In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A secretoglobin that is produced by the MAMMARY GLAND of HUMANS and may be involved in the binding of ANDROGENS and other STEROIDS. The expression of this protein in normal breast epithelium and in human breast cancer has made it an important histological marker.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.

A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (1/2970)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (2/2970)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. (3/2970)

The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances.  (+info)

A new tool for measuring the suckling stimulus during breastfeeding in humans: the orokinetogram and the Fourier series. (4/2970)

The Fourier series was used to analyse the oral movements recorded by the orokinetogram during breastfeeding in human babies. This is a new method that allows recording of oral movements without introducing any extrinsic element between the nipple and the mouth of the baby. The advantage of displaying suckling activity after fast Fourier transform (FFT) is that this algorithm allows storage, quantification and frequency analysis of the oral movements throughout a suckling bout, which enables the total oral activity to be measured. Two types of oral movements are found: slow high amplitude (SHA) and fast low amplitude (FLA). FLA movements may be derived from peristaltic movements of the tongue that result in tickling stimuli to the mechanoreceptors of the nipple and milk expression. The frequency bandwidth of oral movements is wider (0-8 Hz) than has been described previously (0-3 Hz) and this is due to the presence of the FLA oral movements. An indirect measurement of the energy of oral movements during suckling is obtained by the pattern of energy distribution used in each individual frequency band by oral movements. This pattern changes in relation to the periods of continuous and intermittent suckling activity. SHA and FLA oral movements are more intense during continuous suckling. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the energy of SHA and FLA waves throughout the suckling bout, and also that the highest level of energy during suckling activity is displayed during the first 2 min. The novel tools described in this paper allow investigation of the role of suckling stimulus in reflex hormone release and other mother-infant interactions.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels. (5/2970)

The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children.  (+info)

Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya. (6/2970)

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.  (+info)

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented? (7/2970)

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health. (8/2970)

An increase in exclusive breastfeeding prevalence can substantially reduce mortality and morbidity among infants. In this paper, estimates of the costs and impacts of three breastfeeding promotion programmes, implemented through maternity services in Brazil, Honduras and Mexico, are used to develop cost-effectiveness measures and these are compared with other health interventions. The results show that breastfeeding promotion can be one of the most cost-effective health interventions for preventing cases of diarrhoea, preventing deaths from diarrhoea, and gaining disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The benefits are substantial over a broad range of programme types. Programmes starting with the removal of formula and medications during delivery are likely to derive a high level of impact per unit of net incremental cost. Cost-effectiveness is lower (but still attractive relative to other interventions) if hospitals already have rooming-in and no bottle-feeds; and the cost-effectiveness improves as programmes become well-established. At an annual cost of about 30 to 40 US cents per birth, programmes starting with formula feeding in nurseries and maternity wards can reduce diarrhoea cases for approximately $0.65 to $1.10 per case prevented, diarrhoea deaths for $100 to $200 per death averted, and reduce the burden of disease for approximately $2 to $4 per DALY. Maternity services that have already eliminated formula can, by investing from $2 to $3 per birth, prevent diarrhoea cases and deaths for $3.50 to $6.75 per case, and $550 to $800 per death respectively, with DALYs gained at $12 to $19 each.  (+info)

CALDEIRA, Antônio P. and GONCALVES, Eduardo. Assessment of the impact of implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.2, pp.127-132. ISSN 0021-7557. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on the breastfeeding practices of mothers from the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed of two cross-sectional breastfeeding indicator studies with randomized samples of children under 2 years of age. One study was carried out before and the other after the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative had been implemented throughout all public pregnancy and childbirth care services in the city. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were constructed for different breastfeeding patterns. Log rank testing was used to calculate the level of significance of differences between curves for before and after the Initiative. RESULTS: The survival ...
Worldwide Breastfeeding Resources - World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action [WABA], The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust, UNICEF, WHO, LLL, Linkages Project
A new paper in JAMA Pediatrics is the latest in a series of critiques of the so-called baby friendly hospital movement. Previously, the global...
Map Unavailable Date/Time Date(s) - February 21, 2013 11:30 AM - 1:00 PM Location Future Care Old Court Contact Info: 4109003657 [email protected] Category(ies) Free Education Seminar Understanding the Hospital initiatives to create a better pathway for hospital discharges to your Assisted Living Community. Thursday February 21st 2013 11:30 to 1:00 pm FutureCare Old Court 5412 Old Court Road Baltimore, MD 21133 • What are the Hospitals Saying? • How can you help Hospitals • What is the key to help […]
The first hospitals verified as Baby-Friendly in the USA were on the Pacific coast. Among the earliest, if not the first US hospital to receive this designation was Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, in Kirkland, WA, which was certified in September 1996. All of these early adopters were able to achieve 100% breastfeeding initiation rates.[31] In New York City, the Harlem Hospital Center was the first hospital to receive the Baby Friendly certification granted by Baby-Friendly USA for the city in 2008.[32] In 2011, New York University Langone Medical Center became the second hospital to receive the Baby-Friendly Hospital designation in New York City.[33] As of May 2, 2018, the United States only had 512 hospitals that hold the Baby-Friendly designation. This translates to 24.57% of annual births occurring in a Baby-Friendly hospital.[34] Mothers in the United States face prejudice regarding breastfeeding their children. The US Surgeon General reported in 2001 that 57% of U.S. adults believe ...
It is well established that infants breast fed by their HIV-infected mothers are at risk of acquiring HIV infection through breast milk. However, in low resource settings, where the HIV epidemic now predominates, breast feeding cannot simply be replaced by breast milk substitutes since alternatives to breast milk are unavailable, unaffordable and unsafe. With this application we aim to test the safety and efficacy of short duration exclusive breast feeding to minimize risks of HIV transmission without increasing risks of non-HIV infant mortality. We propose a 5-year study of HIV-positive mothers and their children to be conducted in two urban primary health care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. All HIV-positive women and their infants will be offered the two-dose nevirapine intervention and will be counseled about the risks and benefits of infant feeding options. Women who indicate their decision to breast feed will be eligible for enrollment into the study. A culturally appropriate, affordable and ...
While breastfeeding is a natural act, it is also a learned behaviour. An extensive body of research has demonstrated that mothers and other caregivers require active support for establishing and sustaining appropriate breastfeeding practices. WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992, to strengthen maternity practices to support breastfeeding. The foundation for the BFHI are the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding described in Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding: a Joint WHO/UNICEF Statement. The evidence for the effectiveness of the Ten Steps has been summarized in a scientific review document.. The BFHI has been implemented in about 16.000 hospitals in 171 countries and it has contributed to improving the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding world-wide. While improved maternity services help to increase the initiation of exclusive breastfeeding, support throughout the health system is required to help mothers sustain exclusive ...
The benefits of breastfeeding have been well documented. The composition of human milk is distinct from the milk of other mammals and from infant formula. Human milk is unique in its physical structure and in the types of concentrations of nutrients, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, host resistance factors, inducers/modulators of the immune system, and anti-inflammatory agents. Research has shown that the advantages of breastfeeding include the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory illness, and other infections as well as certain immunologic disorders. Breastfeeding also provides benefits to the mother.. Therefore, recognizing that breastfeeding plays an uniquely important role in the healthy development of infants and young children, The College of Family Physicians of Canada endorses The WHO Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding and recognizes that this builds on documents previously endorsed by the CFPC, i.e. the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (1991), the ...
The World Health Organization/United Nations Childrens Fund Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated, and Expanded for Integrated Care (2009) identifies the need for expanding the guidelines originally developed for maternity units to include neonatal intensive care. For this purpose, an expert group from the Nordic countries and Quebec, Canada, prepared a draft proposal, which was discussed at an international workshop in Uppsala, Sweden, in September 2011. The expert group suggests the addition of 3 Guiding Principles to the Ten Steps to support this vulnerable population of mothers and infants: 1. The staff attitude to the mother must focus on the individual mother and her situation. 2. The facility must provide family-centered care, supported by the environment. 3. The health care system must ensure continuity of care, that is, continuity of pre-, peri-, and postnatal care and post-discharge care. The goal of the expert group is to create a final document, the Baby Friendly ...
Course content includes principles of adult education; examination of teaching methods that emphasize both delivery of information and integration of skill; use of staff education to promote evidence-based practice and continuity of care; system strategies for improving maternal child health, including the UNICEF/WHO Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; barriers and facilitators of systems change; change management strategies; designing and presenting educational sessions designed to support system change; and fostering the development of learning organizations. Course content is delivered through lecture, video, small and large-group work, student presentations and peer evaluations, as well as homework assignments, quizzes, and textbook readings. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the Lactation Counselor Training Course or suitable breastfeeding education as determined by the instructor.. ...
Lim, S. R., & Newcomb, S. S. (2015). A quality improvement initiative project to evaluate a newborn hearing screening program in a Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative setting. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine (JPNIM), 4(1), e040110. Atkins, D., Samson, A., Lim, S., Visser, W., Siomra, R., Sansom, J., & Yack, E. (2016). Professional partnerships and auditory-verbal therapy. In W. Estabrooks, E.A. Rhoades, K. MacIver-Lux (Eds.), Auditory-Verbal Therapy for Young Children with Hearing Loss and Their Families, and the Practitioners Who Guide Them. San Diego: Plural Publishing ...
You may or may not have decided to breast feed your baby before you gave birth but it is even more important to try and feed your premature baby yourself. Breast feeding will give your newborn the best start in life and is easier for their tiny stomachs to tolerate. Breast milk will also help protect your prem baby from infections.. Your prem baby may not be able to feed from you directly at first, but you can try to express your milk by using an electric or manual pump. You will need to express frequently to encourage a good supply, ready for when they are ready to start feeding from you.. It can take a little while for your milk to become established, this is normal for mums of premature babies. This is because the hormones that encourage your body to produce milk begin in the later stages of pregnancy and if your pregnancy has ended early, then this stage will have been cut short. Dont worry it will happen it just may take a bit of time.. Expressing your milk can make you feel under pressure ...
A special session for pregnant women & lactating mothers at Ritas Pregnancy 101. Covering topics such as the importance of breast feeding, correct techniques to breast feed, advantages of breast feeding, dos & dont and much more. Come join the session at Ritas Pregnancy 101, Prahladnagar, Ahmedabad centre. Pregnancy and After Birth Classes. Save
Justin Graves, Sustainability Coordinator, the University of Maryland Medical Center. Justin Graves is the Sustainability Coordinator for the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, MD. Before joining the Sustainability program full time in January 2013, Justin served as the Green Team Chair since early 2012 and has worked full time as a Trauma Critical Care nurse at UMMC since 2005. His passion for caring for people combined with his concern for the environment made him a perfect fit for the role as Sustainability Coordinator. In his spare time, Justin enjoys growing as many vegetables and herbs as he can in his small urban farm garden.. Judith Focareta, RN, MEd, Coordinator, Environmental Health Initiatives, Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC. Judith Focareta is a maternal-child nurse. She holds a masters degree in health education with a specialty in environmental health. Judy is a certified health teacher in Pennsylvania and taught environmental health K thru 8 at St. Bonaventure ...
Results Patients with AS had been breast fed less often than healthy controls. In families where children were breast fed, the patients with AS were less often breast fed than their healthy siblings (57% vs 72%), giving an OR for AS onset of 0.53 (95% CI (0.36 to 0.77), p value=0.0009). Breast feeding reduced familial prevalence of AS. The frequency of breast feeding was similar in the AS siblings and in the 280 unrelated controls. However, patients with AS were less often breast fed compared with the 280 unrelated controls (OR 0.6, 95% CI (0.42 to 0.89), p,0.01). ...
my 5 month old son is not gaining weight as much as i would love.His current wight is about 8kg,he s been on exclusive breast milk but am trying to introduce milk and cereals but he seems to prefer breast milk.I need to wean him and i also want him to add a bit more weight.What do you recommend? ...
Breast feed your baby for at least the first 5-6 months of life. Most mothers may have to return to work before this period is reached. So, how do you continue to breast feed your baby? Your employer may provide a nursery where your baby and other babies can stay. In that case, by all means take your baby with you to work. If this is not possible, you can give expressed breast milk to your baby. Heres a rough guide as to how you can do it:. ...
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When my journey started with the baby in between, everything seemed so difficult. So many trials, so much pain, and too many tests. But I passed all of them, with my heads up high and with my spirit soaring. Now, Im loving The Baby in Between more and more...And as she continues to grow, all the more that Mommy will make her feel so loved and so cared for. Every milestone with her will be treasured and will be documented in this place we consider ours on the web. This is me - The Baby in Betweens Mom. Witness how this little one brought a difference to my life, to our lives. Now, more than ever, shes brought so much joy - to me and to her dad. Indeed, The Baby in Between that brought us back together, forever ...
How seriously is Apple taking its new subscription games service, Apple Arcade? Pretty seriously if a new report in the Financial Times is to be believed.
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Ok I have 2 kids and one due October 17th my first never latched and I didnt think about pumping and I never lost my milk production then 6 years later my second child arrived and she latched but no matter how much I nursed her I never produced enough but yet 2 years later I have this little one on the way and still have my supply but I want to up the production of my breastmilk and pump before he arrives just in case he doesnt latch I have read that you can but I wanted to have other opinions on this since it would mean a lot to me to be able to breast feed or give him my breast milk even if its with a bottle!
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Is a little bit of projectile vomiting something to be concerned about from a 5 day old infant? - Answered by a verified Pediatrician
My son was born 2 months premature and he was coloniaed ESBL whilst in the NICCU ICU. He has since been moved to a regional hospital where he isolated from the other babies in the nursery. I was told today by infections control that I have most likely contracted ESBL from my son as I breast feed him. I was my hands when I enter and leave the nursery and wash my clothes after every wear. Just wondering how its possible to catch is through breast feeding ...
In the recent past, there has been a push for mothers to exclusively breast feed their children for the first six months after birth. This is because science has proven that breast milk is vital for the health of the infant. However, some ladies are still not convinced and they still opt for alternative feeding for their children in order to keep looking young. No lady wants to have sagging breasts. These women are however oblivious of the importance of breast feeding for both themselves and the child.
