was set up, and one-eighth of the referrals included breast examination by a physician. Breast self-examination was advised in 50% of the cases. Estimates given to women regarding their breast cancer risk varied considerably. There was a strong relationship between risk estimates and management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Current guidelines regarding surveillance of women with breast cancer in the family were only partly followed. These guidelines do not give sufficient information to define whether there is an increased risk for breast cancer. These guidelines need to be refined.  (+info)

Management of breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease. (5/211)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, detection, pathology, management, and prognosis of breast cancer occurring after Hodgkin's disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-one cases of breast cancer in 65 survivors of Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 24.6 years for Hodgkin's disease and 42.6 years for breast cancer. The relative risk for invasive breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 6. 0) compared with an age-matched cohort. Cancers were detected by self-examination (63%), mammography (30%), and physician exam (7%). The histologic distribution paralleled that reported in the general population (85% ductal histology) as did other features (27% positive axillary lymph nodes, 63% positive estrogen receptors, and 25% family history). Although 87% of tumors were less than 4 cm, 95% were managed with mastectomy because of prior radiation. Two women underwent lumpectomy with breast irradiation. One of these patients developed tissue necrosis in the region of overlap with the prior mantle field. The incidence of bilateral breast cancer was 10%. Adjuvant systemic therapy was well tolerated; doxorubicin was used infrequently. Ten-year disease-specific survival was as follows: in-situ disease, 100%; stage I, 88%; stage II, 55%; stage III, 60%; and stage IV, zero. CONCLUSION: The risk of breast cancer is increased after Hodgkin's disease. Screening has been successful in detecting early-stage cancers. Pathologic features and prognosis are similar to that reported in the general population. Repeat irradiation of the breast can lead to tissue necrosis, and thus, mastectomy remains the standard of care in most cases.  (+info)

Breast self examination for early detection of breast cancer. (6/211)

Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women in Western countries and second most common in women of developing countries like India. In the absence of an exact aetiological agent for breast cancer, the most appropriate way of controlling it is by early detection and treatment. Of the various methods of screening for breast cancer, mammography is the method of choice but its use is limited due to high cost and unavailability. Considering this, breast self examination (BSE) is an ideal method which can be done by every woman at her leisure time with little training. Medical and paramedical professionals can act as trend setters in promoting BSE for control of breast cancer in the community.  (+info)

Practice of breast self-examination amongst women attending a Malaysian Well Person's Clinic. (7/211)

The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Effects of persuasive message order on coping with breast cancer information. (8/211)

The current study explored the impact of varying the order of message components on coping with breast cancer information. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, threat information, coping information and order of information were manipulated. College students read persuasive essays that varied in emphasis on threat of developing breast cancer and effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in averting the threat of cancer. Participants who read the high-threat message reported higher intentions to perform BSE, more rational problem solving and more hopelessness than did those who read a low-threat message. The coping information messages produced a similar pattern of results. In addition, those who read the high-coping message reported less fatalism than did participants who read the low-coping message. When threat information was presented first, the high-threat message led to less hopelessness and reliance on religious faith than when the coping information was presented first. These results demonstrate the threatening health information energizes one to act in both adaptive and maladaptive ways, and that coping information decreases the tendency to respond maladaptively to the health threat. They also suggest that the order of presentation of the information may affect the extent to which people respond adaptively.  (+info)

Breast self-examination (BSE) is a procedure in which an individual manually checks their own breasts for any changes or abnormalities. The goal of BSE is to detect breast cancer or other breast abnormalities as early as possible. It involves looking at and feeling the breasts for any lumps, thickenings, or other changes in size, shape, or appearance.

The American Cancer Society recommends that women become familiar with how their breasts normally look and feel and report any changes to their healthcare provider. However, they do not recommend regular monthly BSE as a routine screening tool for breast cancer, as it has not been shown to reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer or improve survival rates. Instead, they recommend regular mammograms and clinical breast exams as the most effective ways to detect breast cancer early.

It's important to note that while BSE can help women become more familiar with their breasts and detect changes early, it should not replace regular medical check-ups and mammograms. Any concerns or changes in the breasts should be reported to a healthcare provider as soon as possible for further evaluation.

Palpation is a medical examination technique in which a healthcare professional uses their hands to feel the size, shape, and consistency of body parts, including organs, tissues, and bones. It is used to assess the patient's overall health, identify any abnormalities or areas of pain, monitor healing and disease progression, and guide diagnostic and treatment decisions.

During palpation, the healthcare professional applies gentle pressure with their fingers or hands to specific areas of the body, feeling for any changes in texture, temperature, moisture, or movement. The technique can be used to assess various bodily systems, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems.

Palpation is a valuable tool in physical examinations because it is non-invasive, relatively quick, and cost-effective. It can provide important information that helps healthcare professionals make accurate diagnoses and develop effective treatment plans for their patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Suburban Population" is not a medical term. It refers to the people living in suburban areas, which are typically residential districts or communities that lie outside a city center. They are often characterized by single-family homes and less population density than in urban areas. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

Early detection of cancer refers to the identification of malignant cells or tumors in their initial stages, before they have had a chance to grow and spread. This is typically achieved through various screening methods and tests that are designed to detect specific types of cancers. The goal of early detection is to increase the chances of successful treatment and improve the overall prognosis for patients.

Some common methods used for early cancer detection include:

1. Regular screenings such as mammograms, colonoscopies, and Pap tests, which can help identify precancerous or cancerous cells in their earliest stages.
2. Imaging tests like CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans, which can help detect tumors that may not be visible through other screening methods.
3. Blood tests that look for specific biomarkers or tumor markers, which can indicate the presence of cancer in the body.
4. Genetic testing to identify individuals who may be at higher risk of developing certain types of cancer due to inherited genetic mutations.

It's important to note that while early detection is an important tool in the fight against cancer, it is not a guarantee of successful treatment or cure. However, it can significantly improve the odds of successful treatment and increase the chances of survival for many patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

"Self-examination" is a term used to describe the act of examining one's own body to identify any unusual or changes in bodily functions, appearance, or symptoms that could indicate a potential health issue. It is often recommended as a preventative measure for early detection of certain conditions, such as breast self-examination (BSE) for detecting lumps or abnormalities in the breast tissue that may suggest breast cancer.

However, it's important to note that while self-examinations can be helpful, they are not a substitute for regular medical check-ups and screenings. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional if any concerning symptoms or changes are noticed during a self-examination. They can provide a more thorough evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment plan as needed.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Mammography is defined as a specialized medical imaging technique used to create detailed X-ray images of the breast tissue. It's primarily used as a screening tool to detect early signs of breast cancer in women who have no symptoms or complaints, as well as a diagnostic tool for further evaluation of abnormalities detected by other imaging techniques or during a clinical breast exam.

There are two primary types of mammography: film-screen mammography and digital mammography. Film-screen mammography uses traditional X-ray films to capture the images, while digital mammography utilizes digital detectors to convert X-rays into electronic signals, which are then displayed on a computer screen. Digital mammography offers several advantages over film-screen mammography, including lower radiation doses, improved image quality, and the ability to manipulate and enhance the images for better interpretation.

