In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A secretoglobin that is produced by the MAMMARY GLAND of HUMANS and may be involved in the binding of ANDROGENS and other STEROIDS. The expression of this protein in normal breast epithelium and in human breast cancer has made it an important histological marker.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.

A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (1/2970)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (2/2970)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. (3/2970)

The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances.  (+info)

A new tool for measuring the suckling stimulus during breastfeeding in humans: the orokinetogram and the Fourier series. (4/2970)

The Fourier series was used to analyse the oral movements recorded by the orokinetogram during breastfeeding in human babies. This is a new method that allows recording of oral movements without introducing any extrinsic element between the nipple and the mouth of the baby. The advantage of displaying suckling activity after fast Fourier transform (FFT) is that this algorithm allows storage, quantification and frequency analysis of the oral movements throughout a suckling bout, which enables the total oral activity to be measured. Two types of oral movements are found: slow high amplitude (SHA) and fast low amplitude (FLA). FLA movements may be derived from peristaltic movements of the tongue that result in tickling stimuli to the mechanoreceptors of the nipple and milk expression. The frequency bandwidth of oral movements is wider (0-8 Hz) than has been described previously (0-3 Hz) and this is due to the presence of the FLA oral movements. An indirect measurement of the energy of oral movements during suckling is obtained by the pattern of energy distribution used in each individual frequency band by oral movements. This pattern changes in relation to the periods of continuous and intermittent suckling activity. SHA and FLA oral movements are more intense during continuous suckling. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the energy of SHA and FLA waves throughout the suckling bout, and also that the highest level of energy during suckling activity is displayed during the first 2 min. The novel tools described in this paper allow investigation of the role of suckling stimulus in reflex hormone release and other mother-infant interactions.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels. (5/2970)

The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children.  (+info)

Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya. (6/2970)

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.  (+info)

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented? (7/2970)

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health. (8/2970)

An increase in exclusive breastfeeding prevalence can substantially reduce mortality and morbidity among infants. In this paper, estimates of the costs and impacts of three breastfeeding promotion programmes, implemented through maternity services in Brazil, Honduras and Mexico, are used to develop cost-effectiveness measures and these are compared with other health interventions. The results show that breastfeeding promotion can be one of the most cost-effective health interventions for preventing cases of diarrhoea, preventing deaths from diarrhoea, and gaining disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The benefits are substantial over a broad range of programme types. Programmes starting with the removal of formula and medications during delivery are likely to derive a high level of impact per unit of net incremental cost. Cost-effectiveness is lower (but still attractive relative to other interventions) if hospitals already have rooming-in and no bottle-feeds; and the cost-effectiveness improves as programmes become well-established. At an annual cost of about 30 to 40 US cents per birth, programmes starting with formula feeding in nurseries and maternity wards can reduce diarrhoea cases for approximately $0.65 to $1.10 per case prevented, diarrhoea deaths for $100 to $200 per death averted, and reduce the burden of disease for approximately $2 to $4 per DALY. Maternity services that have already eliminated formula can, by investing from $2 to $3 per birth, prevent diarrhoea cases and deaths for $3.50 to $6.75 per case, and $550 to $800 per death respectively, with DALYs gained at $12 to $19 each.  (+info)

CALDEIRA, Antônio P. and GONCALVES, Eduardo. Assessment of the impact of implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.2, pp.127-132. ISSN 0021-7557. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on the breastfeeding practices of mothers from the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed of two cross-sectional breastfeeding indicator studies with randomized samples of children under 2 years of age. One study was carried out before and the other after the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative had been implemented throughout all public pregnancy and childbirth care services in the city. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were constructed for different breastfeeding patterns. Log rank testing was used to calculate the level of significance of differences between curves for before and after the Initiative. RESULTS: The survival ...
Worldwide Breastfeeding Resources - World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action [WABA], The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust, UNICEF, WHO, LLL, Linkages Project
A new paper in JAMA Pediatrics is the latest in a series of critiques of the so-called baby friendly hospital movement. Previously, the global...
Map Unavailable Date/Time Date(s) - February 21, 2013 11:30 AM - 1:00 PM Location Future Care Old Court Contact Info: 4109003657 [email protected] Category(ies) Free Education Seminar Understanding the Hospital initiatives to create a better pathway for hospital discharges to your Assisted Living Community. Thursday February 21st 2013 11:30 to 1:00 pm FutureCare Old Court 5412 Old Court Road Baltimore, MD 21133 • What are the Hospitals Saying? • How can you help Hospitals • What is the key to help […]
The first hospitals verified as Baby-Friendly in the USA were on the Pacific coast. Among the earliest, if not the first US hospital to receive this designation was Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, in Kirkland, WA, which was certified in September 1996. All of these early adopters were able to achieve 100% breastfeeding initiation rates.[31] In New York City, the Harlem Hospital Center was the first hospital to receive the Baby Friendly certification granted by Baby-Friendly USA for the city in 2008.[32] In 2011, New York University Langone Medical Center became the second hospital to receive the Baby-Friendly Hospital designation in New York City.[33] As of May 2, 2018, the United States only had 512 hospitals that hold the Baby-Friendly designation. This translates to 24.57% of annual births occurring in a Baby-Friendly hospital.[34] Mothers in the United States face prejudice regarding breastfeeding their children. The US Surgeon General reported in 2001 that 57% of U.S. adults believe ...
It is well established that infants breast fed by their HIV-infected mothers are at risk of acquiring HIV infection through breast milk. However, in low resource settings, where the HIV epidemic now predominates, breast feeding cannot simply be replaced by breast milk substitutes since alternatives to breast milk are unavailable, unaffordable and unsafe. With this application we aim to test the safety and efficacy of short duration exclusive breast feeding to minimize risks of HIV transmission without increasing risks of non-HIV infant mortality. We propose a 5-year study of HIV-positive mothers and their children to be conducted in two urban primary health care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. All HIV-positive women and their infants will be offered the two-dose nevirapine intervention and will be counseled about the risks and benefits of infant feeding options. Women who indicate their decision to breast feed will be eligible for enrollment into the study. A culturally appropriate, affordable and ...
While breastfeeding is a natural act, it is also a learned behaviour. An extensive body of research has demonstrated that mothers and other caregivers require active support for establishing and sustaining appropriate breastfeeding practices. WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992, to strengthen maternity practices to support breastfeeding. The foundation for the BFHI are the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding described in Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding: a Joint WHO/UNICEF Statement. The evidence for the effectiveness of the Ten Steps has been summarized in a scientific review document.. The BFHI has been implemented in about 16.000 hospitals in 171 countries and it has contributed to improving the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding world-wide. While improved maternity services help to increase the initiation of exclusive breastfeeding, support throughout the health system is required to help mothers sustain exclusive ...
The benefits of breastfeeding have been well documented. The composition of human milk is distinct from the milk of other mammals and from infant formula. Human milk is unique in its physical structure and in the types of concentrations of nutrients, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, host resistance factors, inducers/modulators of the immune system, and anti-inflammatory agents. Research has shown that the advantages of breastfeeding include the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory illness, and other infections as well as certain immunologic disorders. Breastfeeding also provides benefits to the mother.. Therefore, recognizing that breastfeeding plays an uniquely important role in the healthy development of infants and young children, The College of Family Physicians of Canada endorses The WHO Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding and recognizes that this builds on documents previously endorsed by the CFPC, i.e. the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (1991), the ...
The World Health Organization/United Nations Childrens Fund Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated, and Expanded for Integrated Care (2009) identifies the need for expanding the guidelines originally developed for maternity units to include neonatal intensive care. For this purpose, an expert group from the Nordic countries and Quebec, Canada, prepared a draft proposal, which was discussed at an international workshop in Uppsala, Sweden, in September 2011. The expert group suggests the addition of 3 Guiding Principles to the Ten Steps to support this vulnerable population of mothers and infants: 1. The staff attitude to the mother must focus on the individual mother and her situation. 2. The facility must provide family-centered care, supported by the environment. 3. The health care system must ensure continuity of care, that is, continuity of pre-, peri-, and postnatal care and post-discharge care. The goal of the expert group is to create a final document, the Baby Friendly ...
Course content includes principles of adult education; examination of teaching methods that emphasize both delivery of information and integration of skill; use of staff education to promote evidence-based practice and continuity of care; system strategies for improving maternal child health, including the UNICEF/WHO Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; barriers and facilitators of systems change; change management strategies; designing and presenting educational sessions designed to support system change; and fostering the development of learning organizations. Course content is delivered through lecture, video, small and large-group work, student presentations and peer evaluations, as well as homework assignments, quizzes, and textbook readings. Prerequisite: Successful completion of the Lactation Counselor Training Course or suitable breastfeeding education as determined by the instructor.. ...
Lim, S. R., & Newcomb, S. S. (2015). A quality improvement initiative project to evaluate a newborn hearing screening program in a Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative setting. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine (JPNIM), 4(1), e040110. Atkins, D., Samson, A., Lim, S., Visser, W., Siomra, R., Sansom, J., & Yack, E. (2016). Professional partnerships and auditory-verbal therapy. In W. Estabrooks, E.A. Rhoades, K. MacIver-Lux (Eds.), Auditory-Verbal Therapy for Young Children with Hearing Loss and Their Families, and the Practitioners Who Guide Them. San Diego: Plural Publishing ...
You may or may not have decided to breast feed your baby before you gave birth but it is even more important to try and feed your premature baby yourself. Breast feeding will give your newborn the best start in life and is easier for their tiny stomachs to tolerate. Breast milk will also help protect your prem baby from infections.. Your prem baby may not be able to feed from you directly at first, but you can try to express your milk by using an electric or manual pump. You will need to express frequently to encourage a good supply, ready for when they are ready to start feeding from you.. It can take a little while for your milk to become established, this is normal for mums of premature babies. This is because the hormones that encourage your body to produce milk begin in the later stages of pregnancy and if your pregnancy has ended early, then this stage will have been cut short. Dont worry it will happen it just may take a bit of time.. Expressing your milk can make you feel under pressure ...
A special session for pregnant women & lactating mothers at Ritas Pregnancy 101. Covering topics such as the importance of breast feeding, correct techniques to breast feed, advantages of breast feeding, dos & dont and much more. Come join the session at Ritas Pregnancy 101, Prahladnagar, Ahmedabad centre. Pregnancy and After Birth Classes. Save
Justin Graves, Sustainability Coordinator, the University of Maryland Medical Center. Justin Graves is the Sustainability Coordinator for the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, MD. Before joining the Sustainability program full time in January 2013, Justin served as the Green Team Chair since early 2012 and has worked full time as a Trauma Critical Care nurse at UMMC since 2005. His passion for caring for people combined with his concern for the environment made him a perfect fit for the role as Sustainability Coordinator. In his spare time, Justin enjoys growing as many vegetables and herbs as he can in his small urban farm garden.. Judith Focareta, RN, MEd, Coordinator, Environmental Health Initiatives, Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC. Judith Focareta is a maternal-child nurse. She holds a masters degree in health education with a specialty in environmental health. Judy is a certified health teacher in Pennsylvania and taught environmental health K thru 8 at St. Bonaventure ...
Results Patients with AS had been breast fed less often than healthy controls. In families where children were breast fed, the patients with AS were less often breast fed than their healthy siblings (57% vs 72%), giving an OR for AS onset of 0.53 (95% CI (0.36 to 0.77), p value=0.0009). Breast feeding reduced familial prevalence of AS. The frequency of breast feeding was similar in the AS siblings and in the 280 unrelated controls. However, patients with AS were less often breast fed compared with the 280 unrelated controls (OR 0.6, 95% CI (0.42 to 0.89), p,0.01). ...
my 5 month old son is not gaining weight as much as i would love.His current wight is about 8kg,he s been on exclusive breast milk but am trying to introduce milk and cereals but he seems to prefer breast milk.I need to wean him and i also want him to add a bit more weight.What do you recommend? ...
Breast feed your baby for at least the first 5-6 months of life. Most mothers may have to return to work before this period is reached. So, how do you continue to breast feed your baby? Your employer may provide a nursery where your baby and other babies can stay. In that case, by all means take your baby with you to work. If this is not possible, you can give expressed breast milk to your baby. Heres a rough guide as to how you can do it:. ...
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When my journey started with the baby in between, everything seemed so difficult. So many trials, so much pain, and too many tests. But I passed all of them, with my heads up high and with my spirit soaring. Now, Im loving The Baby in Between more and more...And as she continues to grow, all the more that Mommy will make her feel so loved and so cared for. Every milestone with her will be treasured and will be documented in this place we consider ours on the web. This is me - The Baby in Betweens Mom. Witness how this little one brought a difference to my life, to our lives. Now, more than ever, shes brought so much joy - to me and to her dad. Indeed, The Baby in Between that brought us back together, forever ...
How seriously is Apple taking its new subscription games service, Apple Arcade? Pretty seriously if a new report in the Financial Times is to be believed.
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Ok I have 2 kids and one due October 17th my first never latched and I didnt think about pumping and I never lost my milk production then 6 years later my second child arrived and she latched but no matter how much I nursed her I never produced enough but yet 2 years later I have this little one on the way and still have my supply but I want to up the production of my breastmilk and pump before he arrives just in case he doesnt latch I have read that you can but I wanted to have other opinions on this since it would mean a lot to me to be able to breast feed or give him my breast milk even if its with a bottle!
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Is a little bit of projectile vomiting something to be concerned about from a 5 day old infant? - Answered by a verified Pediatrician
My son was born 2 months premature and he was coloniaed ESBL whilst in the NICCU ICU. He has since been moved to a regional hospital where he isolated from the other babies in the nursery. I was told today by infections control that I have most likely contracted ESBL from my son as I breast feed him. I was my hands when I enter and leave the nursery and wash my clothes after every wear. Just wondering how its possible to catch is through breast feeding ...
In the recent past, there has been a push for mothers to exclusively breast feed their children for the first six months after birth. This is because science has proven that breast milk is vital for the health of the infant. However, some ladies are still not convinced and they still opt for alternative feeding for their children in order to keep looking young. No lady wants to have sagging breasts. These women are however oblivious of the importance of breast feeding for both themselves and the child.
A recommendation from the World Health Organization that women exclusively breast feed their infants for six months lacks support from randomized clinical trials -- and warrants a critical reappraisal
Anyway the manual. Actually this thought pattern started because I am sick. My wonderful loving diaper-heads (kids) lovingly passed on their yucky germs to Mom! SO yesterday as I was coughing up a lung and peeing my pants (lol) a thought went through my head and I even said it out loud, God why on earth would you make us women endure nine months of pregnancy giving everything to our growing babies within and not give us super immunity to their illnesses? I mean all we hear about is how when babies are born they have a small amount of immunity to illnesses and that breastfeeding adds to that. Oh dont get me wrong breast feeding is very important and although not everyone feels comfortable with it that is how God created our bodies. I did or at least tried to breast feed my babies. All four of them but unfortunately I never produced enough for any of them. So they always had bottle feedings as well. Ok maybe a bit TMI. All well ...