A recommendation from the World Health Organization that women exclusively breast feed their infants for six months lacks support from randomized clinical trials -- and warrants a critical reappraisal
Anyway the manual. Actually this thought pattern started because I am sick. My wonderful loving diaper-heads (kids) lovingly passed on their yucky germs to Mom! SO yesterday as I was coughing up a lung and peeing my pants (lol) a thought went through my head and I even said it out loud, God why on earth would you make us women endure nine months of pregnancy giving everything to our growing babies within and not give us super immunity to their illnesses? I mean all we hear about is how when babies are born they have a small amount of immunity to illnesses and that breastfeeding adds to that. Oh dont get me wrong breast feeding is very important and although not everyone feels comfortable with it that is how God created our bodies. I did or at least tried to breast feed my babies. All four of them but unfortunately I never produced enough for any of them. So they always had bottle feedings as well. Ok maybe a bit TMI. All well ...
Hello, my LO is almost 4 months old. I breast feed on demand and give 1 bottle of formula each day. My period has not yet returned. I have a perscription for birth control (Micronor) but Im not taking it, mostly because Ive been off the pill for so long that I cant remember to take it. Currently we use other methods to prevent pregnancy, and Im just wondering if its necessary? Is it possible to get pregnant while Im not having a period at all? Perhaps this is a stupid question....
Hey everyone. I have been EBF for 11 months now. Ive been pumping twice a day at work and breast feed her the rest of the day. Lately, Ive been only pumping 4 oz during those two sessions. Before I would pump like 10 oz a day but now its only 4. I really want to continue breast feeding passed the first year. What can I do to pump more? Shes seems to get satisfied when she nurses but pumping output is terrible. I just more supply overall. What can I do?
I have a 14-month-old baby, whom I breast feed twice a day to put her to sleep. |b|Recently my gynaecologist prescribed Cabgolin 0.5 mg every night for a week to stop the production of milk|/b|. Is it safe to use this drug to stop lactating? What are its side effects? Can I take this drug even when I am feeding her, because stopping feeds and taking the drug would result in engorgement, which I dont want? What are the other options?
June 29, 2012 My granddaughter was born under weight and it took a long time for her to get to the point of being able to use a bottle. She could never get the strength or ability to breast feed. At ...
hi all im pregnant with my first baby im bout 6 months i wana breast feed got ne gud tips how do u no when the baby has had enough does it really hurt like they say?
Kate Middleton is being called on to breast feed the royal baby to set an example for new moms everywhere. Royal experts think she will do so, but regular moms think its nobodys business.
EDITOR-Minervas report of the study by Nduati et al into HIV and infant feeding quotes figures for babies alive and free of infection with HIV-1 at two years.1 One striking finding was the lack of overall difference in infant mortality between the two trial arms despite a higher level of HIV transmission in the breast fed arm, implying a trade off between mortality related to HIV and artificial feeding.. A review of the risks of not breast feeding found that infants not breast fed … ...
Rex Features BABY MILESTONESYour baby will have achieved lots of little milestones from day one, but from this month things really start to take off, with some exciting developments taking place.&bul...
Hi! My name is Jacque and I am a 40 year old Infant Toddler Specialist for the GA Dept of Early Care and Learning and a college instructor. I am pa...
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The aim of this study was to obtain suggestions from mothers of very preterm infants regarding modification of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Thirteen mothers were interviewed 2 to 6 months after their infants discharge from the hospital. The interviews generated 13 steps, which partly agree with the BFHI steps. The new steps address respect for mothers individual decisions about breastfeeding, education of staff in specific knowledge and skills, antenatal information about lactation in the event of preterm birth, skin-to-skin (kangaroo mother) care, breast milk expression, early introduction of breastfeeding, facilitation of mothers 24-hour presence in the hospital, preference for mothers own milk, semi-demand feeding before transition to demand breastfeeding, special benefits of pacifier sucking, alternative strategies for reduction of supplementation, use of bottle-feeding when indicated, a family-centered and supportive physical ...
Key clinical point: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to infant through breast milk appears unlikely.Major finding: Viral RNA suggesting SARS-CoV-2 was found in a breast milk sample from one woman with a SARS-CoV-2 infection out of 18 who were tested, but no replication-competent virus was detected.Study details: The data come from breast milk samples from 18 breastfeeding women with positive tests for COVID-19.
Question - 4.5 year child having loose motion. Looking dull and lethargic. On breast feed and cow milk. Concerned . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Lactose intolerance, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Question - New born with high TSH level, breast feed jaundice. Is it normal?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Breast cancer, Ask a Pediatrician
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Ive used the questions you originally sent, and theyll go in the Research section starting June 30. Since you have no deadline, Ill run it about once a month or so. I added the paragraph below to it: 6/12/98 QUESTIONS: Sent to Lactation Consultants and Pediatric RNs 1) How long will MATERNAL ANTIBODIES help an infant as 100% BREAST FEEDING stops...and how fast would this help decrease as supplements were being introduced? 2) Do you know of any studies comparing BOTTLE FED vs. BREAST FED infants as related to Growth & Development (G&D) of the pre-maxilla and palate region as well as length of the mandible? 3) Do you know of any studies comparing showing any relationship between BOTTLE FED vs. BREAST FED infants and the 20-30% of them that will go on to have 90+% of otitis episodes? 4) Do you know of any studies that show the effects of LOWER BLOOD OXYGEN and/or HIGHER HISTAMINE POTENTIALS to generalized and/or specific child health? 5) Do you know of any studies that evaluated TEETHING ...
In the developing world breastfeeding is the recommended infant feeding method, even for women infected with HIV. While early cessation of breastfeeding reduces HIV transmission to the baby, studies have shown that it increases morbidity and mortality in the infants. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life appears to reduce HIV transmission, as opposed to mixed breastfeeding with supplementation with formula or solid foods. Dan Keller spoke with Hoosen Coovadia, who delivered a plenary talk on the subject at the14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Los Angeles ...
Primary hypotheses. In a hospital-based CRCT, cell phone lactational counseling starting in the third trimester of pregnancy to 24 weeks after delivery will improve the prevalence of EBF by 7.5 % (7.5% increase in EBF by retraining in BFHI alone in both groups from baseline and a additional 7.5% improvement in intervention group as compared to the control) compared with women with from hospitals with only retraining BFHI.. Secondary hypotheses As compared to women from hospitals receiving only retraining in BFHI, those with additional cell phone lactational counseling will experience the following. ...
Evidence for short term and long term health benefits of breast feeding for mother and child is increasing.1 2 The World Health Organization states that optimal nutrition is exclusive breast feeding (breast milk with no other fluids) for six months and continued breast feeding for two years.3 Scotland has among the lowest breastfeeding rates in the developed world; only 44% of babies received any breast milk at 6 weeks in 2005.4. Two Cochrane reviews have summarised the evidence for interventions that increase the prevalence of breast feeding.5 6 Additional one to one professional or lay support increases the duration of any breast feeding up to 6 months, with a greater effect for exclusive breast feeding.6 Some randomised controlled trials of lay supporters and some professional education interventions in pregnancy have included group settings,6 7 but evidence is limited and the effectiveness of health service provided breastfeeding groups is unknown. Professional support interventions ...
The disease can be IgE and non-IgE medicated, most of the gastrointestinal symptoms are non-Ig mediated. Double blinded placebo-control trial is diagnostic for the disease, however it is cumbersome and an open challenge is done in practice. In open challenge, the patient is advised to stop all milk and milk products and is started on extensively hydrolyzed formulae for 4-6 weeks and after improvement of symptoms, the child is challenged with normal milk, if the symptoms reappear it confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is extensively hydrolyzed formulae (eHF) or amino acid based formulae. In exclusive breast fed infants below 6 months of age, the mother is stopped of all milk and milk products and breast feeding is continued. Soy protein-based formula may be an option in infants older than 6 months who do not accept the bitter taste of an eHF, or in cases in which the higher cost of an eHF is a limiting its factor, provided that the tolerance to soy protein has been established ...
The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding
The researchers surveyed 501 first-time mothers as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program to find out if positive modeling and peer support through parenting groups had an influence on breastfeeding. The results of the study are published online in the latest issue of the journal Pediatrics.. In Victoria, around two-thirds of all first-time mothers attend first-time parent groups, which provide informal peer support during the first year of parenthood. Mothers normally join when their babies are around six weeks old.. Of the 501 mothers who took part in the study, almost half were no longer breastfeeding at six months. Interestingly, the researchers found that within parent groups, the greater the proportion of mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time the group was formed, the more likely were breastfeeding mothers to continue breastfeeding to six months.. Social connections have recently been shown to have an influence on the likelihood of smoking, obesity, loneliness, and happiness. In ...
It is not known if Emsam passes through breast milk. This eMedTV page explains that there has been no research done on Emsam and breastfeeding in humans, but the drug does pass through breast milk in rats and may pass through breast milk in humans.
According to a recent research published in June 21 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association, breastfeeding may reduce the risk of heart strokes in women by 10 percent. The study shows that breast feeding can be proved good for heart. This claim comes from researchers who conducted a research on 3,00,000 women in China. The researchers discovered that mothers who had breast fed their child are up to 10 percent secure against developing heart diseases as compared to mothers who never breast fed.. During the study, researchers have found that breast- feeding can lower the risk of heart diseases and stokes in women who breast feed. According to the team of the researchers these recent findings suggests that interventions to increase the likelihood and duration of breast feeding could have persistent benefits to maternal cardiovascular health. According to previous researches breastfeeding can also help in reducing the extra weight that moms gain during pregnancy. It is generally ...
Dear Parents,. Its taken me years to find the courage to contact the Fed is Best Foundation with my experiences of working in a baby-friendly hospital. Baby-Friendly is the worst thing I have experienced in my 20 years as a NICU nurse. My colleagues and I have tried many times to express our concerns with the number of NICU admissions we receive. Eighty percent of our admissions are because of baby un-friendly protocols for hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, excessive weight loss, and dehydration in our hospital from insufficient breastfeeding. We are a small unit, and we have had around 150 plus admissions last year from insufficient feeding. Sadly, weve had bad outcomes.. Many of my colleagues are very frustrated….but others have drank the kool-aid-believing drops of colostrum are all the baby needs-which is blatantly false. The lactation nurses audit charts daily and report nurses for supplementing babies, then they go to moms rooms to reeducate them on the dangers of formula-another ...
When I saw that the editorial included primum non nocere in the title, I assumed that the author would be addressing the harms caused by aggressive breastfeeding promotion in general and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in particular. I couldnt have been more wrong. The author Timothy J. Tobolic, MD, President of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, is concerned with preventing harm to breastfeeding, NOT preventing harm to babies and mothers.. In my view, it is a fundamental violation of medical ethics to place protecting a process above protecting patients. NOTHING comes before the wellbeing of our patients.. Wait, I hear you say. By promoting breastfeeding, which is good for babies and mothers, we are promoting the wellbeing of our patients.. That attitude is typical of the paternalism and egotism so beloved of physicians - Doctor knows best! - and so despised by patients. The history of medicine is littered with examples of doctors causing harm by believing in the tests, medications ...
Results Abnormal SDQ scores were less common in term children (n=1129/9525, 12%) than pre-term (n=78/512, 15%) children. Term children breast fed for 4 months or longer (n=2741/9525, 29%) had lower odds of an abnormal total SDQ score (multivariable-adjusted OR compared with never breastfed children (n=3292/9525, 35%) 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.83). This effect was similar for all the SDQ subscores. In preterm children, longer duration of breast feeding was generally associated with lower odds of abnormal SDQ total and subscores but the effect estimates were imprecise. The associations between exclusive breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores were similar to those of any breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores.. ...
Hi The only fluid from breast that can infect someone is mothers breast milk and it has to be taken in with a large volume. This is why it is a risk for newborns and breast feeding and why we do...
1 ABSTRACT Exclusive breastfeeding has been recognised as an important public health tool for the primary prevention of child morbidity and mortality.
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Editors note: The following post was originally published on Green and Clean Mom. Green & Clean Mom can inspire you to try a little harder, be a catalyst for change and to offer you some new tips and news on how to be the green, sexy and sassy mom…I know you are! Most moms know that breastfeeding is best for baby and for the moms that decide to breastfeed (it is a choice) there are a lot of great support groups online. provides an online community that helps support moms and Baby Center has many articles for new mothers to help them learn the benefits of breastfeeding and the how-tos to help moms problem solve. The support and encouragement to breastfeed is certainly more common then it used to be but what about the mothers who do not breastfeed their babies? Is there support and guidance for those mothers on the formula to choose, safe BPA free bottles to use, how to prepare the formula and how much to feed the baby? I am sad to report my findings are showing theres ...
The recommended vitamin C intake in lactating women is 120 mg daily, and for infants aged 6 months or less is 40 mg daily. [1] High daily doses up to 1000 mg increase milk levels, but not enough to cause a health concern for the breastfed infant and is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.. ...
TEYATEYANENG, Lesotho, 22 August 2011 - Malefu Kobisi, 28, is a proud mother of a bouncing seven-month-old baby girl, Qenehelo. For the first six months of Qenehelo life, her mother religiously fed her child with only breast milk - a practice known as exclusive breast feeding.
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title:Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices. Author:Sushma Sriram, Priyanka Soni, Rashmi Thanvi, Nisha Prajapati, K M Mehariya. Keywords:Infant feeding, breastfeeding, attitude and practice. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36%) most ...
Breast milk is characterized by a dynamic and complex composition which includes hormones and other bioactive components that could influence infant growth,...
Should the mother need to provide top ups to breast milk, the use of an amino acid based formula is recommended in CMA. The ranges of B-lactoglobulin (BLG) levels and peptide sizes of cows milk protein in breast milk are similar to those in an eHF, therefore reaction to these in breast milk are likely to then also occur with an eHF.1. ...
wow just wanted to say that i enjoyed this post. I am a first time mom and my baby girl is only just 10 days old and i am trying to breast feed... we have problems with latching there for i am pumping everyday at every feeding. She seems to be gearing up for her 2 week growth spurt because she will easily drink 4oz in one feeding and yet i can only pump 2oz each time so i have to supplement with 2oz at each feeding. Pumping exclusively is hard work, you cant really go anywhere (i have a portable battery operated pump but its extremely loud and awkward..) When i was pregnant i was 100% on the absolutely no formula front, and when my little girl went 7-8 hours our second night home without eating because she wouldnt latch, i didnt have a pump and didnt have fromula on hand, i was happy when she did get her formula because i knew she now had food in her system and wasnt starving. It broke my heart, i was crying while she was crying. I still am nervous to feed her formula (not sure why...breast is ...
wow just wanted to say that i enjoyed this post. I am a first time mom and my baby girl is only just 10 days old and i am trying to breast feed... we have problems with latching there for i am pumping everyday at every feeding. She seems to be gearing up for her 2 week growth spurt because she will easily drink 4oz in one feeding and yet i can only pump 2oz each time so i have to supplement with 2oz at each feeding. Pumping exclusively is hard work, you cant really go anywhere (i have a portable battery operated pump but its extremely loud and awkward..) When i was pregnant i was 100% on the absolutely no formula front, and when my little girl went 7-8 hours our second night home without eating because she wouldnt latch, i didnt have a pump and didnt have fromula on hand, i was happy when she did get her formula because i knew she now had food in her system and wasnt starving. It broke my heart, i was crying while she was crying. I still am nervous to feed her formula (not sure why...breast is ...