Mammography plays a crucial role in reducing breast cancer mortality by enabling early detection and treatment of this disease. Regular mammography screenings are recommended for women over a certain age (typically starting at age 40 or 50, depending on individual risk factors) to increase the chances of detecting breast cancer at an early stage when it is most treatable.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Breast diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the breast tissue. These can be broadly categorized into non-cancerous and cancerous conditions.

Non-cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Fibrocystic breast changes: This is a common condition where the breast tissue becomes lumpy, tender, and sometimes painful. It is caused by hormonal changes and is most common in women aged 20 to 50.
2. Mastitis: This is an infection of the breast tissue, usually occurring in breastfeeding women. Symptoms include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area.
3. Breast abscess: This is a collection of pus in the breast tissue, often caused by bacterial infection. It can be painful and may require surgical drainage.
4. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors made up of glandular and fibrous tissue. They are usually round, firm, and mobile, and can be removed if they cause discomfort.
5. Intraductal papillomas: These are small, wart-like growths that occur in the milk ducts. They may cause nipple discharge, which can be bloody or clear.

Cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Breast cancer: This is a malignant tumor that starts in the breast tissue. It can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. There are several types of breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and inflammatory breast cancer.
2. Paget's disease of the nipple: This is a rare form of breast cancer that affects the skin of the nipple and areola. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and flaking of the nipple skin.
3. Phyllodes tumors: These are rare breast tumors that can be benign or malignant. They usually grow quickly and may require surgical removal.

It is important to note that not all breast lumps are cancerous, and many non-cancerous conditions can cause breast changes. However, any new or unusual breast symptoms should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out serious conditions such as breast cancer.

Intervention studies are a type of clinical research design where the investigator assigns participants into comparison groups, typically to receive or not receive an intervention. The intervention could be a new drug, a medical device, a procedure, or a health promotion program. These studies aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the intervention in preventing or treating diseases or conditions.

There are two main types of intervention studies: experimental (or randomized controlled trials) and quasi-experimental designs. In experimental designs, participants are randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group, while in quasi-experimental designs, assignment is not random but based on other factors such as geographical location or time period.

Intervention studies provide valuable evidence for informing clinical practice and health policy decisions. However, they require careful planning, execution, and analysis to minimize bias and ensure valid results.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Breastfeeding is the process of providing nutrition to an infant or young child by feeding them breast milk directly from the mother's breast. It is also known as nursing. Breast milk is the natural food for newborns and infants, and it provides all the nutrients they need to grow and develop during the first six months of life.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for both the mother and the baby. For the baby, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect against infections and diseases, and it can also reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), allergies, and obesity. For the mother, breastfeeding can help her lose weight after pregnancy, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, and promote bonding with her baby.

Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first six months of an infant's life, and then continued along with appropriate complementary foods until the child is at least two years old or beyond. However, it is important to note that every mother and baby pair is unique, and what works best for one may not work as well for another. It is recommended that mothers consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best feeding plan for themselves and their baby.

A physical examination is a methodical and systematic process of evaluating a patient's overall health status. It involves inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating different parts of the body to detect any abnormalities or medical conditions. The primary purpose of a physical examination is to gather information about the patient's health, identify potential health risks, diagnose medical conditions, and develop an appropriate plan for prevention, treatment, or further evaluation.

During a physical examination, a healthcare provider may assess various aspects of a patient's health, including their vital signs (such as blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and respiratory rate), height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and overall appearance. They may also examine different organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems, to identify any signs of disease or abnormalities.

Physical examinations are an essential part of preventive healthcare and are typically performed during routine check-ups, annual physicals, and when patients present with symptoms or concerns about their health. The specific components of a physical examination may vary depending on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and presenting symptoms.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

