Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Milk, HumanCystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Sweat Gland NeoplasmsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/42895)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/42895)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/42895)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (4/42895)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (5/42895)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (6/42895)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (7/42895)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (8/42895)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

*Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Erratum for "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms"". Science. 259 ( ... 1990). "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): ... Li F.P.; Fraumeni J.F. (October 1969). "Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". Ann. ... at least one first or second degree relative with an LFS tumour (except breast cancer if the proband has breast cancer) before ...

*Richard Margolese

Margolese, Richard G.; Fisher, Bernard; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Bloomer, William D. (2000). "Neoplasms of the Breast". Breast ... He was a principal investigator and member of the Executive Committee of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project, which, ... "Guideline 3: Mastectomy or lumpectomy? The choice of operation for clinical stages I and II breast cancer [Supplement, CMAJ - ... Richard Margolese: A warrior in the battle against breast cancer". jgh.ca. Retrieved 2015-06-23. " ...

*Nitrazepam

These were cancers of the brain, lung, bowel, breast, and bladder, and other neoplasms. Not only are benzodiazepines associated ... Breast feeding by mothers using nitrazepam is not recommended. Nitrazepam is a long-acting benzodiazepine with a risk of drug ... Nitrazepam rapidly crosses the placenta and is present in breast milk in high quantities. Therefore, benzodiazepines including ...

*Li-Fraumeni syndrome

link) Li F.P.; Fraumeni J.F. (October 1969). "Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". ... Erratum for "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms"". Science. 259 ( ... 1990). "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): ... except breast cancer if the proband has breast cancer) before age 56 years or with multiple tumours a proband with multiple ...

*Phyllodes tumor

They account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. Phyllodes tumors are a fibroepithelial tumor composed of an epithelial ... Breast Cancer Study Group of the Institut Curie (2011). "Management of Phyllodes Breast Tumors". The Breast Journal. 17 (2): ... Tan PH, Thike AA, Tan WJ, Thu MM, Busmanis I, Li H, Chay WY, Tan MH (2012). "Predicting clinical behaviour of breast phyllodes ... Radiation treatment after breast-conserving surgery with negative margins may significantly reduce the local recurrence rate ...

*Neoplasm

Breast cysts (as occur commonly during pregnancy and at other times) are another example, as are other encapsulated glandular ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The term 'neoplasm' is a synonym of "tumor". 'Neoplasia' denotes the process of the formation of neoplasms/tumors, the process ... "II Neoplasms". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2014.. *^ a b Abrams, Gerald. "Neoplasia I". Retrieved 23 January ...

*Gardner's syndrome

The incidence of mammary desmoid tumours is less than 0.2% of primary breast neoplasms. In Gardner's syndrome the incidence ... The extra-abdominal form is rare and desmoids of the breast may arise in the mammary gland or may occur as an extension of a ... Rammohan A, Wood JJ (2012). "Desmoid tumour of the breast as a manifestation of Gardner's syndrome". Int J Surg Case Rep. 3 (5 ... List of cutaneous conditions List of dental abnormalities associated with cutaneous conditions List of cutaneous neoplasms ...

*Leiomyoma

Fibromyoma of the breast is an extremely rare benign breast neoplasm. Most reports in literature mention a history of ... Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare and in particular leiomyomas of the gallbladder have been rarely reported, ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Radiologic Pathology Archives: Esophageal Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation Rachel B. Lewis, ... Accessed 2017-07-08 Radiologic Pathology Archives: Esophageal Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation Rachel B. Lewis, ...

*Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use

The cancers included cancer of the brain, lung, bowel, breast, and bladder, and other neoplasms. It has been hypothesised that ... A recent case-control study, however, found no link between use of benzodiazepines and cancers of the breast, lung, large bowel ... More specific case-control studies since 2000 have shown no link between benzodiazepine use and breast cancer. One study found ... Halapy E, Kreiger N, Cotterchio M, Sloan M (August 2006). "Benzodiazepines and risk for breast cancer". Ann Epidemiol. 16 (8): ...

*Frederick Pei Li

... breast carcinoma, and other neoplasms in young patients. Cancer developed in an autosomal dominant pattern in 151 blood ... "Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): 1233-8. ... These neoplasms also accounted for 73% of the multiple primary cancers occurring in 15 family members. Six of these patients ... Close relatives of a cancer patient are at increased risk of that neoplasm, and perhaps other forms of cancer. The excess site- ...

*Joseph F. Fraumeni Jr.

Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome? Ann Intern Med 1969:71:747-752. Li FP, Fraumeni ... Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms. Science 1990:250: 1233-1238.. ...

*Rhabdomyosarcoma

"Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): 1233-1238 ...

*PubMed

", "breast cancer" to "breast neoplasms". Where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically "expanded", that is, include ...

*PubMed

", "breast cancer" to "breast neoplasms". Where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically "expanded", that is, include ...

*Immunocontraception

... hCG was discovered to be expressed in certain kinds of malignant neoplasms, including breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of the ... Agnantis, NJ; F Patra; L Khaldi; S Filis (1992). "Immunohistochemical expression of subunit beta HCG in breast cancer". Eur J ...

*Seveso disaster

In 2009, an update including 5 more years (up to 1996) found an increase in "lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms" and ... increased breast cancer.[11]. The male children of mothers who were, during pregnancy of those children, exposed to high levels ...

*Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B

TTC39A has been tested for association to diseases like breast neoplasms and is expected to have molecular binding function and ... breast carcinoma, etc. There are five different transcript variants for the TTC39B gene. Isoform 1 is the longest transcript ...

*Metastatic breast cancer

breast cancer metastasis neoplasm chemotherapy Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Phyllodes tumour "Secondary (metastatic ... advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease ... Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015. Lee, YT (July 1983). "Breast carcinoma: pattern of metastasis at autopsy". Journal of Surgical ... Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently differ from the preceding primary breast cancer in properties such as receptor status ...

*List of MeSH codes (C04)

... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 --- spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 --- breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588. ... anal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.445 --- duodenal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.501 --- ileal neoplasms MeSH ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 --- skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 --- jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721. ... uveal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.364.978.223 --- choroid neoplasms MeSH C04.588.364.978.400 --- iris neoplasms MeSH C04.588.443.353 ...

*Saliva testing

... benign and metastatic neoplasms (such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and oral cancer), infectious conditions (such as HIV ... A 2000 study compared the salivary levels of a breast cancer marker (HER2/neu) in healthy women, women with benign breast ... compared saliva from breast cancer patients to that from healthy individuals and observed, notably, that breast cancer patients ... level of this marker was significantly higher in women with breast cancer than in healthy women and women with benign breast ...

*List of MeSH codes (C17)

... breast cyst MeSH C17.800.090.500 --- breast neoplasms MeSH C17.800.090.500.260 --- breast neoplasms, male MeSH C17.800.090.500. ... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C17.800.882.743 --- sweat gland neoplasms MeSH C17.800.893.592 --- leg ulcer MeSH C17.800. ... 390 --- carcinoma, ductal, breast MeSH C17.800.090.500.762 --- phyllodes tumor MeSH C17.800.090.750 --- fibrocystic breast ... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C17.800.804.066 --- acrodermatitis MeSH C17.800.804.150 --- dyskeratosis congenita MeSH C17.800. ...

*Methotrexate

A study of 93 patients with incurable neoplasms". J Natl Med Assoc. 43 (4): 211-240. PMC 2616951. PMID 14850976.. ... In 1951, Jane C. Wright demonstrated the use of methotrexate in solid tumors, showing remission in breast cancer.[35] Wright's ... It is effective for the treatment of a number of cancers, including: breast, head and neck, leukemia, lymphoma, lung, ... Types of cancers it is used for include breast cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, lymphoma, and osteosarcoma.[1] Types of ...

*TMEM229B

B-cell neoplasm, breast carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, ...

*Breast disease

A breast neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue in the breast as a result of neoplasia. A breast neoplasm may be benign, as in ... Breast Self Examination at The Breast Site Seven things you should know about breast cancer risk Harvard College. Last updated ... Either case commonly presents as a breast lump. Approximately 7% of breast lumps are fibroadenomas and 10% are breast cancer, ... tuberculosis of the breast syphilis of the breast retromammary abscess actinomycosis of the breast duct ectasia syndrome breast ...

*Breast augmentation

... neoplasm) in the fat-augmented breasts. Moreover, given the sensitive, biologic nature of breast tissue, periodic MRI and 3-D ... The augmented breast The woman with breast implants is able to breast-feed her infant; yet breast implant devices occasionally ... breast reduction, breast reconstruction, and liposuction of the breast. Nonetheless, detecting breast cancer is primary, and ... In post-mastectomy breast reconstruction, the grafted fat is used to create a breast mound, by augmenting the extant breast ...

*Male breast cancer

... (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast ... Breast cancer in males spreads via lymphatics and blood stream like female breast cancer. Accordingly, the TNM staging system ... "Breast Cancer in Men". Cancer Research UK. 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-14. "Breast Cancer in Men" (PDF). American Cancer Society. ... Male BRCA mutation carriers are thought to be at higher risk for breast cancer as well, with roughly 10% of male breast cancer ...

*Brain tumor

Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in CT or MRI results. ... breast cancer, malignant melanoma, kidney cancer, and colon cancer (in decreasing order of frequency). ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... "CNS and Miscellaneous Intracranial and Intraspinal Neoplasms" (PDF). SEER Pediatric Monograph. National Cancer Institute. pp. ...

*Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Puttaparthi

Acquired conditions include, contractures due to burns, accidents, snake bites and infective conditions and neoplasms - benign ... and malignant especially in the face, breast etc. The department has 3 modular operation theaters. An 8-bedded post-operative ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as docetaxel, fluorouracil, epirubicin hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. It is not yet known whether giving combination chemotherapy together with or without bevacizumab is more effective in treating patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well giving combination chemotherapy works compared with giving combination chemotherapy together with bevacizumab in treating patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicycle dose-intensive chemotherapy for women with high-risk primary breast cancer. T2 - Results of International Breast Cancer Study Group trial 15-95. AU - Basser, Russell L.. AU - ONeil, Anne. AU - Martinelli, Giovanni. AU - Green, Michael D.. AU - Peccatori, Fedro. AU - Cinieri, Severio. AU - Caotes, Alan S.. AU - Gelber, Richard D.. AU - Aebi, Stefan. AU - Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica. AU - Viale, Guiseppe. AU - Price, Karen N.. AU - Goldhirsch, Aron. PY - 2006/1/20. Y1 - 2006/1/20. N2 - Purpose: To compare adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) with standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with early-stage breast cancer and a high risk of relapse, defined as stage II disease with 10 or more positive axillary nodes; or an estrogen receptor-negative or stage III tumor with five or more positive axillary nodes. Patients and Methods: Three hundred ...
Background: Young breast cancer occupies a higher and higher proportion of breast cancer, especially in Asia, and is associated with a more unfavorable prognosis compared with the disease arising in older women. However, the poor prognosis of young breast cancer cannot be fully explained by the clinical and molecular factors. Methods: This study investigated 1125 Chinese breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2009 to 2013. A data mining of gene expression profiles was performed for the young and older breast cancer patients, identifying significantly differentially expressed genes. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay were carried out for the clinical sample validations. Results: The investigation firstly displayed that young patients (≤45 years) accounted for 47.6 % (535/1125) of breast cancer, and clinically associated with some unfavorable factors related to poor prognosis, such as invasive pathological type, high tumor grade, lymph node positive, ER ...
Clinical trial for Stage IB Breast Cancer | Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer | Stage II Breast Cancer | Triple Negative Breast Cancer | Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer | Stage IA Breast Cancer , MRI and Mammography Before Surgery in Patients With Stage I-II Breast Cancer
How long do people usually live with untreated breast cancer - How long do people usually live with untreated breast cancer? Variable. This is highly dependent on the cancer type and stage of presentation. Some aggressive forms of cancer may take over vital organs within months; other breast cancers may rarely spread to other organs and may be indolent for years and years. What remains true is that there is no benefit of "watchful waiting" when it comes to breast cancer: all else being equal, early diagnosis can save lives.
Title:Stemness Phenotype in Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Cancer Cells May be Induced by Interactions Between Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and ERα-66. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Leila Farahmand, Sepideh Mansouri, Narges Jafarbeik-Iravani, Azin Teymourzadeh and Keivan Majidzadeh-A*. Affiliation:Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Genetics Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran. Keywords:Alternative growth cascades, breast cancer, receptor tyrosine kinases, signaling pathways, stemness phenotype, tamoxifen resistance.. Abstract:Background: Tamoxifen is widely administered ...
Despite progress in the management of breast cancer, the molecular underpinnings of clinically aggressive subtypes of the disease are not well-understood. Here, we show that activation of Notch developmental signaling in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells results in direct transcriptional up-regulation of the apoptosis inhibitor and cell cycle regulator survivin. This response is associated with increased expression of survivin at mitosis, enhanced cell proliferation, and heightened viability at cell division. Conversely, targeting Notch signaling with a peptidyl gamma-secretase inhibitor suppressed survivin levels, induced apoptosis, abolished colony formation in soft agar, and inhibited localized and metastatic tumor growth in mice, without organ or systemic toxicity. In contrast, ER+ breast cancer cells, or various normal cell types, were insensitive to Notch stimulation. Therefore, ER- breast cancer cells become dependent on Notch-survivin signaling for their maintenance, in vivo.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Competing Risk of Death in Elderly Patients with Newly Diagnosed Stage I Breast Cancer. AU - Wasif, Nabil. AU - Neville, Matthew. AU - Gray, Richard. AU - Cronin, Patricia. AU - Pockaj, Barbara A. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: The majority of newly diagnosed breast cancers in the US are in women aged older than 65 years who can have additional comorbidities. Balancing the risks and benefits of treatment should take into account these competing risks of death. Study Design: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program-Medicare database was used to identify women with stage I breast cancer undergoing operations from 2004-2012. Using neural network analysis, comorbidities associated with mortality were grouped into clinically relevant categories. Cumulative incidence graphs and Fine and Gray competing risk regression analyses were used to study the association of age, race, comorbidity groupings, and tumor variables with 3 competing mortality outcomes: ...
Gene expression profiles of multiple breast cancer phenotypes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
The Ets-1 transcription factor is a candidate breast cancer oncogene that regulates the expression of genes involved in tumor progression and metastasis. Ets-1 signaling has also been linked to the development of a basal-like breast cancer phenotype. We recently described a nitric oxide (NO)-induced gene signature that is associated with poor disease outcome in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer and contains both stem cell-like and basal-like components. Thus, we examined the role of Ets-1 in NO signaling and NO-induced phenotypes in ER- human breast cancer cells. Promoter region analyses were performed on genes upregulated in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) high expressing tumors for Ets-binding sites. In vitro mechanisms were examined in human basal-like breast cancer cells lines. NO signaling effects were studied using either forced NOS2 expression or the use of a chemical NO-donor, diethlylenetriamine NONOate (DETANO). Promoter region analysis of genes that are up-regulated in
Breast cancer management takes different approaches depending on physical and biological characteristics of the disease, as well as the age, over-all health and personal preferences of the patient. Treatment types can be classified into local therapy (surgery and radiotherapy) and systemic treatment (chemo-, endocrine, and targeted therapies). Local therapy is most efficacious in early stage breast cancer, while systemic therapy is generally justified in advanced and metastatic disease, or in diseases with specific phenotypes. Historically, breast cancer was treated with radical surgery alone. Advances in the understanding of the natural course of breast cancer as well as the development of systemic therapies allowed for the use of breast-conserving surgeries, however, the nomenclature of viewing non-surgical management from the viewpoint of the definitive surgery lends to two adjectives connected with treatment timelines: adjuvant (after surgery) and neoadjuvant (before surgery). The mainstay ...
Breast cancer is considered as a fatal disease and it is known to be the number one cause of cancer fatality in women. According to American cancer society, an estimated 1.3 million new breast cancer instances are detected every year which includes 465,000 deaths. In order to productively tackle this devastating disease, we must push innovative scientists to research cancer at its most basic stage. In other words, breast cancer research work should be done at its molecular stage. Also, besides the governments, private organizations must offer flexible budget to scientists who will be doing breast cancer research work.. Proper financial support of breast cancer investigation projects; can not only lead to better prevention methods but it can also assist towards earlier detection techniques and new anticancer drugs and cure.. Not so long ago, scientists who are working towards breast cancer research project, have created and successfully tested a breast cancer vaccine which is possibly to cure ...
Purpose: Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. However, very little is known about how other breast cancer risk factors may modify the association between breast density and breast cancer. We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors.. Methods: This study included 1,044 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computer-assisted methods. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires completed before the date of the cancer diagnosis for cancer cases and their matched controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to describe the association between breast density measures and breast cancer risk. The risk estimates were presented as odds ratios ...
Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes. As knowledge of cancer cell biology develops these classifications are updated. The purpose of classification is to select the best treatment. The effectiveness of a specific treatment is demonstrated for a specific breast cancer (usually by randomized, controlled trials). That treatment may not be effective in a different breast cancer. Some breast cancers are aggressive and life-threatening, and must be treated with aggressive treatments that have major adverse effects. Other breast cancers are less aggressive and can be treated with less aggressive treatments, such as lumpectomy. Treatment algorithms rely on breast cancer classification to define specific subgroups that are each treated according to the best ...
Fertility and pregnancy issues are of key importance for young breast cancer patients. Despite several advances in the field, there are still multiple unmet needs and barriers in discussing and dealing with these concerns. To address the significant challenges related to fertility and pregnancy issues, the PREgnancy and FERtility (PREFER) study was developed as a national comprehensive program aiming to optimize care and improve knowledge around these topics. The PREFER study is a prospective cohort study conducted across several Italian institution affiliated with the Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) group evaluating patterns of care and clinical outcomes of young breast cancer patients dealing with fertility and pregnancy issues. It is composed of two distinctive studies: PREFER-FERTILITY and PREFER-PREGNANCY. The PREFER-FERTILITY study is enrolling premenopausal patients aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer, who are candidates to (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and not previously
The Hormonal therapy resistant estrogen-receptor positive metastatic breast cancer cohort (HORSE-BC) study is a multicenter observational study evaluating the efficacy and safety of secondary endocrine therapy (ET) for postmenopausal cases of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with poor response to primary ET. In this initial report we analyze the HORSE-BC baseline data to clarify the current status of treatment selection for MBC in Japan. Baseline data for the 50 patients enrolled in HORSE-BC were analyzed, including patient characteristics, types of secondary ET, and reasons for selecting secondary ET. Postoperative recurrence was detected in 84% of patients (42/50) and de novo stage IV breast cancer in 16% (8/50). Forty-one patients (41/50; 82%) received fulvestrant, 5 patients (10%) received selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), 3 patients (6%) received ET plus a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, and 1 patient received an aromatase inhibitor (AI) as the secondary ET. ...
Tongshu Capsule Down-Regulates the Expression of Estrogen Receptor α and Suppresses Human Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
More than two million American women are breast cancer survivors. Approximately one-third of these women are premenopausal at diagnosis and face issues related to reproduction as they undergo cancer treatment. Ovarian function after breast cancer diagnosis has implications on breast cancer prognosis, choice of adjuvant therapy and reproductive issues such as desire for fertility or concerns about menopause. Therefore, tools to accurately predict ovarian function in breast cancer survivors could significantly impact physicians and patients in counseling, medical and surgical treatment choices, and consideration of fertility preservation options.. The goal of this proposal is to identify pre-chemotherapy hormonal, genetic and ovarian imaging markers that can predict ovarian failure and characterize the course of ovarian function after chemotherapy. The investigators plan to follow a group of young women from breast cancer diagnosis to five years after chemotherapy. The investigators will study the ...
Even luminal A tumors - normally considered the easiest breast cancer tumors for doctors to eradicate and for the patient to survive - can still cause death a decade after they are found through cancer marker lab testing.. These findings, appearing in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, were compiled over the course of 21 years of monitoring 1,000 breast cancer patients at Kaiser Permanente Southern California.. "It is important to consider breast cancer molecular subtypes in determining the optimal treatment for women with breast cancer. Women with luminal A tumors - the least aggressive but most common cancerous breast tumor - could benefit from extended treatment," said Reina Haque, lead study author from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research and Evaluation.. Nonetheless, breast cancer patients have a high likelihood of surviving luminal A tumors, compared to the four other types of breast cancer listed by the Kaiser researchers. The Centers ...
Kellie Martens, M.A., a doctoral student at the University of Colorado Denver, works with Dr. Kristin Kilbourn in the field of psycho-oncology. She is interested in learning what influences quality of life in young breast cancer survivors, with the intention of designing support groups or ways of screening that might make adjusting to a breast cancer diagnosis less difficult for young women. Please refer to the flyers (below) for more information. Its easy to participate, as women must only complete an on-line survey (IRB approved). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of triple-negative breast cancers within the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial 22-00. AU - Munzone, Elisabetta. AU - Gray, Kathryn P.. AU - Fumagalli, Caterina. AU - Guerini-Rocco, Elena. AU - Láng, István. AU - Ruhstaller, Thomas. AU - Gianni, Lorenzo. AU - Kammler, Roswitha. AU - Viale, Giuseppe. AU - Di Leo, Angelo. AU - Coates, Alan S.. AU - Gelber, Richard D.. AU - Regan, Meredith M.. AU - Goldhirsch, Aron. AU - Barberis, Massimo. AU - Colleoni, Marco. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Purpose: We investigated the occurrence and the prognostic and predictive relationship of a selected number of somatic mutations in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients having known clinical outcomes treated within the IBCSG Trial 22-00. Methods: A matched case-control sampling selected patients enrolled in the IBCSG Trial 22-00 who had TNBC tumors, based on local assessment. Cases had invasive breast cancer recurrence (at local, regional, or ...
BioAssay record AID 103718 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro cytotoxicity against human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 at 8.1*10e-5M.