Hello, my LO is almost 4 months old. I breast feed on demand and give 1 bottle of formula each day. My period has not yet returned. I have a perscription for birth control (Micronor) but Im not taking it, mostly because Ive been off the pill for so long that I cant remember to take it. Currently we use other methods to prevent pregnancy, and Im just wondering if its necessary? Is it possible to get pregnant while Im not having a period at all? Perhaps this is a stupid question....
Hey everyone. I have been EBF for 11 months now. Ive been pumping twice a day at work and breast feed her the rest of the day. Lately, Ive been only pumping 4 oz during those two sessions. Before I would pump like 10 oz a day but now its only 4. I really want to continue breast feeding passed the first year. What can I do to pump more? Shes seems to get satisfied when she nurses but pumping output is terrible. I just more supply overall. What can I do?
I have a 14-month-old baby, whom I breast feed twice a day to put her to sleep. |b|Recently my gynaecologist prescribed Cabgolin 0.5 mg every night for a week to stop the production of milk|/b|. Is it safe to use this drug to stop lactating? What are its side effects? Can I take this drug even when I am feeding her, because stopping feeds and taking the drug would result in engorgement, which I dont want? What are the other options?
June 29, 2012 My granddaughter was born under weight and it took a long time for her to get to the point of being able to use a bottle. She could never get the strength or ability to breast feed. At ...
hi all im pregnant with my first baby im bout 6 months i wana breast feed got ne gud tips how do u no when the baby has had enough does it really hurt like they say?
Kate Middleton is being called on to breast feed the royal baby to set an example for new moms everywhere. Royal experts think she will do so, but regular moms think its nobodys business.
EDITOR-Minervas report of the study by Nduati et al into HIV and infant feeding quotes figures for babies alive and free of infection with HIV-1 at two years.1 One striking finding was the lack of overall difference in infant mortality between the two trial arms despite a higher level of HIV transmission in the breast fed arm, implying a trade off between mortality related to HIV and artificial feeding.. A review of the risks of not breast feeding found that infants not breast fed … ...
Rex Features BABY MILESTONESYour baby will have achieved lots of little milestones from day one, but from this month things really start to take off, with some exciting developments taking place.&bul...
Hi! My name is Jacque and I am a 40 year old Infant Toddler Specialist for the GA Dept of Early Care and Learning and a college instructor. I am pa...
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The aim of this study was to obtain suggestions from mothers of very preterm infants regarding modification of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Thirteen mothers were interviewed 2 to 6 months after their infants discharge from the hospital. The interviews generated 13 steps, which partly agree with the BFHI steps. The new steps address respect for mothers individual decisions about breastfeeding, education of staff in specific knowledge and skills, antenatal information about lactation in the event of preterm birth, skin-to-skin (kangaroo mother) care, breast milk expression, early introduction of breastfeeding, facilitation of mothers 24-hour presence in the hospital, preference for mothers own milk, semi-demand feeding before transition to demand breastfeeding, special benefits of pacifier sucking, alternative strategies for reduction of supplementation, use of bottle-feeding when indicated, a family-centered and supportive physical ...
Key clinical point: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to infant through breast milk appears unlikely.Major finding: Viral RNA suggesting SARS-CoV-2 was found in a breast milk sample from one woman with a SARS-CoV-2 infection out of 18 who were tested, but no replication-competent virus was detected.Study details: The data come from breast milk samples from 18 breastfeeding women with positive tests for COVID-19.
Question - 4.5 year child having loose motion. Looking dull and lethargic. On breast feed and cow milk. Concerned . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Lactose intolerance, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Question - New born with high TSH level, breast feed jaundice. Is it normal?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Breast cancer, Ask a Pediatrician
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Ive used the questions you originally sent, and theyll go in the Research section starting June 30. Since you have no deadline, Ill run it about once a month or so. I added the paragraph below to it: 6/12/98 QUESTIONS: Sent to Lactation Consultants and Pediatric RNs 1) How long will MATERNAL ANTIBODIES help an infant as 100% BREAST FEEDING stops...and how fast would this help decrease as supplements were being introduced? 2) Do you know of any studies comparing BOTTLE FED vs. BREAST FED infants as related to Growth & Development (G&D) of the pre-maxilla and palate region as well as length of the mandible? 3) Do you know of any studies comparing showing any relationship between BOTTLE FED vs. BREAST FED infants and the 20-30% of them that will go on to have 90+% of otitis episodes? 4) Do you know of any studies that show the effects of LOWER BLOOD OXYGEN and/or HIGHER HISTAMINE POTENTIALS to generalized and/or specific child health? 5) Do you know of any studies that evaluated TEETHING ...
In the developing world breastfeeding is the recommended infant feeding method, even for women infected with HIV. While early cessation of breastfeeding reduces HIV transmission to the baby, studies have shown that it increases morbidity and mortality in the infants. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life appears to reduce HIV transmission, as opposed to mixed breastfeeding with supplementation with formula or solid foods. Dan Keller spoke with Hoosen Coovadia, who delivered a plenary talk on the subject at the14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Los Angeles ...
Primary hypotheses. In a hospital-based CRCT, cell phone lactational counseling starting in the third trimester of pregnancy to 24 weeks after delivery will improve the prevalence of EBF by 7.5 % (7.5% increase in EBF by retraining in BFHI alone in both groups from baseline and a additional 7.5% improvement in intervention group as compared to the control) compared with women with from hospitals with only retraining BFHI.. Secondary hypotheses As compared to women from hospitals receiving only retraining in BFHI, those with additional cell phone lactational counseling will experience the following. ...
Evidence for short term and long term health benefits of breast feeding for mother and child is increasing.1 2 The World Health Organization states that optimal nutrition is exclusive breast feeding (breast milk with no other fluids) for six months and continued breast feeding for two years.3 Scotland has among the lowest breastfeeding rates in the developed world; only 44% of babies received any breast milk at 6 weeks in 2005.4. Two Cochrane reviews have summarised the evidence for interventions that increase the prevalence of breast feeding.5 6 Additional one to one professional or lay support increases the duration of any breast feeding up to 6 months, with a greater effect for exclusive breast feeding.6 Some randomised controlled trials of lay supporters and some professional education interventions in pregnancy have included group settings,6 7 but evidence is limited and the effectiveness of health service provided breastfeeding groups is unknown. Professional support interventions ...
The disease can be IgE and non-IgE medicated, most of the gastrointestinal symptoms are non-Ig mediated. Double blinded placebo-control trial is diagnostic for the disease, however it is cumbersome and an open challenge is done in practice. In open challenge, the patient is advised to stop all milk and milk products and is started on extensively hydrolyzed formulae for 4-6 weeks and after improvement of symptoms, the child is challenged with normal milk, if the symptoms reappear it confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is extensively hydrolyzed formulae (eHF) or amino acid based formulae. In exclusive breast fed infants below 6 months of age, the mother is stopped of all milk and milk products and breast feeding is continued. Soy protein-based formula may be an option in infants older than 6 months who do not accept the bitter taste of an eHF, or in cases in which the higher cost of an eHF is a limiting its factor, provided that the tolerance to soy protein has been established ...
The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding
The researchers surveyed 501 first-time mothers as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program to find out if positive modeling and peer support through parenting groups had an influence on breastfeeding. The results of the study are published online in the latest issue of the journal Pediatrics.. In Victoria, around two-thirds of all first-time mothers attend first-time parent groups, which provide informal peer support during the first year of parenthood. Mothers normally join when their babies are around six weeks old.. Of the 501 mothers who took part in the study, almost half were no longer breastfeeding at six months. Interestingly, the researchers found that within parent groups, the greater the proportion of mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time the group was formed, the more likely were breastfeeding mothers to continue breastfeeding to six months.. Social connections have recently been shown to have an influence on the likelihood of smoking, obesity, loneliness, and happiness. In ...
It is not known if Emsam passes through breast milk. This eMedTV page explains that there has been no research done on Emsam and breastfeeding in humans, but the drug does pass through breast milk in rats and may pass through breast milk in humans.
According to a recent research published in June 21 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association, breastfeeding may reduce the risk of heart strokes in women by 10 percent. The study shows that breast feeding can be proved good for heart. This claim comes from researchers who conducted a research on 3,00,000 women in China. The researchers discovered that mothers who had breast fed their child are up to 10 percent secure against developing heart diseases as compared to mothers who never breast fed.. During the study, researchers have found that breast- feeding can lower the risk of heart diseases and stokes in women who breast feed. According to the team of the researchers these recent findings suggests that interventions to increase the likelihood and duration of breast feeding could have persistent benefits to maternal cardiovascular health. According to previous researches breastfeeding can also help in reducing the extra weight that moms gain during pregnancy. It is generally ...
Dear Parents,. Its taken me years to find the courage to contact the Fed is Best Foundation with my experiences of working in a baby-friendly hospital. Baby-Friendly is the worst thing I have experienced in my 20 years as a NICU nurse. My colleagues and I have tried many times to express our concerns with the number of NICU admissions we receive. Eighty percent of our admissions are because of baby un-friendly protocols for hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, excessive weight loss, and dehydration in our hospital from insufficient breastfeeding. We are a small unit, and we have had around 150 plus admissions last year from insufficient feeding. Sadly, weve had bad outcomes.. Many of my colleagues are very frustrated….but others have drank the kool-aid-believing drops of colostrum are all the baby needs-which is blatantly false. The lactation nurses audit charts daily and report nurses for supplementing babies, then they go to moms rooms to reeducate them on the dangers of formula-another ...
When I saw that the editorial included primum non nocere in the title, I assumed that the author would be addressing the harms caused by aggressive breastfeeding promotion in general and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in particular. I couldnt have been more wrong. The author Timothy J. Tobolic, MD, President of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, is concerned with preventing harm to breastfeeding, NOT preventing harm to babies and mothers.. In my view, it is a fundamental violation of medical ethics to place protecting a process above protecting patients. NOTHING comes before the wellbeing of our patients.. Wait, I hear you say. By promoting breastfeeding, which is good for babies and mothers, we are promoting the wellbeing of our patients.. That attitude is typical of the paternalism and egotism so beloved of physicians - Doctor knows best! - and so despised by patients. The history of medicine is littered with examples of doctors causing harm by believing in the tests, medications ...
Results Abnormal SDQ scores were less common in term children (n=1129/9525, 12%) than pre-term (n=78/512, 15%) children. Term children breast fed for 4 months or longer (n=2741/9525, 29%) had lower odds of an abnormal total SDQ score (multivariable-adjusted OR compared with never breastfed children (n=3292/9525, 35%) 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.83). This effect was similar for all the SDQ subscores. In preterm children, longer duration of breast feeding was generally associated with lower odds of abnormal SDQ total and subscores but the effect estimates were imprecise. The associations between exclusive breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores were similar to those of any breast feeding and abnormal SDQ scores.. ...
Hi The only fluid from breast that can infect someone is mothers breast milk and it has to be taken in with a large volume. This is why it is a risk for newborns and breast feeding and why we do...
1 ABSTRACT Exclusive breastfeeding has been recognised as an important public health tool for the primary prevention of child morbidity and mortality.
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Editors note: The following post was originally published on Green and Clean Mom. Green & Clean Mom can inspire you to try a little harder, be a catalyst for change and to offer you some new tips and news on how to be the green, sexy and sassy mom…I know you are! Most moms know that breastfeeding is best for baby and for the moms that decide to breastfeed (it is a choice) there are a lot of great support groups online. provides an online community that helps support moms and Baby Center has many articles for new mothers to help them learn the benefits of breastfeeding and the how-tos to help moms problem solve. The support and encouragement to breastfeed is certainly more common then it used to be but what about the mothers who do not breastfeed their babies? Is there support and guidance for those mothers on the formula to choose, safe BPA free bottles to use, how to prepare the formula and how much to feed the baby? I am sad to report my findings are showing theres ...
The recommended vitamin C intake in lactating women is 120 mg daily, and for infants aged 6 months or less is 40 mg daily. [1] High daily doses up to 1000 mg increase milk levels, but not enough to cause a health concern for the breastfed infant and is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.. ...
TEYATEYANENG, Lesotho, 22 August 2011 - Malefu Kobisi, 28, is a proud mother of a bouncing seven-month-old baby girl, Qenehelo. For the first six months of Qenehelo life, her mother religiously fed her child with only breast milk - a practice known as exclusive breast feeding.
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title:Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices. Author:Sushma Sriram, Priyanka Soni, Rashmi Thanvi, Nisha Prajapati, K M Mehariya. Keywords:Infant feeding, breastfeeding, attitude and practice. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36%) most ...
Breast milk is characterized by a dynamic and complex composition which includes hormones and other bioactive components that could influence infant growth,...
Should the mother need to provide top ups to breast milk, the use of an amino acid based formula is recommended in CMA. The ranges of B-lactoglobulin (BLG) levels and peptide sizes of cows milk protein in breast milk are similar to those in an eHF, therefore reaction to these in breast milk are likely to then also occur with an eHF.1. ...
wow just wanted to say that i enjoyed this post. I am a first time mom and my baby girl is only just 10 days old and i am trying to breast feed... we have problems with latching there for i am pumping everyday at every feeding. She seems to be gearing up for her 2 week growth spurt because she will easily drink 4oz in one feeding and yet i can only pump 2oz each time so i have to supplement with 2oz at each feeding. Pumping exclusively is hard work, you cant really go anywhere (i have a portable battery operated pump but its extremely loud and awkward..) When i was pregnant i was 100% on the absolutely no formula front, and when my little girl went 7-8 hours our second night home without eating because she wouldnt latch, i didnt have a pump and didnt have fromula on hand, i was happy when she did get her formula because i knew she now had food in her system and wasnt starving. It broke my heart, i was crying while she was crying. I still am nervous to feed her formula (not sure why...breast is ...
wow just wanted to say that i enjoyed this post. I am a first time mom and my baby girl is only just 10 days old and i am trying to breast feed... we have problems with latching there for i am pumping everyday at every feeding. She seems to be gearing up for her 2 week growth spurt because she will easily drink 4oz in one feeding and yet i can only pump 2oz each time so i have to supplement with 2oz at each feeding. Pumping exclusively is hard work, you cant really go anywhere (i have a portable battery operated pump but its extremely loud and awkward..) When i was pregnant i was 100% on the absolutely no formula front, and when my little girl went 7-8 hours our second night home without eating because she wouldnt latch, i didnt have a pump and didnt have fromula on hand, i was happy when she did get her formula because i knew she now had food in her system and wasnt starving. It broke my heart, i was crying while she was crying. I still am nervous to feed her formula (not sure why...breast is ...