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... and 2015 about the epidemiology of breast cancer and breast cancer preventive behaviors such as breast self-examination In 2008 ... Montazeri, A; Haji-Mahmoodi, M; Jarvandi, S (June 2003). "Breast self-examination: do religious beliefs matter? A descriptive ... Montazeri, A; Ebrahimi, M; Mehrdad, N; Ansari, M; Sajadian, A (2015-09-28). "Delayed presentation in breast cancer: a study in ... ISBN 978-1-4614-3369-9. Ebrahimi, M; Vahdaninia, M; Montazeri, A (2002). "Risk factors for breast cancer in Iran: a case- ...
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... clinical breast exam and physical exam. During this examination, the doctor looks for unusual breast areas, both visually and ... Fibrocystic breast changes is a condition of the breasts where there may be pain, breast cysts, and breast masses. The breasts ... Women may detect lumps in their breasts during self-examination; if this happens it is strongly advised to visit a health ... Breast cancer risk is elevated in a defined fraction of the lesions. Except for people with a strong family history of breast ...
... breast self-examination cannot be recommended". There was no high quality evidence looking at clinical breast examination. ... Breast examination (either clinical breast exams (CBE) by a health care provider or by self exams) were once widely recommended ... "The Impact of Breast Density on Breast Cancer Risk and Breast Screening". Current Breast Cancer Reports. 4 (2): 161-168. doi: ... Three out of twelve (3/12) breast cancer screening programs in Canada offer clinical breast examinations. All twelve offer ...
... clinical breast examinations, pelvic examinations, and mammography. Additionally, the center teaches breast self-examinations. ... The Center is member of the Global Breast Health Initiative and the EU's Breast and Cervical Cancer Networks, and has been ... The Center provides breast and cervical cancer diagnostic screening free of charge at the fully equipped facilities established ...
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Simon, Stephanie (2022-11-07). "Breast Cancer: Niger State Governor's wife stresses regular examination". Voice of Nigeria. ... The organization has been advocating for better health for women, particularly in the areas of breast and cervical cancer ... As part of her advocacy on breast cancer campaigns, Bello identified the vital role played by religious leaders, saying "We ...
Together, physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree ... Stage 1A breast cancer Stage 1B breast cancer Stage 2A breast cancer Stage 2A breast cancer Stage 2B breast cancer Stage 2B ... breast cancer Stage 2B breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3B breast ... Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in ...
Rinehart encouraged women to have breast examinations. Rinehart received a Mystery Writers of America special award a year ... Rinehart suffered from breast cancer, which led to a radical mastectomy. She eventually went public with her story, at a time ...
She encourages women to make breast self-examination a "lifetime habit." According to one source, the Philippines has the ... A survivor of breast cancer herself, Kara founded the I Can Serve Foundation, an advocacy group for early breast cancer ... She founded the advocacy organization ICanServe which has the mission of arming "women with breast care health and breast ... pink is for breast cancer. The group behind it is the ICanServe Foundation, an advocacy group committed to fighting breast ...
A physical examination, along with a breast examination, will usually be conducted. Blood and urine samples may be taken to ... A mammogram (an X-ray of the breast) or an ultrasound scan (using high frequency sound waves) might be used to determine if ... Symptoms of galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia include a high blood prolactin level, abnormal milk production in the breast, ... there are any tumors or cysts present in the breasts themselves. If a tumor of the pituitary gland is suspected, a magnetic ...
Keeping you Abreast: A Handbook on Breast Cancer Self Examination for Women with Disabilities, 2013 Tax Concessions and ... ISBN 978-93-5235-571-6. Khetarpal, Abha (2013-01-01). Keeping you Abreast (Handbook on Breast Cancer Self Examination for Women ...
Acculturation and self-breast examination among immigrant Latino women in the United States. International Nursing Review, 47(1 ...
X-ray examination of the female breast). Screening mammography is used for the early detection of breast cancer. CAD systems ... The FP-rate in lung overview examinations (CAD Chest) could be reduced to 2 per examination. In other segments (e.g. CT lung ... In CAST systems the FP rate must be extremely low (less than 1 per examination) to allow a meaningful study triage. The ... False hits should not be saved, because an examination at a later date becomes more difficult then. CAD systems seek to ...
... in relation to breast cancer, women should do monthly self-examinations. However, after about age 40 women should begin ... "In-depth Report: Breast Cancer." The New York Times 25 April 2011. Print. Gallagher, K. M.; Updegraff, J. A.; Rothman, A. J.; ... As cited by a Times article "women ages 20-49 should have a physical examination by a health professional every one or two ... Although the age and frequency of which women should begin breast exams are highly debated the general consensus is that those ...
Porter appeared topless in the documentary to undergo a breast examination and breast screening.[citation needed] Porter has ... Booby Trap heads to Sky1 Digital Spy, 14 May 2009 Dawn Porter: My breasts could kill me Sky1 HD 5.9m tune in for new Torchwood ... The show aired on 6-7 July 2009, under the title My Breasts Could Kill Me. It premiered with 181,000 viewers (0.9% share). ... In May 2009, it was announced that Porter would present a documentary, The Booby Trap, exploring breast cancer, for Sky1. ...
SSI is used for breast examination with a number of high-resolution linear transducers. A large multi-center breast imaging ... Shear wave elastography for breast masses is highly reproducible. Cosgrove DO, Berg WA, Doré CJ, Skyba DM, Henry JP, Gay J, ... Shear-wave Elastography Improves the Specificity of Breast US: The BE1 Multinational Study of 939 Masses. Berg WA, Cosgrove DO ... Elastography is used for detection and diagnosis of breast, thyroid, and prostate cancers. Certain types of elastography are ...
Dilaveri, CA; Szostek, JH; Wang, AT; Cook, DA (September 2013). "Simulation training for breast and pelvic physical examination ... during oral board examinations. However, these forms of simulation are a far cry from high-fidelity models that have surfaced ... is commonly used in medical and nursing education to prepare health professionals to perform sensitive exams such as the breast ...
She was a product spokesperson for the Liv-Kit, a breast self-examination product. She was also partial owner of Byron Bay's ... Newton-John, who battled breast cancer three times, was an advocate and sponsor for breast cancer research. In 2012, the Olivia ... She dedicated the album to her mother, who had died the previous year of breast cancer. Indigo was subsequently released in the ... She subsequently revealed this was actually her third bout with breast cancer, as she had a recurrence of the disease in 2013 ...
Using the terror management health model to promote breast self-examination". Self and Identity. 10 (3): 315-325. doi:10.1080/ ... Zhou, X.; Liu, J.; Chen, C.; Yu, Z. (2008). "Do children transcend death? An examination of the terror management function of ... While death can be instrumental for individuals, in some cases, when breast self-exams activate people's death thoughts an ... According to Goldenberg and Arndt (2008), certain health behaviors such as breast self-exams (BSEs) can consciously activate ...
Breast and genitalia examinations in presence of a chaperone may also be needed. Diagnostic imaging such ultrasound, ... Progesterone therapy for a week per month in addition to estrogen allows for adequate uterine and breast development. Routine ... Testosterone therapy should be avoid in individuals with breast and/or prostate cancer. Hypogonadism Hypogonadotropic ... estrogen therapy is done initially for breast development and pubertal induction. Pubertal induction should start no later than ...
Breast self-examination may be difficult, so partners or carers may have to perform it. Men with CP have higher levels of ... Gynecological examinations may have to be performed under anesthesia due to spasticity, and equipment is often not accessible. ... The diagnosis of cerebral palsy has historically rested on the person's history and physical examination and is generally ...
Lumps in the breast are often not found during self-examinations or physical exams. However, in some cases they can be felt at ... A breast cyst is a cyst, a fluid-filled sac, within the breast. One breast can have one or more cysts. They are often described ... Signs and symptoms of breast cysts include: A smooth, easily movable round or oval breast lump with distinct edges Breast pain ... "Risk of breast cancer in women with palpable breast cysts: a prospective study. Edinburgh Breast Group". Lancet. 353 (9166): ...