We undertook this study to determine whether women with increased breast density had a greater likelihood of developing invasive breast cancer following lumpectomy for DCIS when compared to women with lower breast density, adjusting for age and radiation treatment. Our findings support the only previous report examining the association between breast density and DCIS recurrence, which suggested that the rate of second breast events following a diagnosis of DCIS may be increased in women with high breast density (33). In this previous study, breast density was measured as a continuous variable which was then categorized into four breast density groups. The number or events was comparable to the current study, with 91 ipsilateral events and 28 contralateral events. When compared with the lowest density group (,25% dense), the highest density group (≥75% dense) had an adjusted relative risk of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.2-8.5] for any invasive cancer. In comparison, although we ...
Additional breast cancers found with MRI are sometimes larger and potentially more aggressive than those found on mammography, and in some cases, may necessitate a change in treatment plan.
...Many breast cancer patients are treated with a drug called tamoxifen. ... Resistances to drugs are the main reason why therapies fail and disea...By treating breast cancer cells in vitro with regular doses of tamoxif...If microRNA 375 levels are low breast cancer cells increase the produ...,MicroRNA,controls,malignancy,and,resistance,of,breast,cancer,cells,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reclaiming life on ones own terms. T2 - A grounded theory study of the process of breast cancer survivorship. AU - Sherman, Deborah Witt. AU - Rosedale, Mary. AU - Haber, Judith. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Purpose/Objectives: To develop a substantive theory of the process of breast cancer survivorship. Research Approach: Grounded theory. Setting: A LISTSERV announcement posted on the SHARE Web site and purposeful recruitment of women known to be diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Participants: 15 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methodologic Approach: Constant comparative analysis. Main Research Variables: Breast cancer survivorship. Findings: The core variable identified was Reclaiming Life on Ones Own Terms. The perceptions and experiences of the participants revealed overall that the diagnosis of breast cancer was a turning point in life and the stimulus for change. That was followed by the recognition of breast cancer as now being a part of life, ...
Health, ...A gene target for drug resistance a triple-drug cocktail for triple n...SIMPLE FINGERTIP TEST MAY IDENTIFY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AT RISK FOR ...CTS most often associated with computer keyboard typing is caused by...For the study researchers gathered and analyzed information on 104 wo...,Simple,fingertip,test,may,identify,breast,cancer,patients,at,risk,for,carpal,tunnel,syndrome,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Tamoxifen reduces recurrence risk among women treated for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Its effectiveness partly depends on metabolic activation via cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Some medications compromise CYP2D6 activity and may lower plasma concentrations of active tamoxifen metabolites. We studied the association between concurrent use of tamoxifen and CYP2D6-inhibiting medications and breast cancer recurrence among Danish women diagnosed with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Using the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, we identified 366 cases with local or distant breast cancer recurrence and 366 matched breast cancer controls. We ascertained concurrent prescription of CYP2D6-inhibiting medications during tamoxifen treatment by linking to the national prescription database covering all Danish pharmacies. We computed the breast cancer recurrence odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval for each medication. The pooled recurrence OR was null ...
Background The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether progesteron receptor (PgR) status have an influence on the prognosis of estrogen receptor positive (ER+)/HER2-negative breast carcinoma (BC).. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 1680 operable BC patients (pts) diagnosed between 1996 and 2011 and 456 of whom ER,PgR and HER2 status known were included in this study. Patients were categorized into 2 groups; as group A (ER + /PgR-/HER2-negative) and group B (ER + /PgR + /HER2-negative). Twenty one percent (97 pts) of the pts were in group A.. Results Median follow up was 33.5 (0-177) months. Median age was 54 (21-90) years. Sixty-one percent (278) of the pts had node-positive BC. Sixty percent (276) of the pts were postmenopausal. Eighty percent (365) of the pts received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT). Adjuvant hormonotherapy (AHT) was recommended to nearly all patients (mostly tamoxifen). Pts in group A had significantly higher lymph node positive disease as ...
Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with a unique set of epidemiologic and genetic risk factors. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of TN breast cancer (stage 1: 1529 TN cases, 3399 controls; stage 2: 2148 cases, 1309 controls) to identify loci that influence TN breast cancer risk. Variants in the 19p13.1 and PTHLH loci showed genome-wide significant associations (P , 5 × 10(-) (8)) in stage 1 and 2 combined. Results also suggested a substantial enrichment of significantly associated variants among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed in stage 2. Variants from 25 of 74 known breast cancer susceptibility loci were also associated with risk of TN breast cancer (P , 0.05). Associations with TN breast cancer were confirmed for 10 loci (LGR6, MDM4, CASP8, 2q35, 2p24.1, TERT-rs10069690, ESR1, TOX3, 19p13.1, RALY), and we identified associations with TN breast cancer for 15 additional breast cancer loci (P , 0.05: ...
Introduction: Identification of gene expression-based breast cancer subtypes is considered a critical means of prognostication. Genetic mutations along with epigenetic alterations contribute to gene-expression changes occurring in breast cancer. So far, these epigenetic contributions to sporadic breast cancer subtypes have not been well characterized, and only a limited understanding exists of the epigenetic mechanisms affected in those particular breast cancer subtypes. The present study was undertaken to dissect the breast cancer methylome and to deliver specific epigenotypes associated with particular breast cancer subtypes. Methods: By using a microarray approach, we analyzed DNA methylation in regulatory regions of 806 cancer-related genes in 28 breast cancer paired samples. We subsequently performed substantial technical and biologic validation by pyrosequencing, investigating the top qualifying 19 CpG regions in independent cohorts encompassing 47 basal-like, 44 ERBB2+ overexpressing, 48 ...
Background: We aimed to estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk and to test whether overweight and obesity modifies this association. Methods: We included in the analysis 45,233 women enrolled in the Swedish Womens Lifestyle and Health study between 1991 and 1992. Participants were followed for occurrence of breast cancer and death until December 2009. Poisson regression models were used, and analyses were done for overall breast cancer and for estrogen receptor positive or negative (ER+, ER-) and progesterone receptor positive and negative (PR+, PR-) tumors separately. Results: A total of 1,385 breast cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up period. Overall, we found no statistically significant association between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk after adjustment for confounding, with an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.98-1.04) for an increment in alcohol consumption of 5 g/day. A statistically significant elevated breast cancer risk ...
Treatment of MCF 7 human breast cancer cells with three high affinity hydroxylated antiestrogens (Kd for the estrogen receptor = 0.11-0.45 nM) resulted in biphasic inhibition of cell growth. Administration of 0.1-1.0 nM of each drug caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cell number to a maximum of 30-40% of control but no further change was observed as the drug concentration was increased to 1 microM. Between 1.0 and 10 microM, however, a further concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation was observed. Among these compounds relative potencies paralleled their affinities for estrogen receptor in the 0.1-10 nM range but at micromolar concentrations this relationship did not hold. It is concluded that antiestrogens inhibit cell proliferation by two distinct mechanisms one of which involves the estrogen receptor and the other a mechanism yet to be defined. The parallel changes in cell cycle kinetic parameters accompanying growth inhibition in both concentration ranges i.e. accumulation of
If you are a woman and have been using any type of hormones to ease menopause symptoms, you could be upping breast cancer risk. Recent research shows that the use of these hormones over a long period of time ignites a minor increase in breast cancer risk.. Tracking the health of nearly 60,000 nurses, the recent study found that 10 years or more of hormone use was enough to raise breast cancer risk, although it is recommended that the lowest dose possible be used for the shortest amount of time possible. The research is surprising to many as some women who were taking estrogen alone were thought to have a decreased chance of developing breast cancer. And it is already known that taking pills combining estrogen and progestin - the most common type of hormone therapy - can increase breast cancer risk.. ...
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a free web-based tool which predicts 10-year breast cancer outcomes and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer. As its prognostic performance has only been validated in high income Caucasian populations, we validated the model in a middle income Asian setting. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors. METHODS: Within the University Malaya Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, all 631 women who were surgically treated for invasive non-metastatic breast cancer between 1993 and 2000 were identified. The discriminative performance of Adjuvant! Online was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Calibration of the model was evaluated by comparing predicted 10-year overall survival with observed 10-year survival. FINDINGS: Adjuvant! Online was fairly capable in discriminating between good and poor survivors, as attested by ...
Breast cancer patients and survivors have an increased risk of developing melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Research has shown genetics may play a role for women carrying a specific breast cancer susceptibility gene; the presence of abnormalities in the gene doubles the risk of melanoma.. The Skin Cancer Foundation recommends the following skin cancer prevention tips for breast cancer patients and survivors:. Beware of photosensitivity. Photosensitivity is an increased sensitivity or abnormal response of the skin to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet (UV) light; it can be caused by certain medical conditions and treatments. People with photosensitivity are at increased risk of developing skin cancers, and should be especially careful to seek shade and stay out of direct sunlight; wear sun-protective clothing, including wide-brimmed hats and UV-blocking sunglasses; and apply a broad-spectrum (UVA/UVB protection) sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher.. Be screened. People at high risk of ...
The study*, published in the British Journal of Cancer** today (Wednesday) looked at the risks of breast and other cancers for the relatives of young women diagnosed with the disease.. Scientists studied the 2200 parents and siblings of 500 women with breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 35 who had been tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations***.. After excluding families with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, scientists found that the relatives not only faced an increased risk of breast cancer, but also of prostate, lung, brain and urinary cancers.. This could potentially reflect the presence and effects of other undiscovered gene disorders causing disease in these young women and perhaps other cancers in their families.****. In the 1990s Cancer Research UK scientists led the world in tracking down the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.. Since then they have discovered many other genes involved in breast cancer and their ongoing research will help to identify and advise those women at greatest ...
Gene expression profiling has taught us a great deal about the progression of fully-developed invasive breast cancer, and our study used this approach as a starting point to learn more about the progression of DCIS to invasive breast cancer. We are aware of at least 9 previous studies comparing expression between DCIS and invasive breast cancer, publishing results that can be compared with ours (8-16, 30). Collectively, these studies included 130 cases of DCIS and 126 of invasive breast cancer, which pales in comparison to previous expression profiling studies of invasive breast cancer alone involving thousands of cases. Our study increases the number of samples comparing DCIS to invasive breast cancer by about 50%, which is a helpful contribution given the relatively small numbers of cases overall addressing this important question.. A proportion of samples from this (17%) and the previous (37%) studies were paired DCIS and invasive breast cancer from the same breasts, which may not be the ...
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+),n= 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by ...
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+),n= 1,598], matched 1:1 to controls. Women were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Serum sRANKL was quantified using an ELISA, serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Associations between sRANKL and breast cancer risk differed by ...
Background Staging investigations for metastatic disease are not recommended for asymptomatic patients with early breast cancer. However, it is relatively common practice to perform staging in patients who are heavily node positive (4 or more nodes involved). This study explored the benefit of routine investigations in this patient group.. Methodology All patients operated in Castle Hill Hospital, Hull, UK between January 2005 and December 2011 for early breast cancer and found to have 4 or more nodes involved on pathological assessment were identified. Staging investigations, consisting of CT chest, abdomen and pelvis and isotope bone scan, were reviewed. The need for additional investigations was recorded.. Results A total of 231 patients were identified. 59 patients were excluded as no staging investigations were performed. In the remaining 172 patients staging investigations were positive in 12% (21/172). An additional 17% (29/172) required further investigations for equivocal scans and were ...
A new breast cancer risk model that combines histologic features of biopsied breast tissue from women with benign breast disease and individual patient demographic information more accurately classified breast cancer risk.
This project is designed to investigate the possible role of apoptosis as a mode of cell death in irradiated and tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cells and to study the potential for using these manipulations to enhance cell killing and, thus, improve radiation therapy of breast cancer. To date, six human breast cancer cell lines and nine human non-breast cancer lines have been treated in vitro with ionizing radiation or tamoxifen, and the ability of the cells to undergo apoptosis has been evaluated using gel electrophoresis. None of the breast lines and only three of the other lines show radiation-induced apoptosis with this assay. Expression of p53 and bcl-2 has been investigated in most of the lines. Studies with four breast cancer lines have shown that high dose tamoxifen or estradiol slows growth or causes cell death, and in the two lines studied to date this treatment increases radiation sensitivity. These data suggest that breast cancer cells may contain strong anti-apoptotic mechanisms or have
Amino-bisphosphonates and statins inhibit the mevalonate pathway, and may exert anti-tumor effects. The Wnt inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) promotes osteolytic bone lesions by inhibiting osteoblast functions and has been implicated as an adverse marker in multiple cancers. We assessed the effects of mevalonate pathway inhibition on DKK-1 expression in osteotropic breast cancer. Regulation of DKK-1 by bisphosphonates and statins was assessed in human breast cancer cell lines, and the role of the mevalonate pathway and downstream targets was analyzed. Moreover, the potential of breast cancer cells to modulate osteoblastogenesis via DKK-1 was studied in mC2C12 cells. Clinical relevance was validated by analyzing DKK-1 expression in the tissue and serum of women with breast cancer exposed to bisphosphonates. DKK-1 was highly expressed in receptor-negative breast cancer cell lines. Patients with receptor-negative tumors displayed elevated levels of DKK-1 at the tissue and serum level compared to healthy