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I feel I have so much more to share but will leave my last comments on breastfeeding. If you would like to excusively nurse you will find many challenges to that in the NICU with supplemental bottle feedings to help conserve calories and possibly human fortified added to your milk to increase babys calories. The part no one shares is that although these steps may be medically necessary they may lead your babyto view the breast as non-nutritive and come to prefer the bottle for full feeds. It is diffcult to move toward full breast feeds when a baby is extra full from fortified added to your milk. It increases the length a baby is willing to go between feeds and will doesnt help to give your babythe drive at the next breastfeed once your baby has the stamina to really start working on nursing. My advice is just stick with it! It took us approx 4 months to get to full feeds from the breast. It may sometimes feel like you will never get there, but you will! Even a baby that becomes bottle ...
As part of a monthly or quarterly quality assurance review, agencies should closely monitor compliance when it comes to timely initiation of care.
How long can breast milk stay out? How much milk should i be pumping? This ultimate guide on breast milk has everything you need to know!
2. Pinky. When I was 13 my parents bought the farm. I pretty much hated living on the farm. I was a teen ager and wanted to be close to my friends and there I was, three long miles from town, dependent on my parents for rides to parties and school things. My Dad bought black angus cattle and pigs. When a sow would have a litter, almost always there would be one pig who was destined not to survive. This poor pig would be pushed out of the way when it was time to eat. And so, my Dad would bring this runt to the house for me to try to save. Mostly, the poor animals would die within a day or two. But one, Pinky, survived. Pinky was fed on infant formula which I dutifully got up in the middle of the night to prepare for her. (This may be the reason I chose to breast feed my son: no getting up in the middle of the night to warm a bottle.) Pinky slept in my bed for warmth until she got too big. She remained in the house until she was six months old or so. Pigs dont have sweat glands, so they have to ...
I think it all really depends on the size of your breast before breast feeding wether they droop or not, if your flat as i was, i breast fed all 4 of my children the first 3 were for around a month or 6weeks and the last one, i breast fed for a year and unfortunately i wasnt one of the very few lucky ones that retain their breastfeeding size but i did go back down to original size and obviously when your flat theres not much to droop so that was a bonus. I do wonder if i also didnt get any excess baggy skin (stretched) that would of contributed to saggy skin look because my baby self weaned (slowly decreased his feeds, until he finally reject breast altogether), rather then suddenly stopping while still producing lots of milk ...
In a media statement, he said that mothers with high risk infants should breast feed, for its many known benefits. If parents need to move on to formula that decision need not be based on the belief that one formula will reduce the risk of allergies compared to another, said Lowe ...
There are many questions asked by households when mothers start breastfeeding their children. Here are some examples: Is breastmilk better than formula milk? How do I store breast milk? Is there an expiration date for breast milk? Whats the shelf-life of breast milk? How long should I breastfeed my baby? However, there is one important question most parents fail to address or even think about: Most people do…
hugs)))) Oh, Mollybeth! I am so sorry its so tough. Hang in there, though...this may well just be a bump in the road, and you may be back to breastfeeding in a few days! There are all sorts of things that can cause diarrhea, and most of them wouldnt take away your ability to breast feed. Keep pumping, and freeze that milk! I bet youll need it later. Another thought is probiotics, maybe ask the GI about that tomorrow. Maybe the antibiotic he was on for the pneumonia knocked out his good bacteria and he just needs to get them replaced. He may very well be right back to normal in no time, so try not to feel like this is it for the least until you know a little more. I know its hard! With the might need to try a cup with him instead, Rachel would not take a bottle until she was over a year old, so we went and got her an Avent sippy cup with the soft spout, and she took that better (she was just around 5 months old and i had to leave her for something...cant remember ...
I am nnot currently on meds..long story short: took them all, ended up on 6mp, went into a yr long remission, got pregnant, stopped meds when i went into labor 15weeks early. (i wanted to breast feed if i had another preemie, first child was premature). After baby, i flared, was put on pred, and was going to start my 6mp again, but found a lump in my breast. (have since had two removed). I was in fair remission and wanted to try w/o meds, since i was worried about breast cancer/immuno meds. (NONE of the other stuff works for me at all). Im not sure what set off this flare, as i have been doing everything the same ...
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Im going to try and breast feed with this baby . I was unable to do so with my other two children. Lack of supply, bloody nipples, poor latch, and towards the end motivation. At any rate just in case things go south this time.... anyone use one of the machines that adds the mix and water? I dont trust the reviews on Amazon. Thanks
Mothers who breast feed their children for the stipulated period are benefited with a reduced risk of developing high blood pressure in the future.
There are many parents that cant relate to me. And truthfully, I cant relate to many parents. I use to get annoyed when people would talk to me about what they described as their worst thing. I listened to a story of their child getting ear tubes that scared them while I wanted to roll my eyes. There was lamentation expressed by another for not being able to breast feed when I just wanted to tell them to get a grip. There was a mom in near tears telling me how she was treating her child at home for bronchitis. Sigh! If only these were my problems, Id say to myself. Maybe I was jealous. Maybe I needed more sleep. But, I hated hearing stories of people describing their worst thing that wasnt even on my radar ...
kids at school - I breast feed my child he is in year 4 (age9)should I carry on?????? please leave a comment - Welcome to Circle of Moms!!
Can Vegans get enough omega-3 fatty acids on exclusive plant based diets? EPA seems possible for some, but DHA can be another story.
107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use40 Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding[edit]. Epidemiological data do not show an increased risk of major birth defects after maternal ... No clinical trials have deeply evaluated the potential consequences of the use of omeprazole in breastfeeding. However, the ... indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk duct during breast milk formation. ... but can also be used by those with difficulty swallowing or those using a feeding tube. ...
... is increased in breast fed babies, possibly as the result of increased levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in breast milk.[ ... Breastfeeding jaundice[edit]. "Breastfeeding jaundice" or "lack of breastfeeding jaundice," is caused by insufficient breast ... Breast milk jaundice[edit]. Whereas breastfeeding jaundice is a mechanical problem, breast milk jaundice is a biochemical ... Leung, A. K.; Sauve, R. S. (1989-12-01). "Breastfeeding and breast milk jaundice". Journal of the Royal Society of Health. 109 ...
Breast feeding[edit]. In a study done in 1979, the effect of aspartame ingestion on blood and milk amino acid levels in ... with the intent to study the differences in breast milk between the two. The study resulted with the conclusion that aspartame ... and found that ants fed on an aspartame diet "not only survived but thrived".[91] ... "First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague- ...
Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible.[42] Drinks such as soft drinks, fruit juices, or sweetened teas ... Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit]. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, women must ingest enough nutrients for themselves and ... as this is when the older child is deprived of breast feeding and weaned to a diet composed largely of carbohydrates.[33] ... breast milk feeding provides an important source of micronutrients, clinically proven to bolster the immune system of children ...
Breast-feeding. Release of the hormone prolactin is essential for lactation.[12]. Stress. Operating through the hypothalamic- ...
Walker M (2008). "Conquering common breast-feeding problems". The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing. 22 (4): 267-74. doi: ... Breast-feeding mothers may also develop candidiasis on and around the nipple as a result of moisture created by excessive milk- ... Walker, Marsha (2008). "Conquering Common Breast-feeding Problems". The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing. 22 (4): 267- ... with the breast of the bird of the same name.[83] The term candidosis is largely used in British English, and candidiasis in ...
"Breastfeeding: the first few days". 2017-12-21. Retrieved 2018-04-22.. ... Maternal sleep is often disturbed as night waking is normal in the newborn, and newborns need to be fed every two hours, ... McGuire E (July 2013). "Maternal and infant sleep postpartum". Breastfeeding Review. 21 (2): 38-41. PMID 23957180.. ... At 2-4 days postpartum, a woman's milk will generally come in.[17] Historically, women who were not breastfeeding were given ...
It is common for breastfed babies to feed during the night for the first six months.[4] Usually feedings last 10-15 minutes in ... For mothers who cannot breastfeed exclusively, breastfeeding as much as possible, with formula feeding as necessary, offers ... For mothers who cannot breastfeed exclusively, breastfeeding as much as possible, with supplementary formula feeding as ... Breastfeeding management issues that can interfere with regular milk drainage from the breast include poor latch, unnecessary ...
Camann W (2007). "Labor analgesia and breast feeding: avoid parenteral narcotics and provide lactation support". Int J Obstet ... Delayed onset of breastfeeding and shorter duration of breastfeeding: In a study looking at breastfeeding 2 days after epidural ... One study concluded that women whose epidural infusions contained fentanyl were less likely to fully breastfeed their infant in ... "Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study". Int Breastfeed J. 1 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1746- ...
Margaret Neville (2013). Lactation: Physiology, Nutrition, and Breast-Feeding. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 358. ISBN ... Nipple stimulation or breast stimulation is a common human sexual practice, either by itself or as part of other sexual ... Adult women and men report that breast stimulation may be used to both initiate and enhance sexual arousal. The male or female ... Levin, R.; Meston, C. (2006). "Nipple/Breast Stimulation and Sexual Arousal in Young Men and Women". The Journal of Sexual ...
Theobald HE (2007). "Eating for pregnancy and breast-feeding". J Fam Health Care. 17 (2): 45-9. PMID 17476978.. ... Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age.[24] ... DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk.[82] It is ... MedlinePlus , Breast pain Archived 5 August 2012 at Update Date: 31 December 2008. Updated by: David C. Dugdale, ...
Breastfeeding is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations.[7] If breastfeeding is not ... bottle feeding is done with expressed breast-milk or with infant formula. Infants are born with a sucking reflex allowing them ... Wells, Dilys (January 1995). "Infant Feeding". Nutrition & Food Science. 95 (2): 42-44. doi:10.1108/00346659510078312.. ... Many parents choose commercial, ready-made baby foods to supplement breast milk or formula for the child, while others adapt ...
In 2002, researchers fed extracts from the seeds of papaya fruits (Carica papaya) to monkeys. Subsequently, the monkeys had no ... Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM). *Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.). *Fertility awareness ( ...
... may occur when the baby is not appropriately attached to the breast while feeding, when the baby has infrequent feeds ... 10% of breastfeeding women[2]. Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.[1][5][6] ... Breast abscess[edit]. A breast abscess is a collection of pus that develops into the breast with different causes.[10] During ... Plugged milk duct,[3] breast engorgement,[4] breast cancer (rare)[1]. Prevention. Frequent breastfeeding with good technique[2] ...
ORT is one of the principal elements of the UNICEF "GOBI FFF" program (growth monitoring; ORT; breast feeding; immunization; ... Children who are breastfed should continue breastfeeding. The WHO recommends that all severely malnourished children admitted ... Feeding should usually resume within 2-3 hours after starting rehydration and should continue every 2-3 hours, day and night. ... Breastfeeding should be continued throughout ORT. As part of oral rehydration therapy, the WHO recommends supplemental zinc (10 ...
Supporting breast-feeding. Training programs for community health in rural areas. Upgrading slums, and providing land for ...
Feeding formula, pumping instead of nursing, and feeding solids all reduce the effectiveness of LAM. The infant must breastfeed ... "The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. III. Pregnancy during breast- ... such that the combination of feeding on demand rather than on a schedule and feeding only breast milk rather than supplementing ... The promotion of LAM has shown an increase in breast feeding overall, resulting in better prospects of survival for infants. ...
... if breastfeeding is not available. Breast milk has not typically been shown to cause an allergic reaction, but should be ... Casein that is heat-treated has been shown to be more allergenic and harder to digest when fed to infants. Minimally-processed ... Human breast milk has been proven to be the best food for an infant, and should be tried first where available. Supplementation ... "Breastfeeding". Retrieved 2020-11-18. Christensen, L. R. (1954-11-01). "The action of proteolytic enzymes on ...
The World Health Organization recommends that, in the majority of cases, babies should be exclusively breast fed for the first ... "European Parliament public hearing on Nestlé's baby food marketing" (PDF) (Press release). Breast Feeding Promotion Network of ... The bond between baby and mother can be strengthened during breastfeeding. Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding can also delay ... Breast milk has many natural benefits lacking in formula. Nutrients and antibodies are passed to the baby while hormones are ...
... highest breast-feeding continuation rate; and lowest total cesarean section rate, by the American College of Nurse Midwives. On ...
Gokcay, G.; Baykal, T.; Gokdemir, Y.; Demirkol, M. (April 2006). "Breast feeding in organic acidaemias". Journal of Inherited ... breastfeeding are common ways to limit protein intake without endangering tryptophan transport to the brain. A possible way to ...
Reeves, Hope (August 8, 2013). "Breast-Feeding in the Airport? A New Lactation Station Solution". Retrieved April 16, 2018. ... on the class gap in breastfeeding inspired the creation of the first free-standing lactation stations, now installed in ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Carlos H. Conde (July 17, 2007). "Breast-feeding: A Philippine battleground". The New ... "EU rules formula milk can claim it is as healthy as breast feeding". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January ... if not better than breast milk." He was interviewed in Not My Life, an independent documentary film about human trafficking. " ... calling on the country's mothers to breastfeed. In 2008, as Director of Programmes, he met with the President of Madagascar ...
"The Case Against Breast-Feeding," questioning whether current social pressures in favor of breastfeeding were appropriate, and ... Hanna Rosin (April 2009). "The Case Against Breast-Feeding". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2009-09-18. Leight, Elias. "A Boy's Life ...
When Not to Breastfeed: Safety Issues for You and Baby "WHO , Feeding of low-birth-weight infants in low- and middle-income ... Human breast milk can also be fed to toddlers and children with medical conditions that include but are not limited to ... The World Health Organization (WHO) states that the first alternative to a biological mother not being able to breast feed is ... His studies demonstrated that breastfed neonate's intestinal bacteria was significantly different compared to neonates fed by ...
He claims that infants up to six months should be exclusively fed with breast milk, since he believes that, at that age, ... In opposition to bottle feeding which tends to being done in three to four hour intervals, breastfeeding enables the mother, ... William and Martha Sears advise mothers to breastfeed every child for 1-4 years: While breastfeeding for only a few months is ... Breastfeeding includes nutritional benefits which are undeniable, but the main reason breastfeeding is promoted in attachment ...
Infants should be fed when they show signs of hunger. It is common for breastfed babies to feed during the night for the first ... For mothers who cannot breastfeed exclusively, breastfeeding as much as possible, with formula feeding as necessary, offers ... For mothers who cannot breastfeed exclusively, breastfeeding as much as possible, with supplementary formula feeding as ... Usually feedings last 10-15 minutes in the early days. If the infant is unable to breastfeed, it is recommended that pumping or ...