The Breast Center was established in Siriraj Hospital to provide complete breast diseases examination and diagnosis. With the ... Its objective is to promote knowledge and understanding of breast cancer screening. ... modern equipment in the center, the first in Thailand, breast radiography can be carried out to enable biopsies to be carried ... The Siam Society Under Royal Patronage The World Tipiṭaka Presentation Worldwide The Kidney Foundation of Thailand The Breast ...
Preventive health care update: Should we routinely teach breast self-examination to screen for breast cancer. Can Med Assc J ... of breast self-examination and produced guidelines recommending against the routine teaching of breast self-examination - the ... systematic review found that routine teaching of breast self-examination did not improve survival from breast cancer but was ... but the conclusions have gained widespread acceptance and have helped lead to a change in Canadian recommendations for breast ...
... a pathological examination is performed on the portion of excised breast tissue. If the results of the examination show the ... A physical examination of the breast tissue can often reveal lumps in comedocarcinomas, while palpable lumps are rare in non- ... Upon physical examination, the infected area can often be described as feeling hard and cord-like. Once excised, sustained ... Because of its prevalence in DCIS, evidence of calcification within the breast tissue is often used as a diagnostic tool for ...
Intimate examinations include breast and pelvic examination on females and urogenital, prostate and rectal examination on males ... When the trainee or examinee articulates the need for an examination or a laboratory test, the SP hands him/her a small card ... In 1984, a number of residency programs in the northeastern U.S., gave their residents the same examination using SPs. The ... J P Collins; R M Harden (2004). "The Use of Real Patients, Simulated Patients and Simulators in Clinical Examinations. AMEE ...
Breast examination, also known as clinical breast examination, is a physical examination performed by a medical professional on ... Newton, Erin V. "Breast Examination: Technique". Retrieved 23 August 2023. (Physical examination, Breast cancer awareness). ... "Breast Examination Techniques". StatPearls. PMID 29083747. "Breast Examination". Oxford Medical Education. ... Breast examination is a physical examination performed by a medical professional on an individual presenting with signs and ...
Breast CancerCancerConditionsWomens HealthYour Body BREAST EXAMINATION: It doesnt make any difference. What Doctors Dont ... Tagged asbreast cancerdisease detectioneffectivenessscreeningself-examinationunnecessary proceduresWhat Doctors Dont Tell You ... Women are exhorted to regularly examine their breasts in order to check out for early-stage breast cancer.. But this time- ... A study from Shanghai, which involved 266,000 women, found that those who self-examine were as likely to die from breast cancer ...
Geographic Examination of COVID-19 Test Percent Positivity and Proportional Change in Cancer Screening Volume, National Breast ... Breast cancer screening volume was based on NBCCEDP minimal data elements submitted in April 2021. Data for the District of ... Proportional change in breast cancer screening volume values were divided into 3 categories: large decrease (less than −20%), ... Bivariate visualization of the association between state-level proportional change in NBCCEDP breast cancer screening volume ...
Incorrect negative results of FS examination are seen in 15% of patients and require a secondary axillary lymph node dissection ... Intraoperative frozen section examination of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer Rozhl Chir. 2005 May;84(5):217-22. ... Aim of the study: Intraoperative frozen section (FS) examination of the Sentinel node (SN) in breast cancer patients is ... 2326 breast cancer patients of the Austrian Sentinel node study group who underwent SN biopsy and intraoperative FS examination ...
Resources about breast examination. Essential business information and advice to professionals, corporate executives, ... Study: Black Women Should Be Screened For Breast Cancer At Age 40. ...
... check the entire breast area by moving your fingers in circles around the breast. Start at the outer edge of the breast ... To do this type of breast examination, check the entire breast area by moving your fingers in circles around the breast. Start ... As you circle around the breast area, move your fingers in small, coin-sized circles using different levels of pressure. ... at the outer edge of the breast and make smaller and smaller circles around the breast until you reach the nipple. ...
The lifelike models are designed to help you teach others how to identify unfamiliar lumps in the breast tissue. ... These mini breast models make teaching self-examination easier. ... Mini breast self-examination model (Beige) 0 out of 5 ( There ... These mini breast models make teaching self-examination easier. The lifelike models are designed to help you teach others how ... These mini breast models make teaching self-examination easier. The lifelike models are designed to help you teach others how ...
Decrease Quantity of Wearable Breast Self Examination Model - Dark Increase Quantity of Wearable Breast Self Examination Model ... Breast cancer is a real threat to the health of women (and men!) around the world. Demonstrate realistic self-examination with ... Breast examination is possible in both upright or lying positions. *Benign and malignant tumors in different stages of ... Demonstrate realistic self-examination with our natural casting of a female upper body with medium-sized breasts. It can easily ...
Dr B] undertook a breast examination on [Mrs A]. [Mrs A] indicated that [Dr B] was unable to feel a breast lump and assured her ... GPs failure to detect breast lump during breast examination Date: 20 Jun 2003 ... mentioned the possibility of a left breast lump and that he undertook a breast examination. [Dr B] has described his normal ... There is an outside chance that it may have been missed in a routine breast examination because of its ill-defined edge or a ...
The left breast permits ultrasound identification of cysts versus dense masses, while the right breast permits identification ... Computer, Monitor not included Breasts easily removed and assembled C ... Left and Right breasts attach to adult upper torso. ... Fibrocystic Breast Self Examination Model, Beige or Brown Color ... Breast Phantom Ultrasound Examination Simulator Model. NPNSB48847UG Breast Ultrasound Simulator Model NPNSB48847UG Breast ...
... a soothing and comforting breast cream used by all types of women in support of regular breast self-examination and lymph ... EMBRACING BREAST AND CHEST MASSAGE. Massage is one of the very best things we can do for our breast and chest health-especially ... About Breast Care Balm. Designed to support all bodies, Breast Care Balm transforms a healthy practice into a nurturing ritual ... The breasts are organs of giving and receiving, with a close proximity to the energetic heart center. With that in mind, make ...
... attitude and practice regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination among a sample of the educated population in Iraq ... Breast Journal, 2002, 8:222-225.. *Parsa P, Kandiah M. Breast cancer knowledge, perception and breast self-examination ... physical breast examination (PBE) and breast self-examination (BSE). During 2010-2011 numerous health education symposiums were ... Breast cancer knowledge, attitude and practices of breast self examination among women in Qassim region of Saudia Arabia. Saudi ...
If you have been diagnosed with dense breast tissue but dont qualify for a conventional MRI breast screening, consider this ... Learn more about fast breast MRIs with University Hospitals. ... breast cancer screening method for women with dense breast ... A fast breast MRI exam is a supplemental ... The Fast Breast MRI is a 10-minute, self-pay examination for $ ... Schedule Your Breast MRI. The Fast Breast MRI is a low cost, self-pay supplemental study for women with dense breast tissue who ...
... August 20, 2008. How to do your breast self-examination. Click here ... Posted at 03:58 PM in How to do your breast self-examination , Permalink , Comments (0) , TrackBack (0) ... What should my diet consist of to reduce the risk of Breast Cancer (1) ... What should my diet consist of to reduce the risk of Breast Cancer ...
Breast screening clinic versus health education session as outlets for education in breast self-examination. ... Breast screening clinic versus health education session as outlets for education in breast self-examination. ... Breast screening clinic versus health education session as outlets for education in breast self-examination. ...
"Breast self-examination for visually impaired women." 108, no. 2 (1993). Albright, P and Toy, K W "Breast self-examination for ... Adult Aged Breast Self-Examination Female Health Education Humans Middle Aged Pilot Projects Research Article Vision Disorders ... Regularly practiced breast self-examination (BSE) has been demonstrated to be an effective method in the early detection of ... Title : Breast self-examination for visually impaired women. Personal Author(s) : Albright, P;Toy, K W; Published Date : 1993 ...
