Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
'Human Milk' is the secretion from human mammary glands, primarily composed of water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and various bioactive components, which serves as the complete source of nutrition for newborn infants, supporting their growth, development, and immune system.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, originating from the sweat glands (eccrine or apocrine) and found anywhere on the skin surface.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/42895)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/42895)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/42895)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (4/42895)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (5/42895)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (6/42895)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (7/42895)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (8/42895)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Inflammatory Breast Neoplasm (IBN) is not exactly a type of breast cancer, but rather a clinical presentation of aggressive breast cancer that involves the skin and lymphatic vessels of the breast. It is characterized by rapid onset of symptoms such as redness, warmth, swelling, and dimpling or ridging of the skin, creating an appearance similar to an orange peel (known as peau d'orange). These symptoms are caused by cancer cells blocking the lymphatic vessels in the breast skin.

It is important to note that IBN is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses. Due to its rapid progression and non-specific symptoms, it can often be misdiagnosed as an infection or mastitis, leading to delays in proper treatment. A definitive diagnosis of IBN is usually made through a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as mammography and ultrasound), and biopsy. Treatment typically involves a multimodal approach, including chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.

Triple-negative breast neoplasm is a type of breast cancer that tests negative for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors are proteins found within or on the surface of cancer cells that can receive signals that promote growth. Because triple-negative breast cancers lack these receptors, common treatments like hormone therapy and HER2-targeted therapies are not effective.

Triple-negative breast neoplasms tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer, with a higher risk of recurrence within the first few years after diagnosis. They also have a poorer prognosis compared to other breast cancers. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.

It is important to note that while triple-negative breast neoplasms are more challenging to treat, ongoing research is focused on finding new targeted therapies for this type of cancer.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Breast neoplasms in males refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the male breast tissue. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). While breast cancer is much less common in men than in women, it can still occur and should be taken seriously.

The most common type of breast cancer in men is invasive ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and spreads to surrounding tissue. Other types of breast cancer that can occur in men include inflammatory breast cancer, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease of the nipple.

Risk factors for developing male breast cancer include age (most cases are diagnosed after age 60), family history of breast cancer, genetic mutations such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, radiation exposure, obesity, liver disease, and testicular conditions such as undescended testicles.

Symptoms of male breast neoplasms may include a painless lump in the breast tissue, skin changes such as dimpling or redness, nipple discharge, or a retracted nipple. If you notice any of these symptoms, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Breast diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the breast tissue. These can be broadly categorized into non-cancerous and cancerous conditions.

Non-cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Fibrocystic breast changes: This is a common condition where the breast tissue becomes lumpy, tender, and sometimes painful. It is caused by hormonal changes and is most common in women aged 20 to 50.
2. Mastitis: This is an infection of the breast tissue, usually occurring in breastfeeding women. Symptoms include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area.
3. Breast abscess: This is a collection of pus in the breast tissue, often caused by bacterial infection. It can be painful and may require surgical drainage.
4. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors made up of glandular and fibrous tissue. They are usually round, firm, and mobile, and can be removed if they cause discomfort.
5. Intraductal papillomas: These are small, wart-like growths that occur in the milk ducts. They may cause nipple discharge, which can be bloody or clear.

Cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Breast cancer: This is a malignant tumor that starts in the breast tissue. It can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. There are several types of breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and inflammatory breast cancer.
2. Paget's disease of the nipple: This is a rare form of breast cancer that affects the skin of the nipple and areola. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and flaking of the nipple skin.
3. Phyllodes tumors: These are rare breast tumors that can be benign or malignant. They usually grow quickly and may require surgical removal.

It is important to note that not all breast lumps are cancerous, and many non-cancerous conditions can cause breast changes. However, any new or unusual breast symptoms should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out serious conditions such as breast cancer.

Breastfeeding is the process of providing nutrition to an infant or young child by feeding them breast milk directly from the mother's breast. It is also known as nursing. Breast milk is the natural food for newborns and infants, and it provides all the nutrients they need to grow and develop during the first six months of life.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for both the mother and the baby. For the baby, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect against infections and diseases, and it can also reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), allergies, and obesity. For the mother, breastfeeding can help her lose weight after pregnancy, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, and promote bonding with her baby.

Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first six months of an infant's life, and then continued along with appropriate complementary foods until the child is at least two years old or beyond. However, it is important to note that every mother and baby pair is unique, and what works best for one may not work as well for another. It is recommended that mothers consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best feeding plan for themselves and their baby.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues and cells throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and cellular responses to the hormone estrogen. There are two main subtypes of ERs, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct molecular structures, expression patterns, and functions.

ERs function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. When estrogen binds to the ER, it causes a conformational change in the receptor that allows it to recruit co-activator proteins and initiate transcription of the target gene. This process can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Estrogen receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, bone homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and cognitive function. They have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. As a result, ERs are an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

Mammography is defined as a specialized medical imaging technique used to create detailed X-ray images of the breast tissue. It's primarily used as a screening tool to detect early signs of breast cancer in women who have no symptoms or complaints, as well as a diagnostic tool for further evaluation of abnormalities detected by other imaging techniques or during a clinical breast exam.

There are two primary types of mammography: film-screen mammography and digital mammography. Film-screen mammography uses traditional X-ray films to capture the images, while digital mammography utilizes digital detectors to convert X-rays into electronic signals, which are then displayed on a computer screen. Digital mammography offers several advantages over film-screen mammography, including lower radiation doses, improved image quality, and the ability to manipulate and enhance the images for better interpretation.

Mammography plays a crucial role in reducing breast cancer mortality by enabling early detection and treatment of this disease. Regular mammography screenings are recommended for women over a certain age (typically starting at age 40 or 50, depending on individual risk factors) to increase the chances of detecting breast cancer at an early stage when it is most treatable.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Fibrocystic breast disease, also known as fibrocystic change or chronic cystic mastitis, is not actually a disease but a condition that affects many women at some point in their lives. It is characterized by the formation of benign (non-cancerous) lumps or cysts in the breasts, often accompanied by breast pain, tenderness, and swelling.

The condition is caused by hormonal fluctuations that affect the breast tissue, making it more prone to developing fibrous tissue and fluid-filled sacs called cysts. Fibrocystic breast changes are usually harmless and do not increase the risk of breast cancer. However, in some cases, they can make it harder to detect early signs of breast cancer through mammography or self-examination.

The symptoms of fibrocystic breast change may vary from woman to woman and can range from mild to severe. They tend to be more noticeable just before a woman's menstrual period and may improve after menopause. Treatment options for fibrocystic breast changes include pain relievers, hormonal medications, and lifestyle modifications such as reducing caffeine intake and wearing a well-supportive bra. In some cases, draining or removing the cysts may be necessary to alleviate symptoms.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Breast implants are medical devices that are inserted into the breast to enhance their size, shape, or fullness. They can also be used for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy or other medical treatments. Breast implants typically consist of a silicone shell filled with either saline (sterile saltwater) or silicone gel.

There are two main types of breast implants:

1. Saline-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is filled with sterile saline solution after the implant has been inserted into the breast. This allows for some adjustment in the size and shape of the implant after surgery.
2. Silicone gel-filled implants: These implants have a silicone outer shell that is pre-filled with a cohesive silicone gel. The gel is designed to feel more like natural breast tissue than saline implants.

Breast implants come in various sizes, shapes, and textures, and the choice of implant will depend on several factors, including the patient's body type, desired outcome, and personal preference. It is important for patients considering breast implants to discuss their options with a qualified plastic surgeon who can help them make an informed decision based on their individual needs and goals.

Progesterone receptors (PRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins that are expressed in the nucleus of certain cells and play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the menstrual cycle, embryo implantation, and maintenance of pregnancy. These receptors bind to the steroid hormone progesterone, which is produced primarily in the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Once progesterone binds to the PRs, it triggers a series of molecular events that lead to changes in gene expression, ultimately resulting in the modulation of various cellular functions. Progesterone receptors exist in two main isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, which differ in their size, structure, and transcriptional activity. Both isoforms are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the female reproductive tract, breast, brain, and bone.

Abnormalities in progesterone receptor expression or function have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying PR signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Breast self-examination (BSE) is a procedure in which an individual manually checks their own breasts for any changes or abnormalities. The goal of BSE is to detect breast cancer or other breast abnormalities as early as possible. It involves looking at and feeling the breasts for any lumps, thickenings, or other changes in size, shape, or appearance.

The American Cancer Society recommends that women become familiar with how their breasts normally look and feel and report any changes to their healthcare provider. However, they do not recommend regular monthly BSE as a routine screening tool for breast cancer, as it has not been shown to reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer or improve survival rates. Instead, they recommend regular mammograms and clinical breast exams as the most effective ways to detect breast cancer early.

It's important to note that while BSE can help women become more familiar with their breasts and detect changes early, it should not replace regular medical check-ups and mammograms. Any concerns or changes in the breasts should be reported to a healthcare provider as soon as possible for further evaluation.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) medication that is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It works by blocking the action of estrogen in the body, particularly in breast tissue. This can help to stop or slow the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Tamoxifen has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in both men and women. It is often used as a part of adjuvant therapy, which is treatment given after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Tamoxifen may also be used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Common side effects of tamoxifen include hot flashes, vaginal discharge, and changes in mood or vision. Less commonly, tamoxifen can increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, and endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus). However, for many women with breast cancer, the benefits of taking tamoxifen outweigh the risks.