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human papillomavirus DNA is present in a subset of unselected breast cancers. AU - Liu, Yong. AU - Klimberg, Vicki. AU - Andrews, Nancy R.. AU - Hicks, Carla R.. AU - Peng, Hui. AU - Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio. AU - Henry-Tillman, Ronda. AU - Hermonat, Paul L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objective: The major molecular events in the genesis of most breast cancers are unknown. However, human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been reported to be found in a significant portion of breast cancers of women with concomitant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III. To investigate a potential HPV-breast cancer link, we carried out a small survey to identify HPV in unselected, general breast cancer tissues. Study Design/Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 17 breast cancer tissues (and one cervical swab) taken from our local, randomly selected patient population. Two different previously characterized broad-spectrum primer sets (targeting the E6/E7 or L1 regions) were used to ...
We showed in this study that texture analysis could discriminate luminal A and luminal B types of ductal carcinomas. In this study we combined TA and tumour volumetric analysis in studying if we can differentiate the two ER positive cancers; luminal A and luminal B types. Malignant tumours possess more heterogeneous tissue architecture [35] and therefore might reflect a wider and more heterogeneous range of pixel values in MR images. Our hypothesis was that more aggressive cancers might also present greater degree of textural heterogeneity in the MR images.. Several calculated texture features from T1-weighted precontrast images were significantly different (p , 0.05) between luminal A and B types. Significantly differing features in our study; angular second moment, contrast, correlation, sum variance, sum entropy, difference variance and difference entropy are all one way or another, measures of heterogeneous textural appearance. According to our study luminal B type cancer have in fact more ...
Mastectomy is unnecessary in many women with stage IV breast cancer, according to a study from Indian investigators, reported at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.1. The study randomly assigned 350 patients with metastatic breast cancer to mastectomy, complete axillary dissection, plus radiation therapy, vs no locoregional treatment, and found that the nonsurgical group had no worse survival than those who underwent mastectomy.. "The clinical conclusion would be that locoregional treatment of the primary tumor in women presenting with metastatic breast cancer did not result in any overall survival benefit, and hence should not be offered as a routine practice, but should be restricted as an option for palliation," according to Rajendra A. Badwe, MD, Director of the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai.. All patients received anthracyclines, with or without taxanes, and were stratified by metastatic site, number of metastases, and hormone receptor status, then randomized to either ...
In an adjuvant breast cancer trial conducted more than 20 years ago, older patients were randomized to treatment with tamoxifen and prednisone or no adjuvant therapy. Now, at 21 years of follow-up, it is clear that disease-free and overall survival remain better for those who received treatment.
(PRN) Quest Diagnostics Launches Test to Help Oncologists Predict Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence in Women with Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive, Lymph Node- Negative Cancers IL17BR, to help physicians predict the risk of disease recurrence in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, lymph node-negative breast cancer. Quest Diagnostics is the first company to develop a breast cancer recurrence test based on licensed gene-expression profiling technology from AviaraDx Inc., a molecular cancer profiling company located in Carlsbad, California. Launched at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, December 14 - 17, 2006, the Breast Cancer Gene Expression Ratio is based on the ratio of the expression of two genes: the homeobox gene-B13 (HOXB13) and the interleukin- 17B receptor gene (IL17BR). The clinical value of the Breast Cancer Gene Expression Ratio also is supported by a study published earlier this year in Clinical Cancer Research(2). According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), more than 210
CancerConnect News: The CDK4/6 inhibitor Kisqali (ribociclib) has been given breakthrough status by the US Food and Drug Administration as an initial endocrine-based treatment for of pre- or perimenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced or metastatic breast cancer in combination with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor.. Results from the Phase III MONALEESA-7 trial evaluating Kisqali® in combination endocrine-based therapy in premenopausal or perimenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced or metastatic breast cancer are the basis for the breakthrough status designation.1. About Kisqali® Kisqali is a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-this class of drugs helps slow the progression of cancer by inhibiting two proteins called cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6). These proteins, when over-activated, can enable cancer cells to grow ...
The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS ...
Changes in estrogen metabolism could be one way physical activity lowers breast cancer risk, according to research published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention.
The final results are in-and they show that 500 mg of Faslodex® (fulvestrant) provides a significant advantage in overall survival compared to 250 mg of the drug in postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer recurring or progressing after prior endocrine therapy. The results were published online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. Each year roughly 200,000 U.S. women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Many of these breast cancers will be hormone receptor-positive, meaning that they are stimulated to grow by the circulating female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. Treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer often involves hormonal therapies that suppress or block the action of estrogen.. Faslodex-a type of hormonal therapy known as an estrogen receptor antagonist-blocks the actions of estrogen. Its used for the treatment of metastatic, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who experience ...
Data from additional years of follow-up of a large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer confirm that the drug reduces the risk of invasive and noninvasive breast cancer, according to a report that appears in the current issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Herceptin® (trastuzumab) monoclonal antibody cancer therapy information for healthcare professionals, for the treatment of HER2+ adjuvant breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer treatment and metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer treatment. INDICATIONS: Adjuvant Breast Cancer Herceptin is indicated for adjuvant treatment of HER2-overexpressing node-positive or node-negative (ER/PR-negative or with one high-risk feature*) breast cancer: As part of a treatment regimen containing doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and either paclitaxel or docetaxel With docetaxel and carboplatin As a single agent following multi-modality anthracycline-based therapy Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Herceptin *High-risk is defined as ER/PR-positive with one of the following features: tumor size >2 cm, age <35 years, or tumor grade 2 or 3. Metastatic Breast Cancer Herceptin is indicated: In combination with paclitaxel for the first line treatment of HER2
Fremont, CA (PRWEB) January 10, 2014 -- In a recent study, researchers from the Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC) found that the biological
The 21-gene recurrence score significantly predicted the risk of recurrence and death in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive patients treated with adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy, but it did not predict benefit from the addition of paclitaxel to the regimen in a subset of patients from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-28 trial,1 according to Eleftherios (Terry) P. Mamounas, MD, MPH, FACS, Professor of Surgery at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Medical Director of the Comprehensive Breast Program at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Orlando, Florida, and Chairman of the Breast Committee of the NSABP Operations and Biostatistical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.. Study Goals. The goal of this substudy was to evaluate the recurrence score as a predictor of the risk of local-regional recurrence in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to evaluate ...
BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes are well-established breast cancer susceptibility genes. A large number of variants in these genes has been reported, including variants with clearly deleterious effects and variants with unknown significance on breast cancer risk. Classification of such unclassified variants (UVs) is an area of growing interest, but no study has systematically assessed whether the various classification methods are biologically meaningful. Further, given that not all BRCA1/2 deleterious mutation carriers develop breast cancer, environmental modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers need to be identified. In this dissertation, I present results from a population-based case-control study of young breast cancer patients to investigate these issues.; In my first paper, I used sequencing data of BRCA1/2 genes in 1,469 breast cancer patients. There were 262 distinct BRCA1/2 variants, including 147 UVs. Application of various methods to classify each variant showed ...
BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes are well-established breast cancer susceptibility genes. A large number of variants in these genes has been reported, including variants with clearly deleterious effects and variants with unknown significance on breast cancer risk. Classification of such unclassified variants (UVs) is an area of growing interest, but no study has systematically assessed whether the various classification methods are biologically meaningful. Further, given that not all BRCA1/2 deleterious mutation carriers develop breast cancer, environmental modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers need to be identified. In this dissertation, I present results from a population-based case-control study of young breast cancer patients to investigate these issues.; In my first paper, I used sequencing data of BRCA1/2 genes in 1,469 breast cancer patients. There were 262 distinct BRCA1/2 variants, including 147 UVs. Application of various methods to classify each variant showed ...
Moderate physical activity, such as walking and gardening, was also linked to a 13 percent reduced risk when comparing the most and least active women, the report concluded.. Moreover, women who are overweight or obese, and those with greater adult weight gain, were found to be at greater risk of developing breast cancer after menopause, according to the findings. Mothers who breastfeed, however, were found to have a lower breast cancer risk.. Another risk factor linked to lifestyle could be diet. Dietary changes may, therefore, help reduce breast cancer risk. The report found limited evidence suggesting that foods high in calcium (green vegetables, dried fruits, sesame, dairy products) and fruit and vegetables high in carotenoids (bell peppers, carrots, apricots, broccoli, spinach) could have a protective effect against some types of breast cancers, in particular estrogen-receptor (ER) negative breast cancers-a less common but more challenging kind of tumor to treat.. Breast cancer is the most ...
The cytotoxic activity of PINO on human breast tumour cells is a debated issue. Previously, Chin et al. [25] described that PINO has a cytotoxic effect against MCF7 breast cancer cells (ED50 = 4.74 μM); however, in a later article [21], the same author found no cytotoxic effects. Surprisingly, the range of concentrations used in both studies was not specified. In addition, the cytotoxic effects of PINO in MDA-MB-231 cells have not been previously reported. In contrast, we tested a wide range of PINO concentrations and showed that there was cytotoxic activity at different concentrations in both human breast tumour cells tested. While PINO showed cytotoxic activity in both types of human breast tumour cells tested, the effect was more pronounced in negative oestrogen receptor tumour cells compared to oestrogen receptor-positive tumour cells (Figs. 4 and 5). In addition, for the first time, we describe the effects of PINO on human mammary epithelial cells. Our results suggest that PINO ranging ...
This article describes the design and early results of an open-label, nonrandomized phase I/II trial of oral UFT plus leucovorin therapy in combination with bolus injections of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. This study was designed as a cohort dose-escalation study with the principal aims being to determine dose-limiting toxicity, overall toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, tumor response, and time to disease progression. 1
Primary human breast cancer specimens and immunohistochemical and statistical analyses. A total of 185 human breast cancer specimens and the clinicopathologic data were obtained from the Health Science Tissue Bank at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA). Among these surgically resected samples, 97 specimens were from patients with cancer metastasis to peripheral lymph nodes with or without distant organ metastasis. The other 88 samples were from patients without detectable cancer cell spread. In addition, 10 metastatic and 10 nonmetastatic frozen biopsies from the same patients were also used for real-time PCR analyses (Supplementary Table S3). The clinicopathologic characteristics of these 185 tumor specimens were examined and verified by a pathologist specialized in breast cancers (E.E.). Importantly, H&E staining of two separate sections of the same tissues from all 20 frozen specimens contained ,90% tumor cells within these biopsies. Immunohistochemical staining of ...
Women with a family history of breast cancer have an increased risk of the disease. However, since they tend to experience greater surveillance for the disease, their breast cancers may be detected at an earlier stage, thus making it difficult to assess reliably whether tumour characteristics vary by family history. Information on 9,731 Million Women Study participants with screen-detected breast cancer, diagnosed in 1996-2003, and 37,983 matched controls, who also attended routine screening but were not diagnosed with breast cancer, was used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of screen-detected breast cancer in women with a family history of the disease. Women with a family history of breast cancer had an increased risk of screen-detected breast cancer (RR 1.57; 95% CI:1.47-1.68) compared with those without such a family history. The RRs were 1.58 (1.46-1.71) and 1.55 (1.34-1.80) for invasive and in situ breast cancer; 1.63 (1.49-1.79) and 1.55 (1.32-1.83) for node-negative and node-positive