... and failure to breast feed due to placental hormones. Outcome with abdominal pregnancy can be good for the baby and mother, ... Breastfeeding Medicine. 7 (6): 543-546. doi:10.1089/bfm.2011.0131. PMID 22428571. Lampe, L. G. (2008). "Long-term follow-up ...
The choices for feeding include either breastfeeding while receiving antiretroviral medications or avoidance of all ... Mixed feeding (when a baby is fed formula and breastmilk) should be avoided to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and avoid ... Women who breastfeed while receiving ART should exclusively breastfeed their infants for 6 months and then continue ... universal infant feeding practice for mothers with HIV, as mothers will need persistent counselling while feeding their infants ...
They survive solely on breast milk or formula.[12] Small amounts of pureed food are sometimes fed to young infants as young as ... "How to combine breast and bottle feeding". Retrieved 5 October 2017.. ... "Pediatric Feeding Tube". Feeding Clinic of Santa Monica. Retrieved 8 July 2013.. ... In mice, MCH stimulates feeding and a mutation causing the overproduction of MCH led to overeating and obesity.[25] Orexin ...
FeedingEdit. The magpie is omnivorous, eating young birds and eggs, small mammals,[41] insects, scraps and carrion, acorns, ... The wingspan is 52-62 cm (20-24 in).[19] The head, neck and breast are glossy black with a metallic green and violet sheen; the ... The eggs are incubated for 21-22 days by the female, who is fed on the nest by the male.[32] The chicks are altricial, hatching ... They are brooded by the female for the first 5-10 days and fed by both parents.[33] Initially the parents eat the faecal sacs ...
... can stay in some body parts like the eyes,[143] breasts, and testicles after infection.[4][144] Sexual transmission after ... "Recommendations for Breastfeeding/Infant Feeding in the Context of Ebola". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 19 ... Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months.[1][4][5] Fruit bats ... breast milk, urine and semen.[4][41] The WHO states that only people who are very sick are able to spread Ebola disease in ...
FeedingEdit. The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors ... The wild mallard was eaten in Neolithic Greece.[134] Usually, only the breast and thigh meat is eaten.[135] It does not need to ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... the breast feathers are reddish-brown in males, but brown in females;[30] and 3) in males, the centre tail feather (drake ...
Nepal's Breast Milk Substitute Act (2049) of 1992 promotes and protects breastfeeding and regulates the unauthorized or ... However, even with complementary feeding, the child should continue to be breastfed for two years or more. Gender inequality in ... Lack of appropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and frequent illnesses, which in turn may lead to death. ... feeding behaviour and poor care and practices leading to an intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. An analysis of the causes ...
"Octopuses and Relatives: Feeding, diets and growth". A Snail's Odyssey. Retrieved 13 April 2017.. ... and bare breasts.[131][132] ... They feed on copepods, arthropod larvae and other zooplankton, ... Some species have other modes of feeding. Grimpoteuthis has a reduced or non-existent radula and swallows prey whole.[31] In ... She does not feed during this time and dies soon afterwards. Males become senescent and die a few weeks after mating.[59] ...
On the west side, the Delaware people The Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the ... was a favorite component of headdresses and breast ornaments for males.[32] The Lenape also adorned themselves with various ...
... and breast milk.[78] However, according to the CDC, live spirochetes have not been found in breast milk, urine, or semen and ... 1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... When the tick feeds, the Borrelia downregulates OspA and upregulates OspC, another surface protein. After the bacteria migrate ... Canine Recombinant Lyme, formulated by Merial, generates antibodies against the OspA protein so a tick feeding on a vaccinated ...
Breast feeding babies expel soft, pale yellowish, and not quite malodorous matter; but once the baby begins to eat, and the ... Many organisms feed on feces, from bacteria to fungi to insects such as dung beetles, who can sense odors from long distances.[ ... tea is made from the droppings of stick insects fed on guava leaves. ...
Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the ... The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs, a long down curved bill, and a black face and breast band. ... Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without ... The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill ...
Isabel Woodman, "Breast feeding reduces risk of breast cancer, says study," British Medical Journal, v.); Jul 27, 2002 ... The increased radiosensitivity of certain organs in women, such as the breast, ovaries, and thyroid is likely the cause of this ... As increasing concerns are raised regarding the environmental risks related to breast, it is interesting to note that the BEIR ... By refraining from breastfeeding, women downwinders' risks of breast cancer incidence becomes even more elevated.[24] ...
12 A popular attraction that many zoos employ is a feeding station for lories and lorikeets, where visitors feed them with cups ... Galah (or rose-breasted cockatoo). Lophochroa. *Major Mitchell's cockatoo (or Leadbeater's cockatoo) ... A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion, while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar ... The female remains in the nest for almost all of the incubation period and is fed both by the male and during short breaks. ...
Ten breasts. (Of course, those are SCISSORED OUT of the TNT version.) Embalming needles plunged through various parts of ... The final scene saw Joe Bob give an impassioned apology to Turner, claiming he was an amazing person, before the video feed cut ... This ultimately resulted in Joe Bob's return to television in a marathon for the Shudder TV live feed. On Friday, July 13, 2018 ...
However, they do not necessarily take healthy specimens and often feed on them after death, instead. Of 36 cases of feeding on ... Contrasting with the rest of the plumage in the adult are a clearly paler looking head, neck and upper breast which is most ... a b c Zawadzka, D. (1999). Feeding habits of the black kite Milvus migrans, red kite Milvus milvus, white-tailed eagle ... "White-tailed eagle: Feeding". RSPB. Retrieved 3 February 2012.. *^ a b Uttendorfer, O. (1939). Die Ernahrung der deutschen ...
A woman who is pregnant or breast feeding. But she must count the day she missed in Ramadan or they should donate the amount of ... The hungry would be fed, the naked clothed, the homeless sheltered. … A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in ... After fasting, one must feed a number of brahmans. Bheeshma says " the illustrious Vishnu, that ancient being, has himself said ...
Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers ( ... They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for ... Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without ... The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short ...
The family's smallest member is the 12-cm (4.7-in), 11.5-g (0.40-oz) orange-breasted bunting. They are typically associated ...
"Journal of Breast Cancer. 16 (1): 72-76. doi:10.4048/jbc.2013.16.1.72. ISSN 1738-6756. PMC 3625773. PMID 23593085.. ... The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like ... reduction of risk for developing breast cancer.[53] ... "Citrus fruit intake and breast cancer risk: a quantitative ...
... some humans developed a mutation in the MCM6 gene that keeps the LCT gene turned on even after breast feeding is stopped.[20] ... so cannot digest breast milk. This genetic defect is characterized by a complete lack of lactase (alactasia). About 40 cases ...
The golden-breasted bunting is not gregarious, and is normally seen alone, in pairs or small groups. It feeds on the ground on ... The golden-breasted bunting (Emberiza flaviventris) is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae. It occurs in dry ... The golden-breasted bunting's call is a nasal ascending zzhrr. The song is variable, but includes a weechee weechee weechee. ... The golden-breasted bunting builds an untidy cup nest lined with fine grass or hair low in a shrub or sapling. The two or three ...
General Meltchett wears the star of a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) on the left breast of his ... claiming it is needed to feed herself and her family, claiming they are too poor to afford any meals, apart from "what ...
Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... 80 mg oral dose of Isotretinoin to 74 healthy adult subjects under fed conditions, the mean ±SD elimination half-life (t1/2) of ...
... breast feeding, and miscarriages.[199] Some sexually transmitted diseases are communicable between women, including human ... Reports are inconclusive about occurrence of breast cancer in lesbians.[197] It has been determined, however, that the lower ... Forty days' penance was demanded of nuns who "rode" each other or were discovered to have touched each other's breasts. An ... Sexual contact, according to Kinsey, included lip kissing, deep kissing, body touching, manual breast and genital stimulation, ...
They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering ... breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. ... Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey- ... Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without ...
Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, ... Prevention includes the use of breast milk and probiotics.[2] A 2012 policy by the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended ... A more recent study of preterm infants fed an exclusive human milk diet compared with those fed human milk supplemented with ... Poor feeding, bloating, decreased activity, vomiting of bile[1]. Complications. Short-gut syndrome, intestinal strictures, ...
Under such conditions, they are able to change their feeding strategy to that of a ruminant. This allows them to feed on and ... Males have a "beard" of coarse black bristles hanging from the center of their upper breasts and tend to have more vibrantly ... Chachalacas feed mainly on berries, but also eat insects. They are a popular game bird, as their flesh is good to eat. They are ... Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old ...
Harris HR, Orsini N, Wolk A (May 2014). "Vitamin C and survival among women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis". European ... Both processes yield approximately 60% vitamin C from the glucose feed.[148] ... and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression". Cancer Causes & Control. 22 (10): 1383-96. doi:10.1007/ ... possibly due to the pre-loading of this group with a 70 mg/day supplement for six weeks before the scorbutic diet was fed.[22][ ...
Even in babies exposed to the harmful effects of nicotine through breast milk, the likelihood of acute respiratory illness is ... Short-term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep". Pediatrics. 120 (3): 497-502. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0488. PMC 2277470 . PMID ... significantly diminished when compared to infants whose mothers smoked but were formula fed. Regardless, the benefits of ...
The wood pellets are stored in a gravity-fed hopper that feeds into a motor controlled by the temperature regulator. This motor ... Steck SE, et al: Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer--lifetime versus recent dietary intake Epidemiology ... Although wood chunks, pellets, and even in some cases automatically-fed wood pucks are used to generate smoke, the amount of ... The motor and the combustion fan regulate the temperature of the smoker by feeding it more pellets and increasing airflow in ...
... with slow weaning of the baby from breast feeding to other sources food.[60][64] Some texts recommend continued breast feeding ... he gives the baby to the mother's breast for feeding.[37][56] ... In one version, she is fed a paste mixture of yoghurt, milk and ... The rite of passage, in some texts, include charity and feeding of the poor, and ceremonial prayers by both parents.[64] ... Annaprashanam is the rite of passage where the baby is fed solid food for the first time. The ritual has regional names, such ...
Making a decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. There are some points to consider to help you ... But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their ... As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. Breast milk tends to be more ... But if breastfeeding hurts throughout feedings, or if their nipples and/or breasts are sore, its a good idea for breastfeeding ...
Here are answers to some questions about common breastfeeding concerns - from biting to spitting up. ... Burp your little one when he or she comes off of each breast, or after every 1 to 2 ounces during bottle feeds. Sometimes ... Also, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that infants - whether breastfed or formula-fed - do not need fluoride ... Can I still breastfeed?. In most cases, yes - the majority of illnesses are not dangerous to a breastfeeding infant. If you ...
Breastfeeding products I want to know how to: *Attach my baby to feed ... Become a member of the Australian Breastfeeding Association and receive your free copy of our book Breastfeeding … naturally ... Expecting a baby? Have you got questions about breastfeeding? Come to a relaxed, information-packed Breastfeeding Education ... Expecting a baby? Most babies breastfeed within an hour of being born, so its important to learn what to do well before your ...
Beer, breast feeding and folklore. Developmental Psychobiology 1993;26: 459-466.. Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. The transfer of ... Home ▸ Breastfeeding ▸ Can I Breastfeed if...? ▸ Lifestyle choices ▸ Breastfeeding and Alcohol. Breastfeeding and Alcohol. By ... AAP Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. PEDIATRICS Vol. 129 No. 3 March 2012, ... Effects of alcohol on breastfeeding and the breastfed baby. *Alcohol does not increase milk production. In fact, babies nurse ...
Learn more about CDCs work to promote and support breastfeeding. ... Breastfeeding and Infant Feeding Practicesplus icon *Methods. * ... National and state data on breastfeeding rates, support indicators, infant feeding practices, and maternity care practices. ... Breastfeeding rates vary by geographic location, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Learn about work to reduce ... US Surgeon Generals Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding seeks to make it possible for every mother who wishes to ...
Breast-Feeding Content Resources WHO reports on Breast Feeding. *Breastfeeding and Breast Milk US National Institute of Health ... called the breast crawl[31] and begins to feed. After feeding, it is normal for a baby to remain latched to the breast while ... Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a womans breast.[1] Health ... Bottle feeding mothers may feel that they should be breastfeeding.[198] Conversely, breastfeeding mothers may feel forced to ...
... formula and infant feeding equipment. The AAP has been supportive of the goals of the bill and has engaged with TSA to improve ... Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Promotion Legislation. The AAP has endorsed the Friendly Airports for Mothers Act (H.R. 2530), a ... Chair of the AAP Section on Breastfeeding on the importance of WIC in promoting breastfeeding ... Meals containing breast milk or iron-fortified infant formula supplied by the parent or the facility are already eligible for ...
... breast-feeding schedule appears more beneficial for early infant weight gain and is more supportive of continued breast-feeding ... The traditional breast-feeding approach involves breast-feeding using both breasts at each feeding for no more than 10 minutes ... After noticing poor weight gain among breast-fed babies after baby-led breast-feeding became more common, Walshaw and ... breast-feeding which advises letting infants feed for an unlimited time from the first breast and that both breasts need not be ...
A survey of thousands of mothers finds striking evidence that mothers who fed their babies exclusively by breast ended up with ... Breast-feeding prevents obesity Breast-feeding could help prevent obesity in children A huge survey has found striking ... obesity rate of those children who had never been breast fed, only 3.8% of those who had been fed by breast for just two months ... After breast feeding for three to five months, the likelihood of obesity was only half that of a bottle-fed child. And less ...
Having problems with breastfeeding? Heres how to spot whats causing the problem and how to sort out common issues like sore ... You may feel a small, tender lump in your breast.. Frequent feeding from the affected breast may help. If possible, position ... See more ways to boost your breast milk supply.. Breast engorgement. Breast engorgement is when your breasts get too full of ... Its important to carry on breastfeeding. Starting feeds with the tender breast may help. ...
Decline of Breast-feeding. Br Med J 1938; 2 doi: (Published 15 October 1938) Cite this ... Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust: Consultant in Clinical Oncology (Breast and Skin) ...
Breastfeeding studies have suggested breastmilk might decrease ear infections, sudden death, cancer rates and allergies, plus ... Even some women who support breast-feeding and have breastfed are wondering about breast-feedings health benefits. ... Indeed, the breast-feeding numbers may be lower than most people think. About 56 percent of mothers are breast-feeding their ... breast-feeding Claims about Cost, Intelligence and Death Controversial. Although Goldin chose to breast-feed all four of her ...
Calling breast-feeding natural could inadvertently fuel concerns over aspects of health seen as unnatural, such as vaccines ... The price of pushing breast-feeding On the one hand, invoking the "natural" side of breast-feeding may have helped create the ... But is there a price to pay for pushing this view of breast-feeding? Could it lead people to believe that breast-feeding is ... The authors) are using this article to label the breast-feeding group in a very negative way, and to equate breast-feeding with ...