Background: In Ethiopia, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. Level of knowledge, ... About 77% of the respondents cited breast self-examination as a method of early detection of breast cancer. Nearly half of the ... Level of knowledge, attitude and practices of female university students about breast cancer and breast self-examination is not ... Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices on breast cancer and breast self examination among female students, School of ...
Although most American women regularly receive screening clinical breast examination (CBE), little is known about CBE accuracy ... Screening clinical breast examination: how often does it miss lethal breast cancer?. ... BACKGROUND: Although most American women regularly receive screening clinical breast examination (CBE), little is known about ... who received a CBE within 1 year of breast cancer diagnosis and who died of breast cancer within 15 years of diagnosis (N = 485 ...
Hip-hop breast examination. Many of the health-related videos on the site are simply humorous. There is, for example, the dad ... He says that one clip attributing breast cancer to abortion serves as an example of how online video clips can spread ... tries encouraging women to do a monthly self-exam for breast cancer by putting the message to a popular hip-hop song. The woman ...
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Breast Examination. Breast Self Examination is IMPORTANT. KNOW YOUR OWN BREASTS. CHECK THEM REGULARLY - IF YOU ARE STILL HAVING ... Any palpable change should also have a breast ultrasound examination. Breastscreen do not offer routine ultrasounds. ... The most sensitive breast investigation is a Breast MRI. The cost and quality of this varies greatly in Melbourne! ... FEEL with the flat of your hand as if you are washing you breasts (which is also a good time to check). Do this with your hand ...
Being breast aware is part of general body awareness and learning how your breasts look and feel. It is important to know what ... is normal for you because everyone is different and as you go through the different stages of your life, your breasts are ... Early detection of breast cancer increases the chances of successful treatment and ultimately, survival. ... Breast Examination. Early detection of breast cancer increases the chances of successful treatment and ultimately, survival. ...
The breast contains several abnormalities, allowing women to practice all ... The 66fit Breast Examination Simulator model has been designed for teaching and practicing breast palpation techniques. It has ... The 66fit Breast Examination Simulator model has been designed for teaching and practicing breast palpation techniques. ... The breast contains several abnormalities, allowing women to practice all phases of breast examination. ...
Everything from Menarche to Menopause, Breast, Infertility, Pregnancy, Labour, Mental health, Fitness, Beauty, Cancer and ... this arrangement distributes the breast tissue as evenly as possible across the chest wall. If a breast is not properly ... Never compress your breast between thumb and fingers as this may cause you to feel a lump that does not exist. ... Palpate your breasts with small rotary motions, pressing gently but firmly to immobilize the skin and roll it over the ...
In the interim, it is so important to self examine your breasts for any changes ... October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. We cant stress enough how important it is to your health to ensure you are having ... GUIDE: Breast Self Examination. October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. We cant stress enough how important it is to your ... Below is a quick reference of how to proform a self examination of your breasts ...
Breast cancer is a major killer disease of women both globally and regionally. It is the most common cancer among women, and ... Breast Cancer And Breast Self Examination. Breast cancer is a major killer disease of women both globally and regionally. It is ... ,title=Breast Cancer And ... Breast Cancer And Breast Self Examination. Retrieved from ...
InnoHEALTH Magazine is an RNI (Registrar of Newspapers for India) registered magazine initiated in July 2016 under the InnovatioCuris banner. This magazine focuses on healthcare innovations and has been termed one of its kind in India. The articles composed on the magazine are curated on this website.. ...
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  • Breast examination, also known as clinical breast examination, is a physical examination performed by a medical professional on an individual presenting with signs and symptoms in a breast, periodically on some people with a family history of breast disease, or on a person with an incidental abnormal finding on imaging such as mammography. (
  • With Early detection - through Breast Self - Examination, clinical exams by a healthcare professional, mammography - the chances of surviving breast cancer increase dramatically. (
  • The Fast Breast MRI is a low cost, self-pay supplemental study for women with dense breast tissue who want a screening that is more sensitive to breast cancer than mammography. (
  • Physician examination, not mammogram, was the main reason for the reduction of breast cancer mortality in the Health Insurance Plan Study which compared mammography to physical examination as a screening tool (used when a patient has no symptoms or obvious findings). (
  • Other studies show that the physician's examination is equal to that of mammography for the detection of cancers. (
  • Mammography is the preferred screening examination for breast cancer. (
  • Screening mammography accounts for the greatest contribution to early detection and decrease in breast cancer mortality, although its use has resulted in a minor increase in the number of in situ cancers detected. (
  • In the UK Age trial, breast cancer mortality in the first 10 years after diagnosis was significantly lower (rate ratio [RR] 0.75) in women who received annual screening mammography from age 40-49 years than in those invited for screening at age 50 years and every 3 years thereafter. (
  • Clinical breast examination is a simple and inexpensive method of detecting breast cancer especially in women who do not have access to mammography. (
  • The guidelines differ in their recommendations regarding breast self-examination and clinical breast examination, use of screening mammography in women 40-49 years old, age at which to discontinue screening mammography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mammography. (
  • Predictors of adherence to clinical breast examination and mammography screening among Malaysian women. (
  • The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the rates and factors related to clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography among 425 female teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. (
  • In addition, higher a perceived susceptibility to breast cancer and regular undergoing CBE were significant predictors for having a mammography. (
  • In mammography, low-dose x-rays of both breasts are taken in 2 views (oblique and craniocaudal). (
  • Mammography is less sensitive in women with dense breast tissue, and some states mandate informing patients that they have dense breast tissue when it is detected by screening mammography. (
  • Women with dense breast tissue may require additional imaging tests (eg, breast tomosynthesis [3-dimensional mammography], ultrasonography, MRI). (
  • All of her laboratory values are normal, except for an alkaline phosphatase that was elevated, at 560 U/L (upper limit of normal in that laboratory, 140 U/L). Because of the elevated alkaline phosphatase level and bone pain, she is referred for mammography, which reveals an irregular-appearing mass in the left breast with suspicious axillary nodes. (
  • The breast self-examination should be done at the same time each month at the end of the menstrual period for menstruating females or on the same date for women who have ceased menstruating. (
  • After maturation of the breasts, girls can be taught how to examine themselves for early signs of cancer, regular examination of the breasts should follow each menstrual period. (
  • Breast self exams should be performed once per month, and many women find that it is easiest to perform the exam in the week following their menstrual period when their breasts are not as tender as at other times. (
  • I do my Breast Examination after each menstrual period and get a yearly breast scan. (
  • The duration and flow of menses, cycle days, day and date of last menstrual period, presence or absence of molimina (breast soreness and mood change immediately before menses) are necessary pieces of information. (
  • 2023) for describing the practice patterns of breast self-examination (BSE) in Nigeria . (
  • Abuja, 6 February, 2023 - Gloria Orji was 35 years old when she was diagnosed with stage 2 breast cancer in June 2010. (
  • Some organisations recommend a breast examination as part of routine screening, typically in some high risk groups. (
  • Each state is represented by a single bivariate combination of 1 of 3 COVID-19 test percent positivity categories and 1 of 3 proportional change in breast cancer screening volume categories, resulting in 9 possible bivariate relationships. (