It's important to note that while tamoxifen can be an effective treatment option for some types of breast cancer, it is not appropriate for all patients. A healthcare professional will consider a variety of factors when determining whether tamoxifen is the right choice for an individual patient.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

A mastectomy is a surgical procedure where the entire breast tissue along with the nipple and areola is removed. This is usually performed to treat or prevent breast cancer. There are different types of mastectomies, such as simple (total) mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy. The choice of procedure depends on various factors including the type and stage of cancer, patient's preference, and the recommendation of the surgical team.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

Carcinoma, lobular is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It can be either invasive or non-invasive (in situ). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs when the cancer cells break through the wall of the lobule and invade the surrounding breast tissue, and can potentially spread to other parts of the body. Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS), on the other hand, refers to the presence of abnormal cells within the lobule that have not invaded nearby breast tissue.

ILC is usually detected as a mass or thickening in the breast, and it may not cause any symptoms or show up on mammograms until it has grown quite large. It tends to grow more slowly than some other types of breast cancer, but it can still be serious and require extensive treatment. LCIS does not typically cause any symptoms and is usually found during a biopsy performed for another reason.

Treatment options for carcinoma, lobular depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or the development of new cancers.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Mammary ultrasonography, also known as breast ultrasound, is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures of the breast tissue. It is often used in conjunction with mammography to help identify and characterize breast abnormalities, such as lumps, cysts, or tumors, and to guide biopsy procedures.

Ultrasonography is particularly useful for evaluating palpable masses, assessing the integrity of breast implants, and distinguishing between solid and fluid-filled lesions. It is also a valuable tool for monitoring treatment response in patients with known breast cancer. Because it does not use radiation like mammography, mammary ultrasonography is considered safe and can be repeated as often as necessary. However, its effectiveness is highly dependent on the skill and experience of the sonographer performing the examination.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) is a tumor suppressor gene that produces a protein involved in repairing damaged DNA and maintaining genetic stability. Mutations in the BRCA1 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Inherited mutations in this gene account for about 5% of all breast cancers and about 10-15% of ovarian cancers. Women who have a mutation in the BRCA1 gene have a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer compared to women without mutations. The protein produced by the BRCA1 gene also interacts with other proteins to regulate cell growth and division, so its disruption can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal, are a class of drugs used to treat cancers that are sensitive to hormones. These agents work by interfering with the production or action of hormones in the body. They can be used to slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells and may also help to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer.

Hormonal therapies can work in one of two ways: they can either block the production of hormones or prevent their action on cancer cells. For example, some hormonal therapies work by blocking the action of estrogen or testosterone, which are hormones that can stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells.

Examples of hormonal agents used to treat cancer include:

* Aromatase inhibitors (such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane), which block the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene), which block the action of estrogen on cancer cells
* Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin), which block the production of testosterone in men
* Antiandrogens (such as bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide), which block the action of testosterone on cancer cells

Hormonal therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. They may be used to shrink tumors before surgery, to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to help control the spread of cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Hormonal therapies can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in people with advanced cancer.

It's important to note that hormonal therapies are not effective for all types of cancer. They are most commonly used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, which are known to be sensitive to hormones. Hormonal therapies may also be used to treat other types of cancer in certain situations.

Like all medications, hormonal therapies can have side effects. These can vary depending on the specific drug and the individual person. Common side effects of hormonal therapies include hot flashes, fatigue, mood changes, and sexual dysfunction. Some hormonal therapies can also cause more serious side effects, such as an increased risk of osteoporosis or blood clots. It's important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of hormonal therapy with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Radiation-induced neoplasms are a type of cancer or tumor that develops as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the formation of ions. This type of radiation can damage DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in the development of a neoplasm.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as that received during radiation therapy for cancer treatment or from nuclear accidents. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm depends on several factors, including the dose and duration of radiation exposure, the type of radiation, and the individual's genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced damage.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can take many years to develop after initial exposure to ionizing radiation, and they often occur at the site of previous radiation therapy. Common types of radiation-induced neoplasms include sarcomas, carcinomas, and thyroid cancer. It is important to note that while ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, the overall risk is still relatively low, especially when compared to other well-established cancer risk factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

A fibroadenoma is a benign (noncancerous) breast tumor that is most commonly found in women between the ages of 15 and 35, although it can occur at any age. It is composed of glandular and connective tissue. The tumor typically feels firm, smooth, and rubbery, and its size may vary from quite small to over 2 inches in diameter.

Fibroadenomas are usually mobile within the breast tissue, which means they can be moved around easily when touched. They can occur as a single lump or multiple lumps (known as fibroadenomatosis). The exact cause of fibroadenomas is not known, but hormonal factors may play a role in their development.

Fibroadenomas are generally not painful, although some women may experience discomfort or tenderness, especially before their menstrual period. In most cases, fibroadenomas do not require treatment and can be monitored with regular breast exams and imaging studies such as mammography or ultrasound. However, if a fibroadenoma grows larger or becomes uncomfortable, it may be removed through a surgical procedure.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

A segmental mastectomy, also known as a partial mastectomy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the breast tissue. This type of mastectomy is typically used to treat breast cancer that is limited to a specific area of the breast. During the procedure, the surgeon removes the cancerous tumor along with some surrounding healthy tissue, as well as the lining of the chest wall below the tumor and the lymph nodes in the underarm area.

In a segmental mastectomy, the goal is to remove the cancer while preserving as much of the breast tissue as possible. This approach can help to achieve a more cosmetic outcome compared to a total or simple mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast. However, the extent of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

It is important to note that while a segmental mastectomy can be an effective treatment option for breast cancer, it may not be appropriate for all patients or tumors. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual patient's medical history, diagnosis, and treatment goals.

Human milk, also known as breast milk, is the nutrient-rich fluid produced by the human female mammary glands to feed and nourish their infants. It is the natural and species-specific first food for human babies, providing all the necessary nutrients in a form that is easily digestible and absorbed. Human milk contains a balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immunity of newborns and young infants. Its composition changes over time, adapting to meet the changing needs of the growing infant.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Mammaplasty is a surgical procedure performed on the breast tissue. It involves various techniques to alter the size, shape, or position of the breasts. This can include breast augmentation using implants or fat transfer, breast reduction, or mastopexy (breast lift). The specific goal of the mammaplasty will depend on the individual patient's needs and desires.

Breast augmentation is performed to increase the size of the breasts, while breast reduction decreases the size of overly large breasts. Mastopexy or breast lift surgery raises sagging breasts by removing excess skin and tightening the surrounding tissue. These procedures can be done individually or in combination, depending on the patient's goals.

It is essential to consult a board-certified plastic surgeon who can provide detailed information about the different mammaplasty techniques and help determine which approach is best suited for an individual's needs and expectations.

Neoplasms of connective and soft tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the body's supportive tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and fat. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Lipomas: slow-growing, fatty tumors that develop under the skin.
- Fibromas: firm, benign tumors that develop in connective tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
- Nevi (plural of nevus): benign growths made up of cells called melanocytes, which produce pigment.

Malignant connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Sarcomas: a type of cancer that develops in the body's supportive tissues such as muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, or blood vessels. There are many different types of sarcomas, including liposarcoma (fatty tissue), rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), and osteosarcoma (bone).
- Desmoid tumors: a rare type of benign tumor that can become aggressive and invade surrounding tissues. While not considered cancerous, desmoid tumors can cause significant morbidity due to their tendency to grow and infiltrate nearby structures.

Connective and soft tissue neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the tumor.

Plasma cell neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates from plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. These cells are responsible for producing antibodies to help fight off infections. When plasma cells become cancerous and multiply out of control, they can form a tumor called a plasmacytoma.

There are two main types of plasma cell neoplasms: solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Solitary plasmacytoma is a localized tumor that typically forms in the bone, while multiple myeloma is a systemic disease that affects multiple bones and can cause a variety of symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and anemia.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diagnosed through a combination of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the stage and extent of the disease, but may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms within the breast tissue. It is a common, benign (non-cancerous) condition and can affect people of any age, but it is more commonly found in women between the ages of 35 and 50. Breast cysts can vary in size and may be asymptomatic or cause discomfort or pain, especially just before menstruation.

Breast cysts are usually diagnosed through a physical examination, breast ultrasound, or mammography. In some cases, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be performed to drain the fluid from the cyst and confirm the diagnosis. If the cyst is small, causes no symptoms, and appears benign on imaging studies, then further treatment may not be necessary. However, if the cyst is large, painful, or has concerning features on imaging studies, then additional diagnostic tests or drainage procedures may be recommended.

It's important to note that while breast cysts are generally harmless, they can sometimes mimic the symptoms of breast cancer. Therefore, any new or unusual changes in the breast should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

A nipple is a small projection or tubular structure located at the center of the areola, which is the darker circle of skin surrounding the nipple on the breast. The primary function of the nipple is to provide a pathway for milk flow from the mammary glands during lactation in females.

The nipple contains smooth muscle fibers that contract and cause the nipple to become erect when stimulated, such as during sexual arousal or cold temperatures. Nipples can come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, and some individuals may have inverted or flat nipples. It is essential to monitor any changes in the appearance or sensation of the nipples, as these could be indicative of underlying medical conditions, such as breast cancer.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) is a type of nuclear receptor protein that is activated by the hormone estrogen. It is encoded by the gene ESR1 and is primarily expressed in the cells of the reproductive system, breast, bone, liver, heart, and brain tissue.

When estrogen binds to ERα, it causes a conformational change in the receptor, which allows it to dimerize and translocate to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, ERα functions as a transcription factor, binding to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) and regulating the expression of target genes.