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I feel I have so much more to share but will leave my last comments on breastfeeding. If you would like to excusively nurse you will find many challenges to that in the NICU with supplemental bottle feedings to help conserve calories and possibly human fortified added to your milk to increase babys calories. The part no one shares is that although these steps may be medically necessary they may lead your babyto view the breast as non-nutritive and come to prefer the bottle for full feeds. It is diffcult to move toward full breast feeds when a baby is extra full from fortified added to your milk. It increases the length a baby is willing to go between feeds and will doesnt help to give your babythe drive at the next breastfeed once your baby has the stamina to really start working on nursing. My advice is just stick with it! It took us approx 4 months to get to full feeds from the breast. It may sometimes feel like you will never get there, but you will! Even a baby that becomes bottle ...
As part of a monthly or quarterly quality assurance review, agencies should closely monitor compliance when it comes to timely initiation of care.
How long can breast milk stay out? How much milk should i be pumping? This ultimate guide on breast milk has everything you need to know!
2. Pinky. When I was 13 my parents bought the farm. I pretty much hated living on the farm. I was a teen ager and wanted to be close to my friends and there I was, three long miles from town, dependent on my parents for rides to parties and school things. My Dad bought black angus cattle and pigs. When a sow would have a litter, almost always there would be one pig who was destined not to survive. This poor pig would be pushed out of the way when it was time to eat. And so, my Dad would bring this runt to the house for me to try to save. Mostly, the poor animals would die within a day or two. But one, Pinky, survived. Pinky was fed on infant formula which I dutifully got up in the middle of the night to prepare for her. (This may be the reason I chose to breast feed my son: no getting up in the middle of the night to warm a bottle.) Pinky slept in my bed for warmth until she got too big. She remained in the house until she was six months old or so. Pigs dont have sweat glands, so they have to ...
I think it all really depends on the size of your breast before breast feeding wether they droop or not, if your flat as i was, i breast fed all 4 of my children the first 3 were for around a month or 6weeks and the last one, i breast fed for a year and unfortunately i wasnt one of the very few lucky ones that retain their breastfeeding size but i did go back down to original size and obviously when your flat theres not much to droop so that was a bonus. I do wonder if i also didnt get any excess baggy skin (stretched) that would of contributed to saggy skin look because my baby self weaned (slowly decreased his feeds, until he finally reject breast altogether), rather then suddenly stopping while still producing lots of milk ...
In a media statement, he said that mothers with high risk infants should breast feed, for its many known benefits. If parents need to move on to formula that decision need not be based on the belief that one formula will reduce the risk of allergies compared to another, said Lowe ...
There are many questions asked by households when mothers start breastfeeding their children. Here are some examples: Is breastmilk better than formula milk? How do I store breast milk? Is there an expiration date for breast milk? Whats the shelf-life of breast milk? How long should I breastfeed my baby? However, there is one important question most parents fail to address or even think about: Most people do…
hugs)))) Oh, Mollybeth! I am so sorry its so tough. Hang in there, though...this may well just be a bump in the road, and you may be back to breastfeeding in a few days! There are all sorts of things that can cause diarrhea, and most of them wouldnt take away your ability to breast feed. Keep pumping, and freeze that milk! I bet youll need it later. Another thought is probiotics, maybe ask the GI about that tomorrow. Maybe the antibiotic he was on for the pneumonia knocked out his good bacteria and he just needs to get them replaced. He may very well be right back to normal in no time, so try not to feel like this is it for the least until you know a little more. I know its hard! With the might need to try a cup with him instead, Rachel would not take a bottle until she was over a year old, so we went and got her an Avent sippy cup with the soft spout, and she took that better (she was just around 5 months old and i had to leave her for something...cant remember ...
I am nnot currently on meds..long story short: took them all, ended up on 6mp, went into a yr long remission, got pregnant, stopped meds when i went into labor 15weeks early. (i wanted to breast feed if i had another preemie, first child was premature). After baby, i flared, was put on pred, and was going to start my 6mp again, but found a lump in my breast. (have since had two removed). I was in fair remission and wanted to try w/o meds, since i was worried about breast cancer/immuno meds. (NONE of the other stuff works for me at all). Im not sure what set off this flare, as i have been doing everything the same ...
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Im going to try and breast feed with this baby . I was unable to do so with my other two children. Lack of supply, bloody nipples, poor latch, and towards the end motivation. At any rate just in case things go south this time.... anyone use one of the machines that adds the mix and water? I dont trust the reviews on Amazon. Thanks
Mothers who breast feed their children for the stipulated period are benefited with a reduced risk of developing high blood pressure in the future.
There are many parents that cant relate to me. And truthfully, I cant relate to many parents. I use to get annoyed when people would talk to me about what they described as their worst thing. I listened to a story of their child getting ear tubes that scared them while I wanted to roll my eyes. There was lamentation expressed by another for not being able to breast feed when I just wanted to tell them to get a grip. There was a mom in near tears telling me how she was treating her child at home for bronchitis. Sigh! If only these were my problems, Id say to myself. Maybe I was jealous. Maybe I needed more sleep. But, I hated hearing stories of people describing their worst thing that wasnt even on my radar ...
kids at school - I breast feed my child he is in year 4 (age9)should I carry on?????? please leave a comment - Welcome to Circle of Moms!!
Can Vegans get enough omega-3 fatty acids on exclusive plant based diets? EPA seems possible for some, but DHA can be another story.
107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use40 Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if ...
... , or nursing, is the process by which human breast milk is fed to a child. Breast milk may be from the breast, or ... Resources La Leche League International Breast-Feeding Content Resources WHO reports on Breast Feeding Breastfeeding and Breast ... Bottle feeding mothers may feel that they should be breastfeeding. Conversely, breastfeeding mothers may feel forced to feed in ... Baby-led weaning Breast shell Breastfeeding in public Breastfeeding promotion Child development Dairy allergy Breastfeeding and ...
... if infant was breast fed since day one and 22% if the infant was breastfed within the first hour. Rates of breastfeeding ... breast-feed an infant child or address other needs related to breast-feeding. This amendment also requires public schools to ... In Bangladesh, prelacteal feeding is a common custom; this is the practice of feeding other foods to infants before breast milk ... The time required per week to breastfeed rather than bottle-feed or feed solids to children can be a significant burden for ...
... refers to problems that arise from breastfeeding, the feeding of an infant or young child with milk ... Statement from the Consultation on Breast-feeding/Breast Milk and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO ... Engorgement may affect the areola, the periphery of the breast or the entire breast, and may interfere with breastfeeding both ... Breastfeeding mothers who smoke are counseled not to do so during or immediately before feeding their child, and are encouraged ...
Infants will naturally move their head while looking and feeling for a breast to feed. There are many ways to start feeding the ... Breast diseases, Breastfeeding, Infant feeding, Articles containing video clips). ... The steps below can help with getting the infant to "latch" on to the breast for feeding. Hold the infant against a bare chest ... The infant's mouth will be filled with breast when in the best latch position. The infant's tongue is cupped under the breast, ...
Breast milk contains many nutrients that formulas in store shelves do not have which makes breast feeding a healthier and ideal ... Contraindications to breastfeeding are those conditions that could compromise the health of the infant if breast milk from ... "Diseases and Conditions - Breastfeeding - CDC". Retrieved 6 August 2017. SLCP Peadiatric Guidelines "WHO , Breast ... Meek, Joan Younger; Hatcher, Amy J.; Breastfeeding, Section On (1 May 2017). "The Breastfeeding-Friendly Pediatric Office ...
But the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of the young child persist." Many children who are breast-fed into their ... are breastfed until 12 months, though breastfeeding rates varied among the states. Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months ... She was still breastfeeding the child at age 3 and had reported experiences of sexual arousal while breastfeeding the child. ... Breastfeeding, Section On (2012-03-01). "Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk". Pediatrics. 129 (3): e827-e841. doi:10.1542/ ...
Thus, tube feeding is used to feed preterm infants breastmilk while preventing choking. The transition from tube-feeding to ... Breast Masses, Breast Complaints, and Diagnostic Breast Imaging in the Lactating Woman". Breastfeeding Medicine. 14 (4): 208- ... During breastfeeding, babies are suggested to be hugged diagonally and fed with a constant middle speed to prevent overfeeding ... The start of breastfeeding is supported by the milk production which depends on the development of internal and external breast ...
Oxytocin is expelling milk that was made during the last feeding. A breastfeeding mother's fertility is decreased because ... Breastfeeding does not provide protection against STIs. Breastfeeding is not a sole method of postpartum contraception that is ... Fertility while breastfeeding is controlled by the hormonal effects induced by breastfeeding during the postpartum period. ... The prolactin that is being secreted during one round of feeding is making milk for the next round of feeding. ...
"Medications in the Breast-Feeding Mother". American Family Physician. 64 (1): 119-26. PMID 11456429. "Breastfeeding" (PDF). ... Breastfeeding and medications is the description of the medications that can be used by a breastfeeding mother with no or few ... The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is ... "There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding ...
... and aid with the transition to breast feeding. A mother's nipples can become sore or cracked from breastfeeding. A shield ... Breast shells may be confused with nipple shields, but shields are intended for use during the act of breastfeeding, whereas ... when the breast is otherwise exposed Breast petal, a nipple cover used under clothing for a smoother line Wikimedia Commons has ... Using a shield allows for feeding to progress until the baby's suction draws out the nipple. Small, weak or sick babies often ...
Savona-Ventura, C. (2004). Breast versus Bottle. A history of Infant feeding in Malta. Association for the Study of Maltese ... Simoons, Frederick J. (1982). "Breast-feeding of animals by women: its sociocultural context and geographic occurrence". ... Tribal peoples around the world have breastfed many types of animal. Travelers in Guyana observed native women breastfeeding a ... Simoons and Baldwin gathered and summarized global accounts of human-animal breastfeeding in their 1982 paper entitled, "Breast ...
"World Breastfeeding Week". PrWeb. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "World Breast Feeding Week". AllSands. Retrieved 13 November 2010 ... Both recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and then supplemented breastfeeding for at least one ... "World Breastfeeding Week and World Walk for Breastfeeding". La Leche League International. Retrieved 11 November 2010. Moen, ... "World Breastfeeding Week 2010 • 1-7 August 2010" (PDF). WBW. WABA. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "WHO - World Breastfeeding Week ...
"Breast feeding an adult puts an end to the problem of the private meeting, and does not ban marriage," he ruled. "A woman at ... The ten were replaced by mention of five attested breast-feeds. The Prophet died and the five were still being recited in the ... The fatwa said that if a woman fed a male colleague "directly from her breast" at least five times they would establish a ... This includes the specifics related to the right of being breastfed, as well as implications of breastfeeding on prohibiting ...
... use of the symbol may be helpful in shifting the bottle-feeding cultural paradigm toward the biological norm of breastfeeding. ... The international breastfeeding symbol is a symbol that depicts a woman breastfeeding a baby. It was designed by Matt Daigle, a ... "South Sound Breastfeeding Network's Breastfeeding Welcome Here Campaign". Archived from the original on February 8, 2010. ... Matt Daigle Biography (CS1 errors: missing periodical, CS1 maint: date format, Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding in art, Pictograms ...
Breast-Feeding Content Resources WHO reports on Breast Feeding Health risks of not breastfeeding Archived 2016-03-04 at the ... Breastfeeding and HIV transmission avoidance to prevent malnutrition in South Africa Breastfeeding difficulties Breastfeeding ... modifications in infant feeding practices (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding), and counseling. ... Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. At six months, if replacement feeding is still not available, HIV-infected ...
Breastfeeding is encouraged and public breastfeeding is common. In fact, bottle feeding has been so widely discouraged that ... John's told a breastfeeding mother to leave the premises. The mother was feeding her seven-month-old daughter in a private ... She handed him a copy of the Kentucky law that permitted public breastfeeding, but he would not relent. She opted to feed her ... It is estimated that around 63% of mothers across the world have publicly breast-fed. The media have reported a number of ...
The tongue movements used in breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are different: infants use a wave-like motion to remove breast ... A breast biopsy detecting breast mass can diagnose for breast engorgement. If a breast mass is present, a core needle biopsy ... An oversupply of breast milk is caused by overactive milk expression. Hence, the excess milk accumulates, leading to breast ... Ito, Yasuo (August 2014). "Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?: Frenotomy in ...
Breastfeeding women have lower rates of postpartum depression in comparison to formula-feeding women. Stress is one of the ... They also initiate breastfeeding later, breastfeed less, and are more likely to cease breastfeeding early on during the ... Infants who are not breastfed, are breastfed later or breastfed for a short duration have a higher risk of being diagnosed with ... Infants who are breastfed also demonstrate more 'vigour' and intense reactions compared to bottle-fed infants. To signal to ...
... the act of feeding a child breast milk directly from breast to mouth. Breastfeeding may be performed by the infant's mother or ... In Ghana babies are still frequently fed with tea alongside breastfeeding, reducing the benefits of breastfeeding and ... A breastfeeding mother in public with her baby will often need to breastfeed her child. A baby's need to feed cannot be ... Lower-class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were ...
The more the baby suckles, better is the breast milk secretion. Breastfeeding is the natural way to feed and nourish the baby ... and extended breast feeding up to two years. Avoiding solids and water in the first six months. ... Following WHO recommendations which say that babies have to be exclusively breast fed for the first six months, ... Breastfeeding Support for Indian Mothers or BSIM is a Facebook group that is popular for providing peer support for ...
All information on artificial infant feeding, including that on labels, should explain the benefits of breastfeeding, and the ... World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action Website World Breastfeeding Week Website (All articles with unsourced statements, ... "LLLI , World Breastfeeding Week Celebration , World Breastfeeding Week Celebrations". La Leche League International. Retrieved ... The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) is a network of people working on a global scale to eliminate obstacles to ...