Abstract: A large number of effective cancer-preventing compounds inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB). It has been previously demonstrated that some flavonoids that are a vital component of our diet inhibits this pathway. As a consequence, many flavonoids inhibit genes involved in various aspects of tumorigenesis and have thus emerged as potential chemopreventive candidates for cancer treatment. We studied the effect of 17 different flavonoids, including the highly evaluated quercetin on the NF-κB pathway, and on the expression of MMP-9 and COX-2 (two NF-κB regulated genes involved in metastasis) in the highly invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The findings suggest that not all the quercetin like flavone backbone compounds inhibit the NF-κB pathway, and that the highly hydoxylated flavonols quercetagetin and gossypetin did not inhibit this pathway, nor did it inhibit the expression of MMP-9 and COX-2. This indicates a correlation between inhibition of NF-κB ...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that approximately 12% of women will develop breast cancer by age 70. Risk factors for breast cancer include female gender, increasing age, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, age at first live birth over thirty, previous breast biopsies, previous breast biopsy with atypia, Other factors such as therapeutic radiation during adolescence, obesity with a BMI ,25, alcohol consumption, dense breast tissue and environmental exposures are not included in traditional risk assessment models, but are considered by most to mildly or moderately increase risk. Understanding your risk of developing breast cancer is important in management of your breast condition.. The most widely recognized tool for assessing breast cancer risk is the Gail model, developed by scientists at the NCI. Limitations of this model are that it does not account for second-degree relatives with breast cancer, relatives of a young age with breast cancer, and environmental factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ten-year recurrence rates for breast cancer subtypes in the Netherlands. T2 - A large population-based study. AU - van Maaren, Marissa C.. AU - de Munck, Linda. AU - Strobbe, Luc J. A.. AU - Sonke, Gabe S.. AU - Westenend, Pieter J.. AU - Smidt, Marjolein L.. AU - Poortmans, Philip M. P.. AU - Siesling, Sabine. PY - 2019/1/15. Y1 - 2019/1/15. N2 - Here we report for the first time the relation between breast cancer subtypes and 10-year recurrence rates and mortality in the Netherlands. All operated women diagnosed with invasive non-metastatic breast cancer in 2005 in the Netherlands were included. Patients were classified into breast cancer subtypes according to ER, PR, HER2 status and grade: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 positive and triple negative. Percentages and hazards of recurrence were compared among subtypes. Adjusted 10-year overall (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were calculated using multivariable Cox regression. Of 8,062 patients, 4,482 (56%) were luminal A, ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers found among 9/11 female first responders, downtown workers and downtown residents. Turley Hansen represents many breast cancer survivors in claims before the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund.. About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of their lifetime. Women exposed to the toxins in downtown Manhattan have a particularly high risk of developing breast cancer. The Zadroga Act covers invasive ductal carcinomas (about 80% of all breast cancers), ductal carcinoma in situ (the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer) and male breast cancer.. Surgery, either lumpectomy or mastectomy (partial, total, modified radical), are common starting points of treatment for breast cancer. Surgery may be followed up by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. New immunotherapy clinical trials for breast cancer patients are potentially offering new weapons to fight breast cancer.. ...
23 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® : Breast Cancer - Locally Advanced (STAGE III) Version 1.2017 every 100 cancer cells stain positive, the cancer is called hormone receptor-positive. If fewer cancer cells stain positive for hormone receptors, the cancer is called hormone receptor-negative. HER2 test HER2 ( h uman e pidermal growth factor r eceptor 2 ) is a receptor within the membrane of breast cells. As shown in Figure 8 , it extends from within the cell through the membrane to outside of the cell. When activated, it causes breast cancer cells to grow and divide. Normal breast cells have two copies of the gene that makes HER2. In contrast, some breast cancers have cells with more than two copies. This causes too many HER2 receptors to be made. Other breast cancers have cells with only two HER2 gene copies but still too many HER2 receptors are made. With too many HER2 receptors, breast cancer cells grow and divide fast. However, there are drugs to stop these cancer cells from growing. Due to ...
ESR1 mutations are selected by prior aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in advanced breast cancer. We assessed the impact of ESR1 mutations on sensitivity to standard therapies in two phase III randomized trials that represent the development of the current standard therapy for estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.In a prospective-retrospective analysis, we assessed ESR1 mutations in available archived baseline plasma from the SoFEA (Study of Faslodex Versus Exemestane With or Without Arimidex) trial, which compared exemestane with fulvestrant-containing regimens in patients with prior sensitivity to nonsteroidal AI and in baseline plasma from the PALOMA3 (Palbociclib Combined With Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor-Positive HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer After Endocrine Failure) trial, which compared fulvestrant plus placebo with fulvestrant plus palbociclib in patients with progression after receiving prior endocrine therapy. ESR1 mutations were analyzed by multiplex digital ...
Uncommon mutations in three genes in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer have a negative impact on disease prognosis reports a team of British and Australian researchers in |i||link https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05914-x|Nature Communications|/link|. |/i| |i||br /||/i|
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD cell-surface glycoprotein that is dramatically overexpressed in the majority of breast cancers. We were the first to demonstrate that EpCAM is directly involved in the regulation of breast cancer migration and invasion. Specifically, in loss-of-function studies we have demonstrated that specific ablation of EpCAM expression: (1) decreases breast cancer invasion in vitro and in vivo; (2) is associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and alterations in Rho GTPases; and (3) impacts on the expression of transcription factors and genes known to be involved in breast cancer invasion. The hypothesis is that EpCAM plays a central role in the regulation of breast cancer invasion. We are currently exploring this hypothesis in detail using cultured human breast cancer cells, breast cancer xenografts, human breast specimens, and a transgenic mouse model of breast carcinogenesis. Specific aims include (1) Test the hypothesis that EpCAM plays a central role ...
Lactate is both a metabolite of glycolysis, and a component of several signaling pathways. Although recent studies indicate that lactate is a critical regulator of cancer development, very little is known about lactate metabolism in the context of metastatic cancer. Epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes metastasis by inducing invasive properties in epithelial tumors. To determine whether EMT induces metabolic alterations, we have studied two epithelial breast cancer cell lines and their respective EMT-induced mesenchymal progeny for changes in lactate metabolism. Metabolic analysis revealed that EMT induced an enhanced glycolytic profile in mesenchymal breast cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial breast cancer cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP. The strong expression of the lactate importer MCT1 in epithelial breast cancer cells may involve the ERα-inducible GATA3 transcription factor. We detected a specific GATA3 binding site in the DNAse
Bcl-2 and p53 gene products (Bcl-2, p53) are important regulators of apoptosis and cell proliferation, and their immunohistochemical expression may help to identify high-risk breast cancer patients. The authors evaluated p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in 178 node-negative breast cancers (NNBC) with long-term follow-up (median, 60 months). Bcl-2 was seen in 111 (62%) cases, and was significantly associated with small tumor size, nonductal morphology, low tumor grade, estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity, and p53 negativity. p53 overexpression (ie, | 15% reactive nuclei) was observed in 31 (17%) cases, and was associated with lower age, large tumor size, ductal morphology, high tumor grade, negative ER status, and lack of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity. In univariate analysis, the variables associated with short relapse-free survival (RFS) were large tumor size (P = .002), high histological grade (P = .01), high mitotic count (P = .03), and high Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) (P = .0002). In multivariate analysis
The study is being done as a follow-up to a recent clinical trial that showed HER2-positive breast cancer patients using a combination of trastuzumab (Herceptin) and lapatinib (Tykerb) for 12 weeks - without chemotherapy - showed a significant benefit in the eradication of breast cancer tumors.. The study results were released in May 2011 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology.. "Certain subgroups in the study (those that were estrogen receptor positive or negative) showed different complete pathologic response rates (no cancer cells found in the tumor after treatment), so we hypothesized that longer treatment may be more effective for some," said Dr. Mothaffar Rimawi, medical director of the Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center at BCM and study chair. "There may be a group that does not need chemotherapy. It will still be helpful for some, but maybe not for all.". The study will randomize patients to receive 12 vs. 24 weeks of trastuzumab and lapatinib. Patients whose tumors are also ...
Patients and breast tumor tissues. The subjects recruited for this study comprised 108 primary invasive breast cancer patients (mean age, 50.8 years; range, 26-72 years) with a tumor ,3 cm in diameter or with cytologically confirmed axillary lymph node involvement who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Osaka University Hospital between June 2003 and April 2007 (4 stage IV patients with small distant metastases were included in these subjects). Tumor specimens were obtained before neoadjuvant chemotherapy by means of vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy. All patients were treated with 12 cycles of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/wk) followed by 4 cycles of 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Breast conserving surgery or mastectomy was conducted 3 to 4 weeks after the last treatment. Tumor specimens (surgical specimens) were also obtained at surgery. Informed consent was obtained from each patient.. It was possible that different sampling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined Src and ER blockade impairs human breast cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. AU - Chen, Yi. AU - Alvarez, Edwin A.. AU - Azzam, Diana. AU - Wander, Seth A.. AU - Guggisberg, Natalia. AU - Jordà, Mercè. AU - Ju, Zhenlin. AU - Hennessy, Bryan T.. AU - Slingerland, Joyce M.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Antiestrogen therapies arrest susceptible estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers by increasing p27. Since Src phosphorylates p27 to promote p27 proteolysis, Src activation observed in up to 40% of ER-positive cancers may contribute to antiestrogen resistance. In this article, we show that treatment with the Src-inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) together with ER-blocking drugs increased breast cancer cell cycle arrest via p27. Saracatinib and fulvestrant together more effectively increased p27, reduced Ki67, and impaired MDA-MB-361 xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either of the drugs alone. In contrast, saracatinib monotherapy rapidly gave rise to drug ...
Successful therapy for established metastatic disease in breast cancer remains a major challenge in the clinic. Five-year survival drops from 90% for early-stage, nonmetastatic breast cancer to 20% once tumor progression has occurred (2). In one study, GRP78 was found to be positive in 76% of primary breast cancer cases, but did not correlate with tumor size, grade, lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, histologic type, or Nottingham Prognostic Index (13). However, expression of GRP78 has value in the prediction of tumor response to doxorubicin and to taxanes (12, 35). Although high levels of GRP78 predict a poor response to doxorubicin, expression of GRP78 predicts a better response to doxorubicin followed by treatment with paclitaxel or docetaxel (12, 35). The mechanism behind these differential responses is not well understood.. In recent years, GRP78 has emerged as a prime target for anticancer treatment because of its elevated expression in tumor cells as a result of the constant stress ...
The optimal duration of cytostatic treatment for metastatic breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Possible gain in the duration of remission has to be weighed against the side-effects of treatment. Our aim was to define the optimal duration of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) treatment by studying the time to treatment failure, overall survival and using a Q-TWiST analysis. The treating physicians opinion was asked. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Breast Cancer Group conducted a randomised trial in 204 non-progressing metastatic breast cancer patients after induction chemotherapy (CMF) to stop or continue treatment. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were studied. To gain more insight into the burden of treatment-related side-effects, Q-TWiST was analysed. In addition, we asked for oncologists preferences as patients are likely to be influenced by their physicians opinion. Continuation of CMF had a significantly ...
Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (BC), but the specific mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood. Studies on adipocyte-derived adiponectin and leptin reveal opposing effects on BC cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting they may play a role in BC pathogenesis. In the current study we examined effects on proliferation of five BC cell lines treated with varying adiponectin:leptin (A/L) ratios. A decrease in proliferation was noted for MCF-7 and T47-D cells with increasing ratios (2-500), while an increase was seen in similarly treated MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361 cells. For SK-BR-3 cells, an increase was seen at a ratio of 8. We identified differential effects on some pro-mitogenic, survival and apoptosis-related proteins in MCF-7 and T47-D cells treated at an A/L ratio of 100. Specifically, the AKT and MAPK pathways were not activated in MCF-7 cells, but AKT activation occured within 30 min and MAPK activation was sustained at 48 h in T47-D cells. p53 and Bax ...
Researchers at the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute describe in this weeks issue of Science a new candidate breast-cancer susceptibility gene. The Rap80 gene is required for the normal DNA-repair function of the well-known breast cancer gene BRCA1.
This special supplement to Oncology News International includes 28 reports with updated information on clinical trials investigating capecitabine and other agents in the treatment of advanced colorectal and breast cancers, and other solid tumors. The reports summarize selected presentations from the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and related educational symposia held in conjunction with ASCO. 1
It was reported previously that the specific aim of screening agents that would induce apoptosis in the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was completed, and that calyculin A was the most effective compound tested. Since then Cdc25 phosphatases were reported as possible key oncogenes in human breast carcinoma. In light of our results with calyculin A, it was decided that a more promising focus for the project would be the biochemical basis for the oncogenic actions of Cdc25 phosphatases in human breast carcinoma. At this time we have examined 18 compounds and discovered a Cdc25 phosphatase inhibitor, called 1f, that selectively inhibits Cdc25A,B, and C, has antiproliferative activity against and causes a G1 block in MDA-MB-231 cells. The pure form of this compound and two other compounds which selectively inhibit Cdc25 phosphatases have been made and also demonstrate an equal if not better inhibition of Cdc25 phosphatases as their combinatorial form.*HUMANS
Already, lab testing can show if cancer cells are estrogen receptor (ER) positive, meaning the cells use estrogen to promote their growth; progesterone receptor (PR) positive; hormone receptor negative; or whether they have too many copies of the HER-2 gene, which promotes cell growth.. For each type, different medications may or may not work. For ER positive cancers, for example, drugs such as tamoxifen that block hormones can be effective, but would not work in women with hormone receptor negative cancers.. "There are some breast cancers that are very large that never spread," notes Dr. Sener.. "On the other hand, there are some patients who have very small cancers who have lots of lymph nodes involved," he says. "Why are those patients different? What a lot us have realized is the standard anatomical descriptions of breast cancer is inadequate.. "This new way of looking at breast cancer genetics has allowed us to be much more focused about the prognosis, who will respond to chemo, hormones, ...