ERα plays important roles in various physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive organs, bone homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. It is also a critical factor in the growth and progression of certain types of breast cancer, making ERα status an important consideration in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Carcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the glandular structures or the lining of organs. In a papillary carcinoma, the cancerous cells grow and form small finger-like projections, called papillae, within the tumor. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the thyroid gland, but can also be found in other organs such as the lung, breast, and kidney. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis, especially when it is diagnosed at an early stage.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

MCF-7 cells are a type of human breast cancer cell line that was originally isolated from a patient with metastatic breast cancer. The acronym "MCF" stands for Michigan Cancer Foundation, which is the institution where the cell line was developed. The number "7" refers to the seventh and final passage of the original tumor sample that was used to establish the cell line.

MCF-7 cells are estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive, which means they have receptors for these hormones on their surface. This makes them a useful tool for studying the effects of hormonal therapies on breast cancer cells. They also express other markers associated with breast cancer, such as HER2/neu and E-cadherin.

MCF-7 cells are widely used in breast cancer research to study various aspects of the disease, including cell growth and division, invasion and metastasis, and response to therapies. They can be grown in culture dishes or flasks and are often used for experiments that involve treating cells with drugs, infecting them with viruses, or manipulating their genes using techniques such as RNA interference.

Mammary glands in humans are specialized exocrine glands that develop as modified sweat glands. They are primarily responsible for producing milk to feed infants after childbirth. In females, the mammary glands are located in the breast tissue on the chest region and are composed of lobules, ducts, and supportive tissues. During pregnancy, hormonal changes stimulate the growth and development of these glands, preparing them for milk production and lactation after the baby is born.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Premenopause is not a formal medical term, but it's often informally used to refer to the time period in a woman's life leading up to menopause. During this stage, which can last for several years, hormonal changes begin to occur in preparation for menopause. The ovaries start to produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, it's important to note that not all women will experience these symptoms.

The official medical term for the stage when a woman's period becomes irregular and less frequent, but hasn't stopped completely, is perimenopause. This stage typically lasts from two to eight years and ends with menopause, which is defined as the point when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. After menopause, women enter postmenopause.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) is a specific type of cancer that forms in the ducts that carry digestive enzymes out of the pancreas. It's the most common form of exocrine pancreatic cancer, making up about 90% of all cases.

The symptoms of PDC are often vague and can include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), unexplained weight loss, and changes in bowel movements. These symptoms can be similar to those caused by other less serious conditions, which can make diagnosis difficult.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is often aggressive and difficult to treat. The prognosis for PDC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of only about 9%. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. However, because PDC is often not detected until it has advanced, treatment is frequently focused on palliative care to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

A neoplasm of vascular tissue is an abnormal growth or mass of cells in the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are typically not harmful and may not require treatment. However, they can cause symptoms if they grow large enough to press on nearby organs or tissues. Malignant neoplasms, such as angiosarcomas, are cancerous and can invade and destroy surrounding tissue, as well as spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Treatment for vascular tissue neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the growth, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

The term "axilla" is used in anatomical context to refer to the armpit region, specifically the space located lateral to the upper part of the chest wall and medial to the upper arm. This area contains a number of important structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes, which play a critical role in the health and functioning of the upper limb. Understanding the anatomy of the axilla is essential for medical professionals performing various procedures, including surgeries and injections, in this region.

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

Hormone-dependent neoplasms are a type of tumor that requires the presence of specific hormones to grow and multiply. These neoplasms have receptors on their cell surfaces that bind to the hormones, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that promote cell division and growth.

Examples of hormone-dependent neoplasms include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and endometrial cancer. In breast cancer, for instance, estrogen and/or progesterone can bind to their respective receptors on the surface of cancer cells, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that promote tumor growth. Similarly, in prostate cancer, androgens such as testosterone can bind to androgen receptors on the surface of cancer cells, promoting cell division and tumor growth.

Hormone-dependent neoplasms are often treated with hormonal therapies that aim to reduce or block the production of the relevant hormones or interfere with their ability to bind to their respective receptors. This can help slow down or stop the growth of the tumor and improve outcomes for patients.

Breast implantation is a surgical procedure where breast implants are placed in the body to enhance the size, shape, and/or symmetry of the breasts. The implants can be filled with either saline solution or silicone gel and are inserted through incisions made in various locations on the breast or around the nipple. The goal of the procedure is to improve the appearance of the breasts and may be performed for cosmetic reasons, as part of a breast reconstruction after a mastectomy, or to correct congenital deformities.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in one of several locations:

1. Inframammary fold: This is the most common approach and involves making an incision in the crease beneath the breast.
2. Periareolar: This approach involves making an incision around the areola (the dark-colored skin surrounding the nipple).
3. Transaxillary: This approach involves making an incision in the armpit and creating a tunnel to the breast pocket.
4. Transumbilical: This is the least common approach and involves making an incision in the belly button and creating a tunnel to the breast pocket.

Once the implant is placed, the incisions are closed with sutures or surgical tape. The procedure typically takes 1-2 hours and may be performed as an outpatient procedure or require an overnight hospital stay. Recovery time varies but typically involves wearing a compression garment for several weeks to support the breasts and minimize swelling.

It is important to note that breast implantation carries certain risks, including infection, bleeding, scarring, capsular contracture (scar tissue formation around the implant), implant rupture or deflation, and changes in nipple sensation. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is necessary to monitor for any potential complications.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues that serve no purpose and can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Glandular and epithelial neoplasms refer to specific types of tumors that originate from the glandular and epithelial tissues, respectively.

Glandular neoplasms arise from the glandular tissue, which is responsible for producing and secreting substances such as hormones, enzymes, or other fluids. These neoplasms can be further classified into adenomas (benign) and adenocarcinomas (malignant).

Epithelial neoplasms, on the other hand, develop from the epithelial tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and the inner surfaces of cavities. These neoplasms can also be benign or malignant and are classified as papillomas (benign) and carcinomas (malignant).

It is important to note that while both glandular and epithelial neoplasms can become cancerous, not all of them do. However, if they do, the malignant versions can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body, making them potentially life-threatening.

BRCA2 (pronounced "braca two") protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA in cells. It is encoded by the BRCA2 gene, which is located on chromosome 13. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, particularly breast and ovarian cancer in women, and breast and prostate cancer in men.

The BRCA2 protein interacts with other proteins to repair double-strand breaks in DNA through a process called homologous recombination. When the BRCA2 protein is not functioning properly due to a mutation, damaged DNA may not be repaired correctly, leading to genetic instability and an increased risk of cancer.

It's important to note that not all people with BRCA2 mutations will develop cancer, but their risk is higher than those without the mutation. Genetic testing can identify individuals who have inherited a mutation in the BRCA2 gene and help guide medical management and screening recommendations.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Adenocarcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells and grows in a finger-like projection (called a papilla). This type of cancer can occur in various organs, including the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, and female reproductive system. The prognosis and treatment options for papillary adenocarcinoma depend on several factors, such as the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

BRCA1 protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA and maintaining genomic stability. The BRCA1 gene provides instructions for making this protein. Mutations in the BRCA1 gene can lead to impaired function of the BRCA1 protein, significantly increasing the risk of developing breast, ovarian, and other types of cancer.

The BRCA1 protein forms complexes with several other proteins to participate in various cellular processes, such as:

1. DNA damage response and repair: BRCA1 helps recognize and repair double-strand DNA breaks through homologous recombination, a precise error-free repair mechanism.
2. Cell cycle checkpoints: BRCA1 is involved in regulating the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints to ensure proper DNA replication and cell division.
3. Transcription regulation: BRCA1 can act as a transcriptional co-regulator, influencing the expression of genes involved in various cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell cycle control.
4. Apoptosis: In cases of severe or irreparable DNA damage, BRCA1 helps trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) to eliminate potentially cancerous cells.

Individuals with inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene have a higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers compared to the general population. Genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations is available for individuals with a family history of these cancers or those who meet specific clinical criteria. Identifying carriers of BRCA1 mutations allows for enhanced cancer surveillance, risk reduction strategies, and potential targeted therapies.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Carcinoma, ductal refers to a type of cancer that begins in the milk ducts (tubes that carry milk from the breast to the nipple). It is most commonly found in the breast and is often referred to as "invasive ductal carcinoma" when it has spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. Ductal carcinoma can also occur in other organs, such as the pancreas, where it is called "pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma." This type of cancer is usually aggressive and can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Neoplasms in muscle tissue refer to abnormal and excessive growths of muscle cells that can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from any of the three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle. Neoplasms in muscle tissue are classified based on their origin, behavior, and histological features.

Benign neoplasms in muscle tissue include leiomyomas (smooth muscle), rhabdomyomas (skeletal muscle), and myxomas (cardiac muscle). These tumors are usually slow-growing and do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant neoplasms in muscle tissue, also known as sarcomas, include leiomyosarcoma (smooth muscle), rhabdomyosarcoma (skeletal muscle), and angiosarcoma (cardiac muscle). These tumors are aggressive, invasive, and have the potential to metastasize to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of neoplasms in muscle tissue depend on their location, size, and type. They may include a painless or painful mass, weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing or breathing. Treatment options for neoplasms in muscle tissue include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the type, stage, location, and patient's overall health condition.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

BRCA2 is a specific gene that provides instructions for making a protein that helps suppress the growth of cells and plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene are known to significantly increase the risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and several other types of cancer.

The BRCA2 protein is involved in the process of homologous recombination, which is a type of DNA repair that occurs during cell division. When DNA is damaged, this protein helps to fix the damage by finding a similar sequence on a sister chromatid (a copy of the chromosome) and using it as a template to accurately repair the break.