  • Bivariate visualization of the association between state-level proportional change in NBCCEDP breast cancer screening volume and COVID-19 test percent positivity for each month from July through December 2020. (
  • Breast cancer screening volume was based on NBCCEDP minimal data elements submitted in April 2021. (
  • Data for the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, and North Carolina and are not displayed because 2020 breast cancer screening data were missing. (
  • Scientific studies have shown that this screening method is effective in detecting invasive breast cancers. (
  • An MRI breast screening is ideal for women with dense breast tissue who may not qualify for a conventional breast MRI study based on their lifetime risk for breast cancer. (
  • The fast MRI breast screening requires an injection of contrast that is given through an IV. (
  • Dr. Ashley Simpson, DO, at University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, explains breast MRI and its role in screening for breast cancer. (
  • Breast screening clinic versus health education session as outlets for education in breast self-examination. (
  • Screening clinical breast examination: how often does it miss lethal breast cancer? (
  • BACKGROUND: Although most American women regularly receive screening clinical breast examination (CBE), little is known about CBE accuracy in community practice. (
  • We sought to estimate the rate of cancer detection (sensitivity) of screening CBE performed by community-based clinicians on women who ultimately died of breast cancer, as well as to identify factors associated with accurate detection. (
  • CONCLUSION: Screening CBE as performed in the community may be insufficiently sensitive to detect most lethal breast cancers. (
  • Both Breastscreen and private imaging centres offer screening mammograms and with a family history of breast cancer private imaging will also do the mammogram for no out of pocket cost. (
  • Mammographic screening is not recommended for women younger than 40 years of age as their breast tissue is too dense to detect breast changes accurately using this method. (
  • Breast screening for women aged over 40 years old is free every two years. (
  • Breast self-examination (BSE): It is a screening method used by yourself to detect early breast cancer. (
  • considers regularly examining your breast as useful and a vital screening tool. (
  • A large-scale, population-based, observational study by García-Albéniz et al concluded that continuing annual breast cancer screening past age 75 years did not result in substantial reductions in 8-year breast cancer mortality compared with stopping screening. (
  • In women aged 70 to 74 years, continued screening resulted in a slightly reduced 8-year rate of breast cancer death: 2.7 deaths per 1,000 women, compared with 3.7 for those who stopped screening. (
  • [ 5 ] Although breast cancer was diagnosed more often in women who continued screening, that did not translate to a significant reduction in deaths because breast cancer is less successful treatment in older women. (
  • Clinical breast exams are not recommended for breast cancer screening in average-risk women at any age. (
  • While not recommending breast self-exams as part of a routine breast cancer screening schedule, the ACS does advise that, "Women should be familiar with how their breasts normally look and feel and should report any changes to a health care provider right away. (
  • For women at high risk, the ACS recommends breast cancer screening with breast MRI and a mammogram every year, typically starting at age 30 and continuing for as long as they are in good health. (
  • In 2016, the USPSTF released updated recommendations on breast cancer screening, but did not update its 2009 recommendations for breast examination. (
  • The findings clearly suggest a need for improving women's awareness on breast cancer screening, its importance and recommended guidelines. (
  • A breast self-exam can be of great help in screening for tumours, cysts and/or other abnormalities in the breasts. (
  • The keywords used were "health belief model," OR "health belief" OR "belief" AND "breast self-examination," OR "breast cancer screening. (
  • Can health belief model predict breast cancer screening behaviors? (
  • 2016). Breast Cancer Screening: An Evidence-Based Update. (
  • Determining screening recommendations involves evaluation of benefits and harms regarding screening efficacy in decreasing breast cancer mortality and the false-positive rate. (
  • clinical breast examination is also used for screening, and MRI is used for certain high-risk patients. (
  • The ACS updated its guidelines for breast cancer screening in average-risk women in October 2015. (
  • [ 1 ] At this time, the ACS is in the process of updating the breast cancer screening guidelines for women at high risk, which were last updated in 2007. (
  • The lifelike models are designed to help you teach others how to identify unfamiliar lumps in the breast tissue. (
  • If you're one of the 40% of women diagnosed with dense breast tissue, this self-pay test is a real game change. (
  • this arrangement distributes the breast tissue as evenly as possible across the chest wall. (
  • If a breast is not properly flattened against the chest, it is difficult to feel a lump particularly in the outer upper quadrant, where tissue is thicker (and where most malignancies occur). (
  • Palpate your breasts with small rotary motions, pressing gently but firmly to immobilize the skin and roll it over the underlying tissue. (
  • With one hand underneath the breast, my other hand is pressing gently from the top of the breast and rolling the breast tissue back and forth to determine if there are any palpable masses in the breast between my two hands. (
  • Breast tissue covers a large area, it goes from the middle of the chest into the armpit and up toward the collarbone and deep inside to the muscles of the chest wall. (
  • The Physical Breast Exam is done while you are lying down as this position enables the breast tissue over the chest wall to flatten. (
  • This position helps spread the breast tissue evenly across the chest wall, making it easier to feel any abnormalities. (
  • Use light, medium, and firm pressure to feel the different layers of the breast tissue. (
  • Don't forget to examine the area under your arm, as breast tissue extends to this area. (
  • Regular BSE not only makes women familiar with their breasts but it also helps in detecting changes in the breast tissue, thus leading to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. (
  • Fibrocystic breast changes are noncancerous lumps or abnormalities in the breast tissue. (
  • Between 50% and 90% of women will experience benign changes in their breast tissue during their lifetime, with the 30s and 40s being the most common age of occurrence. (
  • If changes in a woman's breast tissue are determined to be benign and do not cause symptoms, then no treatment is necessary. (
  • Fibrocystic breast changes are non-cancerous lumps or abnormalities in the breast tissue. (
  • It is important for women who notice changes in their breast tissue to let their doctor know right away so that breast cancer or another serious disease can be ruled out. (
  • Fibrocystic breasts are very common: estimates suggest that between 50% and 90% of all women will experience benign changes in their breast tissue during their lifetime (Jones 2011). (
  • Athelia (ie, absence of nipples) and amastia (ie, absence of breast tissue) may occur bilaterally or unilaterally. (
  • Accessory or ectopic breast tissue responds to hormonal stimulation and may cause discomfort during menstrual cycles. (
  • Mastitis neonatorum or infections of the breast tissue may also occur during the newborn period. (
  • I underwent a biopsy, and cancerous cells were found in the breast tissue sample. (
  • Dr B said that his standard approach to breast lump concerns is to order a mammogram or to get a fine needle aspiration done on a palpable lump, or do both. (
  • During this consultation Mrs A did not express any concern about her breasts or ask him to examine them further, as her mammogram was scheduled for nine days later. (
  • The Fast Breast MRI may detect cancers not visible on a mammogram. (
  • Both mammogram and ultrasounds can miss -DCIS, lobular cancers, cancers behind the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. (
  • A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast which detects up to 90% of breast cancers and can detect a lump as small as a grain of rice. (
  • If you are in this age group and concerned about breast changes, your doctor may still recommend a mammogram but will probably also arrange an Ultrasound. (
  • In some studies, the physical examination is more accurate than a mammogram in indicating a breast mass that turns out to be cancer. (
  • The earliest sign of breast cancer can be an abnormality depicted on a mammogram, before it can be felt by the woman or her physician. (
  • Frequently, the individual seeking medical attention has already examined their breasts themselves and found a lump, skin change, pain or nipple discharge. (