Title: Cytokines in the Management of High Risk or Advanced Breast Cancer: An Update and Expectation. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):A. Carpi, A. Nicolini, A. Antonelli, P. Ferrari and G. Rossi. Affiliation:Department of Reproduction and Ageing, Via Roma 67, 56126 Pisa, Italy.. Keywords:Cytokines, advanced breast cancer. Abstract: Some cytokines (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-11, transforming growth factor(TGF)β) stimulate, while others (IL-12, IL-18, Interferons (IFNs)) inhibit breast cancer proliferation and/or invasion. So far IL-2, IFNα, IFNβ and occasionally IFNγ, IL-6, IL-12 have been used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. Only two long term pilot studies suggest that IL-2 and IFNβ can improve clinical benefit and/or overall survival of metastatic breast cancer patients with minimal residual disease after chemotherapy or with disseminate disease non progressing during endocrine therapy. These ...
Nelson et al provided evidence that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), a primary metabolite of cholesterol promotes ER-dependent tumor growth via ER and liver X receptor (LXR), respectively, in mouse models of breast cancer. Statins or inhibitors against the cytochrome P450 oxidase CYP27A1, the enzyme that coverts cholesterol to 27HC, attenuated the enhanced tumor proliferation by cholesterol. The authors further demonstrated that CYP27A1 is expressed in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages and high levels of CYP27A1 expression correlated with high-grade tumors in human breast cancer specimens.. The tumor growth-promoting effect of 27HC was independently demonstrated by Wu et al using xenograft models of various ER+ breast cancer cell lines. In addition, Wu et al demonstrated that local production of 27HC in the normal breast tissue and cancer tissue is significantly increased in cancer patients compared with cancer-free controls. The increased tumor 27HC was correlated with diminished ...
en] Metastatic breast cancer cells are characterized by their high propensity to colonize the skeleton and form bone metastases, causing major morbidity and mortality. Identifying key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of both new prognostic markers and new effective therapies. Cell surface proteins differentially expressed in cancer cells are preferred potential targets for antibody-based targeted therapies. In this study, using cell surface biotinylation and a mass spectrometric approach, we have compared the profile of accessible cell surface proteins between the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its highly osteotropic B02 subclone. This strategy allowed the identification of several proteins either up- or downregulated in the osteotropic cell line, and differential protein expressions were validated using antibody-based techniques. Class I HLAs were down-regulated in the bone metastatic variant, whereas ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A gene expression signature from human breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence identifies MYC as a mediator of antiestrogen resistance. AU - Miller, Todd W.. AU - Balko, Justin M.. AU - Ghazoui, Zara. AU - Dunbier, Anita. AU - Anderson, Helen. AU - Dowsett, Mitch. AU - González-Angulo, Ana M.. AU - Mills, Gordon B.. AU - Miller, William R.. AU - Wu, Huiyun. AU - Shyr, Yu. AU - Arteaga, Carlos L.. PY - 2011/4/1. Y1 - 2011/4/1. N2 - Purpose: Although most patients with estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer initially respond to endocrine therapy, many ultimately develop resistance to antiestrogens. However, mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance and biomarkers predictive of such resistance are underdeveloped. Experimental Design: We adapted four ER+ human breast cancer cell lines to grow in an estrogen-depleted medium. A gene signature of estrogen independence was developed by comparing expression profiles of long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) cells to ...
Physical activity is considered an important way to lower risk for breast cancer. But what if your ability to be fit is influenced by genes you inherit? Would that raise your risk? In rats, it did.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: PART II Achieving Pregnancy and Parenthood 71 5 "Worse comes to worst, I have a safety net" Fertility Preservation among Young, Single, Jewish Breast Cancer Patients in Israel Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli, Efrat Dagan, and Suzi Modiano Gattegno Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among women in developed countries (Curado et al. 2007), including Israel, where every year about four thousand new breast cancer patients are diagnosed. Roughly 250 (approximately 7 percent) of these are women under the age of forty (Israeli Ministry of Health, National Cancer Registry n.d.). The frequency of early-onset breast cancer is similar to that reported in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, which found approximately 10 percent of breast cancer diagnoses in women of childbearing age (National Cancer Institute n.d.; Zhou and Recht 2004; Jemal et al. 2010; Pollán 2010; American Cancer Society 2009; Kothari and ...
Working the night shift could increase your risk of breast cancer by up to 40%, according to a new study. When it comes to breast cancer prevention, its always important to know the breast cancer risk factors, which is why this new study could be crucial to breast cancer research.
INTRODUCTION: Liver × receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors and have established functions as regulators of cholesterol, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Published reports of anti-proliferative effects of synthetic LXR ligands on breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, skin, and colorectal cancer cells suggest that LXRs are potential targets in cancer prevention and treatment.. METHODS: To further determine the effects of LXR ligands and identify their potential mechanisms of action in breast cancer cells, we carried out microarray analysis of gene expression in four breast cancer cell lines following treatments with the synthetic LXR ligand GW3965. Differentially expressed genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analyses, and their expression profiles and associations with disease parameters and outcomes were examined in clinical samples. Response of E2F target genes were validated by ...
The researchers used data from the Ontario Womens Diet and Health Study. In this study, the Ontario Breast Cancer Registry was used to identify women who were 25-74 years old who developed breast cancer in 2002 and 2003. The researchers contacted 4,109 of these women, and 3,101 of them took part in the study in 2003 and 2004. As a control group, women of a similar age who did not have breast cancer were randomly selected from households in Ontario, and 3,420 of them completed the study.. The women were asked to complete a questionnaire about risk factors for breast cancer and to complete a food-frequency questionnaire to record their dietary habits. The researchers used questions on ethnicity or racial background as a substitute for skin colour. Ninety percent of the study participants were Caucasian, so skin colour was classified as Caucasian or non-Caucasian (6% were Southeast or South Asian, 2% black, 1% aboriginal, and less than 2% had other skin colours).. The participants were asked about ...
The primary objective of this study is to determine if estrogen receptor-targeted therapy with fulvestrant used in combination with RAD001 (Everolimus)
A new breast cancer vaccine that is derived from the HER2 protein may help prevent recurrence in patients with HER2-positive disease and appears safe. Phase II study results of the vaccine were released at the 2014 Breast Cancer Symposium, September 4-6, in San Francisco.. The HER2 protein, also known as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, is found on the surface of certain cancer cells, including breast cancer. In normal cells HER2 helps control cell growth. Cancer cells, however, can make too much of the protein, which can cause cells to grow more quickly and be more likely to spread to other parts of the body.. The HER2-derived vaccine, known as GP2, is designed to provoke the bodys immune system to fight cancer by recognizing tumor cells that express HER2. It is administered in addition to standard breast cancer treatment, such as Hercpetin® (trastuzumab), with the goal of preventing recurrence.. To measure how effectively the GP2 vaccine might help prevent recurrence in women with ...
Reasons for Mastectomy in Early Stage Breast Cancer: An Institutional Review. Rosebella Agola, MD, MPH Greg Bearden MD, FACS Baptist Health System General Surgery Residency Program. Introduction. Early stage breast cancer: cancer that has not spread beyond the breast or axillary lymph nodes...
Using biological markers-genetic characteristics that are associated with some patients with breast cancer-can increase the success rate of clinical trials for breast cancer drugs by almost 50 per cent, says new research from the University of Toronto Mississauga.. "Its been increasingly difficult for pharmaceutical companies to bring new drugs to market," says Jayson Parker, a faculty member in the Department of Biology and medical biotechnology analyst at the University of Toronto. "On average, about 80 per cent of drugs fail at some point in the clinical trial process.". There are currently no clear estimates of success rates in clinical trials for breast cancer drugs and the factors that can impact success. The research team examined clinical trial drug development programs from 1998 to 2012 to determine how often breast cancer drugs were brought to market. The study examined advanced and metastatic breast cancer as well as patients that have been exposed to the chemotherapy drugs taxane ...
Presentation at the 4th IMPAKT Breast Cancer Conference. Breast cancer in young women is a biologically unique disease that requires customized management strategies, researchers report at the 4th IMPAKT Breast Cancer Conference, in Brussels, Belgium.. The reported findings have potentially important implications for treatment, because breast cancer in young women is often aggressive and diagnosed at an advanced stage, meaning the prognosis for these patients is often poor.. Dr. Hatem A. Azim Jr., a medical oncologist from Institut Jules Bordet in Brussels, and colleagues showed that breast cancer in women forty-years or younger is enriched with the aggressive basal-like tumors. Moreover, these patients have a significantly higher risk of relapse independent of stage, histological grade, breast cancer molecular subtypes and treatment received.. A subgroup analysis showed a particularly poor trend in patients with luminal tumors, i.e. estrogen receptor positive. "While some investigators could ...
Background: In India, the number of new breast cancer cases is about 115,000 per year and this is expected to rise to 250,000 new cases per year by 2015. It needs to be noted that breast cancer is leading in the age groups of 15-34 years which is a cause of concern as this denotes the need for educative and awareness programs targeting younger members of the society, to implement early practices of breast examination. This study was carried out with the intention of assessing the level of knowledge and awareness of carcinoma breast and breast self-examination (BSE) in female college students ...
October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Susan G. Komen for the Cure Understanding how Breast Cancer affects us all is very important to overall health. What are the estimated numbers of new breast cancer cases and deaths in the United States for the year 2010? About 207,090 new cases of invasive breast cancer will occur among women…
Scientists at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia have identified new breast cancer genes. This is a discovery that may change the way breast cancer is diagnosed, as well the way it is treated. - Identification of New Breast Cancer Genes - Breast Cancer at BellaOnline
Some women whove been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in one breast choose to have that breast and the other healthy breast removed -- a double mastectomy. Removing the other healthy breast is called contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. The healthy breast usually is removed because of understandable fear that a new, second breast cancer might develop in that breast. More and more women whove been diagnosed are opting for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy -- in the late 1990s, between 4% and 6% of women who were having a mastectomy decided to have the other healthy breast removed. More recently, between 11% and 25% of women having a mastectomy decided to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. In particular, more women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger are deciding to have the other healthy breast removed. Some doctors are concerned that too many women are choosing the very aggressive step of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy during or shortly ...
A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered
article{ac3c1e27-9238-408a-9002-fb95610acc6d, abstract = {Introduction - A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general. Objectives - To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer. Subjects - From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease. Methods - DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis ...
BRCA1 is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that is down-regulated in a significant proportion of sporadic breast cancers. BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding protein implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of many genes and is overexpressed in sporadic breast cancer. To investigate the possibility that these two molecules are functionally linked in breast cancer, we performed bioinformatic analysis of the BRCA1 3 untranslated region (UTR), RNA-protein assays with the HuR protein and the BRCA1 3UTR, and immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of breast tumors using antibodies against BRCA1 and HuR. Here, we describe the identification of two predicted HuR-binding sites in the BRCA1 3UTR, one of which binds specifically to HuR. We also show that this interaction is disrupted by single nucleotide substitutions in the BRCA1 3UTR and that endogenous HuR protein associates with BRCA1 transcripts in ...
Looking for online definition of negative axillary lymph node in the Medical Dictionary? negative axillary lymph node explanation free. What is negative axillary lymph node? Meaning of negative axillary lymph node medical term. What does negative axillary lymph node mean?
Conditions: Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Hepatobiliary Neoplasm; Partner; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Lung Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Cervical Cancer; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine ...
Background The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 2C19, 2D6, and 3A5 are responsible for converting the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen to its active metabolites 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHtam) and 4-hydroxy-N-demethyltamoxifen (4OHNDtam, endoxifen). Inter-individual variations of the activity of these enzymes due to polymorphisms may be predictors of outcome of breast cancer patients during tamoxifen treatment. Since tamoxifen and estrogens are both partly metabolized by these enzymes we hypothesize that a correlation between serum tamoxifen and estrogen levels exists, which in turn may interact with tamoxifen on treatment outcome. Here we examined relationships between the serum levels of tamoxifen, estrogens, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and also determined the genotypes of CYP2C19, 2D6, 3A5, and SULT1A1 in 90 postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Methods Tamoxifen and its metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Estrogen and FSH ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endometrial cancers in mutation carriers from hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome kindreds. AU - Casey, Murray J.. AU - Bewtra, Chhanda. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Snyder, Carrie L.. AU - Stacey, Mark. PY - 2015/5/7. Y1 - 2015/5/7. N2 - Objective The aim of this study was to categorize and report endometrial cancers in mutation carriers from hereditary breast ovarian cancer families. Methods Our Hereditary Cancer Registry was searched for gynecologic and peritoneal cancers linked to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Invasive cancers were registered in 101 mutation carriers with complete pathology reports. Efforts were made to secure diagnostic surgical pathology tissues for review. All records and available diagnostic slides were meticulously studied, and primary cancers were classified. Findings Eight malignancies were classified as primary endometrial cancers. Five of these were low- or intermediate-grade endometrioid carcinomas, and 3 were pure serous carcinomas or contained ...