If the BRCA2 gene is mutated and cannot produce a functional protein, then the cell may not be able to repair damaged DNA effectively. Over time, this can lead to an increased risk of developing cancer due to the accumulation of genetic alterations that cause cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.

It's worth noting that while mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with an increased risk of cancer, not everyone who has a mutation will develop cancer. However, those who do develop cancer tend to have an earlier onset and more aggressive form of the disease. Genetic testing can be used to identify mutations in the BRCA2 gene, which can help inform medical management and screening recommendations for individuals and their families.

Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the sweat glands. These growths can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign sweat gland neoplasms include hidradenomas and syringomas, which are usually slow-growing and cause little to no symptoms. Malignant sweat gland neoplasms, also known as sweat gland carcinomas, are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as a lump or mass under the skin, pain, swelling, and redness. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the growth.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the mucin-producing cells in the lining of a cyst. It is a subtype of cystadenocarcinoma, which is a malignant tumor that develops within a cyst. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas are typically found in the ovary or pancreas but can also occur in other organs such as the appendix and the respiratory tract.

These tumors are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a gel-like substance that can accumulate within the cyst and cause it to grow. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas tend to grow slowly but can become quite large and may eventually spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Symptoms of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, changes in bowel movements, or vaginal bleeding. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis and the patient's overall health.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Neoplasm grading is a system used by pathologists to classify the degree of abnormality in cells that make up a tumor (neoplasm). It provides an assessment of how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. The grade helps doctors predict the prognosis and determine the best treatment options.

Neoplasm grading typically involves evaluating certain cellular features under a microscope, such as:

1. Differentiation or degree of maturity: This refers to how closely the tumor cells resemble their normal counterparts in terms of size, shape, and organization. Well-differentiated tumors have cells that look more like normal cells and are usually slower growing. Poorly differentiated tumors have cells that appear very abnormal and tend to grow and spread more aggressively.

2. Mitotic count: This is the number of times the tumor cells divide (mitosis) within a given area. A higher mitotic count indicates a faster-growing tumor.

3. Necrosis: This refers to areas of dead tissue within the tumor. A significant amount of necrosis may suggest a more aggressive tumor.

Based on these and other factors, pathologists assign a grade to the tumor using a standardized system, such as the Bloom-Richardson or Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading systems for breast cancer or the Fuhrman grading system for kidney cancer. The grade usually consists of a number or a range (e.g., G1, G2, G3, or G4) or a combination of grades (e.g., low grade, intermediate grade, and high grade).

In general, higher-grade tumors have a worse prognosis than lower-grade tumors because they are more likely to grow quickly, invade surrounding tissues, and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. However, neoplasm grading is just one aspect of cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Other factors, such as the stage of the disease, location of the tumor, patient's overall health, and specific molecular markers, are also considered when making treatment decisions.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Bone marrow neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. These neoplasms can be divided into two main categories: hematologic (or liquid) malignancies and solid tumors.

Hematologic malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells, which normally fight infections. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding.

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which helps to fight infections and remove waste from the body. Lymphoma can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, leading to bone damage, anemia, and an increased risk of infection.

Solid tumors of the bone marrow are rare and include conditions such as chordomas, Ewing sarcomas, and osteosarcomas. These cancers originate in the bones themselves or in other tissues that support the bones, but they can also spread to the bone marrow.

Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Neoplasms, adnexal and skin appendage refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the sweat glands, hair follicles, or other structures associated with the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur anywhere on the body.

Adnexal neoplasms are tumors that arise from the sweat glands or hair follicles, including the sebaceous glands, eccrine glands, and apocrine glands. These tumors can range in size and severity, and they may cause symptoms such as pain, itching, or changes in the appearance of the skin.

Skin appendage neoplasms are similar to adnexal neoplasms, but they specifically refer to tumors that arise from structures such as hair follicles, nails, and sweat glands. Examples of skin appendage neoplasms include pilomatricomas (tumors of the hair follicle), trichilemmomas (tumors of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle), and sebaceous adenomas (tumors of the sebaceous glands).

It is important to note that while many adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms are benign, some can be malignant and may require aggressive treatment. If you notice any unusual growths or changes in your skin, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and care.

ERBB-2, also known as HER2/neu or HER2, is a gene that encodes for a tyrosine kinase receptor protein. This receptor is part of the EGFR/ERBB family and plays crucial roles in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Amplification or overexpression of this gene has been found in various types of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, lung, and gastric cancers. In breast cancer, ERBB-2 overexpression is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ERBB-2 has become an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment, with various targeted therapies developed to inhibit its activity.

Vascular neoplasms are a type of tumor that develops from cells that line the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign vascular neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are usually harmless and may not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications. Malignant vascular neoplasms, on the other hand, are known as angiosarcomas and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body and potentially causing serious health problems.

Angiosarcomas can develop in any part of the body but are most commonly found in the skin, particularly in areas exposed to radiation or chronic lymph edema. They can also occur in the breast, liver, spleen, and heart. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When referring to "Complex and Mixed Neoplasms," it is typically used in the context of histopathology, where it describes tumors with a mixture of different types of cells or growth patterns.

A complex neoplasm usually contains areas with various architectural patterns, cell types, or both, making its classification challenging. It may require extensive sampling and careful examination to determine its nature and behavior. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, depending on the specific characteristics of the tumor cells and their growth pattern.

A mixed neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor that contains more than one type of cell or tissue component, often arising from different germ layers (the three primary layers of embryonic development: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). A common example of a mixed neoplasm is a teratoma, which can contain tissues derived from all three germ layers, such as skin, hair, teeth, bone, and muscle. Mixed neoplasms can also be benign or malignant, depending on the specific components of the tumor.

It's important to note that the classification and behavior of complex and mixed neoplasms can vary significantly based on their location in the body, cellular composition, and other factors. Accurate diagnosis typically requires a thorough examination by an experienced pathologist and may involve additional tests, such as immunohistochemistry or molecular analysis, to determine the appropriate treatment and management strategies.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Estrogen antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estrogen in the body. They work by binding to estrogen receptors and preventing the natural estrogen from attaching to them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in various tissues, including breast and uterine tissue.

There are two main types of estrogen antagonists: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and pure estrogen receptor downregulators (PERDS), also known as estrogen receptor downregulators (ERDs). SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, can act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the tissue type. For example, they may block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist in bone tissue, helping to prevent osteoporosis.

PERDS, such as fulvestrant, are pure estrogen receptor antagonists and do not have any estrogen-like activity. They are used primarily for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Overall, estrogen antagonists play an important role in the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and other conditions where inhibiting estrogen activity is beneficial.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Palatal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur on the palate, which is the roof of the mouth. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, while malignant neoplasms are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and organs.

Palatal neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, environmental exposures, and viral infections. They may present with symptoms such as mouth pain, difficulty swallowing, swelling or lumps in the mouth, bleeding, or numbness in the mouth or face.

The diagnosis of palatal neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or spread of the neoplasm.

The Ki-67 antigen is a cellular protein that is expressed in all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), but not in the resting phase (G0). It is often used as a marker for cell proliferation and can be found in high concentrations in rapidly dividing cells. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 can help to determine the growth fraction of a group of cells, which can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various malignancies, including cancer. The level of Ki-67 expression is often associated with the aggressiveness of the tumor and its response to treatment.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a type of tumor that arises from the epithelial lining of a cyst, and it has the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects glandular organs such as the ovaries, pancreas, and salivary glands.

Cystadenocarcinomas can be classified into two types: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenocarcinomas produce a watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenocarcinomas produce a thick, mucus-like fluid. Both types of tumors can be benign or malignant, but malignant cystadenocarcinomas are more aggressive and have a higher risk of metastasis.

Symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown large enough to cause pain or other problems. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with any affected surrounding tissue. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used in some cases to help prevent recurrence or spread of the cancer.

Mandibular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the mandible, which is the lower jawbone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and may metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Mandibular neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and infection with certain viruses. The symptoms of mandibular neoplasms may include swelling or pain in the jaw, difficulty chewing or speaking, numbness in the lower lip or chin, loose teeth, and/or a lump or mass in the mouth or neck.

The diagnosis of mandibular neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Adenofibroma is a rare, benign tumor that occurs most commonly in the salivary glands. It is composed of both glandular tissue (adeno-) and fibrous tissue (-fibroma). These tumors are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body.

Adenofibromas can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the skin, where they may be referred to as "fibroepithelial polyps" or "skin tags." In general, adenofibromas are not cancerous and can often be removed surgically. However, it is important to have any new growths or lumps evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate course of treatment.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Splenic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the spleen, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can arise from various cell types present within the spleen, including hematopoietic cells (red and white blood cells, platelets), stromal cells (supporting tissue), or lymphoid cells (part of the immune system).

There are several types of splenic neoplasms:

1. Hematologic malignancies: These are cancers that affect the blood and bone marrow, such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. They often involve the spleen, causing enlargement (splenomegaly) and neoplastic infiltration of splenic tissue.
2. Primary splenic tumors: These are rare and include benign lesions like hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, and hamartomas, as well as malignant tumors such as angiosarcoma, littoral cell angiosarcoma, and primary splenic lymphoma.
3. Metastatic splenic tumors: These occur when cancer cells from other primary sites spread (metastasize) to the spleen. Common sources of metastasis include lung, breast, colon, and ovarian cancers, as well as melanomas and sarcomas.