  • Start at the outer edge of the breast and make smaller and smaller circles around the breast until you reach the nipple. (
  • He observed her breasts for asymmetry, nipple asymmetry, skin changes and any obvious lumps. (
  • Examination of the nipples should include determination of inversion, crusting or discharge, or deviation of one nipple compared to the other. (
  • Start at the outer edge of your breast and gradually move inwards towards the nipple. (
  • You can begins at the nipple, moving in larger and larger circle until you reach the outer edge of the breast. (
  • An extra breast (ie, polymastia) or extra nipple (ie, polythelia) occurs in approximately 1% of the population. (
  • Mothers recommended to avoid breast-feeding if nipple bleeding. (
  • Mother of the 9.5-mo-old infant had nipple fissures and bleeding during breast-feeding. (
  • Mrs A then lay on the couch on her back and Dr B palpated both breasts in all segments, under the nipples and then the tail of the breasts leading to the armpits and finally the armpits to feel the lymph nodes. (
  • Next, the doctor needs to feel or palpate, the breasts and the nipples. (
  • Using the pads of the finger and not the tip, inspect the breast by applying varying pressure, moving your hands from the nipples, in a spiral pattern. (
  • Contamination from blood not mentioned but unlikely as newborn did not breast-feed (assuming intact nipples during sample extraction). (
  • Women are exhorted to regularly examine their breasts in order to check out for early-stage breast cancer. (
  • Find time to check your breasts regularly. (
  • By regularly performing BSE, you can detect any changes in your breasts early on, which can be crucial for early detection of breast cancer. (
  • By investigating your breasts regularly, you can get to know how your breasts usually look and feel and more easily recognise any changes that may occur. (
  • It is acceptable for women to choose not to do breast self-examination (BSE) or to do BSE regularly (monthly) or irregularly. (
  • Globally, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, comprising 23% of the female cancers. (
  • In Iraq, breast cancer ranks the first among the commonest malignancies among all the population and accounts for approximately one-third of the registered female cancers according to the latest Iraqi Cancer Registry which shows a trend for the disease to affect younger women [4]. (
  • Importantly mammograms (even the latest CT tomosynthesis mammograms) miss 10% of breast cancers. (
  • stage (II) breast cancers are characterized by either slightly larger primary tumor than stage (I) (between 2 and 5 cm) or if there is lymph node involvement. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the United States, accounting for 1 of every 3 cancers diagnosed. (
  • In patients of any age with increased breast density, which may mask small cancers, additional tests such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), ultrasonography, nuclear medicine study, and MRI may be useful. (
  • About 77% of the respondents cited breast self-examination as a method of early detection of breast cancer. (
  • Early detection of breast cancer increases the chances of successful treatment and ultimately, survival. (
  • Early detection of breast cancer can increase the chance of survival. (
  • The breast contains several abnormalities, allowing women to practice all phases of breast examination. (
  • Many breast abnormalities turn out to be non-cancerous and non-harmful however, that does not mean a lump or an abnormality be left ignored. (
  • The Wearable Breast Ultrasound Examination Model allows users to develop and practice the skills necessary to gain proficiency in breast palpation, using ultrasound for normal and abnormal imaging. (
  • The 66fit Breast Examination Simulator model has been designed for teaching and practicing breast palpation techniques. (
  • Palpation and systematic feeling of your breasts, will give you a 'touch picture' of their normal structure and condition. (
  • In fact, women who do examine their breasts are subject to unnecessary anxiety and medical investigations when they discover benign lesions, or find a lump and fear the worst. (
  • A study from Shanghai, which involved 266,000 women, found that those who self-examine were as likely to die from breast cancer as women who do nothing. (
  • Always use your right hand to examine your left breast, and vice-versa. (
  • The method I find best is to plant my fingers on one area of the breast and, without lifting my fingers, examine that area for lumpiness or masses by pulling the breast in a circular motion with those fingers. (
  • If you frequently examine your breasts you will become more alert of how your breasts feel. (
  • Place a pillow or folded towel under your left shoulder and repeat the process, using your right hand to examine your left breast. (
  • The left breast permits ultrasound identification of cysts versus dense masses, while the right breast permits identification of cysts of different sizes and depths. (
  • Go for regular breast exams and ask about a thermography. (
  • Clinical breast exams by a health care provider at least every. (
  • Breast self-exams every month starting by age 20. (
  • Clinical Breast exams are an important part of early detection. (
  • Although most lumps are discovered through breast self-exams, a Clinical Breast Exam conducted by an expert may notice a suspicious area that may not have been noticed by the patient. (
  • Remember that while breast self-exams can be helpful, they should not replace regular clinical breast exams and mammograms performed by healthcare professionals. (
  • Breast self exams are an important part of detecting any changes in your breasts at a very early stage. (
  • Breast self exams are not fun activities, but they are not painful or overly complex either. (
  • Women who are particularly nervous about conducting a breast self exam should let their doctor know about their apprehension and seek advice about performing their own exams. (
  • Women should track the results of their breast self exams and report changes that last longer than one month to their doctor. (
  • Performing breast self exams is not usually an enjoyable activity for women, but they need not be a major concern either. (
  • Half-yearly clinical breast exams. (
  • The practice of Breast self-examination should commence once the woman has started menstruating. (
  • If you notice any change in your breast, visit a prime care specialist immediately or a breast specialist, who will perform a physical exam to assess the lump or a mass. (
  • A Clinical Breast Exam is a physical examination of the breasts and the underarm area by your breast surgeon. (
  • Breast self-examination can be taught during the physical assessment but films and group discussions help reinforce the importance and acceptability of this self-care responsibility. (
  • When breast cancer has grown to the point where physical signs and symptoms appear, the patient feels a breast lump (usually painless). (
  • Spirituality and physical health status: a longitudinal examination of reciprocal effects in breast cancer survivors. (
  • Physical examination - Methods. (
  • Breast Self-Exam (BSE) is a personal physical test, where women are required to palpate their breasts to check for lumps. (
  • In very slender women, the bony prominence of the chest wall may be mistaken for breast tumors, as may enlarged milk glands, fat tumors, lymph nodes, or benign cysts. (
  • Since mammograms can miss 10 to 15 percent of all cancer lumps, some of which are quite large, physician's examination is important to detect cancer. (
  • Breast Ultrasound Simulator has: Left and Right breasts attach to adult upper torso. (
  • Any palpable change should also have a breast ultrasound examination. (
  • Stage 4 means any metastatic breast cancer no matter what size the tumor or if there is nodal involvement or not. (
  • Techniques may vary from one medical professional to another, but essentially follow the principles of obtaining informed consent, inspecting and then palpating the breasts, followed by looking for nearby lymph nodes. (
  • While doing this, the physician's fingertips should roll underneath the pectoralis muscle to ensure the examination of the lymph nodes underneath that muscle high up in the axilla. (
  • Although many Breast Lumps are not cancerous, any Lump should be examined by a Health Professional. (
  • Stephen (2009) described breast cancer as "a malignant (cancerous) growth that begins in the tissues of the breast, cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells grow in an uncontrolled way" (p.1). (
  • 2002). Stage (I) breast cancer involves primarily small tumors (less than or equal to 2 cm) with no known lymph node involvement and no metastases to other organs, in Egypt few women present at this stage. (
  • stage (III) consists of large tumors (greater than 5 cm) with signs of inflammatory breast cancer, also if ipsilateral nodes are involved where the tumor has caused the node to be fixed to another node or to other structures it is designated stage (III), high percent of women present in this stage which treatment option are limited. (
  • Women who do not menstruate should perform Breast self-examination at any day of their choice, every month. (