ORT is one of the principal elements of the UNICEF "GOBI FFF" program (growth monitoring; ORT; breast feeding; immunization; ... Children who are breastfed should continue breastfeeding. The WHO recommends that all severely malnourished children admitted ... Feeding should usually resume within 2-3 hours after starting rehydration and should continue every 2-3 hours, day and night. ... Breastfeeding should be continued throughout ORT. As part of oral rehydration therapy, the WHO recommends supplemental zinc (10 ...
Breast feeding : a guide to the natural feeding of infants. Naish, F. C. 1949. "Morbidity and feeding in infancy", The Lancet ... Her 1947 book Breast feeding : a guide to the natural feeding of infants was awarded the Sir Charles Hastings Clinical Essay ... "Reviews:Breast Feeding. By F. CHARLOTTE NAISH, B.A.,M.B., B.Ch. (Cantab.). 1948. London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford University ... "Breast-feeing difficulties", British Medical Journal" 4825, 1442-1444. Naish, F.C. and Weston Edwards, P. 1952. "Initial Weight ...
Supporting breast-feeding. Training programs for community health in rural areas. Upgrading slums, and providing land for ...
Feeding formula, pumping instead of nursing, and feeding solids all reduce the effectiveness of LAM. The infant must breastfeed ... "The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. III. Pregnancy during breast- ... such that the combination of feeding on demand rather than on a schedule and feeding only breast milk rather than supplementing ... The promotion of LAM has shown an increase in breast feeding overall, resulting in better prospects of survival for infants. ...
The breast is an apocrine gland that produces the milk used to feed an infant. The nipple of the breast is surrounded by the ... They give the breast its offspring-feeding functions as a mammary gland. They are distributed throughout the body of the breast ... The English word breast derives from the Old English word brēost ('breast, bosom') from Proto-Germanic *breustam (breast), from ... Breast augmentation and breast lift (mastopexy) procedures are done only for cosmetic reasons, whereas breast reduction is ...
The World Health Organization recommends that, in the majority of cases, babies should be exclusively breast fed for the first ... Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L. (2016). "Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and ... "European Parliament public hearing on Nestlé's baby food marketing" (PDF) (Press release). Breast Feeding Promotion Network of ... The bond between baby and mother can be strengthened during breastfeeding. Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding can also delay ...
Breast feeding reduces the risk of several types of cancers, including breast cancer. In the 1980s, the abortion-breast cancer ... Stage 1A breast cancer Stage 1B breast cancer Stage 2A breast cancer Stage 2A breast cancer Stage 2B breast cancer Stage 2B ... breast cancer Stage 2B breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3A breast cancer Stage 3B breast ... Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in ...
... to feed an infant who cannot extract sufficient milk itself from the breast, to avoid passing medication through breast milk to ... Foot-powered breast pumps use the same collection tubing and breast horns as electric breast pumps, but are powered by a foot ... A breast pump may be also used to address a range of challenges parents may encounter breast feeding, including difficulties ... Some breast pumps are designed to be part of a "feeding system" so that the milk storage portion of the pump is the baby bottle ...
... that is heat-treated has been shown to be more allergenic and harder to digest when fed to infants. Breast milk has not ... Human breast milk has been proven to be the best food for an infant, and should be tried first where available. Supplementation ... "Breastfeeding". Retrieved 2020-11-18. Christensen, L. R. (1954-11-01). "The action of proteolytic enzymes on ... Following a casein-free diet has been shown to improve outcomes of infants who are breastfed while allergic or intolerant to ...
Its upperparts and breast are pale gray, and the rest of the underparts are white. It has short red legs, a black bill and a ... Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the ... Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. King penguin, ... They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. Buff-winged cinclodes, Cinclodes fuscus (V) Blackish cinclodes, Cinclodes ...
... the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition. Suborder: Feliformia Family ... europaeus LC Northern white-breasted hedgehog, E. roumanicus LC The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and ...
... although they can also feed on the ground. Their short bills are an adaptation to aerial feeding. Order: Charadriiformes Family ... breast, or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As the name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. ... They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering or pattering across the ... Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. Fiordland penguin Yellow ...
It is different from breast feeding-associated jaundice (breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed ones ... breast feeding jaundice included v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles ... The common cause is congenital, but it can also be caused by maternal steroids passed on through breast milk to the newborn. ...
Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without ... Common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) Smyrna kingfisher/white-breasted kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnesis) Order: Coraciiformes Family: ... Red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) White-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae White ... Hirundinidae The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and ...
They do not demonstrate a very high feeding diversity on the taxonomic level; it has been recorded that anywhere between 69% ... C. tuberculata have been studied due to their specified cytotoxicity in regards to certain breast cancer cells, which is made ... While further studies have been proposed to further research jellies' cytotoxicity in targeting breast cancer, there still is ...
The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic ... Food and Drug Administration approved chemotherapy agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Myxobacteria are also ... this in turn increases feeding efficiency. Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, ...
Breast development in females tends to make it less obvious for the observance of asymmetry, though it could still be indicated ... Based on an in vitro experiment done in rats, researchers observed lung aplasia in animals that were fed with a diet deficient ... by a more conical shape and slightly higher location of the breast on the affected side. CT scan, bronchoscopy, bronchography ...
Gallicrex cinerea White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus Slaty-legged crake, Rallina eurizonoides Ruddy-breasted crake ... Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the ... They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering ... The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs, a long down curved bill, and a black face and breast band. Ibisbill, ...
Two studies found that "when the infant is clothed only in a diaper and placed in between the mother or father's breasts, chest ... saying that even a brief separation before the baby has had its first feed can disturb the bonding process. They further advise ... including the leakage of breast milk into the body and anxiety. Later, it was discovered that puerperal fever was transmitted ... one time babies born in hospitals were removed from their mothers shortly after birth and brought to the mother only at feeding ...
In nature, this is a rainforest tree that can reach 33 m (108 ft) in height with a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 0.6 m (24 ... and have been so since the Eocene radiation of nectar-feeding birds such as honeyeaters. Cladistic analysis of morphological ...
The adults are brown above and on the breast, and lighter below; the rump is white. There is some variation between the ... They are often found near water and have been observed feeding on algae. It has been suggested that they obtain protein from ... It is a gregarious bird which feeds mainly on seeds, moving through the undergrowth in groups and sometimes accompanying other ...
Studies have also shown that the resultant amenorrhea is due to hypercortisolism, which feeds back onto the hypothalamus ... or breasts, proximal muscle weakness (hips, shoulders), and hirsutism (facial male-pattern hair growth), baldness and/or ...
It mainly feeds on fruit and supplements its diet with insects. Breeding probably occurs from March to June, with clutches ... and a large black patch on the lower throat and upper breast. They also have extensive black markings on the wings and upper ... The species mainly feeds on fruit, supplementing its diet with insects. The fruits eaten vary from small berries to large ... It has also been observed feeding on the strong-smelling fruit of Litsea cubica. In Kinabalu Park, the species has been ...
The hairy-breasted barbet usually feeds singly or in a pair. Its diet consists of fruits, including drupes and berries, along ... "Hairy-breasted Barbets (Tricholaema hirsuta)". Retrieved 2016-12-07. "Hairy-breasted Barbet (Tricholaema ... The hairy-breasted barbet (Tricholaema hirsuta) is a species of bird in the family Lybiidae. It is found throughout the Africa ... The breast and flanks are yellow with black markings. The wings are brown-black, with some feathers having yellow edges. The ...
The fortified wall by the churchyard, capped by a breastwork, had its own moat; the breast work had room for at least four ... The French extracted large amounts of coin (hard specie) and materials to feed and clothe the troops. Despite their winning ...
The underside of the body is white except for a pale brown breast. It does not have the distinct narrow breast band shown by ... It feeds in small flocks or with other swallows, especially wintering sand martins. This locally abundant species has a range ... Although the indistinct breast band of the Congo martin is different from the clearly defined markings of the sand martin, in ...
A breast cancer awareness session was conducted on the campus by specialists from Harshamitra Super Specialty Cancer Centre in ... a charitable initiative to feed the hungry and to reduce food wastage. The second edition of Vox Populi was honoured by Rathika ...
It can also feed on insects and snails (including the shells), and will feed from bird feeders if available to them. They often ... The feathers on the head and the upper breast have a scale like appearance. The tail feathers are very short and similar colour ... Both parents feed the young birds until they are ready to feed themselves. BirdLife International (2020). "Columbina passerina ... The common ground dove is a ground gleaner; as such it forages on the ground feeding on vegetation, seeds and fruits. ...
In the Pairc area, it is possible to see feeding Eurasian oystercatchers and Eurasian curlews. A few pairs of peregrine falcons ... Further out, around the shores of Berneray, are mallards, eiders, red-breasted mergansers, and, more rarely, black-throated and ...
The 1950 fire, fed by the fuel grown during the previous 20 years, wiped out about one third of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National ... Iconic birds of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park include the pied butcherbird, black breasted buzzard, black-faced woodswallow ...
They all expect me to speak now for them, and I trust the Great Spirit will put into their breasts to be a good people - into ... did not provide the native communities with the support they needed in the way of tools and supplies to properly feed ...
When feeding it hovers before the flower or hangs from it, and inserts its tongue up to 13 times per second. It will also visit ... Fawn-breasted Brilliant Hummingbirds. Beautyofbirds (formerly AvianWeb). Ridgely, R. S. and P. J. Greenfield. "Fawn-breasted ... The fawn-breasted brilliant makes two different vocalizations, a series of "tchik" notes and a common "swi-swi-swi-swu" call. ... The fawn-breasted brilliant (Heliodoxa rubinoides) is a species of hummingbird. It is native to South America, where it occurs ...
... and feed the hungry On the right, a woman visits an imprisoned deputy and gives him milk from her breast. This image alludes to ...
The drake has a rich chestnut back, pale grey flanks and a salmon-coloured breast speckled in black. A black band runs from the ... Ringed teals are classified as "dabblers" as opposed to "divers". Dabblers tend to feed on plant and insect material near the ... Precocial chicks are mostly developed upon hatching, have a layer of down feathers, can walk, function, and essentially feed ... surface of the water, where as divers feed on plants, invertebrates, and fish deeper under the water's surface. Although ...
Dogs were fed a vegetarian diet and served during feasts as a delicacy. European explorers were the first outsiders to observe ... a traditional breast ornament often called a gorget - which were worn by priests and high chiefs. The Tuamotuan breed were ...
He got the child to suck the blood of a wallaby's heart, but having just been fed breast milk, he vomited the white milk, as ... he fed the child with the blood of the hearts of kangaroos and wallabies. Two sisters came upon the campsite while he was out ...
Males typically feed at epiphytes in the forest interior while females more often feed in shrubby areas. Males are territorial ... Their chin and throat are white, the sides of the neck and upper breast bright green, and the lower breast and vent area dark ... The white-throated mountaingem feeds on nectar from a variety of flowering plants. ... The species also feeds on small arthropods gleaned from foliage. The white-throated mountaingem's breeding season spans from ...
The French trappers' les trois tétons (the three breasts) was later shortened to the Tetons. Formed in the mid-1820s, the Rocky ... rendering the annual hunt unnecessary and exposing hunters to attacks by grizzly bears as they become accustomed to feeding on ...
Human breast milk can also be fed to toddlers and children with medical conditions that include but are not limited to ... The World Health Organization (WHO) states that the first alternative to a biological mother not being able to breast feed is ... Donating breast milk can be traced back to the practice of wet nursing. The first record of regulations regarding the sharing ... "Milk Banks , Amazing Breast Milk". Retrieved 2019-04-25. Moro, Guido E. (April 2018). "History of Milk Banking: From Origin to ...
Learn about the importance of vitamin D supplementation for breastfed infants. ... County Breastfeeding Initiation Rates. *Public Opinions About Breastfeeding. *Breastfeeding and Infant Feeding Practicesplus ... Do infants get enough vitamin D from breast milk?. Breast milk alone does not provide infants with an adequate amount of ... the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend breastfed and partially breastfed infants be ...
"Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America ( ... Services from the StL Fed Data, research, apps & more from the St. Louis Fed ... "Work and breastfeeding decisions are jointly determined for higher socioeconomic status US mothers," Review of Economics of the ...
At 1 week of age, all were still breast-feeding, but 9 of 19 infants in the control group were now using formula, compared with ... or breast-feeding along with a supplement of formula at the end of each session. ... randomly assigned 38 infants who had lost 5 percent or more of their weight in the days after birth to either breast-feeding ... Reducing Disparities Around Breastfeeding in Black Communities Could Produce Healthier Parents and Children ...
Despite rising breast-feeding rates, erroneous information that interrupts the relationship persists. ... Dont Stop Breast-Feeding Women do not need to stop or even temporarily pause breast-feeding after a computed tomography or ... "The bottom line take-home is that by far the most common response to any breast-feeding problem is to breast-feed rather than ... The number of those who have ever breast-fed or breast-fed to 6 months have increased by similarly substantial margins, and ...
Health Information on Breastfeeding: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Feeding the Baby with a Difficult Latch - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Breastfeeding After Breast Augmentation Surgery (Implants) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Breastfeeding After Breast Augmentation Surgery (Implants) - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...
Asia boy breast child baby feeding historical Japan Japanese kid lady mama mom mother mum Semi-Realistic People woman Safe for ... Breast Feeding Mother. by j4p4n - uploaded on December 6, 2016, 7:26 pm ... This old fashioned historical mum is feeding her baby the natural way we have been fed for countless years. Drink up baby, it ...
"When you think of breast-feeding, you think of mothers holding their children, which was impossible with some of these older ... We had to blink, rub our eyes, shake our heads and look again, not just because of the child-sucking-on-mothers-breast image ... well dressed and smirking at the camera as her three-year-old child in camouflage cargo pants nurses on her left breast. ... to find the cover-worthy image photographer Martin Schoeller took pictures of four families breastfeeding using images of the ...
Also learn about whether baby is getting enough milk, and feeding comfortably. ... Watch breastfeeding video clips and learn helpful tips to help you and your baby nurse more comfortably. ... Breastfeeding can be one of the hardest things to do with your newborn baby. Our comprehensive collection of breastfeeding ...
Some studies show that levels of PFAS may vary depending on the time of breast milk collection during a single feed or ... Do PFAS enter breast milk?. Multiple factors play a role in the personal decision to breastfeed an infant. The potential for ... For infants, breast milk can be a source of PFAS exposure. Even though PFAS have been detected in breast milk, studies have not ... Breastfeeding can also help lower a mothers risk of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and ovarian and breast cancer.1 The ...