Symptoms of splenic neoplasms may vary depending on the type and extent of the disease but often include abdominal pain or discomfort, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and sometimes requires a biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the type of neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Tissue Microarray (TMA) analysis is a surgical pathology technique that allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple tissue samples (known as "cores") from different patients or even different regions of the same tumor, on a single microscope slide. This technique involves the extraction of small cylindrical samples of tissue, which are then arrayed in a grid-like pattern on a recipient paraffin block. Once the TMA is created, sections can be cut and stained with various histochemical or immunohistochemical stains to evaluate the expression of specific proteins or other molecules of interest.

Tissue Array Analysis has become an important tool in biomedical research, enabling high-throughput analysis of tissue samples for molecular markers, gene expression patterns, and other features that can help inform clinical decision making, drug development, and our understanding of disease processes. It's widely used in cancer research to study the heterogeneity of tumors, identify new therapeutic targets, and evaluate patient prognosis.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

A serous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the serous glands, which are glands that produce a watery, lubricating fluid. This type of tumor typically develops in the ovary or the pancreas.

Serous cystadenomas of the ovary are usually filled with a clear, watery fluid and have multiple loculations (compartments). They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Although these tumors are benign, they can cause symptoms if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or if they rupture and release their contents into the abdominal cavity.

Serous cystadenomas of the pancreas are less common than ovarian serous cystadenomas. They typically occur in the tail of the pancreas and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. These tumors are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs.

It is important to note that while serous cystadenomas are generally benign, there is a small risk that they may undergo malignant transformation and develop into a type of cancer known as a serous cystadenocarcinoma. For this reason, it is important for patients with these tumors to be followed closely by a healthcare provider and to have regular imaging studies and/or surgical excision to monitor for any changes in the tumor.

In a medical context, "survivors" typically refers to individuals who have lived through or recovered from a serious illness, injury, or life-threatening event. This may include people who have survived cancer, heart disease, trauma, or other conditions that posed a significant risk to their health and well-being. The term is often used to describe the resilience and strength of these individuals, as well as to highlight the importance of ongoing support and care for those who have faced serious medical challenges. It's important to note that the definition may vary depending on the context in which it's used.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Maxillary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the maxilla, which is the upper jaw bone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites.

Maxillary neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as swelling, pain, numbness, loose teeth, or difficulty in chewing or swallowing. They may also cause nasal congestion, nosebleeds, or visual changes if they affect the eye or orbit. The diagnosis of maxillary neoplasms usually involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor.

Treatment options for maxillary neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis and ensure optimal outcomes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are types of tumors that originate from the abnormal growth of cells. Here's a brief medical definition for each:

1. Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths or masses, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled cell division and may invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
2. Germ Cell Tumors: These are rare tumors that develop from the germ cells, which give rise to sperm and eggs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). They can be benign or malignant and may occur in both children and adults. Germ cell tumors can also arise outside of the reproductive organs, a condition known as extragonadal germ cell tumors.
3. Embryonal Tumors: These are a type of malignant neoplasm that primarily affects infants and young children. They develop from embryonic cells, which are immature cells present during fetal development. Embryonal tumors can occur in various organs, including the brain (medulloblastomas), nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNETs), and other areas like the kidneys and liver.

It is essential to note that these conditions require professional medical evaluation and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in oncology and related fields.

Hemangiosarcoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the blood vessels (endothelial cells). It most commonly affects middle-aged to older dogs, but it can also occur in cats and other animals, as well as rarely in humans.

This cancer can develop in various parts of the body, including the skin, heart, spleen, liver, and lungs. Hemangiosarcomas of the skin tend to be more benign and have a better prognosis than those that arise internally.

Hemangiosarcomas are highly invasive and often metastasize (spread) to other organs, making them difficult to treat. The exact cause of hemangiosarcoma is not known, but exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, and viruses may increase the risk of developing this cancer. Treatment options typically include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, depending on the location and stage of the tumor.

Anal gland neoplasms, also known as anal sac tumors, are abnormal growths that develop from the cells lining the anal glands. These glands are located on either side of the anus in dogs and some other animals, and they produce a scent used for marking territory.

Anal gland neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors are more common and tend to grow quickly, invading surrounding tissues and spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis). Common symptoms of anal gland neoplasms include straining to defecate, bleeding from the rectum, and a firm mass that can be felt near the anus.

Treatment for anal gland neoplasms typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended. The prognosis for animals with anal gland neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, and the overall health of the animal.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Neoplasms in adipose tissue refer to abnormal and excessive growths of cells that form tumors within the fatty connective tissue. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms, such as lipomas, are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body (metastasis). An example of a malignant neoplasm in adipose tissue is liposarcoma. It's important to note that while some neoplasms may not cause any symptoms, others can cause pain, swelling or other uncomfortable sensations, and therefore should be evaluated by a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A germ-line mutation is a genetic change that occurs in the egg or sperm cells (gametes), and thus can be passed down from parents to their offspring. These mutations are present throughout the entire body of the offspring, as they are incorporated into the DNA of every cell during embryonic development.

Germ-line mutations differ from somatic mutations, which occur in other cells of the body that are not involved in reproduction. While somatic mutations can contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases within an individual, they are not passed down to future generations.

It's important to note that germ-line mutations can have significant implications for medical genetics and inherited diseases. For example, if a parent has a germ-line mutation in a gene associated with a particular disease, their offspring may have an increased risk of developing that disease as well.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A modified radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the whole breast tissue (including the nipple and areola), some of the axillary lymph nodes, and the lining over the chest muscles. However, unlike a radical mastectomy, the underlying major chest muscle (the pectoralis major) is left intact unless it is directly involved by cancer. This type of mastectomy is often performed for breast cancer staging, particularly in cases where there's confirmation or suspicion of cancer in the lymph nodes, but the tumor is too large to be treated with breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy).

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to obtain a sample of cells or tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area in the body, such as a lump or mass. The needle is typically smaller than that used in a core needle biopsy, and it is guided into place using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

The sample obtained during an FNB can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, including cancer, infection, or inflammation. The procedure is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, with minimal risks of complications such as bleeding, infection, or discomfort. However, the accuracy of the diagnosis depends on the skill and experience of the healthcare provider performing the biopsy, as well as the adequacy of the sample obtained.

Overall, FNB is a valuable diagnostic tool that can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about treatment options and improve patient outcomes.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Gene amplification is a process in molecular biology where a specific gene or set of genes are copied multiple times, leading to an increased number of copies of that gene within the genome. This can occur naturally in cells as a response to various stimuli, such as stress or exposure to certain chemicals, but it can also be induced artificially through laboratory techniques for research purposes.

In cancer biology, gene amplification is often associated with tumor development and progression, where the amplified genes can contribute to increased cell growth, survival, and drug resistance. For example, the overamplification of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer has been linked to more aggressive tumors and poorer patient outcomes.

In diagnostic and research settings, gene amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are commonly used to detect and analyze specific genes or genetic sequences of interest. These methods allow researchers to quickly and efficiently generate many copies of a particular DNA sequence, facilitating downstream analysis and detection of low-abundance targets.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Mucin-1, also known as MUC1, is a type of protein called a transmembrane mucin. It is heavily glycosylated and found on the surface of many types of epithelial cells, including those that line the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts.

Mucin-1 has several functions, including:

* Protecting the underlying epithelial cells from damage caused by friction, chemicals, and microorganisms
* Helping to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier
* Acting as a receptor for various signaling molecules
* Participating in immune responses

In cancer, MUC1 can be overexpressed or aberrantly glycosylated, which can contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. As a result, MUC1 has been studied as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Mediastinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves. Mediastinal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from any of the tissues or organs within the mediastinum.

Benign mediastinal neoplasms may include thymomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, or teratomas, among others. These tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause symptoms or complications by compressing adjacent structures within the mediastinum, such as the airways, blood vessels, or nerves.

Malignant mediastinal neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Common types of malignant mediastinal neoplasms include thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors often require aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, to control their growth and spread.

It is important to note that mediastinal neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location, size, and type. Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may experience cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, or swallowing difficulties. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and biopsies, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the best course of treatment for mediastinal neoplasms.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of medications that act as either agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors in different tissues of the body. They selectively bind to estrogen receptors and can have opposite effects depending on the target tissue. In some tissues, such as bone and liver, SERMs behave like estrogens and stimulate estrogen receptors, promoting bone formation and reducing cholesterol levels. In contrast, in other tissues, such as breast and uterus, SERMs block the effects of estrogen, acting as estrogen antagonists and preventing the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Examples of SERMs include:

* Tamoxifen: used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
* Raloxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.
* Toremifene: used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors.
* Lasofoxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

It is important to note that SERMs can have side effects, including hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and an increased risk of blood clots. The choice of a specific SERM depends on the individual patient's needs, medical history, and potential risks.

Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a tyrosine kinase enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. It is named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, as JAK2 has two similar phosphate-transferring domains. JAK2 is involved in various cytokine receptor-mediated signaling pathways and contributes to hematopoiesis, immune function, and cell growth.

Mutations in the JAK2 gene have been associated with several myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. The most common mutation is JAK2 V617F, which results in a constitutively active enzyme that promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation and survival, contributing to the development of these MPNs.

Basal cell neoplasms are a type of skin cancer that originates from the basal cells, which are located in the lower epidermis (outermost layer of the skin). These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. The most common malignant form is Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), which is a slow-growing cancer that rarely spreads to other parts of the body. BCC typically appears as a pearly or waxy bump, or a flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion on the skin, often occurring in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, and arms.