  • Women after 40 and older should have a clinical breast exam every year. (
  • What Is a Clinical Breast Exam? (
  • Men who find a lump or a change in their breasts should also have a Clinical Breast Exam. (
  • The Clinical Breast Exam starts with your doctor looking at the breasts while you are seated or standing and then when you are lying down. (
  • You don't need to do anything special to prepare for a Clinical Breast Exam. (
  • Women who are uncertain of their results should ask their doctor to perform a clinical breast exam. (
  • To do this type of breast examination, check the entire breast area by moving your fingers in circles around the breast. (
  • As you circle around the breast area, move your fingers in small, coin-sized circles using different levels of pressure. (
  • Never compress your breast between thumb and fingers as this may cause you to feel a 'lump' that does not exist. (
  • Use the pads of the three middle fingers on your left hand to check your right breast. (
  • If a lump is felt in the breast, it should be sequestered between two fingers and evaluated for hardness, buoyancy, and mobility. (
  • The vertical strip pattern involves moving the fingers up and down over the entire breast. (
  • Place your right hand behind your head and use the pads of your left-hand fingers (not the fingertips) to feel your right breast. (
  • Using your left hand, feel your right breast using a circular motion with your fingers. (
  • Use your 3 or 4 fingers of your right hand to feel your left breast resolutely, carefully, and thoroughly. (
  • Beginning at the outer edge, press the left part of your fingers in small circles, moving the circles slowly around the breasts. (
  • Using the pads of two fingers, sweep over all of the breast first touching slightly and then more deeply. (
  • Using the health belief model to predict breast self-examination among Saudi women. (
  • Health beliefs, behaviour and determining factors in breast self - examination among a group of university students. (
  • Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model on Factors Associated with Breast Self-Examination among University Students. (
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated CBE accuracy among asymptomatic female health plan enrollees in five states (WA, OR, CA, MA, and MN) who received a CBE within 1 year of breast cancer diagnosis and who died of breast cancer within 15 years of diagnosis (N = 485). (
  • You can choose between three methods to cover the entire breast: circular, up-and-down, or wedge pattern. (
  • Practice of Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods among Women Living in Samsun, and Factors Associated with This Practice. (
  • Regular breast self-checks can keep you safe, and early detection of any symptoms mentioned below could save your life. (
  • Early identification of the symptoms of breast cancer is important in the effort to improve quality. (
  • This protocol describes the signs and symptoms of fibrocystic breast changes and provides information concerning conventional treatment, novel and emerging strategies, diet and lifestyle considerations, and integrative interventions. (
  • There are several actions women can take on their own that may help ease symptoms caused by fibrocystic breast changes and reduce the incidence of these conditions. (
  • Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for zeranol (26538443) at Manufacturing Chemists, Incorporated (SIC-2879, SIC- requested by the State Industrial Hygiene Compliance Section to assist in evaluating the occurrence of breast symptoms, weight gain, and gynecomastia in employees and their children. (
  • Exposed workers reported a higher, though statistically insignificant, prevalence of breast symptoms than comparisons. (
  • Whether a woman ever performs BSE, the importance of prompt reporting of any new breast symptoms to a health professional should be emphasized. (
  • There are six steps following for breast self-examination to detect breast cancer. (
  • The physician should first check for symmetry of the breasts, differences in size and shape, and ask the patient if any differences occurred recently. (
  • Look at your breasts to check for any changes in their size, shape, or symmetry. (
  • Model of a woman's breast made of 3B SKIN like silicone with simulated benign tumor for the demonstration of ultrasonic B-image mode with Ultrasonic Echoscope GS200. (
  • including the axillary tail or the part of breast that extends towards the armpit or axilla. (
  • If you notice any changes in your breasts during a self-exam, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation. (
  • What Happens if a Breast Abnormality is Found? (
  • The most common breast abnormality seen in a primary caregiver's office in children younger than 12 years is a unilateral breast mass corresponding to asymmetrical breast development. (
  • 2326 breast cancer patients of the Austrian Sentinel node study group who underwent SN biopsy and intraoperative FS examination of the SN were further analysed for incorrect negative results and clinicopathologic factors indicating a higher rate of incorrect negative results. (
  • Mrs A was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a full mastectomy on 28 February 2002. (
  • This soothing and comforting herbal balm is the perfect companion for regular breast and chest massage, which supports a healthy lymphatic system and circulation while it releases any stagnation. (
  • Apply liberally to the areas of the breast, chest, and heart. (
  • Massage is one of the very best things we can do for our breast and chest health-especially when practiced as a consistent self-care ritual. (
  • With that in mind, make your breast and chest massage a nurturing ritual, a time to deeply honor yourself and bask in your own compassion and self-love. (
  • The patient's arms should be over her head and, if the breasts are large and pendulous, one hand of the physician should hold the breast on top of the chest wall while the examination is being performed. (
  • The letter T is followed by a number from 0 to 4, which describes the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to the skin or chest wall under the breast. (
  • The best time to reform a Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is 2 or 3 days after the period ends when the breast is least likely to be tender or swollen. (
  • During menses, hormonal changes can affect the size and feel of the breasts, so the best time to conduct a BSE is few days after the monthly cycle ends as this is the time when breasts return to the normal state and are neither tender nor swollen. (
  • Next, raise your arms above your head and inspect your breasts again for the same changes. (
  • The inspection shall continue to the centre by the breast bone till the collar bone and at the sides, till the armpits. (
  • They're a great way to help create self-awareness and support people to be more comfortable and familiar with their own breasts. (
  • Being breast aware is part of general body awareness and learning how your breasts look and feel. (
  • October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (
  • I have made awareness for Breast Cancer in my local environment. (
  • Breast maturation can take place over a period as short as 18 months or as long as 9 years. (
  • 2002). The occurrence of breast cancer creates psychosocial stress for both the patient and her family, due to threat to the patient's life and other consequences of breast cancer such as metastasis to other body organs and parts. (
  • The nurse's responsibilities include teaching the importance of breast self-examination, demonstrating the examination, and evaluating the patient's ability to perform a return demonstration. (
  • Abbreviation: NBCCEDP, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. (
  • Though the majority of the respondents (95.3%) had information on breast cancer, nearly half of the respondents do not know its hereditary and curable disease if detected early. (
  • In the interim it is so important to familiarise yourself with your own breasts, any changes to the shape or texture, dips, lumps and leaks to help with early detection. (
  • The above changes can be an early sign of breast cancer. (
  • With such careful monitoring, any changes in the breasts will be caught early and should the need arise treatment for breast cancer or any other condition can begin early as well. (
  • Because of early detection, intervention, and postoperative treatment, breast cancer mortality has been decreasing. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women and early detection can play an important role in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. (
  • Early detection is the best way to fight Breast Cancer. (
  • BSE is an early detection method for breast can-cer. (
  • The determinants of early breast cancer detection via breast self-examination (BSE) in Denpasar, Bali. (
  • Pay special attention to the area between the breast and underarm including the underarm itself. (
  • Breast Neoplasms - Diagnosis - Malaysia. (
  • Start with your hands on your hips and look for anything that seems to be an unusual size, colour or shape and note if overall the breasts look swollen. (