Bialik said on Friday that she still breast-feeds her 3-year-old son. Hes not done breast-feeding, and Im not ready to tell ... especially the breast-feeding advice. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends babies be breast-fed exclusively for the ... Breast-feeding: Too much of a good thing?. Its hard to avoid staring at the cover of Time Magazine this week. If youre on ... Watch: Breast-feeding cover-mom defends pose I think intimacy is extremely important in a marriage and I think a strong ...
The best breastfeeding positions may change over time as the woman gains confidence and the baby grows. Learn about the best ... breastfeeding positions for comfort, a good latch, and reduced risk of muscle strains and nipple injuries. ... Breastfeeding is a skill that takes time for both a woman and baby to learn. ... Breastfeeding and pumping are different ways a person can give milk to a baby. There are pros and cons to both, with feeding ...
... sometimes breastfeeding isnt the best option for new moms. Find out what alternatives are available to you for your baby. ... Breastfeeding Medicine: "Pumping Milk Without Ever Feeding at the Breast in the Moms2Moms Study." ... Ideally, breastfeeding is the healthiest way to feed your infant. It gives them nutrition along with important antibodies ( ... If breastfeeding doesnt work for you, know your choices to keep your baby fed and healthy. ...
Posts about breastfeeding written by Randall Neustaedter OMD and What Doctors Dont Tell You ... Women with silicone breast implants who breast feed may be putting their babies health at risk, according to a study by ... Researchers may have discovered yet another benefit of breastfeeding for children. The association between breastfeeding and ... How long you breastfeed your child could dictate how bright he will be in later life, claim researchers from Denmark. ...
Read more about common breastfeeding issues such as mastitis. If you have any concerns, its important to talk to your health ... When you want to stop breastfeeding, try cutting down your feeds gradually (dont suddenly go longer between feeds). ... After feeds, make sure any leftover breast milk is drained by expressing by hand or with a pump. ... Breastfeeding challenges. There may be times when breastfeeding is challenging. Never ignore any issues you may have - talk to ...
Health and medicine/Human health/Human biology/Human physiology/Breast feeding * /Applied sciences and engineering/Food science ... "Under normal breastfeeding conditions, oxytocin and prolactin usually behave in tandem, such that sucking-induced breast ... Alcohol consumption disrupts breastfeeding hormones. Monell Chemical Senses Center. Journal. The Journal of Clinical ... For centuries, breastfeeding women have been advised to drink alcohol as an aid to milk production and optimal lactation. ...
NYS: HNT) is supporting this annual initiative, which is spearheaded by the United States Breastfeeding ... August is National Breastfeeding Month, and Health Net, Inc. ( ... Health Net Promotes Benefits of Breastfeeding LOS ANGELES--( ... In fact, among formula-fed babies, ear infections and diarrhea are more common. Additionally, formula-fed babies also have ... Breast milk is easier to digest - For most babies, especially premature babies, breast milk is easier to digest than formula. ...
Coverage of breast pumps. Your health insurance plan must cover the cost of a breast pump. It may be either a rental unit or a ... You may be able to get help with breastfeeding at no cost. Health insurance plans must provide breastfeeding support, ... Breastfeeding benefits. Most Marketplace plans must provide breastfeeding equipment and counseling for pregnant and nursing ... Your doctors breastfeeding recommendations. Your insurance plan will often follow your doctors recommendations on whats ...
Vitamin D deficiency is important especially in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers mainly because it is important for the ... This could be due to faulty and fussy feeding habits. * Populations over 65 years of age are also at risk of Vitamin D ... Vitamin D in breastfeeding mothers. Mothers with a Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy are likely to continue to be deficient ... If the blood levels of vitamin D are found normal in a breastfeeding mother she is advised diet rich in vitamin D. This ...
... breastfeeding is an important time to talk to your doctor because some chemicals can get into breast milk and possibly harm ... Breastfeeding provides many benefits to your baby. Most mothers who work can safely breastfeed their babies. If you work with ... Breastfeeding is very good for your babys health, and most working mothers can safely breastfeed their babies. If you have ... Some types of chemicals can get into breast milk. Not all chemicals can get into breast milk, and not all chemicals will harm ...
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding. Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their baby is one of the biggest decisions ... But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their ... As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. Breast milk tends to be more ... But if breastfeeding hurts throughout feedings, or if their nipples and/or breasts are sore, its a good idea for breastfeeding ...
Exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only breast milk, no other food or drink, which potentially protects children from ... or a breastfeeding child.. Breast Pump Equipment & Breast Milk. Before departure, people who will be traveling by air and ... Before departure, a breastfeeding person might decide to express and store a supply of milk to be fed to the child during the ... Often, after returning from travel, several days of feeding at the breast will help bring milk supply back to its prior level. ...
What Are the Benefits of Taking Breastfeeding Supplements? Aside from having a well-fed baby, there is a long laundry list of ... How Long Should You Take a Breastfeeding Supplement? You should take breastfeeding supplements according to your breastfeeding ... What Are Breastfeeding Supplements For? In short, breastfeeding supplements are for mothers seeking to increase or enhance ... Thats why taking breastfeeding supplements during the years of breastfeeding can benefit you in the following ways. ...
Breastfeeding can also be a form of birth control - but only done in a certain way. It is also known as the lactational ... Breastfeeding wont prevent pregnancy if you feed your baby anything other than breast milk. So if you breastfeed but also use ... Is breastfeeding a form of birth control?. Breastfeeding isnt just a healthy way to feed your baby. It can also be a form of ... When you exclusively breastfeed - meaning you nurse at least every 4 hours during the day and every 6 hours at night, and feed ...
Some women are hesitating to get the Covid-19 vaccine while breastfeeding, even if they are otherwise pro-vaccine and anxious ... "They have taken samples of breast milk post vaccination to test for this. Even if a small amount was in the breast milk, it ... "Many moms are breastfeeding for some protective factor and this resonates with them," she said. "Every parent wants to do ... There is perhaps no other time a woman is as careful with what she puts into her body as when she is pregnant or breastfeeding ...
Includes possible effects on breastfed infants and lactation. ... and associations with infant outcomes in the infant feeding ... Nonnutritive sweeteners in breast milk. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2015;78:1029-32. [PMC free article: PMC5583633] [PubMed: ... Artificial sweeteners in breast milk: A clinical investigation with a kinetic perspective. Nutrients. 2022;14:2635. [PMC free ... Effects in Breastfed Infants. A cross-sectional survey assessed the dietary history of US mothers nursing infants between 11 ...
Breastfeeding can be awkward at first. Experiment with various positions until you feel comfortable. ... Hold your baby in the crook of the arm opposite the breast youre feeding from - left arm for right breast, right arm for left ... Slide show: Breastfeeding positions Previous Next 1 of 5 Breastfeeding: Cross-cradle hold Breastfeeding can be awkward at first ... In: Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. 5th ed. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2016.. *Meek JY, ed. The first feedings. In: The ...
Categories API News & Events, Feed with Love and Respect, General Interest, Principles, World Breastfeeding Week 2015Tags ... World Breastfeeding Week 2015Tags breastfeeding, breastfeeding a toddler, Breastfeeding Month, breastfeeding preschooler, ... breastfeeding, Breastfeeding Month, breastfeeding preschooler, breastfeeding toddler, extended nursing, Praeclarus Press, To ... Tag: breastfeeding preschooler. To 3 and beyond: An interview with Janell Robisch on breastfeeding. I received a copy of To ...
Get off to a good start breastfeeding your newborn by taking advantage of the wide range of breastfeeding support offered in ... Breastfeeding success relies on having adequate breastfeeding support from day one. Tips for breastfeeding success. Get off to ... Seattle-based breastfeeding resources for new parents. Its easy to idealize breastfeeding as a natural, and therefore easy, ... Its easy to idealize breastfeeding as a natural, and therefore easy, undertaking. But, the reality is that breastfeeding is a ...
Five Things I Wish Id Known About Breast feeding Before I Gave Birth. BabyChatter Baby Names October 10, 2014 ... Breastfeeding Protein Power Foods. BabyChatter Baby Names November 5, 2014 There are a number of foods that are identified as ... Ive heard breastfeeding described as "guilt-free Instagram time" or "guilt-free Facebook time". For many moms, its that one ... Learning to Stop Browsing While Breastfeeding. BabyChatter Baby Names May 6, 2015 ...
This "triple feeding" can be time-consuming. Debbie was scheduled to return to work at 6 weeks postpartum, but needed more time ... She also serves as Co-Chapter Breastfeeding Coordinator for the Ohio chapter of the AAP and is an Academy of Breastfeeding ... We celebrate the month of August as National Breastfeeding Month in the United States with the theme, "Breastfeeding: Support ... The academys Section on Breastfeeding offers archived webinars covering many breastfeeding topics, and there are Chapter ...
  • Vitamin D deficiency rickets among breastfed infants is rare, but it can occur if an infant does not receive additional vitamin D from foods, a vitamin D supplement, or adequate exposure to sunlight. (
  • Do infants get enough vitamin D from breast milk? (
  • Breast milk alone does not provide infants with an adequate amount of vitamin D. Shortly after birth, most infants will need an additional source of vitamin D. (
  • To avoid developing a vitamin D deficiency, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend breastfed and partially breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU per day of vitamin D beginning in the first few days of life. (
  • Researchers randomly assigned 38 infants who had lost 5 percent or more of their weight in the days after birth to either breast-feeding alone (the controls), or breast-feeding along with a supplement of formula at the end of each session. (
  • At 1 week of age, all were still breast-feeding, but 9 of 19 infants in the control group were now using formula, compared with only 2 in the group that had used formula at the start. (
  • Research suggests breastfed infants are less likely to get certain illnesses, from ear infections to allergies to tummy problems. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends breast milk as the best nutrition for infants. (
  • In 2015, four out of five infants started out breastfeeding. (
  • Those studies indicated that infants ingest less milk at the breast in the hours following maternal alcohol consumption, in part due to decreased maternal milk production. (
  • Less work missed - Breastfeeding mothers miss fewer days from work because their infants are sick less often. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is important especially in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers mainly because it is important for the growth and development of infants and growing children. (
  • Healt experts believe breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants. (
  • Breastfed babies have fewer infections and hospitalizations than formula-fed infants. (
  • As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. (
  • By tasting the foods of their "culture," breastfed infants more easily accept solid foods. (
  • Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for most infants. (
  • The broad and compelling advantages of breastfeeding for infants and mothers have been documented with extensive research. (
  • Breastfeeding is beneficial for the health of infants and mothers. (
  • Infants can also be exposed to PFAS during pregnancy and from other sources in their environment, making it extremely difficult to determine if or how much of an infant's body burden of PFAS is contributed from breast milk. (
  • For infants, breast milk can be a source of PFAS exposure. (
  • Even though PFAS have been detected in breast milk, studies have not shown a causal relationship with a specific health effect in infants or children. (
  • Because of the low levels of saccharin in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant after typical maternal intake are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants and not likely to reach an intake greater than the acceptable daily intake. (
  • 1] Ingestion of diet drinks containing low-calorie sweeteners might increase the risk of vomiting in breastfed infants. (
  • However, some authors suggest that women may wish to limit the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners while breastfeeding because their effect on the nursing infants are unknown. (
  • While this may seem like a cause for concern, one study from 1993 found that infants who had not previously been exposed to garlic in their mother's breast milk fed for a longer duration when the mother was given a garlic capsule. (
  • It's important to know that, in general, evidence shows that breastfeeding is helpful for protecting infants from food allergies, so you shouldn't eliminate foods without first discussing it with a healthcare provider. (
  • From birth to 6 months of age, feeding infants nothing but breastmilk guarantees them a food source that is uniquely adapted to their nutrient needs, while also being safe, clean, healthy and accessible, no matter where they live. (
  • Moreover, breastfeeding supports infants' immune systems and may protect them later in life from chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. (
  • Yet despite all the potential benefits, only two fifths of infants 0-5 months of age worldwide are exclusively breastfed. (
  • South Asia has the highest prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding with nearly 60 per cent of infants being exclusively breastfed. (
  • In contrast only 26 per cent of infants 0-5 months in Northern America are exclusively breastfed. (
  • So, what are infants under 6 months of age being fed? (
  • Area graphs illustrate feeding patterns for infants between birth and 5 months of age. (
  • In the ideal pattern, almost all infants under 6 months of age should be exclusively breastfed. (
  • However, in a country there could be several non-ideal practices such as a substantial proportion of infants receiving water, who are thus, not exclusively breastfed as shown in the area graph below. (
  • Breast milk has antibodies to help protect infants from bacteria and viruses and to help them fight off infection and disease. (
  • The omega-3 fatty acids found in breast milk boost premature infants' growth and development soon after birth. (
  • Infants who are exclusively breastfed for three to six months are less likely to develop middle-ear infections. (
  • Breastfeeding is a means of nutrition for infants, providing essential components for their unique growth and developmental requirements. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognizes breast milk "as the best source of nutrition for most infants . (
  • Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is recommended for most infants, followed by breast milk supplemented with solid foods for at least the rest of the first year. (
  • Some infants need more burping, others less, and it can vary from feeding to feeding. (
  • While it's normal for infants to "spit up" a small amount after eating or during burping, a baby should not vomit after feeding. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends infants be exclusively breastfed for about the first six months with continued breastfeeding along with introducing appropriate complementary foods for one year or longer. (
  • Researchers also said they identified the breast milk sugars that offer this protection, which could potentially be used to supplement formula for infants that need antibiotics but for whom breastfeeding is not an option. (
  • Breastfeeding employees miss work less often because breastfed infants are healthier. (
  • Breastfeeding is by far the best nutritional choice for newborns and infants alike. (
  • Doctors around the world recommend breastfeeding infants if at all possible. (
  • Breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. (
  • Breastfeeding has many health benefits for infants, children, and mothers and is a key strategy to improve public health. (
  • The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Dietary Guidelines) 1 and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2 recommend that infants be exclusively breastfed for about the first 6 months, with continued breastfeeding alongside the introduction of complementary foods for at least 1 year (Dietary Guidelines) or at least 2 years (AAP), or longer if desired. (
  • Among infants born in 2019, most (83.2%) started out receiving some breast milk, and 78.6% were receiving any breast milk at 1 month. (
  • At 6 months, 55.8% of infants received any breast milk and 24.9% received breast milk exclusively ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Yet data show that most infants start out breastfeeding, and many are still receiving some breast milk at 6 months. (
  • Even some breast milk is beneficial to infants. (
  • the CTA encourages states to adopt and enforce national standards that support breastfeeding mothers and caring for breastfed infants. (