Benign basal cell neoplasms include Basal Cell Papillomas and Basal Cell Adenomas. These are typically found in the head and neck region, and they appear as small, firm, skin-colored bumps. They are usually not harmful but can cause cosmetic concerns or local tissue damage if they grow large enough to cause pressure on surrounding structures.

It is important to note that while basal cell neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, it is still crucial to have any suspicious skin lesions evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Carcinoma, acinar cell is a type of pancreatic cancer that originates in the acinar cells of the pancreas. The acinar cells are responsible for producing digestive enzymes. This type of cancer is relatively rare and accounts for less than 5% of all pancreatic cancers. It typically presents with symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Tongue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tongue tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign tongue neoplasms may include entities such as papillomas, fibromas, or granular cell tumors. They are typically slow growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tongue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant tongue neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the tongue.

Tongue neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening on the tongue, pain or burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and unexplained bleeding from the mouth. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Nervous system neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that occur within the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their growth can compress or infiltrate surrounding tissues, leading to various neurological symptoms. The causes of nervous system neoplasms are not fully understood but may involve genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and certain viral infections. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and size of the tumor and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Spinal cord neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors within the spinal cord. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They originate from the cells within the spinal cord itself (primary tumors), or they may spread to the spinal cord from other parts of the body (metastatic tumors). Spinal cord neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Vaginal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of vaginal neoplasms are:

1. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN): This is a condition where the cells on the inner lining of the vagina become abnormal but have not invaded deeper tissues. VAIN can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on the severity of the cell changes.
2. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells in the vagina. The two main types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all cases.

Risk factors for vaginal neoplasms include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, older age, history of cervical cancer or precancerous changes, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Ileal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the ileum, which is the final portion of the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Common types of ileal neoplasms include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that can develop in the ileum and have the potential to become cancerous over time if not removed.
2. Carcinoids: These are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that typically start in the ileum. They can produce hormones that cause symptoms such as diarrhea, flushing, and heart problems.
3. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells lining the ileum. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and require prompt treatment.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers that start in the immune system cells found in the ileum's lining. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that develop from the connective tissue of the ileum's wall. While most GISTs are benign, some can be malignant and require treatment.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of ileal neoplasms can significantly improve outcomes and prognosis. Regular screenings and check-ups with a healthcare provider are recommended for individuals at higher risk for developing these growths.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