The Yin and Yang of It: The Chinese Medicine Perspective on Fibrocystic BreastsThe Yin and Yang of It: The Chinese Medicine Perspective on Fibrocystic Breasts

... there is a very logical progression from distention to neoplasm." (4) Wolfe and Flaws purports that fibrocystic breasts are ... Fibrocystic breast disease refers to the cobblestone lumps which can be present in the breast and which change in size, shape, ... Fibrocystic breast disease refers to the cobblestone lumps which can be present in the breast and which change in size, shape, ... In her book The Breast Connection, she writes "It is one thing to have some PMS symptoms with tender or swollen breasts each ...
more infohttp://luteacm.blogspot.com/2011/12/chinese-medicine-perspective-on.html

NCT00776659 | Breast Neoplasms Clinical Trial | PfizerNCT00776659 | Breast Neoplasms Clinical Trial | Pfizer

Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00776659 Breast Neoplasms Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and ...
more infohttps://www.pfizer.com/science/find-a-trial/nct00776659

NCT00373113 | Breast Neoplasms Clinical Trial | PfizerNCT00373113 | Breast Neoplasms Clinical Trial | Pfizer

Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00373113 Breast Neoplasms Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and ...
more infohttps://www.pfizer.com/science/find-a-trial/nct00373113

Search Results - Breast Neoplasms complications.Search Results - 'Breast Neoplasms complications.'

Breast Neoplasms 12 complications 9 Breast 9 Cancer 6 methods 5 Complications more ... 5 prevention & control 4 Treatment 4 ... Bone Neoplasms 1 Bone metastasis 1 Classification 1 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 1 Colon (Anatomy) 1 Colorectal Neoplasms 1 ... Showing 1 - 12 results of 12 for search Breast Neoplasms complications. Skip to content Breast Neoplasms complications., query time: 0.35s ...
more infohttps://i-share.carli.illinois.edu/all/vf-lac/Search/Results?lookfor=%22Breast+Neoplasms+complications.%22&type=Subject

Breast Cancer (Malignant neoplasm)Breast Cancer (Malignant neoplasm)

Your purchase of our Breast Cancer cell is supporting NBCFs early detection, education and support services.,br,,br,10% of the ... Breast Cancer affects 1 in every 8 women, but early detection and proper screening can help ensure the best outcomes. This ... Breast Cancer (Malignant neoplasm). Breast Cancer (Malignant neoplasm) GMUS-PD-0104 $8.95 ... All about Breast Cancer (Malignant neoplasm). FACTS: Breast cancer usually begins as a lump that can be seen in a mammogram or ...
more infohttps://www.giantmicrobes.com/us/products/breastcancer.html

Ductal, Lobular And Medullary Neoplasms | Breast CancerDuctal, Lobular And Medullary Neoplasms | Breast Cancer

... and medullary neoplasms are three common forms of breast cancer. These tumors are differentiated by location and require ... Breast density: Breasts are considered "dense" when there is a high ratio of tissue to fat. Women with dense breasts are more ... Cystic, Mucinous & Serous Neoplasms. Dermoid Cyst. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor. Ductal, Lobular & Medullary Neoplasms. ... Ductal, lobular, and medullary neoplasms are three of the main types of breast cancer. ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/oncology/ductal-lobular-and-medullary-neoplasms/

Snomed neoplasm, breast cancer | NCBO BioPortalSnomed neoplasm, breast cancer | NCBO BioPortal

This a subset of snomed-ct regarding neoplasm and hamartoma, based on Snomed clinical practices used terms (Fondazione S. ...
more infohttps://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/SNMD_BC

I Have Male Breast NeoplasmsI Have Male Breast Neoplasms

Male Breast Neoplasms anonymous support group with inform... ... people sharing true stories in the I Have Male Breast Neoplasms ... Do You Have Male Breast Neoplasms? Join friendly ... I Have Male Breast Neoplasms does not have any stories yet. Be ... Male Breast Neoplasms anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, along with personal stories ... and experiences with Male Breast Neoplasms. Youre not alone. Report Group. ...
more infohttp://www.experienceproject.com/groups/Have-Male-Breast-Neoplasms/98618

Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Breast Neoplasms AND Breast Diseases - List Results -...Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Breast Neoplasms' AND 'Breast Diseases' - List Results -...

Study of Hypofractionated Partial Breast Irradiation in Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer. *Malignant Neoplasm of Breast ... Comparison of the Breast Tumor Microenvironment. *Triple Negative Breast Cancer. *Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm ... Window of Opportunity Trial of Dasatinib in Operable Triple Negative Breast Cancers With nEGFR. *Breast Neoplasms ... Phase 1 Study of DS-8201a in HER-2 Breast Cancer Patients. *Malignant Neoplasm of Breast ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=open&cond=%22Breast+Neoplasms%22+AND+%22Breast+Diseases%22&show_down=Y

Trastuzumab Completed Phase 1 Trials for Neoplasms, Breast Treatment - DrugBankTrastuzumab Completed Phase 1 Trials for Neoplasms, Breast Treatment - DrugBank

Trastuzumab Completed Phase 1 Trials for Neoplasms, Breast Treatment. Back to Trastuzumab ... MM-111 in Combination With Herceptin in Patients With Advanced Her2 Amplified, Heregulin Positive Breast Cancer. *Trastuzumab ( ... A Study Inhibiting Telomerase to Reverse Trastuzumab Resistance in HER2+ Breast Cancer. *Trastuzumab (DB00072) ... in Patients With HER2-positive Advanced Breast Cancer.. *Afatinib (DB08916) ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00072/clinical_trials?conditions=DBCOND0030201&phase=1&purpose=treatment&status=completed

Browsing  by Subject Breast NeoplasmsBrowsing by Subject "Breast Neoplasms"

The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than ... Leukocyte telomere length, breast cancer risk in the offspring: the relations with fathers age at birth.  Arbeev, Konstantin ... Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.  Kravchenko, J; Akushevich, Igor; ... Optimized approach to decision fusion of heterogeneous data for breast cancer diagnosis.  Jesneck, JL; Nolte, LW; Baker, JA; ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/browse?type=subject&value=Breast%20Neoplasms

Wei Zhengs Research on Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer)
     | CureHunterWei Zheng's Research on Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer) | CureHunter

Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer). 2/2016. BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian ... Evaluating 17 breast cancer susceptibility loci in the Nashville breast health study.. ... Height and Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence From Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization.. ... Polymorphisms in a Putative Enhancer at the 10q21.2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus Regulate NRBF2 Expression.. ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/authorSummary-Zheng,%20Wei.do?keywordId=D001943

Trastuzumab Terminated Phase 2 Trials for Cancer, Breast / Neoplasms Metastasis Treatment - DrugBankTrastuzumab Terminated Phase 2 Trials for Cancer, Breast / Neoplasms Metastasis Treatment - DrugBank

Trastuzumab Terminated Phase 2 Trials for Cancer, Breast / Neoplasms Metastasis Treatment. Back to Trastuzumab ... Trastuzumab With or Without Everolimus in Treating Women With Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery. *Everolimus ( ... A Study of Herceptin (Trastuzumab) in Combination With Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer. ... Fulvestrant and/or Trastuzumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Postmenopausal Women With Stage IV Breast Cancer. *Trastuzumab ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00072/clinical_trials?conditions=DBCOND0054116%2CDBCOND0066909&phase=2&purpose=treatment&status=terminated

Breast neoplasms | Article about Breast neoplasms by The Free DictionaryBreast neoplasms | Article about Breast neoplasms by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Breast neoplasms. cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are ... Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms... Explanation of Breast neoplasms ... OR breast neoplasms [Figure/Table Caption] OR breast neoplasms[Body - All Words] OR breast neoplasms[Title] OR breast neoplasms ... breast cancer. (redirected from Breast neoplasms). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. breast cancer,. cancercancer, ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Breast+neoplasms

Kelly K Hunts Research on Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer)
     | CureHunterKelly K Hunt's Research on Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer) | CureHunter

Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer). 11/2015. Response to preoperative endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients can alter ... Spotlight on neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer.. 5/2015. Surgical Considerations After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Breast ... Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women.. 8/2015. GATA-binding protein 3 enhances the utility of ... Breast conservation in the setting of contemporary multimodality treatment provides excellent outcomes for patients with occult ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/authorSummary-Hunt,%20Kelly%20K.do?keywordId=D001943

Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkins diseaseBreast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin's disease

Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkins disease. Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al.. Abstract: ... Systematic screening for breast cancer could be important in the health care of such women.. This is a service of:. Rheinische ... The risk of solid tumors, especially breast cancer, is high among women who were treated with radiation for childhood Hodgkins ... Patients who survive Hodgkins disease are at increased risk for second neoplasms. As survival times increase, solid tumors are ...
more infohttp://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cgi-bin/mycite?ExtRef=MEDL/96172864/PMID/8592547

Browsing Masters Theses by Subject Breast NeoplasmsBrowsing Masters Theses by Subject "Breast Neoplasms"

Comparative performance of multiview stereoscopic and mammographic display modalities for breast lesion detection.  Webb, LJ; ... Browsing Masters Theses by Subject "Breast Neoplasms". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/2493/browse?type=subject&value=Breast+Neoplasms

Breast neoplasms | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.orgBreast neoplasms | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

intra-lobular (epithelial and stromal) inter-lobular breast lymphoma metastasis to breast Intralobular an... ... There are many types of breast neoplasms, which can be divided into the following broad oversimplified categories as a starting ... breast pathology *malignant lesions* breast cancer *breast adenocacrinoma *ductal breast carcinoma * ductal carcinoma in situ ( ... Breast within a breast sign in hamartomaBreast within a breast sign in hamartoma ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/breast-neoplasms

Intestinal obstruction due to malign breast neoplasm and peritoneal carcinomatosis: a case reportIntestinal obstruction due to malign breast neoplasm and peritoneal carcinomatosis: a case report

Keywords : intestinal obstruction; secondary; breast neoplasms; carcinoma; abdomen; acute. · abstract in Portuguese · text in ... Intestinal obstruction due to malign breast neoplasm and peritoneal carcinomatosis: a case report. J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.) [ ... A case of colonic obstruction due to carcinomatosis secondary to breast cancer is reported, emphasizing its diagnostic aspects ... Peritoneal carcinomatosis due to breast cancer is rare and gastrointestinal tract involvement is also unusual. Symptoms are ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S2237-93632012000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Prevalence of risk factors for breast neoplasm in the city of Maringá, Paraná state, BrazilPrevalence of risk factors for breast neoplasm in the city of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

... 1 ... As for the family history of breast cancer, 2.3% (10) of the women reported that their mother has or had breast cancer. When ... This risk increases when the relative has breast cancer before the age of 50 years and in both breasts(15). ... with breast cancer(3). In both studies, a small number of women had some first-degree relatives with breast cancer, like in the ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-11692010000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso

Integration of Cancer Health Activities Into African American Churches | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Breast Cancer | ...Integration of Cancer Health Activities Into African American Churches | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Breast Cancer | ...

Malignant neoplasm of prostate , Colorectal Cancer , Integration of Cancer Health Activities Into African American Churches ... breast, prostate, colorectal) delivered through trained and certified lay peer community health advisors in African American ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/178913/breast-cancer-integration-cancer-health-activities/?%E2%89%A5o_lat=38.9506%E2%89%A5o_lng=-76.9347&radius=10

Physicians who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington,DCPhysicians who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington,DC

Find doctors who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington, DC and accept WebMD.PhysicianDirectory.Types. ... Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast. Female breast cancer (malignant neoplasm of female breast) occurs when abnormal cells ... Physicians Who Treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast Who Accept CDPHP New York State of Health - Small Business Near ... These cancer cells can grow uncontrollably and spread outside the breast, usually through the lymph nodes or through the blood ...
more infohttps://doctor.webmd.com/find-a-doctor/condition/malignant-neoplasm-of-female-breast/district-of-columbia/washington/cdphp-new-york-state-of-health-small-business

Physicians who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington,DCPhysicians who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington,DC

Find doctors who treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast near Washington, DC and accept WebMD.PhysicianDirectory.Types. ... Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast. Female breast cancer (malignant neoplasm of female breast) occurs when abnormal cells ... Physicians Who Treat Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast Who Accept Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield Shared Cost 1500, a Multi- ... These cancer cells can grow uncontrollably and spread outside the breast, usually through the lymph nodes or through the blood ...
more infohttps://doctor.webmd.com/find-a-doctor/condition/malignant-neoplasm-of-female-breast/district-of-columbia/washington/highmark-blue-cross-blue-shield-shared-cost-1500-a-multi-state-plan

Higher-Than-Expected Incidence of Marrow Neoplasms After Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer - The ASCO PostHigher-Than-Expected Incidence of Marrow Neoplasms After Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer - The ASCO Post

Higher-Than-Expected Incidence of Marrow Neoplasms After Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer. By Matthew Stenger. May 25, 2015. ... Patients developing marrow neoplasms were significantly older than those who did not at the time of breast cancer diagnosis ( ... 1. Wolff AC, Blackford AL, Visvanathan K, et al: Risk of marrow neoplasms after adjuvant breast cancer therapy: The National ... The median time to diagnosis of marrow neoplasms after breast cancer diagnosis was 4.9 years. Overall survival after diagnosis ...
more infohttps://ascopost.com/issues/may-25-2015/higher-than-expected-incidence-of-marrow-neoplasms-after-adjuvant-therapy-for-breast-cancer/
  • Hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms involving the breast are sometimes listed under the rubric of breast "metastases," but they are best regarded as either primary breast neoplasms or as a manifestation of a systemic condition, depending upon the extent of organ involvement. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • However, risk-factors that increase the probability of developing the disease include a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, increasing age, never having breastfed, never having given birth, long-term hormone replacement therapy, and smoking. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • 19 (59%) of the 32 patients with a family history of cancer had at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. (icdlist.com)
  • This class of drugs has been used to treat advanced, BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer and has now shown efficacy in treating certain types of BRCA-mutated breast cancer," said Dr. Richard Pazdur, director of the FDA's Oncology Center of Excellence. (hon.ch)
  • The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. (duke.edu)
  • Even allowing for improvements in detection (i.e., the introduction of routine mammography), there has been a long-term gradual increase in the incidence of breast cancer since the early 1970s, but because of the more effective treatment afforded by such early detection, overall mortality began to decrease by the mid-1990s. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Late Effects Study Group followed a cohort of 1380 children with Hodgkin's disease to determine the incidence of second neoplasms and the risk factors associated with them. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Incidence levels of breast cancer increase rapidly until the age of 50, after which the increase continues at a slower pace (1) . (scielo.br)
  • In scientific terms, there are no specific strategies that permit primary breast cancer prevention, although its incidence can be decreased through health promotion actions, emphasizing attention with risk factors, including obesity and smoking (5) . (scielo.br)
  • In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology , Antonio C. Wolff, MD , of Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, and colleagues found a low but higher-than-expected incidence of marrow neoplasms in patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy for breast cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • The cumulative incidence of marrow neoplasms exhibited a continuous increase, with a cumulative incidence of 0.24% after 5 years and 0.48% after 10 years. (ascopost.com)
  • As noted by the authors, a 2003 report from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project indicated an 8-year cumulative incidence of MDS or AML of 0.27% among breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. (ascopost.com)
  • We also intend for this article to serve as a reference for further research into the relationship between different sources of dietary protein and breast cancer incidence, and as guidance for the different dietary sources of protein intake. (mdpi.com)
  • There is a small amount of breast tissue, consisting mainly of ducts, in the male chest, and about 1% of breast cancers occur in men. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Because the lobules are located deeper in the breast, lobular cancers are harder to detect in traditional mammograms. (knowcancer.com)
  • About 80% of breast cancers affect women over 50. (knowcancer.com)
  • BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian Cancers. (curehunter.com)
  • A high cumulative exposure to female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) appears to increase the risk of some breast cancers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Like all cancers, breast cancers result from changes in the structure or function of genes that are key to the regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, or repair. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reproductive factors and risk of cancers of the breast and genital organs : a prospective study of Norwegian women / by Gunnar Kvale. (who.int)
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare disorder that greatly increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly in children and young adults.The cancers most often associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome include breast cancer, a form of bone cancer called osteosarcoma, and cancers of soft tissues (such as muscle) called soft tissue sarcomas. (icdlist.com)
  • The classical LFS malignancies - sarcoma, cancers of the breast, brain and adrenal glands - comprise about 80% of all cancers that occur in this syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, those women who have a family history of this disease and those whose lifestyle's are in a way that makes them more at risk of breast cancer, the examinations and tests should be done on a regular basis in order to cure this diseases at the early stages. (ac.ir)
  • Risk factors for male breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome . (medlineplus.gov)
  • WP 840-870 Breast Diseases. (mef.hr)
  • Although causality cannot be ruled out, the observed associations of antibiotics overall, tetracyclines, and macrolides with breast cancer were weak and could be explained by uncontrolled confounding by the diseases being treated or by other factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FRIDAY, Jan. 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Lynparza (olaparib) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat spreading breast cancer caused by a BRCA gene mutation. (hon.ch)
  • A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization. (duke.edu)
  • Large-scale genomic analyses link reproductive aging to hypothalamic signaling, breast cancer susceptibility and BRCA1-mediated DNA repair. (curehunter.com)
  • In 1994 it was discovered that women who inherit a mutated BRCA1 gene have an almost 85% chance of developing breast cancer and an increased chance of developing uterine cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Young women who get breast cancer often come from families that carry a BRCA1 mutation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • paciente masculino de 53 años de edad, con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama derecha, tipo adenocarcinoma canalicular infiltrante, estadio clínico IIB, con antecedentes de cáncer de mama en 2 familiares directos, mutaciones del gen BRCA1 y positivo tanto a receptores hormonales como para el gen Her2/Neu. (nih.gov)
  • 53 -year-old male diagnosed with right breast cancer, infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma type, clinical stage IIB, breast cancer on 2 immediate family history, mutations of the BRCA1 gene and positive hormone receptors and Her2/Neu. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment for male breast cancer is usually a mastectomy , which is surgery to remove the breast. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He was a principal investigator and member of the Executive Committee of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project, which, in a series of studies demonstrated the effectiveness of lumpectomy, in combination with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or hormonal therapy, over radical mastectomy as an effective treatment for many breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Response to preoperative endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients can alter surgical and chemotherapy options. (curehunter.com)
  • The drug is approved for hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative forms of advanced or spreading breast cancer that have been treated with a therapy that changes a person's hormones (endocrine therapy). (hon.ch)
  • Verzenio provides a new targeted treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer who are not responding to treatment, and unlike [similar drugs], it can be given as a standalone treatment to patients who were previously treated with endocrine therapy and chemotherapy," said Dr. Richard Pazdur, director of the FDA's Oncology Center of Excellence. (hon.ch)
  • The drug was evaluated in clinical studies involving almost 700 people whose breast cancer had progressed after treatment with endocrine therapy. (hon.ch)
  • Immunolabeling for terminal differentiation markers was compared among a variety of mouse mammary neoplasms because expression of terminal differentiation markers, and especially of keratins, provides important information on the origin of neoplastic cells and their degree of differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transgenic mouse models of mammary cancer have added considerably to our knowledge of human breast tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PubMed database was searched with MeSH (medical subject headings) keywords "vitamin D AND breast neoplasms" which was restricted by original articles written only in English and published from January 1, 2014. (intjcancermanag.com)
  • After 109,560 person-years of follow-up, the overall rate of marrow neoplasms in the entire cohort was 0.46 per 1,000 person-years, with rates per 1,000 person-years of 0.16 in those receiving surgery alone, 0.43 in those receiving adjuvant radiation alone, 0.46 in those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy alone, and 0.54 in those receiving both adjuvant treatments. (ascopost.com)
  • PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find cohort studies or case control studies that evaluated the relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk. (springer.com)
  • In sharp contrast, EMT was not detected in papillary adenocarcinomas arising in BALB/cJ mice, spontaneous adenoacanthomas, neoplasms associated with MMTV-infection, or in neoplasms arising in mice transgenic for Neu and Wnt1 . (biomedcentral.com)