  • September 29, 2011 (Chicago, Illinois) - Giving HIV-positive mothers lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before delivery and continuing treatment for 12 months afterward appeared to largely prevent the transmission of HIV to infants during periods of exclusive breastfeeding and then breastfeeding supplemented with other foods. (
  • Breastfeeding exclusively for the first 6 months provided infants with all needed nutrition. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends babies be breast-fed exclusively for the first six months of their lives. (
  • Buss points out, 'The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that women breastfeed their babies exclusively for six months, and continue to breastfeed for one year or longer, along with giving their child pediatrician-recommended foods. (
  • Due to an increase in the rate of vitamin D deficiency in recent years The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfeeding newborns must receive a supplemental daily dose of vitamin D 400 IU/d in order to prevent rickets. (
  • A number of health organizations - including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) - recommend breastfeeding as the best choice for babies. (
  • 1 The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025, both recommend exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, and continuation of breastfeeding, with the introduction of complementary foods, for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. (
  • In: The American Academy of Pediatrics New Mother's Guide to Breastfeeding. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. (
  • Because of short and long-term health effects breastfeeding offers both mother and baby, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, with continued breastfeeding as solid foods are added for at least the first year. (
  • All major professional medical groups that focus on children, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), recommend breastfeeding for at least the first year of a baby's life. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusively breastfeeding until 6 months of age with breastfeeding and appropriate foods continuing for 12 months or longer. (
  • There are other reasons women are unable to breastfeed, but with good support and knowledge, most of these can be overcome. (
  • Wet nursing is an old but safe practice of providing breastfeeding support to a child whose mother died or is unable to breastfeed her child for any reasons. (
  • Are women with smaller breasts or inverted nipples unable to breastfeed? (
  • For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their comfort level, lifestyle, and specific medical situations. (
  • The decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. (
  • Multiple factors play a role in the personal decision to breastfeed an infant. (
  • Circumstances like these can and will occur from time to time and the only way to stay vigilante in your decision to breastfeed is to keep cures for sore nipples at hand. (
  • Addressing participants at the launch, Dr Patrick Kuma-Aboagye, the Director-General of the Ghana Health Service (GHS), emphasized the need for mothers to breastfeed their babies, adding that it remained central to survival, health, and well-being of women, children, and the nation at large. (
  • Joan Y. Meek, MD a pediatrician and lactation consultant in Orlando, FL, believes that if you can't or don't want to breastfeed directly, pumping your breastmilk and then bottle-feeding it to your baby is the next best choice. (
  • Philadelphia, PA -- Despite age-old claims advising breastfeeding moms that alcoholic beverages can improve their nursing performance, researchers at the Monell Chemical Senses Center report that even moderate doses of alcohol affect the hormones responsible for lactation in a counterproductive manner. (
  • In fact, what happens is quite the opposite, as alcohol disrupts the hormonal milieu of lactation in a way that could impede successful breastfeeding. (
  • For centuries, breastfeeding women have been advised to drink alcohol as an aid to milk production and optimal lactation. (
  • After consuming the beverages, the women used electric breast pumps to stimulate lactation. (
  • Research studies have shown that PFAS can be found in human breast milk and excreted through lactation. (
  • Some studies show that levels of PFAS may vary depending on the time of breast milk collection during a single feed or throughout the course of lactation. (
  • While Blessed Thistle Mediterranean herb and dandelion-like blossoms stimulate healthy immune response and increase prolactin, the oxytocin hormones stimulate lactation, using anethole substances from fennel seed that produce breast milk secretion. (
  • Diet beverage intake during lactation and associations with infant outcomes in the infant feeding practices study II. (
  • In: Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. (
  • A home visit from a lactation consultant within the first few days of nursing not only boosts breastfeeding confidence, it helps ensure bad habits aren't developing. (
  • The hospital where you birth will also have on-site lactation consultants and usually a breastfeeding hotline as well. (
  • If you birth at home or in a birth center with midwives they will offer breastfeeding support and also referral to IBCLC-certified lactation consultants. (
  • Clinicians and others who provide lactation support should help travelers determine the best course for breastfeeding based on a variety of factors, including the amount of time available to prepare for the trip, the flexibility of time while traveling, options for expressing and storing milk while traveling, the duration of travel, and destination. (
  • To assess how the 2012 Affordable Care Act (ACA) policy change, which required most private health insurance plans to cover lactation-support services and breastfeeding equipment (without cost-sharing), affected breastfeeding outcomes. (
  • Saskatchewan Lactation Consultant Association - Find an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant-An International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) is a health care professional who specializes in the clinical management of breastfeeding, who may work in a hospital, clinic or private practice setting. (
  • Corporate lactation support programs clearly can be effective in improving breastfeeding duration. (
  • As reported in one review, 11 75 percent of women who participated in two corporate lactation support programs breastfed for at least six months. (
  • Indeed, the best long-term approach to improving the breastfeeding continuance rate may be to help communities establish lactation support programs for local businesses. (
  • In our latest health and wellness podcast, St John of God Subiaco Hospital Lactation Consultant Bernie O'Regan shares invaluable information about breastfeeding, including feeding tips, common challenges and the perception of low milk supply. (
  • A lactation consultant can help you navigate both breastfeeding and pumping while working from home with a baby -and troubleshoot any issues that come up. (
  • Mothers who test positive for THC may be denied access to lactation consultants, breast pumps, or other assistance due to the legalities and perceived danger. (
  • Evolution of human lactation and complementary feeding: Implications for understanding contemporary cross-cultural variation / D.W. Sellen -- 19. (
  • Lactation, breast-feeding supplementation and nutrition. (
  • The proper lactation , feeding and supplementation methods must be adopted to achieve this goal . (
  • That means, when you breastfeed, there are no bottles and nipples to sterilize, and you don't have to buy, measure and mix formula. (
  • And unless you're pumping breast milk and giving it to your baby, there's no need for bottles, nipples, and other supplies that can be costly. (
  • And when women breastfeed, there's no need to wash bottles and nipples or warm up bottles in the middle of the night. (
  • The aforementioned nipple shields can help here, but these breast shells are designed specifically for flat and inverted nipples. (
  • They're also designed to help protect sore nipples and alleviate engorgement later in the breastfeeding process, and the shells catch leaking colostrum and milk for you to store. (
  • Junior's been feeding away, and you've got the cracked nipples to prove it. (
  • Word of warning, though: This breastfeeding product is meant to help dry and cracked nipples, but some nipple soreness comes from constant moisture. (
  • When a good position and latch are obtained, your baby feeds efficiently and your nipples stay healthy. (
  • Cures for sore nipples are typically inexpensive, and should be accessible at all times while breast feeding. (
  • One of the often overlooked reasons for sore nipples while breastfeeding, is simply not airing yourself out, and allowing the leaking milk to remain on the skin. (
  • Frequent changing of breast pads is one of the easiest cures for sore nipples. (
  • While expressing small amounts of breast milk onto the nipples can be of itself a cure for those sore nipples, it is important to allow it to air dry prior to putting the bra back on. (
  • When frequent changing of breast pads doesn't work as a cure for your sore nipples, then it's time to get out the ointment. (
  • Breastfeeding is quite a rewarding experience despite the occasional occurrence of sore nipples. (
  • Keeping these cures for sore nipples while breastfeeding on hand will allow you to fully enjoy the emotional bonding that transpires between mother and child. (
  • Many woman have doubts about breastfeeding when they have inverted nipples . (
  • Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. (
  • Breastfeeding can be one of the hardest things to do with your newborn baby. (
  • Often called the "perfect food" for a human baby's digestive system, breast milk's components - lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat - are easily digested by a newborn. (
  • Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. (
  • Putting newborns to the breast within the first hour of life - known as early initiation of breastfeeding - is critical to newborn survival and to establishing breastfeeding over the long term. (
  • Newborn babies should breastfeed 8-12 times per day for about the first month. (
  • Colostrum, the yellowish, sticky breast milk produced at the end of pregnancy, is recommended by WHO as the perfect food for the newborn, and feeding should be initiated within the first hour after birth. (
  • Breast engorgement or fullness. (
  • Expressing milk also can help avoid engorgement, which can increase the risk of developing a breast infection. (
  • Just because you're not breastfeeding doesn't mean you can't give your baby breastmilk -- ideally, your own, expressed with an electric or manual pump, then stored for future use. (
  • Feed frequently and responsively - long gaps in between feeds can create a build-up of breastmilk. (
  • Feeding newborns anything other than breastmilk has the potential to delay their first contact with their mother and can make it more difficult to establish breastfeeding. (
  • Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment? (
  • Like the name, Mommy Knows Best is well known for its maternal nutrition support that replaces breastfeeding challenges with an ample milk supply. (
  • Evidence continues to show how breastfeeding reduces a multitude of infant and maternal illnesses, including SIDS and necrotizing enterocolitis. (
  • Active and passive immunity protects the infant via breast milk, which is rich in immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, cytokines, and numerous other immunologic factors, including maternal leukocytes. (
  • Breastfeeding is one of the most cost-effective interventions for improving maternal and child health," said Georges Benjamin, executive director for the American Public Health Association, in a released statement. (
  • Said NACCHO Chief Executive Officer and former Chief Executive Officer of the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP) Lori Tremmel Freeman, "While chest/breastfeeding supports have increased in recent years, there is a clear gap in programming and services once the family leaves the hospital setting. (
  • Breastfeeding enhances the infant's immune system, strengthens the maternal bond, and unlike formula is free. (
  • Current research points to prenatal breastfeeding education as important first steps in supporting breastfeeding and maternal health. (
  • Breast-feeding and HIV-1 infection: maternal health / P.A. Otieno -- 23. (
  • If you need a longer break, you can also express milk (by hand or pump) and have someone else feed the breast milk to your baby. (
  • But not all mothers are able to pump their breasts on the job so they can continue to breastfeed. (
  • Research suggests more than 85% of breastfeeding women pump milk at some point. (
  • After feeds, make sure any leftover breast milk is drained by expressing by hand or with a pump. (
  • Your health insurance plan must cover the cost of a breast pump. (
  • It also doesn't work if you use a breast pump - you need to nurse your baby if you want your breastfeeding to prevent pregnancy. (
  • Travelers intending to use breast pumps should plan to pack multiple breast pump kits if they anticipate being unable to clean individual pump parts after each use (see the section on breast pump safety later in this chapter). (
  • This "milk saver" is marketed as a manual breast pump, but its most practical use is catching all of that letdown, especially in the beginning months of nursing. (
  • A breast pump is obviously one of the best breastfeeding products. (
  • This Spectra electric breast pump can be used as a single or double pump and comes with all the parts you need, plus two bottles. (
  • Medela is renowned for excellence in evidence-based research and for developing the most advanced breast pump technology. (
  • The Make The Breast Pump Not Suck Hackathon at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology is an annual event that gives grants to projects that would improve access to breast feeding, from designing better breast pumps to improving social policies. (
  • Breastfeeding is feeding a baby breast milk directly from the breast or from a bottle after expressing the milk with a pump. (
  • You can also pump your breasts and put the milk in a bottle to feed your baby. (
  • Use a breast pump to collect breast milk ahead of time. (
  • Available breast pump types include manual pumps, battery-powered pumps, electric diaphragm pumps, electric piston pumps, and hospital-grade electric piston pumps. (
  • If you aren't sure what breast pump best fits your needs and lifestyle, take our quiz to find out. (
  • Be sure to choose a quiet breast pump or throw a blanket over your pump to make the motor's sounds hardly noticeable. (
  • Childcare allows these moms to take breaks to nurse, rather than hook up to a breast pump. (
  • Breast milk tends to be more easily digested so that breastfed babies have fewer bouts of diarrhea or constipation. (
  • Breast milk is easily digested, so newborns are hungry often. (
  • When breastfeeding is delayed after birth, the consequences can be life-threatening - and the longer newborns are left waiting, the greater their risk of death. (
  • Globally, less than half of all newborns (48 per cent) are put to the breast within an hour of birth - leaving far too many newborns waiting too long for this critical contact with their mothers. (
  • Almost all mothers of newborns are able to breastfeed. (
  • Newborns should not go more than about 4 hours without feeding, even overnight. (
  • Additionally, Health Net supports healthy outcomes for mothers and babies by providing breast pumps to new mothers which are covered under members' preventive care benefits. (
  • Find out about breast pumps, too. (
  • Hence, education about community support, breast milk pumps, breast milk storage, and breastfeeding planning should be given as early as possible. (
  • Exclusive breast-feeding and HIV infection / L. Kasonka, S. Filteau, and The Breast-Feeding and Postpartum Health Project Team -- 21. (
  • Breast milk has antibodies that can help prevent your baby from getting sick. (
  • Early breast milk is packed with nutrients and antibodies - Sometimes referred to as liquid gold, colostrum is the thick, yellow breast milk that is produced just after birth. (
  • Breast milk fights disease - The cells, hormones and antibodies in breast milk protect babies from illness. (
  • During breastfeeding, antibodies and other germ-fighting factors pass from a mother to her baby and strengthen the immune system. (
  • There has been data showing that no mRNA from the mRNA vaccines is found in breast milk, however antibodies are passed through. (
  • The mother's body then creates the antibodies to fight those pathogens, which she feeds to her baby in her milk. (
  • About one third of women (34%) in the United States now breast-feed for at least 1 year, she said, compared with 22% in 2007. (
  • It undermines women's confidence, and that can sabotage breast-feeding, when women aren't confident and trusting their bodies to do what they can do. (
  • One of the biggest misconceptions about breast-feeding is that women should breast-feed every 3 to 4 hours to establish an adequate milk supply at the start, Crowe said. (
  • There are some women with the ability to feed at long intervals and can develop a full milk supply," Dr Crowe told Medscape Medical News . (
  • However, most women will need to breast-feed much more frequently than that to establish a milk supply. (
  • This might not work for women with multiples, Crowe acknowledged in response to an attendee's comment that feeding on demand might not be feasible for more than one baby. (
  • Women with multiples will need to find an appropriate rhythm that works for them, such as feeding on demand with the first hungry twin and then waking the other to feed. (
  • Women receiving medication or undergoing medical procedures may be encouraged to stop breast-feeding in case it might not be safe, but this could have other negative effects, Crowe cautioned. (
  • What that may do is completely sabotage breast-feeding for some women," Dr Crowe told Medscape Medical News . (