Margolese RG, Fisher B, Hortobagyi GN, Bloomer WD (2000). "Neoplasms of the Breast". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. ( ... Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such ... Giordano SH, Cohen DS, Buzdar AU, Perkins G, Hortobagyi GN (July 2004). "Breast carcinoma in men: a population-based study". ... of breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women." Increase in incidence in the exposed group, such as "each daily alcoholic ...
"Neoplasms of the Breast". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Breast Cancer Collaborative Management. CRC ... He was a principal investigator and member of the Executive Committee of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project, which, ... "Guideline 3: Mastectomy or lumpectomy? The choice of operation for clinical stages I and II breast cancer [Supplement, CMAJ - ... "Top Takeaways from ASCO: Breast Cancer". www.healio.com. Retrieved 2015-06-23. Margolese, Richard G.; Fisher, Bernard; ...
The World Health Organization (2019) classified papillary neoplasms (i.e. benign or cancerous tumors) of the breast into 5 ... Brogi E, Krystel-Whittemore M (January 2021). "Papillary neoplasms of the breast including upgrade rates and management of ... Tay TK, Tan PH (June 2021). "Papillary neoplasms of the breast-reviewing the spectrum". Modern Pathology. 34 (6): 1044-1061. ... Ross DS, D'Alfonso TM (March 2022). "Papillary Neoplasms of the Breast: Diagnostic Features and Molecular Insights". Surgical ...
Li F.P.; Fraumeni J.F. (October 1969). "Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". Ann. ... Erratum for "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms"". Science. 259 ( ... 1990). "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): ... except breast cancer if the proband has breast cancer) before age 56 years or with multiple tumors at any age Multiple tumors ( ...
They account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. They were previously termed cystosarcoma phyllodes, coined by Johannes ... Phyllodes tumors account for approximately 1% of all breast neoplasms. They primarily occur in adult women, with very few ... 2011). "Management of phyllodes breast tumors". The Breast Journal. 17 (2): 129-137. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2010.01045.x. PMID ... Radiation treatment, after breast-conserving surgery with negative margins, may significantly reduce the local recurrence rate ...
Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome? Ann Intern Med 1969:71:747-752. Li FP, Fraumeni ... Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms. Science 1990:250: 1233-1238. ( ...
The incidence of mammary desmoid tumors is less than 0.2% of primary breast neoplasms. In Gardner's syndrome, the incidence ... The extra-abdominal form is rare and desmoids of the breast may arise in the mammary gland or may occur as an extension of a ... Rammohan A, Wood JJ (2012). "Desmoid tumour of the breast as a manifestation of Gardner's syndrome". Int J Surg Case Rep. 3 (5 ... Baranov E, Hornick JL (March 2020). "Soft Tissue Special Issue: Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ...
Fibromyoma of the breast is an extremely rare benign breast neoplasm. Most reports in literature mention a history of ... Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare and in particular leiomyomas of the gallbladder have been rarely reported, ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Radiologic Pathology Archives: Esophageal Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation Rachel B. Lewis, ... Accessed 2017-07-08 Radiologic Pathology Archives: Esophageal Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation Rachel B. Lewis, ...
The cancers included cancer of the brain, lung, bowel, breast, and bladder, and other neoplasms. It has been hypothesised[by ...
... breast carcinoma, and other neoplasms in young patients. Cancer developed in an autosomal dominant pattern in 151 blood ... "Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): 1233-8. ... These neoplasms also accounted for 73% of the multiple primary cancers occurring in 15 family members. Six of these patients ... These young patients had a total of 50 bone and soft tissue sarcomas of diverse histological subtypes and 28 breast cancers. ...
"Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): 1233-1238 ... Connective and soft tissue neoplasms, Small-blue-round-cell tumors, Sarcoma, Rare cancers). ...
... neoplasm) in the fat-augmented breasts. Moreover, given the sensitive, biologic nature of breast tissue, periodic MRI and 3-D ... breast reduction, breast reconstruction, and liposuction of the breast. Nonetheless, detecting breast cancer is primary, and ... Breast augmentation via autologous fat grafts allows the oncological breast surgeon to consider conservative breast surgery ... the reconstructed breasts had a natural form, look, and feel, and the stable breast-volumes ranged 300-600 ml per breast. The ...
It also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective ... 2003). Models of Breast Cancer: quo vadis, animal modeling? Breast Cancer Research 6(31), 31-38.doi: 10.1186/bcr723 Pulaski BA ... Fantozzi, A; Christofori, G (2006). "Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis". Breast Cancer Research. 8 (4): 212. doi:10.1186 ... Mice may not be an ideal model for breast cancer. This is mainly due to the lack of precision in many of the models. When ...
", "breast cancer" to "breast neoplasms". Where appropriate, these MeSH terms are automatically "expanded", that is, include ...
In 2009, an update including 5 more years (up to 1996) found an increase in "lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms" and ... increased breast cancer. A 2008 study evaluated whether maternal exposure is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function ...
Benign neoplasms, Breast neoplasia). ... The rate at which breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ or ... Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is the term used for a benign lesion of the breast that indicates an increased risk of breast ... Feb 1992). "A prospective study of benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer". JAMA. 267 (7): 941-4. doi:10.1001/jama ... Ductal carcinoma in situ Breast cancer Collagenous spherulosis "Understanding Breast Changes - National Cancer Institute". ...
TTC39A has been tested for association to diseases like breast neoplasms and is expected to have molecular binding function and ... breast carcinoma, etc. There are five different transcript variants for the TTC39B gene. Isoform 1 is the longest transcript ...
... astrocytic neoplasms, phaeochromocytomas and breast cancer. No effective therapy NF1 yet exists. Instead, people with ... which develops myeloproliferative neoplasms similar to those found in NF1 juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia/JMML) were used to ... an oral selective MEK inhibitor used previously in several advanced adult neoplasms. The children enrolled in the study ...
... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 - spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588.180.390 ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.250.250 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 - skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 - jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450.583 ... palatal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.600 - nose neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.656 - orbital neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721. ...
... hCG was discovered to be expressed in certain kinds of malignant neoplasms, including breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of the ... Agnantis NJ, Patra F, Khaldi L, Filis S (1992). "Immunohistochemical expression of subunit beta HCG in breast cancer". Eur. J. ...
... benign and metastatic neoplasms (such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and oral cancer), infectious conditions (such as HIV ... A 2000 study compared the salivary levels of a breast cancer marker (HER2/neu) in healthy women, women with benign breast ... compared saliva from breast cancer patients to that from healthy individuals and observed, notably, that breast cancer patients ... level of this marker was significantly higher in women with breast cancer than in healthy women and women with benign breast ...
Breast Neoplasms, Colorectal Neoplasms, Lung Neoplasms, Malignancies Multiple, Metastatic Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Refractory ... Brain Neoplasm, Central Nervous System Neoplasm, High Grade Glioma: Gliosarcoma, Medulloblastomas, Oligodendroglioma, Acute T ... Lomustine is approved for the treatment of brain tumors, breast cancer, lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and melanoma by Health ...
... breast cyst MeSH C17.800.090.500 - breast neoplasms MeSH C17.800.090.500.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C17.800.090.500.390 ... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C17.800.882.743 - sweat gland neoplasms MeSH C17.800.893.592 - leg ulcer MeSH C17.800.893.592. ... carcinoma, ductal, breast MeSH C17.800.090.500.762 - phyllodes tumor MeSH C17.800.090.750 - fibrocystic breast disease MeSH ... sweat gland neoplasms The list continues at List of MeSH codes (C18). (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February ...
... for malignant neoplasm of breast and 2.2% for transport accident. The under 5 mortality rate was 8.3 per 1000 live birth in the ... and malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus & lung (2.2%). In 2016, the Ischemic heart disease was the principal cause of death ... malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus & lung. For women, the principal cause of death was pneumonia. Deaths due to pneumonia ...
B-cell neoplasm, breast carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, ...
A breast tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue in the breast as a result of neoplasia. A breast neoplasm may be benign, as in ... Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the ... Breast diseases make up a number of conditions. The most common symptoms are a breast mass, breast pain, and nipple discharge. ... Breast cancer is cancer of the breast tissues, most commonly arising from the milk ducts. Worldwide, breast cancer is the ...
"The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms". Blood. 127 (20): 2375-2390. doi: ... Breast Breast augmentation (Augmentation mammoplasty) Breast enlargement supplements Breast reconstruction Breast reduction ... The breast implant has no clinical bearing upon lumpectomy breast-conservation surgery for women who developed breast cancer ... The breast cancer studies Cancer in the Augmented Breast: Diagnosis and Prognosis (1993) and Breast Cancer after Augmentation ...
"Overview of the 2022 WHO Classification of Thyroid Neoplasms". Endocrine Pathology. 33 (1): 27-63. doi:10.1007/s12022-022-09707 ... Invasive cribriform carcinoma of the breast (ICCB), also termed invasive cribriform carcinoma, is a rare type of breast cancer ... Erber R, Hartmann A (August 2020). "Histology of Luminal Breast Cancer". Breast Care (Basel, Switzerland). 15 (4): 327-336. doi ... and outcomes of special types in breast cancer in a single institution population". The Breast Journal. 26 (11): 2163-2169. doi ...
... liposuction mammoplasty also is contraindicated for any woman whose mammograms indicate the presence of unevaluated neoplasms; ... Medial Pedicle and Mastopexy Breast Reduction at eMedicine Breast Mastopexy at eMedicine Medial Pedicle and Mastopexy Breast ... from each breast, and the degree of breast ptosis present: Pseudoptosis (sagging of the inferior pole of the breast; the nipple ... when breast milk constitutes most of the breast volume. Surgically, the breast is an apocrine gland overlaying the chest - ...
Breast cysts (as occur commonly during pregnancy and at other times) are another example, as are other encapsulated glandular ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The word neoplasm is from Ancient Greek νέος- neo 'new' and πλάσμα plasma 'formation, creation'. A neoplasm can be benign, ... The process that occurs to form or produce a neoplasm is called neoplasia. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that ...
FERREIRA, Naidhia Alves Soares et al. Inflammatory breast neoplasms: a systematic review. Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ... "Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms" (MeSH Terms), filtered by Languages (English OR Portuguese OR Spanish). FINDINGS: Of the ... OVERVIEW: Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is a rare and very aggressive type of cancer that tends to develop at a younger age ... compared with other subtypes of breast cancer. Because a distinct lump may not be noticeable, correct diagnosis takes longer ...
Malignant neoplasm of breast, number of deaths, by sex, Categories: Cancer mortality ... Malignant neoplasm of breast, number of deaths (Line chart) * Malignant neoplasm of breast, number of deaths, female (Line ... Deaths(#), females, Malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri MDB * Deaths(#), females, Malignant neoplasm of other parts of uterus ... Indicator full name: Malignant neoplasm of breast, number of deaths, by sex ...
Mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early, when it is easier to treat. ... Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women in the US. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Breast Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast (National ... What is breast cancer?. Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in breast tissue. It happens when cells in the breast change and ...
Bone Neoplasms* * Breast Neoplasms* * Female * Germ Cells / pathology * Human Papillomavirus Viruses * Humans ...
Margolese RG, Fisher B, Hortobagyi GN, Bloomer WD (2000). "Neoplasms of the Breast". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. ( ... Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such ... Giordano SH, Cohen DS, Buzdar AU, Perkins G, Hortobagyi GN (July 2004). "Breast carcinoma in men: a population-based study". ... of breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women." Increase in incidence in the exposed group, such as "each daily alcoholic ...
Malignant neoplasm of breast. C50.P. prevent breast cancer. C61. Malignant neoplasm of prostate. ...
... female C50.52 Malignant neoplasm of lower-outer quadrant of breast, male ... Codes Description C50.51 Malignant neoplasm of lower-outer quadrant of breast, ... 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes C50-C50 - Malignant neoplasms of breast (C50). , 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes C50 - Malignant neoplasm of breast ( ... 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes C50.5 - Malignant neoplasm of lower-outer quadrant of breast (C50.5). *Codes Description ...
The World Health Organization (2019) classified papillary neoplasms (i.e. benign or cancerous tumors) of the breast into 5 ... Brogi E, Krystel-Whittemore M (January 2021). "Papillary neoplasms of the breast including upgrade rates and management of ... Tay TK, Tan PH (June 2021). "Papillary neoplasms of the breast-reviewing the spectrum". Modern Pathology. 34 (6): 1044-1061. ... Ross DS, DAlfonso TM (March 2022). "Papillary Neoplasms of the Breast: Diagnostic Features and Molecular Insights". Surgical ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common human neoplasms, accounting for one quarter of all cancers in females.1 Hormone therapy ... 3. Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast ... Gelber RD, Gelber S; International Breast Cancer Study Group; Breast International Group. Facilitating consensus by examining ... Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing in breast carcinoma: concordance of results between local and reference laboratories ...
Dive into the research topics of Differential diagnosis of lung lesion in breast carcinoma: A metachronous neoplasm or ... Differential diagnosis of lung lesion in breast carcinoma: A metachronous neoplasm or metastasis?. ...
Breast Neoplasms. *Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. *Colorectal Neoplasms. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px;} Name. ... Manager (PCM), can increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates. among minority and low-income women.. - ...
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Prostatic Neoplasms. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ Cells. Arabs. Breast Neoplasms ...
Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkins disease. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 21. 334(12):745-51. [QxMD ... Second Malignant Neoplasms. Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer survivors (see Table 1 below) are caused by ... The risk to a specific site may be related to the proliferative capacity of that tissue (eg, bone and breast during puberty). [ ... Second malignant neoplasms in five-year survivors of childhood cancer: childhood cancer survivor study. J Natl Cancer Inst. ...