Artificial feeding: infant is fed only on a breast-milk substitute. • Formula: Artificial milks for babies made out of a ... Risks of mixed feeding. Mixed feeding, or giving other liquids and/or foods together with breast milk to infants under 6 months ... responsive complementary feeding starting in the sixth month.. Benefits of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding has an extraordinary ... increase in mortality among non-breastfed infants. In the UK Millennium Cohort Survey, six months of exclusive breast feeding ...
Provides a 50 state summary of breastfeeding laws, including an overview of policy topics, recent NCSL publications and other ... breast feed an infant child, or address other needs related to breastfeeding. Requires educational institutions to provide a ... Stat §54:32B-1 (2018) exempts breast pumps, breast-pump repair and replacement parts, breast-pump collection and storage ... Laws § 23-13.5-1 and § 23-13.5-2 (2008) allow a woman to feed her child by bottle or breast in any place open to the public and ...
... highly recommends babies be fed only breast milk for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding together with healthy foods is ... Breastfeeding. *. Genetic Disease Screening. *. Mental Health. *. Nutrition and Physical Activity. *. ... Breastfeeding is the first step to a healthy life and forms a natural and lasting bond between mother and child. The more a ... Breastfeeding improves maternal and infant wellbeing and reduces health care costs. This Brief addresses returning to work and ...
Breast-fed babies may on average have higher IQ scores, say, but is the difference because of the breast-feeding or some other ... the Innocenti Declaration in support of breast-feeding was adopted internationally. Since then, breast-feeding has increased ... This conviction persuades me that its better for a mother to formula-feed her baby pleasurably than to breast-feed and hate it ... And its why formula-fed babies are not at a disadvantage, compared with breast-fed babies, in their supply of circulating ...
... By Lawrence Kutner, Ph.D Last updated: 8 Oct 2018. ~ 4 min read ... Also, a breast-feeding mother doesnt have to be worried about her baby being allergic to her milk. Breast milk is sterile, ... So lets put the emotions of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding aside and deal with the facts. First, with todays commercial ... Bottle-Feeding. Psych Central. Retrieved on August 15, 2020, from ...
My first baby isnt due until december but im trying to figure out if im going to breast feed but to be honest. Or blunt im a ... Breastfeeding is a personal choice. Suggest trying it at first and if you are uncomfortable about it, then change to a bottle. ... It is a benefit to the infant the first few days to have breast milk. Thank you for your question. ...
Get a little help through the hurdles, with these breastfeeding hints from WebMD. ... Breastfeeding benefits you and baby, but it does take some know-how. ... If your baby finishes only the first breast during a feeding, offer the other breast at the next feeding. ... After breastfeeding for a few weeks, start letting your baby drain one breast before switching to the other. The reason? There ...
Health Information on Breastfeeding: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Feeding the Baby with a Difficult Latch - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Breastfeeding After Breast Augmentation Surgery (Implants) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Breastfeeding After Breast Augmentation Surgery (Implants) - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...
These mothers can also feed their babies on breast milk using milk that is pumped out of the breasts. ... Some mothers are unable to breastfeed their babies directly. ... These mothers can also feed their babies on breast milk using ... Manual or mechanized breast pumps. Milk may be expressed using manual or mechanized breast pumps. Electric breast pumps can ... Storage of breast milk. Pumped breast milk is stored in clean glass or hard BPA-free plastic bottles with tight-fitting lids. ...
It might even be sufficient for you to breastfeed him before you go to work and give him another couple of feeds after you come ... Breastfeeding problems. He may not be ready to accept the bottle or beaker at the tender age of four months, but he may be ... Quite a few babies will only take the breast until the age of six months or so, but after that they gradually begin to accept ... old but absolutely loathes taking milk from the bottle and gets so frustrated that I resort to feeding him from the breast ...
... are highly individual decisions affected by many factors besides breast cancer risk and whether you are able to breast feed. ... Breastfeeding can lower breast cancer risk, especially if a woman breastfeeds for longer than 1 year. There is less benefit for ... Breastfeeding can be a challenge after a breast cancer diagnosis. After a double mastectomy, sadly, breastfeeding is impossible ... There are several reasons why breastfeeding protects breast health:. *making milk 24/7 limits breast cells ability to ...
Brazil is trying to get more women to breastfeed their babies with a high-profile publicity drive. But parts of the campaign ... In my opinion, a baby who is bottle-fed lovingly is far better off than a child who is breastfed badly or carelessly. While its ... According to government figures, only 8% of Brazilian women follow the official advice - which is to feed a child only breast ... For first six months, baby should only be given breast milk Breastfeeding should continue for a further 18 months - in ...
Publications on infant feeding/breastfeeding. Key documents. * Updates on HIV and infant feeding - 2016. Principles and ... Archived: Breastfeeding and replacement feeding practices in the context of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. An assessment ... Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes * Infant and young child feeding. Model chapter for textbooks for ... The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review. 1990-1999. * Archived: HIV and infant feeding counselling ...
Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Fifth Edition continues as the leading reference for the latest clinical techniques and ... Topics include placing breastfeeding in its historical context, workplace-related issues, anatomical and biological imperatives ... With contributions from the foremost experts in the field, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Fifth Edition is also an ... compared continue decrease disease donor dose drugs duration early effect et al exclusive experience expression factors feeding ...
No matter what playground or mommy group I belong to there is always a mom who wants to argue about breastfeeding. The ones who ... and never the subject of a breast-feeding study. By the way, i am neither for nor against breast feeding. I am for whatever a ... And, yes, breast-feeding moms can feed their babies when normal supplies of food and water are not available. But when a mom ... Then only one is fed breast milk while the other is fed formula or other milk. A scientific note: youll need many, many sets ...
In the first 6 months, breast milk is the only food or liquid a baby needs. Share this resource to encourage breastfeeding. ... Breastfeeding is very healthy for mothers and babies. ... If I breastfeed, will I be the only one who can feed my baby?. ... Take Action: Breastfeeding Problems. Ask for help if breastfeeding is difficult.. Breastfeeding is new for you and your baby, ... Feed your baby breast milk only (no formula, juice, cows milk, solid foods, or water). ...
Another bonus for feeding your baby breast milk has been discovered through a new study. Feeding your baby on just breast milk ... The children who were fed other milk or solids during their first four months of birth, in addition to breast milk had an ... the researchers learned if in the first 12 months after birth whether the children had ever been breastfed, when breastfeeding ... The results showed that the children who had never been breastfed had an increased risk of wheezing, shortness of breath, dry ...
  • Healt experts believe breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants. (
  • Breastfed babies have fewer infections and hospitalizations than formula-fed infants. (
  • As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. (
  • By tasting the foods of their "culture," breastfed infants more easily accept solid foods. (
  • Many infants will spit up a little after some - or even all - feedings or during burping because their digestive tracts are immature. (
  • [2] [3] Globally, about 38% of infants are only breastfed during their first six months of life. (
  • Although TSA already permits parents traveling with infants to carry breast milk and formula on planes, many parents encounter barriers when traveling with these liquids. (
  • The proposed rule would revise the infant meal patterns to allow service of only breast milk and/or infant formula to infants through 5 months of age and allow the introduction of additional meal components at 6 months of age. (
  • In addition, as an incentive for encouraging breastfeeding, this proposed rule would allow reimbursement for meals served to infants under six months of age when the mother directly breastfeeds her child at the child care facility. (
  • The traditional recommendations have been largely replaced by "baby-led" breast-feeding which advises letting infants feed for an unlimited time from the first breast and that both breasts need not be used at each feeding, Dr. C. Anne Walshaw and colleagues note. (
  • After noticing poor weight gain among breast-fed babies after baby-led breast-feeding became more common, Walshaw and colleagues compared early weight gain in infants who were exclusively breast fed. (
  • They found that infants were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed for up to 12 weeks when their mothers followed traditional rather than baby-led breast-feeding practices. (
  • Optimal breastfeeding of infants under two years of age has the greatest potential impact on child survival of all preventive interventions, with the potential to prevent over 800,000 deaths (13 per cent of all deaths) in children under five in the developing world (Lancet 2013). (
  • But non-breastfed children in industrialized countries are also at greater risk of dying - a recent study of post-neonatal mortality in the United States found a 25% increase in mortality among non-breastfed infants. (
  • Breast milk contains antibodies that protect infants from bacteria and viruses. (
  • Infants who are exclusively breastfed tend to need fewer health care visits, prescriptions and hospitalizations resulting in a lower total medical care cost compared to never-breastfed infants. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly 84 percent of infants are breastfed exclusively through six months. (
  • As a part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative, two national goals are to increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed at six months and infants who are breastfed exclusively through six months by the year 2020. (
  • Studies have shown that breastfed infants do better on intelligence and behaviour tests into adulthood than formula-fed babies. (
  • Mixed feeding, or giving other liquids and/or foods together with breast milk to infants under 6 months of age, is widespread in many countries. (
  • Until now, most studies examining the mechanics of breastfeeding have focused on bottle-feeding infants, or on old X-rays that were of poor quality. (
  • Instead, Geddes and her colleagues combined ultrasound imaging of infants suckling on the breast with measurements of the strength of the vacuum created by the baby's mouth in 20 infants aged 3 to 24 weeks as they breastfed (see video). (
  • They also found that infants who struggled to breastfeed generated much weaker vacuums than successful breastfeeders. (
  • This could reassure mothers whose infants are struggling to feed that it's not their fault. (
  • The team also looked at women who found breastfeeding painful and discovered that their infants had a particularly vigorous action. (
  • Further study of these infants may aid the development of better nipple shields to reduce pain during breastfeeding. (
  • Even so, the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that breast-feeding rates continue to rise and about 81 percent of mothers start out nursing their infants. (
  • Studies show that breast-fed babies tend to have fewer allergies than formula-fed infants, especially those given cow's milk formulas. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of their life. (
  • Infants over a year old primarily use breast milk as a supplemental food, a source of comfort, and to support the immune system . (
  • Women weaning infants less than 1 year old must replace breast milk with infant formula or donor breast milk. (
  • Studies have long supported the notion that breastfeeding provides infants with benefits like improved immunity to diseases, better maternal bonding and a plethora of important nutrients. (
  • But a new study published in the journal Pediatric Health found that premature infants fed a formula enhanced with extra protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zince, copper and several micronutrients performed better on IQ tests than preemies who had been fed either regular formula or breast milk. (
  • The size of the caudate nucleus in the infants fed enriched formula was notably larger. (
  • It is unclear whether these findings are applicable to babies born at term, but researchers believe that the study may influence standards for feeding preterm infants in the early days of life. (
  • The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) says breastfed infants have a lower incidence of infections, obesity and diabetes and that mothers benefit too, with breastfeeding offering some protection against breast cancer. (
  • However, she too agrees limiting feeds doesn't work for all infants. (
  • While the potential risks of drinking coffee during pregnancy sound scary, the risks of caffeine in breastfeeding infants are mild. (
  • Breastfeeding is the best method of feeding infants," said Dr. Fern Hauck, the study's lead author from the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville. (
  • Breastfeeding could be linked to SIDS because it protects infants against minor infections that have also been shown to make sudden death more likely, the authors note. (
  • In the new review, Hauck and her colleagues combined data from 18 studies that asked mothers of infants who had or hadn't died of SIDS about whether they breastfed the infants. (
  • Combining the results, the researchers found that the rate of SIDS was 60 percent lower among infants who had any amount of breastfeeding compared to those who didn't breastfeed, and more than 70 percent lower in infants that been breastfed exclusively - without any formula - for any period of time. (
  • Breast milk is easy to digest and contains antibodies that can protect infants from bacterial and viral infections. (
  • Breastfed infants and infants who are fed breast milk have fewer deaths during the first year and experience fewer illnesses than babies fed formulas. (
  • While there are conflicting studies about the relative value of artificial feeding, including infant formula, it is acknowledged to be inferior to breastfeeding for both full-term and premature infants. (
  • In many countries, artificial feeding is commonly associated with illness and death in infants. (
  • National governments and international organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), promote breastfeeding as the best method of feeding infants in their first years of life and beyond. (
  • The majority of drugs that are given to breastfeeding women do not cause problems in infants. (
  • However, studies have found that by six months of age, only about half of all infants are receiving any breast-milk. (
  • This body of research provides the scientific basis for the World Health Organization's recommendation that all infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life. (
  • Thirty-nine breast-fed and 42 bottle-fed infants were followed up from birth over a four-year period. (
  • They would like to test in the lab how bacteria that are provided through breast-feeding are critical in infants' immune responses, and determine which beneficial bacteria are missing in people who have certain diseases. (
  • Breast milk is the ideal form of nutrition for infants. (
  • According to the American Academy of Pediatrics , human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants. (
  • Although breast milk is the ideal food for human infants, because of medical or other reasons, some women opt for formula feeding. (
  • We retrospectively compared exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding plus supplemental formula feeding, and exclusive formula feeding rates for 2249 infants admitted to the MBU at our university teaching hospital during the 5 months before and 8 months after restriction of routine pacifier distribution. (
  • Of the 2249 infants, 79% were exclusively breastfed from July through November 2010, when pacifiers were routinely distributed. (
  • 5 The World Health Organization, in partnership with the United Nations Children's Fund, also publishes a list of Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, which forms the basis for the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), a global program aimed at recognizing hospitals providing the recommended standard of care for postpartum mothers and infants. (
  • 6 , 7 These steps are listed in Table 1 , and they include not providing pacifiers to breastfeeding infants. (
  • Bloomberg enthusiastically favors breastfeeding infants. (
  • Breastfeeding zealots downplay the numerous factors that cause mothers to supplement breast milk with formula or to give up nursing altogether-pain, inadequate lactation, job demands and illnesses requiring medications that infants should avoid. (
  • In 2011, the most recent year for which data is available, 79 percent of newborn infants started breastfeeding. (
  • As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), breastfeeding is the "normal way" of providing infants with the nutrients they need to grow and develop. (
  • In 2011, only 49 percent of infants were still breastfeeding at six months, and this dropped to 27 percent at 12 months. (
  • Worldwide, less than 40 percent of infants under six months of age are exclusively breastfed. (
  • Breastfeeding exclusively from birth to 6 months of age is the most beneficial feeding practice for infants. (
  • Although breastfeeding is known to support a healthy gut microbiome in infants, babies in developed countries do not reap the same benefits as those in developing countries. (
  • A new study conducted in collaboration by the University of California, Davis and Evolve BioSystems finds supplementing breastfed infants in developed countries with the probiotic B. infantis ECV001 improves their gut microbiome health, as long as they continue to breastfeed. (
  • Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal health and development, followed by complementary foods while continuing breastfeeding for up to two years or beyond. (
  • The United States began incorporating benefits specific to breastfeeding promotion into its Women, Infants, and Children program in 1972. (
  • The proportion of infants who were breastfed exclusively or non-exclusively at six months was 35% in 2000 and increased to 49% by 2010. (
  • For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their comfort level, lifestyle, and specific medical situations. (
  • The decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. (
  • The decision to breastfeed is very personal and depends on your unique situation. (
  • One important reason to have the decision to breastfeed made before the delivery is that it can be very difficult or even impossible to start using formula and then later try to switch to breast milk. (
  • Only 15% are able to meet the recommendation of major health organizations to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. (
  • The World Health Organization, among other medical groups, recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed their babies for the first six months of life. (
  • The NHS recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed their babies during the first six months, continuing to do as children are weaned on to solid foods. (
  • Some studies estimate that in women who exclusively breastfeed, 400-600 extra calories a day are used to produce milk. (
  • Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their baby is one of the biggest decisions expectant and new parents will make. (
  • Some mothers worry that if they don't breastfeed, they won't bond with their baby. (
  • Beyond that, breastfeeding is encouraged until at least 12 months, and longer if both the mother and baby are willing. (
  • During breastfeeding, antibodies and other germ-fighting factors pass from a mother to her baby and strengthen the immune system. (
  • One exception is vitamin D - the AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age). (
  • And unless you're pumping breast milk and giving it to your baby, there's no need for bottles, nipples, and other supplies that can be costly. (
  • Is it normal for my baby to spit up after feedings? (
  • Keep your baby upright after feedings - holding the baby is best, since the position of the baby in an infant seat may actually make spitting up more common. (
  • Don't jiggle, bounce, or actively play with your baby right after feedings. (
  • Keep your baby's head above his or her feet while feeding (in other words, don't hold your baby in a dipped-down position when feeding). (
  • If you aren't feeling well, remember that as your body produces antibodies to fight an illness, those antibodies go to the baby through your breast milk. (
  • However, in rare cases (such as HIV ), a mother's health may affect her ability to breastfeed her baby. (
  • My baby bites during breastfeeding. (
  • When it's obvious it's playtime, take your baby off your breast before he or she has the chance to bite. (
  • Most babies breastfeed within an hour of being born, so its important to learn what to do well before your baby is due. (
  • Baby-Friendly Hospitals initiative urges more support for parents to breastfeed. (
  • [1] Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. (
  • [1] Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks. (
  • [7] Breastfeeding decreases the risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea for the baby, both in developing and developed countries . (
  • When the baby suckles its mother's breast, a hormone called oxytocin compels the milk to flow from the alveoli (lobules), through the ducts (milk canals), into the sacs (milk pools) behind the areola , and then into the baby's mouth. (
  • Before pregnancy the breast is largely composed of adipose (fat) tissue but under the influence of the hormones estrogen , progesterone , prolactin , and other hormones, the breasts prepare for production of milk for the baby. (
  • Size increases as well, but breast size is not related to the amount of milk that the mother will be able to produce after the baby is born. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Following a traditional breast-feeding schedule appears more beneficial for early infant weight gain and is more supportive of continued breast-feeding than a "baby-led" routine, UK researchers report. (
  • French woman breastfeeds her baby in Bordeaux, southwest France April 27, 2006. (
  • Thirty one healthy mother/baby pairs followed the baby-led advice and a similar group of 32 mother/baby pairs followed the traditional breast-feeding advice. (
  • By contrast, baby-led breast-feeding can decondition the let-down reflex through prolonged suckling at each feed, and can gradually enhance lesser milk production by using only one breast at each feeding. (
  • She said: "This study reinforces the plentiful evidence demonstrating that breast-feeding is the ideal way of feeding a baby. (
  • It usually happens because your baby isn't well positioned and attached at the breast. (
  • When you first start breastfeeding, you may worry that your baby isn't getting enough milk. (
  • Offering your baby both breasts at each feed and alternating which breast you start with will help to stimulate your milk supply. (
  • Engorgement can happen in the early days when you and your baby are still getting used to breastfeeding. (
  • Engorgement can also happen when your baby is older and not feeding so frequently, perhaps when they start having solid foods . (
  • Breastfeeding is a skill that you and your baby need to learn together. (
  • If you are finding breastfeeding painful or your baby doesn't seem to be satisfied after feeds, they may not be latching onto the breast properly. (
  • If possible, position your baby with their chin pointing towards the lump so they can feed from that part of the breast. (
  • Immediate breastfeeding - putting the baby to the mother's breast within an hour after birth - would significantly reduce neonatal mortality. (
  • Breastfeeding creates a special bond between mother and baby and the interaction between the mother and child during breastfeeding has positive repercussions for life, in terms of stimulation, behaviour, speech, sense of wellbeing and security and how the child relates to other people. (
  • Studies have shown that early skin to skin contact between mothers and babies, frequent and unrestricted breast feeding to ensure continued production of milk and help with positioning and attaching the baby increase the chances of breast feeding being successful. (
  • The more a mother breastfeeds, the greater will be the benefits to mother and baby. (
  • Breastfeeding together with healthy foods is recommended to continue as long as mother and baby desire. (
  • Doctors tell you that colostrum (produced in the first three days or so after a baby is born) and breast milk are full of maternal antibodies . (
  • The reaction was always the same: circles were redrawn such that I ended up in the class of mom who, in a pinch, might feed her baby mashed-up Chicken McNuggets. (
  • An average bottle-fed baby will thrive as well as a breast-fed baby. (
  • Also, a breast-feeding mother doesn't have to be worried about her baby being allergic to her milk. (
  • You may also find that your baby has trouble "disconnecting" from your breast when he's through or when you want to switch him to the other side. (
  • The most important thing to remember is that deciding now to breast-feed your baby, or being unable to do so, does not make you a bad parent! (
  • My first baby isn't due until december but im trying to figure out if im going to breast feed but to be honest. (
  • Breastfeeding has many health benefits for you and your baby, and it's a special bonding time. (
  • Awareness: Breastfeed whenever your baby seems hungry. (
  • Watch for hunger signs like sucking noises, hands moving toward mouth, or the baby turning toward your breast. (
  • Soreness usually goes away once you find a good breastfeeding position and your baby latches on comfortably. (
  • After breastfeeding for a few weeks, start letting your baby drain one breast before switching to the other. (
  • If your baby finishes only the first breast during a feeding, offer the other breast at the next feeding. (
  • Nipple confusion occurs when a baby is bottle-fed too soon, and then forgets how to nurse on mom's nipple. (
  • Regular and frequent pumping and emptying of the breast ensures a continuous supply of breast milk for the baby and ensures a continuous flow and manufacture of milk within the mother's breasts. (
  • Normal breastfeeding allows the baby to take milk directly from the breast and there is no need for sterilization. (
  • An item of the baby's clothing with his or her scent in it or the baby's blanket may help the milk to start to flow when expressing breast milk away from the baby (for example at work). (
  • I mix his baby rice with both formula and breast milk so he is able to take it that way. (
  • Beyond breast health protection, breastfeeding provides important health benefits to the baby and helps the bonding process. (
  • In my opinion, a baby who is bottle-fed lovingly is far better off than a child who is breastfed badly or carelessly. (
  • Jack Daniels is bad for the baby whether it comes through bottle or breast. (
  • Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. (
  • Some medicines, illegal drugs, and alcohol can also pass through the breast milk and cause harm to your baby. (
  • Breastfeeding is very healthy for you and your baby. (
  • Experts recommend breastfeeding your baby for at least the first 12 months. (
  • Breast milk is the only food or liquid your baby needs for the first 6 months. (
  • No. Until your baby is 6 months old, she only needs your breast milk. (
  • In fact, giving babies things like rice cereal, baby food, or formula during the first 6 months can keep them from getting the nutrients they need from breast milk. (
  • Keep breastfeeding your baby. (
  • Continue to breastfeed as long as it feels right for you and your baby. (
  • Breastfeeding gives you and your baby time to be close, get to know each other, and bond. (
  • Giving your baby breast milk for the first 6 months can also help lower your baby's risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (
  • Also, when your baby gets cereal or formula instead of breast milk, your body gets a signal that your milk isn't needed and starts to make less milk. (
  • If I breastfeed, will I be the only one who can feed my baby? (
  • Many moms think they won't get a break if they can't have someone else feed the baby. (
  • But you can learn how to pump and store breast milk so your baby can eat when you aren't there. (
  • With practice, you may be able to feed your baby in the carrier without anyone noticing! (
  • Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Another bonus for feeding your baby breast milk has been discovered through a new study. (
  • Feeding your baby on just breast milk for up to six months after birth can reduce their risk of developing asthma-related symptoms in early childhood. (
  • The initiation of breastfeeding in all mammals including humans is an effort from both the mother and the baby. (
  • For example while human mothers hold their baby close to their breast while attempting to feed the baby, several animals like rats do not transport their newborn pups which are blind and deaf at birth, to the nipple. (
  • Among all mammals the specific maternal behaviours that help to initiate breastfeeding and the subsequent maintenance of lactation that is continued flow of milk according to the nutritional needs of the baby. (
  • Her other works included Birth over Thirty, Woman's Experience of Sex, Breastfeeding Your Baby, Ourselves as Mothers, Becoming a Grandmother, Birth Crisis, Birth and Sex: The Power and the Passion, and A Passion for Birth. (
  • One is that the baby uses a peristaltic or compression motion to actually push the milk out of the nipple and breast. (
  • For such women, keeping the milk flowing using a breast pump and using this to top up breastfeeding until the baby is strong enough to suck effectively may be a better option than giving up on breastfeeding altogether. (
  • Breastfeeding pillows come in a variety of styles and designs and are made to help you support your baby in the proper position for breastfeeding. (
  • Learn how to use a breastfeeding pillow to ensure your baby is in the proper position and to ease strain on your spine. (
  • If you enjoy using it, and it works well for you and your baby, you will be using the pillow until you're finished breastfeeding. (
  • A baby in that age range should fit on most breastfeeding pillows without much trouble. (
  • Your baby is not the only factor when selecting a breastfeeding pillow. (
  • Deciding the best way to feed a new baby is a very personal choice for a woman. (
  • Whether she chooses to breast-feed or use formula, feeding time is an important opportunity for a mother and baby to form a close bond with one another. (
  • Health professionals consider breast-feeding to be the best choice for baby. (
  • When deciding how to feed her baby, a woman and her partner may think about several factors, such as the short- and long-term health benefits for mother and baby, financial considerations and comfort level with breast-feeding. (
  • Weaning takes time, particularly when a baby has been breast-fed for an extended period. (
  • The following strategies can help both a mother and her baby adjust to a new feeding routine and manage any stress or discomfort that this transition may cause. (
  • Nevertheless, a few simple guidelines can help mothers determine whether they want to continue breast-feeding their baby. (
  • After that, breast-feeding can continue for 1 year, or as long as the mother and baby wish to continue. (
  • Women sometimes consider stopping breast-feeding because of pain, breast engorgement, social pressure, or fear that the baby is not getting enough milk. (
  • Give the baby a few days to adjust before stopping the next feeding session. (
  • Some women who breastfeed start pumping soon after their baby is born to build up their milk supply if they're not producing enough milk. (
  • Some experts feel that pumping and giving bottles too early - before a baby is used to breastfeeding - might cause "nipple confusion," leading a baby to decide that the bottle is the quicker, better option than the breast. (
  • Though pumping might be frustrating at first, it can help you get some much-needed rest and let your partner and other family members bond with and feed the baby. (
  • It also allows you to continue to provide breast milk for your baby when you return to work or are away. (
  • Contrary to current advice, new research suggests that routine timed feeds are better for babies' health than 'on demand' or 'baby-led' feeds. (
  • Where it gets sticky is that some mums prefer to feed their baby 'on demand' (otherwise known as baby-led feeding), this means they breastfeed whenever the infant shows signs of hunger and each feed continues for as long as the child wishes. (
  • Others opt for more of a routine, timing feeds usually about three hours apart and letting the baby feed for a limited amount of time usually about ten minutes on each breast. (
  • Researchers have found babies limited to feeding for ten minutes at each breast gained more weight by the time they were six to eight-weeks-old than those who were fed by the 'baby-led' method. (
  • For example, women who produce a lot of milk may want to let their baby stay on the first breast longer until the hind milk is reached this is the creamier milk that comes through at the end of a feed. (
  • But Dr Helen Oddy, nutritionist and researcher with the Telethon Institute for Child Research in Perth, says baby-led breastfeeding leaves some women feeling tied to the couch for hours on end and this can prompt some mums to give up breastfeeding. (
  • This could make the baby a more efficient feeder but the problem is baby might be a slow feeder and this might make it difficult for a baby to empty a breast in ten minutes," says Oddy. (
  • Nothing but the breast those choosing to breastfeed are urged not to give the baby complementary feeds, unless there's a medical reason. (
  • Family and friends often love to tell new parents the baby needs a dummy, this advice is best ignored until breastfeeding is well established. (
  • Is baby getting enough milk new parents should see a medical professional if concerned about baby's weight, breastfed babies put on weight differently to their formula-fed mates. (
  • There are many methods and advice out there for new parents that can be detrimental not only to the breastfeeding relationship but to the mother baby dyad on many levels. (
  • Pumping and storing breast milk allows you to continue to feed your baby breast milk through a bottle… milk? (
  • What should I do if my baby prefers bottle-feeding to breastfeeding ? (
  • What happens if I accidentally give my baby bad breast milk? (
  • Breast milk contains nutrients and antibodies your baby needs. (
  • Certain medicines taken during breastfeeding can affect you or your baby through your breast milk… Breastfeeding has many health benefits for you and your baby. (
  • Baby formulas are an alternative to breastfeeding and are specifically made to meet a baby's nutritional needs… be allergic to formula made from cow's milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula. (
  • Breastfeeding can be exhausting, particularly in the early days when a baby may sleep irregularly and wake up numerous times each night. (
  • The body metabolizes most of the caffeine in coffee is before it reaches breast milk or has a chance to affect the baby. (
  • A person who has recently breastfed may choose to watch their baby during this time to see whether they experience any effects from the caffeine. (
  • As your baby grows and develops, your breastfeeding routine will change. (
  • The first weeks of breastfeeding are a learning period for both you and your baby. (
  • Use it to mark daily feedings and diaper counts until your baby is gaining weight appropriately. (
  • So a baby may not be very interested in breastfeeding again on his or her birth day. (
  • But a baby should try to breastfeed at least 8 times that first day. (
  • But by the second day, your baby should begin to wake and show readiness (cue) for feedings. (
  • These frequent feedings provide your baby with antibody-rich first milk, called colostrum. (
  • When your baby finishes at one breast, you can burp him or her and change the diaper before offering the second breast. (
  • When you feed your baby next, offer the other breast first. (
  • Because your baby still is learning, you may have nipple tenderness when he or she latches on or during a feeding. (
  • If you have nipple pain when your baby latches, ask your nurse to watch you feed your baby. (
  • Your baby likely will fall asleep after his or her feedings and act more content after a meal. (