  • Women do not need to stop or even temporarily pause breast-feeding after a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast agents, while taking antibiotics, while fighting a mastitis infection, or after surgery that requires sedation. (
  • Women who limit themselves to about two standard drinks early in the evening can safely breast-feed when they return home, Crowe said. (
  • Allowing women to breastfeed often leads to less missed time due to illness, and decreased turnover. (
  • Side-lying is an ideal breastfeeding position for women recovering from surgery, and for exhausted women feeding at night. (
  • Women with silicone breast implants who breast feed may be putting their babies' health at risk, according to a study by American researchers. (
  • Mastitis mainly affects breastfeeding women, usually within the first 3 months of giving birth - but you can also get it if you are not breastfeeding (due to an infection in the breast). (
  • Recent surveys indicate that 25% of women report being encouraged by their health professionals to drink alcohol while breastfeeding. (
  • To address this research deficit, the current study, reported in the April 2005 issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, is the first to analyze the effects of alcohol on lactational hormones of women who are breastfeeding. (
  • Mennella notes, "It's important for women to realize that these data should not frighten them away from breastfeeding. (
  • Most Marketplace plans must provide breastfeeding equipment and counseling for pregnant and nursing women. (
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women, especially in teenage or adolescent pregnancies or pregnancies at younger age groups. (
  • But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. (
  • To date, there have not been large-scale biomonitoring studies for PFAS in breast milk to establish reference values for comparison that are representative of the population of breastfeeding women in the United States. (
  • This is why some women may hesitate to get the Covid-19 vaccine while breastfeeding, even if they are otherwise pro-vaccine and anxious to be protected themselves. (
  • Twenty lactating women completed background questionnaires about breastfeeding and the intake of nonnutritive sweeteners in the prior 24 hours. (
  • A. We are not aware of any problems with taking Passion Rx while breastfeeding but we only have had feedback from 2 other women who did not notice a problem. (
  • A. We have not tested Passion Rx in women who are breastfeeding, but since the babies are 7 months old, it may be safe, particularly if you take half a capsule of Passion Rx every other day. (
  • He suggested the reporting was false, but then said: "The U.S. strongly supports breastfeeding but we don't believe women should be denied access to formula. (
  • The U.S. strongly supports breast feeding but we don't believe women should be denied access to formula. (
  • In 2007, nearly 74 percent of U.S. women said they had ever breastfed, according to results from the CDC's National Immunization Survey. (
  • And the rate of women who said they continued breastfeeding at six months, consistent with recommendations from the WHO, rose from 42 percent to 52 percent by 2016. (
  • Most states revealed increases of 10-percentage points or more among women who said they had ever breastfed during the same time period. (
  • Can all women breastfeed? (
  • But some women should not breastfeed, such as those who are HIV-positive or have active tuberculosis. (
  • Many women get help from friends and family or they join a support group to talk to other breastfeeding mothers. (
  • Women who take longer maternity leaves have a better breastfeeding continuance rate, 8 but extended leave time is not an option for many families. (
  • Worries about poor latches and nipple pain top the list of expectant moms' breastfeeding concerns, according to a Lansinoh survey of over 13,000 women. (
  • Over the past six years as I've been working as an author and commentator on the African American motherhood experience, I have become deeply frustrated by the lack of credible information or in-depth analysis on black women and their breastfeeding experiences . (
  • For every story about the low breastfeeding rates among black women, there is rarely anything on the complexities and nuances of the problem-such as exploring the impact of media stereotypes, the residual effects of our nursing experiences during slavery, the role of infant formula marketing in black communities or the lack of multi-generational support, for example. (
  • I took no pleasure in pointing it out, but something needed to be said: the media hype over Beyonce's breastfeeding moment blatantly ignored connecting the dots to black women, and missed the opportunity to point out the particular significance of having a black woman of Beyonce's star power breastfeeding in public. (
  • But the fact is, the media has a history of failing to accurately include black women in the collective breastfeeding "story. (
  • But most importantly, it is a place for black men and women to get helpful resources and hear the voices and see the faces of other breastfeeding women all over the world. (
  • Studies show, women from higher income families are more likely to breastfeed. (
  • Over 70% of women with purchasing power initiate breastfeeding. (
  • The CDC's annual Breastfeeding Report Card found that 84% of women choose to breastfeed as of 2021 with more than half (58%) still breastfeeding at 6 months and about one-third (35%) still breastfeeding at 12 months. (
  • It's common for women to ask a number of questions regarding breastfeeding when talking with their doctors. (
  • There's no medical reason why women can't breastfeed if they practice sports. (
  • Women who were currently pregnant (had either self-reported pregnancy or positive urine pregnancy test) or currently breastfeeding were excluded from the taste and smell examination. (
  • The women breastfed according to the latest WHO recommendations. (
  • Mothers who breastfeed find it easier to lose weight after pregnancy. (
  • Unlike the situation during pregnancy, when alcohol consumed at any time is always passed onto the fetus, a lactating woman who drinks occasionally can wait a few hours after she stops drinking to breastfeed so that her infant is not exposed to the alcohol in her milk. (
  • Mothers with a Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy are likely to continue to be deficient of this vitamin while breastfeeding. (
  • Read detailed pregnancy and breastfeeding guidelines for lead pdf icon . (
  • How does breastfeeding prevent pregnancy? (
  • Breastfeeding won't prevent pregnancy if you feed your baby anything other than breast milk. (
  • You knew to expect pregnancy cravings, but what you might not have expected was the continued sudden hunger urges you're feeling as you breastfeed your new arrival. (
  • There's no evidence to suggest that spicy foods should be avoided for your baby's sake, either during pregnancy or breastfeeding. (
  • In fact, research shows that babies who are exposed to a variety of flavors through amniotic fluids during pregnancy and breast milk once they're born may actually be more open to incorporating a variety of flavors into their own diet once they start eating solids. (
  • You may recover from pregnancy, labor, and delivery sooner if you breastfeed. (
  • Early in your pregnancy, talk to your doctor or midwife about breastfeeding. (
  • By age 3 months, 79 percent of the early formula users were breastfeeding exclusively, compared with 42 percent of the controls. (
  • The number of those who have ever breast-fed or breast-fed to 6 months have increased by similarly substantial margins, and rates of exclusive breast-feeding to 3 months and 6 months are also inching up. (
  • They recommend that babies feed only on breast milk for the first 6 months, and then continue to have breast milk as a main part of their diet until they are at least 1to 2 years old. (
  • Babies should be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months, according to the AAP. (
  • By 3 months, just under half were breastfed only. (
  • Your baby is six months old, and is growing healthily and happily on your breast milk alone. (
  • For example,' Buss said, 'the CDC reported in 2012 that, while 75 percent of new mothers in the United States start out breastfeeding, less than half breastfed their babies for six months. (
  • Although more moms are now breastfeeding their babies, Health Net's goal is to not only help increase the percentage of breastfeeding moms, but also to help increase the average number of months that they breastfeed. (
  • The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months. (
  • Beyond that, breastfeeding is encouraged until at least 12 months, and longer if both the mother and baby are willing. (
  • One exception is vitamin D - the AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age). (
  • About 2 out of 100 people who use breastfeeding as birth control get pregnant in the 6 months it can be used after a baby is born. (
  • It's important to remember that breastfeeding can only be used as birth control for the first 6 months of a baby's life, or until your period returns. (
  • Be ready to use another birth control method at 6 months, when your period returns, or if you start feeding your baby food or formula. (
  • Your baby needs breast milk and/or formula for the first 6 months of life. (
  • The longest I had breastfed my other two children was 9 months, and my original goal with my third baby was 1 year. (
  • During the first 6 months, breastfeeding children require no water supplementation, even in extreme heat environments. (
  • When her only sister died nine months after giving birth, a conflict-affected woman in Maiduguri, north-east Nigeria chose to continue breastfeeding her niece, with help from a UNICEF-supported mothers' group. (
  • According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), up to 800,000 lives could be saved annually through six months of exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary feeding for up to two years or longer. (
  • Though Aisha is now 13 months old, Fati has no plans to stop breastfeeding her anytime soon. (
  • Additionally, the prevalence of continued breastfeeding among children aged 12-23 months has remained relatively unchanged since 2010 - 69 per cent in 2010 and 66 per cent in 2020. (
  • The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life to promote optimal infant health and development. (
  • If new mothers could follow medical experts' recommendation to exclusively breastfeed for six months, the U.S. would save billions in healthcare and other costs each year. (
  • Q. I was wondering if is ok for me to take Glucomannan now then i'm breastfeeding my 2 months old baby. (
  • In 2014, the World Health Organization challenged the global community to raise by 2025 the number of babies who were exclusively breastfed during their first six months by 50 percent. (
  • Breast milk provides nutrition for about the first 6 months of the baby's life. (
  • This recommendation includes feeding a baby only breast milk for about the first 6 months. (
  • Breast milk is the only food most babies need until about 6 months of age. (
  • Conservative estimates suggest that breast milk can be stored at room temperature for eight hours, refrigerated for up to eight days, and frozen for many months. (
  • I've spent months interviewing experts, advocates, mothers, fathers, grandmothers and grandfathers on their thoughts and experiences with and about breastfeeding in our community. (
  • Many mothers continue to breastfeed for several months after returning to work, but if you find it too difficult to keep up with, go back and reread tip #1. (
  • Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond. (
  • But when breast milk was supplemented with other needed foods or liquids as the child developed past 6 months ("complementary feeding"), the risk for HIV transmission rose. (
  • The WHO previously recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, and then rapid weaning. (
  • Recently updated WHO recommendations now advise that HIV-seropositive mothers in developing countries receive HAART, that they exclusively breastfeed for 6 months, that they begin complementary feeding while still nursing, and that they fully wean the child at 12 months. (
  • In the case of the 1 baby who contracted HIV after 12 months, the mother had stopped her medications but continued breastfeeding. (
  • This study is the first to demonstrate that LPV/r-based HAART can prevent HIV transmission during the period of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of an infant's life and during complementary feeding in the second 6 months of life. (
  • However, previous studies were limited to 6 months of breastfeeding," Dr. John-Stewart emphasized. (
  • WHO guidelines recommend 12 months, so the new study provides evidence that antiretrovirals decrease transmission during extended breastfeeding," she said. (
  • Apart from other benefits, exclusive breast-feeding is the ideal way to provide nutrition during the first 6 months of life ( 9 ), and interruption of breast-feeding in resource-poor settings does not seem feasible unless the risks clearly outweigh possible benefits. (
  • Background: Early initiation of breast feeding and feeding exclusively for six months have great implication for the survival, well-being and growth of new borne. (
  • It is true that breastfeeding is not always easy and natural for moms and babies. (
  • Many moms and dads have strong opinions about these practices, especially the breast-feeding advice. (
  • The truth is that breastfeeding can be difficult for some moms and babies. (
  • For some moms, the tough decision may not be whether to bottle feed, but instead what to put in the baby bottle . (
  • There's a learning curve to it, though moms who have experience breastfeeding usually have experience pumping, too. (
  • According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health (OWH), breastfeeding benefits babies, moms and possibly society as a whole. (
  • For moms who can't breastfeed or who decide not to, infant formula is a healthy alternative. (
  • I offered to help by talking to her employer about solutions for breastfeeding moms, but she didn't want to rock the boat and was afraid of being fired. (
  • They say breastfeeding shouldn't hurt, but a lot of moms in the nursing trenches will tell you it can - at least at first. (
  • Share it with other moms in our Breastfeeding forum . (
  • However, there are disparities in rates of moms providing breast milk for their of babies. (
  • Black Breastfeeding 360°: Celebrating A New Resource For African American Moms, Plus: A Nursing Bra Giveaway! (
  • Many moms perceive breastfeeding in public as a barrier to breastfeeding. (
  • California law says moms have the right to breastfeed in public. (
  • Some babies find it easier to breastfeed from the top breast, while others can more easily reach the breast that is closest to the bed. (
  • Most babies find it easier to digest breast milk than formula. (
  • In reality, mothers should breast-feed their babies on demand, based on the infant's feeding cues, which should end up being about at least 8 times in a 24-hour period. (
  • Some even believe that lanolin can aid in creating a seal between the breast and the infant's mouth relieving any irritation possibly caused by poor latching. (
  • Breastfeeding may help prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (
  • Breastfeeding lowers your child's risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (
  • In this position, the baby feeds with its stomach against the woman's body. (
  • The size of a woman's breast doesn't determine the number of lactiferous ducts and glands that she has. (
  • So, breast size doesn't affect a woman's ability to breastfeed. (
  • Retrieved on December 02, 2022 from (
  • CDC's Breastfeeding Report Card , 2022 provides a compilation of data on breastfeeding practices and supports in all states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. (
  • You can breastfeed almost anywhere and anytime your baby is hungry. (
  • Feed your baby whenever he or she is hungry. (
  • In the first few weeks of life, breastfeeding should be "on demand" (when your baby is hungry), which is about every 1-1/2 to 3 hours. (
  • In an interview with the Italian newspaper La Stampa , the first Jesuit Pope linked topics including recycling food and wastefulness to breastfeeding: saying mothers should not be ashamed to feed their hungry babies. (
  • Additionally, feeding only at the breast protects children from potential exposure to contaminants on bottles, containers, cups, and utensils. (
  • The researchers emphasize that they used a careful procedure - small volumes of formula and careful administration with a syringe to prevent confusion between breast and bottle nipple. (
  • Breast tenderness and nipple soreness. (
  • The best breastfeeding positions enable a baby to latch on to the breast well and comfortably, do not strain the muscles, and reduce the risk of nipple injuries and pain. (
  • You might need to hold your breast to help guide the nipple to your baby's mouth. (
  • You will use the other hand (on the same side the baby is feeding from) to hold and navigate your breast and nipple. (
  • During breastfeeding, mum's nipple will naturally flatten when in your baby's mouth. (
  • During breastfeeding, milk can become engorged within the breast causing the breast in addition to the nipple itself to experience discomfort. (
  • Breastfeeding can help prevent health problems in your baby, such as allergies, eczema, ear infections, and stomach problems. (
  • Breastfed babies are less likely to be hospitalized with breathing infections. (
  • In fact, among formula-fed babies, ear infections and diarrhea are more common. (
  • Breastfeeding helps defend against infections, prevent allergies, and protect against a number of chronic conditions. (
  • footnote 2 Breast milk may also help protect your child from some health problems, such as infections, obesity, and diabetes. (
  • One is to choose whether to breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . (
  • Whether you choose to bottle feed or to combine both bottle and breast feeding, the NURTURE breast like feeding bottle is a natural choice for you and your baby. (
  • If you aren't breastfeeding, mastitis can be caused by infection. (