KEYWORDS: Breast neoplasm; Cancer related pain; Complementary and alternative medicine; Systematic review. PMID: 32147038 DOI: ... Effect of complementary and alternative medicine interventions on cancer related pain among breast cancer patients: A ... OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CAM interventions for cancer-related pain in breast cancer ... and Reiki improve cancer-related pain in breast cancer patients. However, aromatherapy had no effect on the same.. CONCLUSIONS ...
Categories: Breast Neoplasms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
Humans, Female, Middle Aged, Adult, Child, Ethnicity, Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis, Cross-Sectional Studies, Early Detection of ... Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Cross-Sectional Studies; Early Detection of Cancer; Hispanic or Latino}}, language = {{eng}}, month ... IMPORTANCE: Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and there is a substantial disparity in BC ... IMPORTANCE: Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and there is a substantial disparity in BC ...
Search terms included the following: "breast," "breast neoplasms," "mastectomy," "radiotherapy" and "locoregional radiotherapy ... Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group: Effects of radiotherapy and surgery in early breast cancer: an overview of ... Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group: Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. ... Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group: Systemic treatment of early breast cancer by hormonal, cytotoxic or immune ...
Breast Neoplasms (Breast Cancer) 04/12/2010 - "Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) suppresses tumor growth and enhances ... Neoplasms (Cancer) 04/12/2010 - "Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity in ... 04/12/2010 - "To evaluate the impact of microtubule mass and dynamics on the phenotype and sensitivity of breast cancer cells, ... chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells.". 02/01/2011 - "Silencing of tubulin binding cofactor C modifies microtubule ...
Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Paclitaxel. Letrozole. Fulvestrant. ... Palbociclib in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Within the HER2-Enriched Intrinsic Subtype (HARMONIA). The safety and ... Stefanie Spielman Comprehensive Breast Center. Principal Investigator:. Tomás Pascual, MD. Hospital Clínic of Barcelona / SOLTI ... Metastatic Breast Cancer Drug: Ribociclib + Letrozole OR Fulvestrant Drug: Palbociclib + Letrozole OR Fulvestrant Drug: ...
Breast Neoplasms. 12. Diabetes Mellitus. 11. Schizophrenia. 11. [disabled in preview]. 0. ... A Research Study of CP-724,714 in Patients With HER2 Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancer. Terminated. Pfizer. Phase 2. 2005 ... help in the treatment of certain breast cancers that have spread to other locations in the body. Other goals of this study are ... sequentially over 5 years in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. This Pfizer sponsored ...
cancer and other neoplasms (such as lung cancer and breast cancer) and ...
Malignant neoplasm of breast. C50. 13.05. 900. 13. 887. 807. 12. 795. 84. 1. 83. 9. 8. ... In situ neoplasms, benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior ... Malignant neoplasms of meninges, brain, and other parts of central nervous system ...
Neoplasms Benign, Malignant and Unspecified (Including Cysts and Polyps): Breast cancer, benign breast neoplasm, hepatic ... 5.11 Malignant Neoplasms. Breast Cancer Tri-Lo-Sprintec is contraindicated in females who currently have or have had breast ... If you have breast cancer now, or have had it in the past, do not use hormonal birth control because some breast cancers are ... 5.11 Malignant Neoplasms 5.12 Effect on Binding Globulins 5.13 Monitoring 5.14 Hereditary Angioedema 5.15 Chloasma 6 ADVERSE ...
Breast Neoplasms * Share * Report error [X]. Reason Invalid Link. Bad content. Other. ...
Breast Neoplasm - A tumor or cancer, of either of the two milk-secreting organs on the chest of a woman. ... breast tenderness, headaches, bloating, anxiety, and depression. The symptoms cease shortly after the period begins, and ...
Only a third (28.1%) of the opinions retrieved mentioned a specific neoplasm: mostly breast or ovarian cancer. In the other ... Hübner J, Hanf V. Commonly Used Methods of Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Breast Cancer. Breast Care 2013;8(5):1. [ ... complementary and alternative medicine; Internet; neoplasms; health information online; website content analysis; barriers to ... In fact, the Italian Association of Cancer Registries [64] reports that breast cancer was the most common incident cancer among ...
  • 2q35-rs13387042 SNP was genotyped for 31 510 women with invasive breast cancer, 1101 women with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 35 969 female control subjects from 25 studies. (nih.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (2019) classified papillary neoplasms (i.e. benign or cancerous tumors) of the breast into 5 types: intraductal papilloma, papillary ductal carcinoma in situ (PDCIS), encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC), solid-papillary carcinoma (SPC), and invasive papillary carcinoma (IPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast disorders occurring in pediatric patients range from congenital conditions to neonatal infections and from benign disorders such as fibroadenoma in females and gynecomastia in males to breast carcinoma and rhabdomyosarcoma . (medscape.com)
  • They also show that families with the CDKN2A 113insArg mutation have an increased risk not only of multiple melanomas and pancreatic carcinoma but also of breast cancer. (lu.se)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Stereotactic breast biopsy of noncalcified lesions: a cost-minimization analysis comparing 14-gauge multipass automated core biopsy to 14- and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy. (duke.edu)
  • A decision model was used to compare the relative costs of the 14-gauge automated gun technique to the 14-gauge and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted techniques for stereotactic biopsy of noncalcified breast lesions. (duke.edu)
  • PURPOSE: To compare histologic findings of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at 14-gauge, directional, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (hereafter, vacuum-assisted biopsy) and at 14-gauge, automated, large-core breast biopsy (hereafter, large-core biopsy) with findings at histologic examination after surgical biopsy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nonpalpable breast lesions were diagnosed as ADH at histologic examination after vacuum-assisted biopsy in 88 lesions in seven institutions and after large-core biopsy in 55 previously reported lesions. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The accurate determination of the presence or absence of LVI is a factor in determining risk of having a positive sentinel node, or having additional positive axillary nodes after a positive sentinel node biopsy in women with early-stage breast cancer. (psu.edu)
  • 2010. HOXA9 regulates BRCA1 expression to modulate human breast tumor phenotype. . (ucsf.edu)
  • 1996. The importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer progression: recapitulation of mammary tumorigenesis using a unique human mammary epithelial cell model and a three-dimensional culture assay. . (ucsf.edu)
  • This is a systematic review of studies in the PubMed database to April 2013, which fit the eligibility criterion of "Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms" (MeSH Terms), filtered by Languages (English OR Portuguese OR Spanish). (bvsalud.org)
  • To provide a systematic review and meta-analysis that evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) compared to standard contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI). (jcancer.org)
  • Little is known about the effects of diet after breast cancer diagnosis on survival. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We prospectively examined the relation between post-diagnosis dietary factors and breast cancer and all-cause survival in women with a history of invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1987 and 1999 (at ages 20-79 years). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Diet after breast cancer diagnosis was measured using a 126-item food frequency questionnaire. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This study suggests that lower intake of saturated and trans fat in the post-diagnosis diet is associated with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast. (bvsalud.org)
  • They are a clinically, histologically, and biologically heterogeneous group of breast cancers that are often difficult to distinguish from each other as well as from other papillary breast lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of PBS tumors may require the input of breast pathologists familiar with papillary lesions of the breast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This systematic search assessed the diagnostic accuracy of these techniques in women with suspicious breast lesions on prior imaging or physical examination, who have undergone both breast MRI and CEM. (jcancer.org)
  • We correlated cytologic and histologic findings and evaluated the influence of the size, location, grade, and pathologic subtypes and fibrosis in breast lesions on diagnostic results. (korea.ac.kr)
  • A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • IMPORTANCE: Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and there is a substantial disparity in BC mortality by race, especially for early-onset BC in Black women. (lu.se)
  • Mortality of breast neoplasm in Sicily]. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are also certain genetic changes that can raise your risk of breast cancer, including changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1997. Reversion of the malignant phenotype of human breast cells in three-dimensional culture and in vivo by integrin blocking antibodies. . (ucsf.edu)
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is a rare and very aggressive type of cancer that tends to develop at a younger age, compared with other subtypes of breast cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inflammatory breast cancer , in which cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgical drainage should be considered only when needle aspiration is unsuccessful, because an operation may damage the breast bud and result in reduction of adult breast size. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast at our institution and to perform quality assurance. (korea.ac.kr)
  • The most common breast abnormality seen in a primary caregiver's office in children younger than 12 years is a unilateral breast mass corresponding to asymmetrical breast development. (medscape.com)
  • Despite methodological differences, findings evidence that although IBC presents particular features (lower survival rate and worse prognostics than most types of breast cancer), very few studies examine its epidemiology and specific risk factors in depth and use any other therapeutic approaches than those commonly used for other breast cancer subtypes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such as "A woman is more than 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer in her 60s than in her 20s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detailed quantitative MWF exposure data were available for each subject, although data on known breast cancer risk factors were not. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional studies of MWF and breast cancer, with data on known breast cancer risk factors, are warranted. (cdc.gov)
  • Hence, breast MRI is not a primary imaging modality in breast imaging, but is only indicated for very specific patient populations [ 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Papillary carcinomas of the breast (PCB), also termed malignant papillary carcinomas of the breast, are rare forms of the breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paget's disease of the breast , which is a cancer involving the skin of the nipple. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Understanding the performance and limitations of FNAC can enhance its value as a diagnostic technique in the management of breast disease. (korea.ac.kr)
  • Breast cancer happens when there are changes in the genetic material (DNA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Breast cancer that is caused by inherited genetic changes is called hereditary breast cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pooled DOR estimates, however, indicate higher overall diagnostic performance of breast MRI compared to CEM. (jcancer.org)
  • This involves checking for any lumps or anything else that seems unusual with the breasts and armpits. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For patient education information, see Breast Lumps and Pain and Breast Self-Exam . (medscape.com)
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The discharge might happen suddenly, be bloody, or happen in only one breast. (medlineplus.gov)
  • abstract = "On a pathological specimen of breast cancer cells, retraction artifact during histological processing mimics true lymphovascular invasion (LVI). (psu.edu)
  • Hazard ratio, such as "an increase in both total and invasive breast cancers in women randomized to receive estrogen and progestin for an average of 5 years, with a hazard ratio of 1.24 compared to controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decision for surgical drainage should be carefully made because future breast deformation may occur. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical breast reconstruction, after locoregional scar contractures in large burns10,11. (bvsalud.org)
  • Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in breast tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Athelia (ie, absence of nipples) and amastia (ie, absence of breast tissue) may occur bilaterally or unilaterally. (medscape.com)
  • Accessory or ectopic breast tissue responds to hormonal stimulation and may cause discomfort during menstrual cycles. (medscape.com)
  • Mastitis neonatorum or infections of the breast tissue may also occur during the newborn period. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolically activated adipose tissue macrophages link obesity to triple-negative breast cancer. (uchicago.edu)
  • Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid s and risk of breast cancer among female autoworkers. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. (bvsalud.org)
  • Besides genetics, your lifestyle and the environment can affect your risk of breast cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Who is at risk for breast cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fraction of incidences occurring in the group having the property of or being exposed to the risk factor, such as "99% of breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that MWF may be associated with risk of breast cancer because they can contain carcinogenic or endocrine-disrupting chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • There was a weak positive association between lifetime cumulative exposure to soluble MWF and breast cancer risk, but no evidence of association with either straight or synthetic fluid s. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: This hypothesis-generating study provides some preliminary evidence for an association between exposure to soluble MWF and increased risk of breast cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • A CEM examination, in which an iodinated contrast agent is administered followed by the acquisition of a dual-energy mammography, uses the same physiological contrast enhancement principle as breast MRI [ 8 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Increase in incidence in the exposed group, such as "each daily alcoholic beverage increases the incidence of breast cancer by 11 cases per 1000 women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Associations were similar, though did not achieve statistical significance, for breast cancer survival. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Start levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets no earlier than four weeks after delivery in females who are not breast-feeding. (drugs.com)
  • Budding of the breasts, or thelarche, usually occurs at approximately age 10-11 years in females. (medscape.com)
  • 0001). Families with breast cancer also had a propensity for multiple melanomas in females, suggesting that a sex-dependent factor may modify the phenotypic expression of CDKN2A alterations. (lu.se)
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An extra breast (ie, polymastia) or extra nipple (ie, polythelia) occurs in approximately 1% of the population. (medscape.com)
  • Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 3 ] One breast commonly develops earlier than the other, though the breasts ultimately become symmetrical. (medscape.com)
  • Sentinel lymphadenectomy is an effective and accurate tool for staging breast cancer. (johnshopkins.edu)