  • Is Your Baby Getting Safe Breast Milk? (
  • Help make breastfeeding comfortable for mother and baby with our wide range of breastfeeding essentials available online at Tesco direct. (
  • I'm on my 3rd baby now & plan on breastfeeding again. (
  • My girl friend had that problem when her second baby was a few months old & she refused to give her a bottle of formula so she drank the tea & is still breastfeeding good. (
  • I didn't pump my milk, if I had too much milk in my breast & my baby wasn't hungry I would hold a milk bag up to my breast & let it shoot out to relieve the pressure. (
  • Direct feeds are actually better for baby. (
  • Breasts are amazing, and the glands on your breast use baby's saliva to determine what needs to be in the milk: natural pain killers when baby is teething, antibodies if a bug is detected, sleepy hormones at night time, etc. (
  • Pumping isn't a bad option if you're working or something, but if you'll be home with baby, direct feeds are easier and better. (
  • But if your supply is low, consider waking baby for feeds as well (every two or three hours). (
  • Let baby feed as long as he/she wants on one side, then burp and switch to the other side. (
  • If your baby is too little or weak to suckle and nurse, you can pump breast milk until you're both ready to breastfeed. (
  • 2014. If I have lupus, can I still breastfeed my baby? (
  • That led the authors to conclude that any breastfeeding helps protect a baby against sudden death. (
  • G ill Walton, chief executive of the RCM said: "Evidence clearly shows that breastfeeding in line with WHO guidance brings optimum benefits for the health of both mother and baby. (
  • They must be given all the advice and support they need on safe preparation of bottles and responsive feeding to develop a close and loving bond with their baby," Ms Walton said. (
  • Excessive alcohol, when transferred to a breastfed baby, can depress the central nervous system and cause drowsiness and deep sleep, abnormal weight gain, and, in extreme cases, retarded mental or motor development. (
  • And for the mother, intoxication can stem milk production, leaving her unable to feed a baby, if necessary. (
  • No, she should feed the baby," Labbok said. (
  • This community is dedicated to those who are nurturing a baby, whether breastfed or formula-fed. (
  • I am for breastfeeding for all the great things it does for the baby. (
  • Find more information about breastfeeding your premature or sick baby here, including how to get started and how to find support. (
  • Breastfeeding has lots of benefits for you and your baby. (
  • As well as the health benefits of breast milk for your baby , breastfeeding is a good way to have skin-to-skin contact with your baby, which can help you and your baby to get to know each other. (
  • Your baby may not be ready to breastfeed as soon as they are born. (
  • If your baby is very premature or sick, they may have to be fed using parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or tube feeding before they are well enough to breastfeed. (
  • We have more information about the signs a baby being tube fed may show if they are ready for breast or bottle feeding. (
  • You can still provide breast milk for your baby if they are unable to breastfeed by using a technique called expressing. (
  • Some parents may feed their baby through a combination of breastfeeding and bottle feeding . (
  • It is recommended that your baby, if possible, establishes breastfeeding before introducing another type of feeding. (
  • Staff on the neonatal unit may recommend that your baby is fed your breast milk using cup feeding. (
  • They might suggest this if your baby is looking to feed but cannot latch onto the breast or is separated from the mother for any reason. (
  • If you decide not to breastfeed your baby, it is very important that you are given information about the other options that are available. (
  • Each time you breastfeed your baby, you may notice tingling or prickling in your breasts and nipples, or a feeling as if the milk is rushing in to fill them. (
  • How do I start to breastfeed my baby? (
  • You may not know where to start with breastfeeding your baby, especially if your baby has previously been tube fed . (
  • It is important to recognise the signs that your baby is hungry (feeding cues) before breastfeeding. (
  • The water, fat, and nutrient content in breast milk may vary depending on several factors, including the manner in which the baby nurses, the mother's food consumption, and the environment. (
  • Hospitals that complete the National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality's Best Fed Beginnings program are designated "Baby-Friendly," which is "a global designation indicating that the hospital employs best maternity care practices to support breast-feeding mothers, as outlined by the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding," Streb says. (
  • Although motivated by the knowledge of its benefits and an instinct to do what's best for the new baby, many women still struggle with breast-feeding. (
  • Breast milk is loaded with antibodies and other germ-fighting factors that pass from mother to baby. (
  • The main complaints that new mothers cite for quitting breast-feeding include pain , problems with the baby latching on appropriately, and concern that the baby isn't getting enough milk, said report lead author Cria Perrine, an epidemiologist in the CDC's Division of Nutrition , Physical Activity and Obesity . (
  • To help mothers start and maintain breast-feeding, the World Health Organization and UNICEF started the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. (
  • Showing new mothers how to breast-feed, including how to position their baby and how to express and store milk for later use (92 percent of hospitals). (
  • Encouraging new mothers to breast-feed when their baby is hungry, instead of feeding on a set schedule (87 percent). (
  • But is drinking alcohol while breast-feeding dangerous for the baby? (
  • When the breast-feeding mother drinks occasionally or limits her consumption to one drink or less per day, the amount of alcohol her baby receives has not been proven to be harmful," LLLI says. (
  • Will help to keep babies attention focused on the breast area for longer, disuading baby from pulling away at distractions, resulting in longer more filling feeds. (
  • I make a design called 'Baby Bitz' which is perfect for older breast fed babies. (
  • No wonder Michelle Obama is telling everybody, 'You better breast-feed your baby,' " she said at a speech on Long Island . (
  • The immunity factors in breast milk can help the baby to fight off infections. (
  • Certainly one of the important ones for new mothers is 'How will I feed my baby? (
  • The baby wants to breastfeed or drink formula often. (
  • This is a perfect opportunity to discuss your concerns and wishes about feeding your baby. (
  • The amino acids in breast milk, the building blocks of proteins, are well balanced for the human baby, as are the sugars (primarily lactose) and fats . (
  • When a baby develops an allergy to formula, he or she may have symptoms that include irritability, crying after feedings, nausea , vomiting , diarrhea , or a skin rash . (
  • We tested the hypothesis that removing pacifiers from routine distribution in our mother-baby unit (MBU) would be associated with greater breastfeeding initiation or exclusivity during the birth hospitalization. (
  • The city health department has already mounted a campaign to promote nursing with the slogan, "Breast milk is best for your baby," displayed on posters in subways and hospitals. (
  • Breast milk contains antibodies that help your baby fight off viruses and bacteria, as well as reducing the instances of ear infections, respiratory illnesses and diarrhea, according to the US Department of Health. (
  • Breastfeeding a newborn is a natural, usually wonderful, experience for both mother and baby. (
  • I always look forward to feeding my baby at pick-up. (
  • It's normal to leak or even spray milk - this tends to happen right before a feeding (when the tank is getting full), when you think about your baby, even when you hear another baby cry. (
  • No one tells you that after breastfeeding your breasts will shrink back down and can even become smaller than they were before the baby. (
  • Breast milk is made by you, so it is the best food for your newborn baby. (
  • Breastfeeding your baby is also good for you, as a mother, and for the whole family. (
  • Breast milk not only provides nutrients required for growth and development, but it also protects the baby from diseases. (
  • Breastfeeding enhances bonding between you and your baby. (
  • 2005). Feeding Your Baby with Breast Milk or Formula (Publication No. FDA05-1108C). (
  • They also release a scent that the baby recognizes to draw them to the breast. (
  • After sharing tons of details of those nine months with the world, she's now letting us in on her life as a momma , including a recent pair of photos she posted of herself breastfeeding baby boy Isaac. (
  • She's at the coffee shop feeding her hungry baby. (
  • Considering how many idiots still take issue with a mom nursing her baby in public , Graham is truly doing all moms a solid by using her huge platform to show that breastfeeding your baby anywhere at all is totally normal. (
  • The practice of having new mothers hold their newborns, skin-to-skin, right after birth is now common and this makes a big difference in helping the baby to latch on to the breast for the first feed. (
  • Now, 156 countries have assessed their hospitals and designated at least one as 'baby friendly'," says Dr Carmen Casanovas, a WHO breastfeeding expert. (
  • I felt like a failure: I couldn t give birth vaginally, I didn t have any maternal bond with this baby that kept crying, and to top it all off, I wasn t producing any breast milk. (
  • This may be because it's more comfortable for you, or because your baby latches on more easily to one breast than the other. (
  • Many mums find it easier to latch their baby onto one breast than the other, maybe depending on whether they're right or left-handed. (
  • After all, most mums of twins or more find that one breast per baby works fine. (
  • What can I do if my baby has a favourite breast? (
  • To encourage your baby to take her less favoured breast, start feeds on that side. (
  • If you're dexterous enough, you could express milk from one breast, while your baby feeds from the side she likes. (
  • If your baby is always allowed to finish the first breast , it may be that this is all she needs, particularly in the early days. (
  • Even if the favourite breast does end up contributing more and more to a feed, it won't matter to your baby. (
  • As a breastfeeding position, it relies less on sides, because your baby lies on your tummy or chest, while you rest back supported by pillows or cushions. (
  • You could try different positions for each breast, using the same hand to bring your baby to your breast on either side. (
  • You could hold your baby underarm to feed from one breast, and across your body for the other. (
  • This will matter less as you and your baby become more experienced at breastfeeding. (
  • Even if you are still breastfeeding, your breasts naturally reduce in size between six months and nine months after your baby is born. (
  • Why is my baby suddenly rejecting one breast? (
  • If your baby suddenly turns away from one breast, try to work out why it's happening. (
  • The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the child's age. (
  • But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. (
  • [2] In the United States in 2015, 83% of women begin breastfeeding, but at 6 months only 58% were still breastfeeding with 25% exclusively breastfeeding. (
  • Occasionally women make too much breast milk and their babies struggle to cope. (
  • But even women who support breastfeeding and have breastfed themselves are wondering if some of the claims breastfeeding's health benefits are overblown. (
  • Even some women who support breast-feeding and have breastfed are wondering about breast-feeding's health benefits. (
  • According to the April 21 study, women who lactated for two years during their lifetime had a 13 percent lower risk for high blood pressure and a 20 percent lower risk for high cholesterol than women who never breastfed. (
  • Very few women are meeting goals put forward by major medical associations on breast-feeding, so whether it's being overblown or not the message is not getting to women such that they are following through on that," said Dr. Eleanor Schwarz, author of the recent study and assistant professor of medicine, epidemiology and obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at the University of Pittsburgh. (
  • Check out a photo essay for World Breastfeeding Week 2015 which aims to empower women to combine work with breastfeeding and raising their children. (
  • The theme of this year's World Breastfeeding Week is 'Women and work - Let's make it work' which emphasizes the need for better support systems and policies to enable working mothers to breastfeed. (
  • There are also millions more women working in the informal, seasonal or part-time economy who face even greater barriers to breastfeeding. (
  • All fifty states , the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have laws that specifically allow women to breastfeed in any public or private location. (
  • This Brief addresses returning to work and the significant challenges this creates to breastfeed for many women. (
  • These differences are exaggerated when researchers compare, as they commonly do, the babies of women who breast-feed exclusively for six months and those who exclusively formula-feed for that length of time. (
  • Many women find breast-feeding a warm, soothing or even erotic experience. (
  • There is less benefit for women who breastfeed for less than a year, which is more typical for women living in countries such as the United States. (
  • Some women may choose to use a breast milk donor. (
  • As one of Brazil's most famous actresses, Luiza has been chosen to front a national campaign to encourage more women to breastfeed. (
  • According to government figures, only 8% of Brazilian women follow the official advice - which is to feed a child only breast milk for the first six months of its life. (
  • For example, women are being advised not to give bottles or dummies to their babies, because this may cause difficulties with breastfeeding. (
  • Many women find it difficult to breastfeed, for all sorts of reasons. (
  • Brazilian women need to think about the health of their babies," she says, "and stop worrying about whether their breast will sag. (
  • Women who don't have health problems should try to give their babies breast milk for at least the first six months of life. (
  • Most women with health problems can breastfeed. (
  • There are rare exceptions when women are advised not to breastfeed because they have certain illnesses. (
  • The longer the women in the study breastfed, the more protection they seemed to derive. (
  • There is some evidence that women who breastfeed lose pregnancy weight quicker and that they lead healthier lifestyles than new mothers who do not breastfeed. (
  • The study is not the first to suggest that women who breastfeed have a lower risk for developing diabetes years later. (
  • It may also shed new light on why - for a minority of women - breastfeeding really can be a painful experience. (
  • Some women choose to breastfeed longer. (
  • According to the CDC's 2016 Breast-feeding Report Card , about 52 percent of American women were breast-feeding their babies at six months and about 31 percent were breast-feeding at 12 months. (
  • In comparison, in 2007, 43 percent of American women were breast-feeding their babies at six months and 22 percent were nursing at 12 months. (
  • But one of the problems in getting more American women to breast-feed could be the lack of ongoing support that some mothers experience when they begin nursing their newborns or when challenges arise. (
  • Some women might not have a mother, sister or close friend to turn to for advice about breast-feeding. (
  • Here are some benefits and challenges of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding to help women weigh the options and make an informed decision about infant feeding. (
  • Women do not need to stop breast-feeding if they are not ready, and do not need to continue breastfeeding if they have had enough. (
  • Women who want to continue breastfeeding, but who are concerned about these issues, should speak with their doctor or a breast-feeding specialist . (
  • It may also mean that women can sustain breast-feeding for longer, as fewer nighttime feedings can help mothers nurse comfortably during the day. (
  • And after dedicating her life to helping women breastfeed as a lactation consultant, Pinky McKay jokes that she's seen more boobs that the late Hugh Hefner. (
  • Her range, called Boobie Bikkies, are formulated to boost milk supply in breastfeeding women, and the range is flying off the shelves. (
  • If this many women are genuinely unable to breastfeed for very long, then surely the survival of the human race and the current population of the developing world are miracles. (
  • We need to provide in-home support in the critical early weeks to ensure women don't give up on breastfeeding without a damn good fight. (
  • We should never make those women who, in spite of help, genuinely cannot breastfeed feel guilty. (
  • However, pretending that breastfeeding isn't better or allowing women to continue to give up too early because of a lack of informed guidance or for reasons that are more like an excuse than a necessity, is to do a disservice to babies. (
  • The benefits of breastfeeding need to be conveyed forcefully, just as much as the support for women to help them feed successfully needs to be provided more routinely. (
  • Groups of breastfeeding women coming together at registered locations around the world to all latch on their child at a set time. (
  • Also, your calorie needs may vary at times, such as while women are pregnant or breastfeeding . (
  • It's more common in younger women… cause of breast pain. (
  • The thing that struck me from his presentation was when he said that people have no idea how much pain women are willing to go through in order to breastfeed their babies. (
  • However, most women with lupus can breastfeed successfully, especially with a little thinking ahead. (
  • For example, women with lupus are advised to stop taking methotrexate before pregnancy, and most healthcare providers don't recommend resuming it when breastfeeding. (
  • For example, the link remained even when the authors took into account the fact that women who smoke cigarettes are less likely to breastfeed, and also may be more likely to have an infant die from SIDS. (
  • And the advice says women who want to bottle-feed their children should be given help to do so safety, and support to encourage the bonding process. (