  • Even if you have an infection, breastfeeding won't harm your baby (although your milk may taste a little salty). (
  • Although various routes of transmission are recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. (
  • Although some early publications identify breast-feeding as a possible route for T. cruzi infection, such data are scarce, and few animal studies exist ( 5 - 8 ). (
  • The risk for transmission of infection through breast-feeding and whether any means are available to minimize this risk should be determined. (
  • Exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only breast milk, no other food or drink, which potentially protects children from contaminants and pathogens in foods or liquids. (
  • When you want to stop breastfeeding, try cutting down your feeds gradually (don't suddenly go longer between feeds). (
  • Breastfeeding protects children from eustachian tube collapse and pain during air travel, especially during ascent and descent, by allowing them to stabilize and gradually equalize internal and external air pressure. (
  • Other foods, such as cereal, are then gradually introduced while the baby continues to breastfeed. (
  • You will gradually breastfeed less often as your baby starts to eat other foods. (
  • Breastfed babies will sometimes eat every hour for a while, before they take a long nap. (
  • After other foods have been introduced, the AAP encourages mothers to continue to breastfeed until baby is at least a year old, and as long after that as both mother and child are willing. (
  • How long you breastfeed your child could dictate how bright he will be in later life, claim researchers from Denmark. (
  • PFAS levels in breast milk cannot determine if exposure is associated with past or present illness and cannot predict future (short or long term) illness or adverse health effects in the infant or the mother. (
  • I see this book as kind of a La Leche League group meeting for long-term breastfeeding mothers. (
  • How long should a mother breastfeed? (
  • But research has long shown that breastfeeding is the best way to nourish an infant , boost their immune system , prevent them from being sick or becoming overweight or obese and forge bonding between mother and child . (
  • But keep breastfeeding for as long as you and your child want to. (
  • Here's what you need to know about how often and how long to breastfeed your baby. (
  • Call your doctor if you're worried that your baby's feedings seem too short or too long. (
  • Will cannabis breastfeeding cause short-term or long-term effects on the baby? (
  • If she has breastfed before: "How long did you breastfeed for? (
  • Methodological challenges in studying long-term effectors of breast-feeding / M.S. Kramer -- 11. (
  • 17. Long-term effects of breast-feeding on asthma and atopic disease / W.H. Oddy -- 18. (
  • It's a bit of a jawdropper: Jamie Lynne Grumet, an attractive woman of 26, well dressed and smirking at the camera as her three-year-old child in camouflage cargo pants nurses on her left breast. (
  • We had to blink, rub our eyes, shake our heads and look again, not just because of the child-sucking-on-mother's-breast image but because the title above it did not say Newsweek . (
  • At the time, I was breastfeeding my third child at 2-1/2 years old. (
  • The book is a collection of stories by mothers who breastfed children to 3 years old and beyond, choosing to allow their children the full benefit of extended breastfeeding and child-led weaning. (
  • The book was my main source of support and comfort during the rest of my breastfeeding journey with my third child. (
  • My own experiences with breastfeeding a young child and the lack of resources for mothers nursing a child beyond toddlerhood inspired me to create such a resource. (
  • API: How do you offer support to mothers breastfeeding a toddler or older child who feel isolated and unsupported in their choices, and who may be reconsidering those choices? (
  • The medical preparation of a traveler who is breastfeeding differs only slightly from that of other travelers and depends in part on whether the breastfeeding traveler and child will be separated or together during travel. (
  • Travelers concerned about breastfeeding away from home might feel more comfortable breastfeeding the child in a fabric carrier or by using a nursing cover. (
  • The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, SEC. 722 states, "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a woman may breastfeed her child [PDF] at any location in a Federal building or on Federal property, if the woman and her child are otherwise authorized to be present at the location. (
  • Before departure, a breastfeeding person might decide to express and store a supply of milk to be fed to the child during the traveler's absence. (
  • Travelers who return to a nursing child can continue breastfeeding and, if necessary, supplement with previously expressed milk or infant formula until milk supply returns to its prior level. (
  • We have been told that we could breastfeed another person's child in a situation of death or any other challenges. (
  • Q. I have ordered Passion Rx , and need to know if I can safely take it while I am still breastfeeding my child. (
  • And given that Beyonce was actually feeding an African American child, who is disproportionately less likely to be breastfed, I thought it was a huge failure on the media and the movement's part not to mention the seemingly obvious connection. (
  • When a major humanitarian crisis or a natural disaster occurs, the issue of protecting the infant and young child feeding, namely infant feeding in emergency ( IFE ), seems to be a priority. (
  • Under this law, employers are also required to provide a reasonable break for a nursing mother to express breast milk when the need arises, for up to one year after the birth of her child. (
  • If mother has a personal or family history of other diseases linked with lower rates of breastfeeding (eg, inflammatory bowel disease), she should know that her child may be at particular risk. (
  • To develop a care plan focused on assisting a puerperal woman who decides to feed their child through breastfeeding on the contralateral breast. (
  • Most mothers who work can safely breastfeed their babies. (
  • If you work with lead, ask your doctor to measure your blood lead level to see if there is too much lead in your body to safely breastfeed your baby. (
  • Breastfeeding is very good for your baby's health, and most working mothers can safely breastfeed their babies. (
  • The truth is that most people can safely continue to eat as they normally would throughout breastfeeding without ill effect. (
  • Infant Formula - What you need to know - In English and 17 other languages for service providers to discuss infant formula with new parents so they make informed decisions about infant feeding, and know how to handle infant formula safely. (
  • Frequent feedings helps stimulate your milk production during the first few weeks. (
  • Supplementing vitamins to increase your milk supply is the easiest way to remedy breast milk nutrient deficiency, vitamin deficiency, balance hormones, and boost immunity for mother and baby. (
  • Frequent, unrestricted breastfeeding opportunities ensure that the lactating traveler's milk supply remains sufficient, and that the child's nutrition and hydration are ideal. (
  • When breastfeeding, oxytocin is released and this can make you feel thirsty, but won't effect your milk supply. (
  • Breast-feeding practices in relation to HIV in India / A.V. Shankar -- 22. (
  • It is easier than ever before to work and continue to breastfeed. (
  • Should I continue to breastfeed? (
  • Remember why you have made the choice to continue breastfeeding. (
  • Most travelers should be advised to continue breastfeeding their children throughout travel. (
  • I will continue breastfeeding her until she is two years,'' she said. (
  • Encourage your baby to feed if you feel your breasts are getting full. (
  • Breastfeeding is feeding a baby milk from the mother's breasts. (
  • You may switch breasts in the middle of each feeding and then alternate which breast you offer first for each feeding. (
  • Your baby may like switching breasts at each feeding or prefer to nurse just on one side. (
  • While the number of pumping breaks you take may depend on your baby's age and your breastfeeding goals, aim for sessions that completely empty your breasts. (
  • Yet many myths about breast-feeding persist and run the risk of disrupting the relationship, Crowe told delegates here at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2018 Annual Meeting. (
  • Some research shows that breastfeeding also can reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes, childhood leukemia and atopic dermatitis (a type of skin rash) in babies. (
  • Further, there is no established PFAS level for breast milk at which a health risk for an infant (or mother) is expected. (
  • And organizations following the science, to include The Infant Risk Center and the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine , have been nearly unanimous in their conclusion that getting the Covid-19 vaccine while pregnant is not only safe, it's also beneficial to the baby. (
  • An infant that is not exclusively breastfed could be at a substantially greater risk of death from diarrhoea or pneumonia than one who is. (
  • You may also lower your risk for certain health problems, such as breast cancer. (
  • A Canadian study suggests children who were not breastfed while receiving antibiotics in the first year of life had triple the risk of developing asthma because they lacked specific protective sugars found in human milk. (
  • Those who did notreceive breast milk but had been prescribed antibiotics were at three times the risk of having the condition. (
  • The children who received the antibiotics while breastfeeding weren't at any higher risk than the children whodid not have antibiotics," Turvey said. (
  • It's linked with a lower risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and osteoporosis. (
  • It can also take a couple of weeks for mother and baby to learn how to breastfeed. (
  • The provocative cover shows Jamie Lynne Grumet, a 26-year-old mother from Los Angeles, breast-feeding her son. (
  • Grumet said her own mother breast-fed her until age 6, and Grumet still remembers it. (
  • There are continued benefits from breastfeeding beyond 1 year, and up to 2 years especially in the mother. (
  • If the blood levels of vitamin D are found normal in a breastfeeding mother she is advised diet rich in vitamin D. This includes fatty fish (salmon, herring and mackerel), liver, eggs, margarine and enriched dairy products along with regular periods of skin exposure to the sun. (
  • The level of exposure to an infant depends on a number of circumstances, some of which include the level of PFAS in the mother, the amount of PFAS that transfers to her breast milk, and the duration of breastfeeding. (
  • As she breastfed quietly at the premises of the popular Yerwa Clinic in Maiduguri, north-east Nigeria, nine-month-old Aisha Babagana held on to her mother with a tight grip. (
  • Breastfeeding can be a wonderful experience between mother and baby. (
  • Successful breastfeeding is an interplay between mother and baby. (
  • While the work environment may be less than ideal for the breastfeeding mother, obstacles can be overcome. (
  • The study authors note that such a plan also prevents the social stigma and ostracism that can result from a mother using formula, because "in most African countries, the only reason a woman would formula-feed is if she were HIV-positive. (
  • Once families leave their birthing setting, breastfeeding rates drop slowly but consistently, which suggests that families may need additional types of support that facilitate exclusive breastfeeding and a longer duration of breastfeeding. (
  • My question is: Is it ok to take this supplement if you are breast feeding? (
  • We have no reason to suspect that reasonable amount of acai juice drinking or taking an occasional acai supplement would influence a breastfed baby. (
  • The study findings could spur clinical trials to determine if the natural sugars in breast milk can be used to supplement formula for the benefit of people who can't breastfeed their children, Turvey said. (
  • When you think of breast-feeding, you think of mothers holding their children, which was impossible with some of these older kids," Schoeller says. (
  • Researchers may have discovered yet another benefit of breastfeeding for children. (
  • The association between breastfeeding and bed-wetting was investigated because both have a relationship to developmental progress in children. (
  • Some studies suggest that children who were exclusively breastfed have slightly higher IQs than children who were formula fed. (
  • I received a copy of To Three and Beyond: Stories of Breastfed Children and the Mothers Who Love Them at a critical point in my parenting journey. (
  • A former La Leche League Leader, Janell breastfed her 3 children to the ages of 5, 4-1/2 and 3-1/2 years. (
  • It is a closed group that started out about the book but is now mostly a discussion group for mothers with questions, stories and things to share about nursing older children and breastfeeding in general. (
  • While no two mothers' experiences are the same, one of the main threads running through the stories in this book is that of individual mothers carefully considering their children and their families and making decisions about breastfeeding and parenting based on the family's needs as a whole and the children's needs in particular. (
  • Breastfeeding provides unique benefits to children while traveling. (
  • Improved global breastfeeding rates could save the lives of 823,000 children under age 5 each year, according to one estimate. (
  • Done appropriately, it ensures that children do not miss out on the complete nutrition benefits available in breast milk. (
  • Across all regions, prevalence of continued breastfeeding is higher among children living in the poorest households compared to their wealthiest peers. (
  • The gap is widest in West and Central Africa where the prevalence of continued breastfeeding among children from the poorest households is nearly double compared to those residing in the wealthiest households. (
  • Utah reported the highest breastfeeding rate - 94 percent - while just over half of Mississippi mothers said they had tried to breastfeed their children. (
  • During this COCA Call, presenters will focus on current information about monkeypox as it relates to children, adolescents, and people who are pregnant or breastfeeding. (
  • Pediatritian and allergist associations recommend prolonged breastfeeding as a means of protecting children against allergies. (
  • AUSTIN, Texas - As breast-feeding rates rise in the United States, physicians can actively support mothers and correct the many misconceptions about breast-feeding, according to Susan Crowe, MD, from Stanford University in California. (
  • After a few weeks, a breastfed baby's schedule becomes quite predictable. (
  • My sister practiced exclusive breastfeeding with Aisha and I didn't want that to stop. (
  • Dr Kuma-Aboagye expressed worry about the gradual decline in exclusive breastfeeding and assured that the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health were working closely with key health partners including, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNICEF with a focus on informing people about the importance of protecting breastfeeding. (
  • Ghana's exclusive breastfeeding rate currently stands at 43 percent, representing a significant drop from 63 percent in 2008. (
  • So it wasn't just exclusive breastfeeding, with no other form of nutrition. (
  • 4 The steady decline in any and exclusive breastfeeding from month-to-month indicates that breastfeeding families may need stronger systems of support to reach their breastfeeding goals. (
  • Exclusive breastfeeding after breast cancer. (
  • Despite having one of the lowest breastfeeding initiation rates among industrialized countries - it ranked 26th, according to the latest available data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - breastfeeding rates in the U.S. improved nationwide and in nearly every state between 2007 and 2016, according to the latest available CDC data. (
  • Work and breastfeeding decisions are jointly determined for higher socioeconomic status US mothers ," Review of Economics of the Household , Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 237-257, June. (
  • It tends to get easier with practice, as both a woman and baby master the breastfeeding strategies that work for them. (
  • If breastfeeding doesn't work for you, know your choices to keep your baby fed and healthy. (
  • Make sure your baby latches on properly - try different breastfeeding positions to work out which is most comfortable. (
  • If you work with chemicals, breastfeeding is an important time to talk to your doctor because some chemicals can get into breast milk and possibly harm your baby. (
  • If you work with one of these chemicals, it is important to talk to your doctor about breastfeeding. (
  • Tell them what kinds of chemicals you work with and ask them if it's safe to keep breastfeeding. (
  • Some AAP Chapters have developed state leave policies, and the United States Breastfeeding Committee continues to work toward paid leave through legislative advocacy. (
  • Although more and more companies are providing space and time for breastfeeding mothers coming back to work, some mothers don't know about this law or are afraid of losing their job if they ask their supervisor to make provisions for them. (
  • There are many different positions that can work while breastfeeding. (
  • Mothers who work outside the home initiate breastfeeding at the same rate as mothers who stay at home. (
  • Depending on the company or clients you work for, they may or may not be aware of a breastfeeding mom's need for regular pumping breaks. (
  • If you are breastfeeding, getting on a manageable feeding schedule can work wonders. (
  • If you feed your baby right before you leave and right when you get home, that's less pumping you have to do at work. (
  • Breastfeeding support in the maternity care setting continues to improve, but variations in care from state-to-state indicate that more work is needed. (