  • However the reality is that often some women for a variety of reasons struggle to start or sustain breastfeeding. (
  • The professional body said women should not be made to feel "guilty or embarassed" about how they feed their children. (
  • S he said women who chose to breastfeed also needed more support. (
  • Women should not feel guilty or embarrassed about breastfeeding in public and as a society we must continue to develop a culture of positive support for women who wish to breastfeed and educating the public is key to this," she said. (
  • Some mothers have argued that messages such as "breast is best" are counterproductive, and mean women are more likely to give up breastfeeding if they are struggling to do so. (
  • She said women who want decide to breastfeed needed more support. (
  • We think that women who decide to breastfeed need support to do so and our breastfeeding counsellors supported around 20,000 women last year. (
  • Breastfeeding is not a prison for women," said D. Miriam Labbok, director of the Center for Infant and Young Child Feeding and Care at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (
  • Women around the world continue their normal lifestyles while breastfeeding. (
  • She believes the popularization of "pink washing," the commodification of breast cancer, is dangerous, and the all-out October marketing has made some women think lightly of their diagnosis. (
  • Specially formulated at the request of lactation consultants, this blend of More Milk Plus with Goat's Rue helps women with special needs -- such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), breast reduction surgery and adoptive moms -- to build mammary tissue as well as to safely and effectively increase breast milk. (
  • Research indicates that women who breastfeed may have lower rates of certain breast and ovarian cancers. (
  • Certain medications may pass through the breast milk to the infant when women who are breastfeeding are taking the drugs. (
  • According to a recent study published in the July issue of Pediatrics showing that 85% of new mothers planned to exclusively breast-feed for the first three months of their child's life, the knowledge of breast milk's benefits seems to be reaching most women. (
  • However, in a telling and disconcerting statistic, the same study found that only 32.4% of these women actually met their breast-feeding goals. (
  • Because of this, the AAP advises women to avoid habitual alcohol consumption when breast-feeding. (
  • The study found that tetrahydrocannabinol was detectable in 63 percent of 54 samples of breast milk from women who said they had used marijuana before pumping. (
  • In response to evidence that babies are being exposed to marijuana, the A.A.P. recommends that women avoid the drug altogether when they are pregnant or breast-feeding. (
  • Mrs. Obama told reporters this month that she would promote breast-feeding, particularly among black women, as part of her campaign to reduce childhood obesity . (
  • While few if any of those who offered comments were against breast-feeding, many noted that some women were unable to breast-feed for medical reasons. (
  • Others said that many women without offices or flexible work hours were not offered the time or a place to use breast pumps. (
  • Because high-quality, prospective medical literature addressing pacifier use and breastfeeding does not conclusively show an adverse relationship in women who are motivated to breastfeed, more studies are needed to help determine what effect, if any, pacifiers have on breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the immediate newborn period. (
  • Women with the time and inclination to breastfeed may devote more attention to their kids' development. (
  • Many women do not have access to the truth about breastfeeding and have been misled by infant-formula marketing to believe they must spend thousands of dollars a year to provide the best nutrition for their babies. (
  • What is unique about this study is the fact that, in the population we studied, breastfeeding was not more common among highly educated, high-income women, but was evenly distributed by social class. (
  • In the US, while breastfeeding rates start out strong, many women do not continue as long as recommended. (
  • 5 For comparison, in Sweden more than 98 percent of women initiate breastfeeding at birth, and 72 percent are still breastfeeding at six months. (
  • Women who breastfeed also have a lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer, lower rates of obesity and return to their pre-pregnancy weight faster. (
  • A study of 4,400 women followed for more than 20 years suggests breastfeeding for a longer period of time could help women diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy lower their risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. (
  • Women with gestational diabetes who lactated for more than one year total (for all children combined) reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes by about 30 percent compared to those who did not breastfeed at all. (
  • Preliminary findings from a new study reveal that breast milk of obese women has higher levels of total fat, the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, and hormones including leptin and insulin compared to breast milk of normal-weight women during the first six months postpartum. (
  • That's why it's lucky for us that we have women like Graham doing their part to show people that a momma feeding her kiddo is never something to be legislated, policed, or criticized. (
  • Our focus now is on improving breastfeeding rates among Maori and Asian women who often have a lower breastfeeding rate than the overall population. (
  • Compared with women who had vaginal births, mothers who had cesarean deliveries had a lower level of oxytocin, which is a critical hormone needed for successful breastfeeding. (
  • Women who delay pregnancy past their mid-twenties may reduce their risk of breast cancer later in life by breastfeeding their children, a new study suggests. (
  • Previous research has shown that women who have their first child in their thirties have an increased risk of breast cancer, regardless of how many children they go on to have. (
  • Giske Ursin at Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California, US, and colleagues asked nearly 1000 women between the ages of 55 and 64 who had been diagnosed with breast cancer to provide information about their childbearing and breastfeeding history. (
  • After comparing the information from the women with breast cancer and their healthy counterparts, Ursin's team found that delaying pregnancy past 25 years of age was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer - but only if the women had not breastfed. (
  • Previous studies show having children offers some protection against breast cancer - childless women have a higher risk of the cancer than those who have children. (
  • Nevertheless, Ursin's team found that women who gave birth to three children after age 25 and never breastfed had twice the risk of breast cancer as women who had never had children. (
  • In terms of the general protective effect of childbirth, some believe that hormone changes that women undergo during and after pregnancy change the breast composition in a way that reduces the chance of hormone-sensitive cancers in that tissue. (
  • Some women only have one breast that produces milk, perhaps because they have had breast surgery. (
  • In 2020, WHO and UNICEF announced that women should continue to breastfeed during the COVID-19 pandemic even if they have confirmed or suspected COVID-19 because current evidence indicates that it is unlikely that COVID-19 can be transmitted through breast milk. (
  • Providing face-to-face support has been shown to be more likely to be successful for women who are breastfeeding exclusively. (
  • In addition, the involvement of lactation consultants in the prenatal visits of low-income women increases the likelihood that they will breastfeed. (
  • Breastfeeding peer counselors, who are ideally women who have breastfed who can provide information, support, and troubleshooting to mothers, have had a positive effect on the breastfeeding rate in American Indian populations. (
  • When combined with nutrition support, particularly the WIC program in the United States, the presence of peer counselors can have a significant effect on incidence of breastfeeding among low-income women. (
  • Support during and immediately after childbirth can also help women initiate and continue breastfeeding while working through common concerns related to breastfeeding. (
  • Culturally sensitive care (for example, care from a peer of a similar ethnic background) may be most effective at encouraging high-risk women to breastfeed. (
  • The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months. (
  • Many breastfed babies do well with the slow-flow nipple until they are 3 months old, or even older. (
  • Health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), recommend breastfeeding exclusively for six months. (
  • [12] After the introduction of foods at six months of age, recommendations include continued breastfeeding until one to two years of age or more. (
  • Researchers looked at 9,357 overweight or obese children from the German region of Bavaria as they reached school entry age, and quizzed their mothers on how they were fed in the months after birth. (
  • Compared with the 4.5% obesity rate of those children who had never been breast fed, only 3.8% of those who had been fed by breast for just two months became obese. (
  • After breast feeding for three to five months, the likelihood of obesity was only half that of a bottle-fed child. (
  • Yet, less than half of the world's newborns benefit from early breastfeeding and even fewer are exclusively breastfed for the first six months. (
  • Breastfed children have at least six times greater chance of survival in the early months than non-breastfed children. (
  • An exclusively breastfed child is 14 times less likely to die in the first six months than a non-breastfed child, and breastfeeding drastically reduces deaths from acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea, two major child killers (Lancet 2008). (
  • In the UK Millennium Cohort Survey, six months of exclusive breast feeding was associated with a 53% decrease in hospital admissions for diarrhoea and a 27% decrease in respiratory tract infections. (
  • While breastfeeding rates are no longer declining at the global level, with many countries experiencing significant increases in the last decade, only 38 per cent of children less than six months of age in the developing world are exclusively breastfed and just 39 per cent of 20-23 month olds benefit from the practice of continued breastfeeding. (
  • Breast milk provides all of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals an infant needs for growth for the first six months, no other liquids or food are needed. (
  • For this reason, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) highly recommends babies be fed only breast milk for the first six months of life. (
  • But after three children and 28 months of breast-feeding (and counting), the insistent cheerleading has begun to grate. (
  • My son is four months old but absolutely loathes taking milk from the bottle and gets so frustrated that I resort to feeding him from the breast again. (
  • If it's not for several months then I don't think you will lose anything by allowing your son to continue breastfeeding until four to six weeks before you go back to work. (
  • Quite a few babies will only take the breast until the age of six months or so, but after that they gradually begin to accept milk from either a bottle or a beaker, so don't give up hope! (
  • I breastfed my first child for seven months - and I can tell you, everything soon returned to normal. (
  • La Leche League points to a study in the Philippines that shows that, "Deaths from respiratory infections and diarrhea were eight to ten times higher in babies who were artificially fed than in those who were even partially breastfed for six months. (
  • Through questionnaires from over 5,000 children, the researchers learned if in the first 12 months after birth whether the children had ever been breastfed, when breastfeeding was stopped, and whether any other milk or solids were introduced. (
  • The results showed that the children who had never been breastfed had an increased risk of wheezing, shortness of breath, dry cough and persistent phlegm during their first four years, compared to children who were breastfed for more than six months. (
  • The children who were fed other milk or solids during their first four months of birth, in addition to breast milk had an increased risk of wheezing, shortness of breath, dry cough and persistent phlegm during the first four years, compared to children who were exclusively breastfed for their first four months of life. (
  • These results support current health policy strategies that promote exclusive breastfeeding for six months in industrialized countries," Dr. Agnes Sonnenschein-van der Voort, from the Erasmus Medical Center in The Netherlands, and lead author of the study, was quoted saying. (
  • In the population as a whole, breastfeeding for longer than nine months was associated with a 56% reduction in risk for developing metabolic syndrome during the follow-up period. (
  • Some mothers only breastfeed for 3 or 4 months. (
  • If you intend to breastfeed your child for a couple of years rather than a couple of months, go with a larger sized pillow that can support a bigger child. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that babies receive only breast milk for the first six months of life, and then continue to receive breast milk along with other foods, until they are at least 1 year old or longer if both the mother and infant are willing. (
  • Babies older than 6 months still need formula or donor breast milk, but can also transition to age-appropriate solid foods. (
  • When they are between 6 months and 1 year old, most babies feed less often during the night. (
  • A clear dose-response effect was identified for the duration of breast feeding on the prevalence of obesity: the prevalence was 3.8% for 2 months of exclusive breast feeding, 2.3% for 3-5 months, 1.7% for 6-12 months, and 0.8% for more than 12 months. (
  • The 2005 NHS survey into infant feeding found only 48% of UK mothers were still breastfeeding their babies at six weeks old and only 25% at six months. (
  • While more than two thirds (73%) of Pennsylvania mothers start out breastfeeding, less than half (46%) are still breastfeeding at six months. (
  • The study found no statistically significant impact on the sleep quality of babies aged 3 months when breastfed by someone who consumes caffeine. (
  • Breast-milk is an important source of energy and nutrients in children aged 6-23 months. (
  • Only 39% of children less than six months of age in the developing world are exclusively breastfed. (
  • The new advice still says that babies should be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of their life, in line with advice from the World Health Organisation (WHO). (
  • B ritain's rates of breastfeeding are the lowest in the developed world, with just one per cent of new mothers feeding their children purely by breast by the age of six months. (
  • O ne third of children in the UK are breastfed at six months, with just one per cent only receiving breast-milk by this stage. (
  • These organizations espouse the importance of breast-feeding exclusively for the first six months of life and then in concert with complementary foods for at least 12 months. (
  • The fact that 85% of new mothers intend to exclusively breast-feed for the first three months is great, although it could be higher. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life, and that they continue to receive breast-milk as part of their diet for at least 12 months. (
  • And only 22 percent breast-feed exclusively for the recommended first six months of life, according to background information in the CDC report. (
  • Children breast-fed longer than six months scored a 3.8-point IQ margin over those who were bottle-fed, according to a seven-year study by researchers at Jagiellonian University Medical College in Poland. (
  • 3.8 points higher in children breast-fed longer than six months. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies be fed nothing but breast milk for the first six months, citing its benefits for the child, the mother and the environment. (
  • The AAP and the American Academy of Family Medicine recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of complementary foods for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. (
  • 1 , 3 Likewise, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends EBF for ∼6 months and states that ongoing breastfeeding is also beneficial. (
  • 4 World Health Organization recommends EBF for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the addition of complementary foods into at least the second year of life. (
  • These results support current health policy strategies that promote exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in industrialised countries. (
  • Girard's team of researchers found that the 3- and 5-year-olds who had been breastfed for six months or more did score higher on tests of vocabulary and problem-solving. (
  • Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond. (
  • Breastfeeding offers benefits to mom, too, including a natural method of birth control (about 98 percent effective for the first six months). (
  • Wait till the first few months of breastfeeding - you may be ravenous. (
  • In a new study, babies who gained weight rapidly in the first four months of life were significantly more likely to be classified as overweight by one year of age if they were exclusively formula fed rather than breastfed for 11 months or longer. (
  • The average family will spend roughly $600 to formula feed during the first six months of an infant's life. (
  • WHO recommends that babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, which means giving them breast milk and any medicines they may need, but no other food or drink, not even water. (
  • Some 42% of babies are still being exclusively breastfed at 3 months in New Zealand, but this drops to 16% at 6 months. (
  • The global average for exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is 37% globally, but country rates vary widely. (
  • Most countries show increased percentage of mothers exclusively breastfeeding their babies for the full six first months of life if they have support after they leave hospital, time off work, and a safe and clean place to express and store breast milk in the workplace. (
  • 16.4% exclusively breastfed up to six months of age. (
  • Peer counseling has also been effective at increasing breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding rates up to three months after birth in Hispanic populations in the United States. (
  • Breastfeeding , also known as nursing , is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast . (
  • Last week, an article in Obstetrics and Gynecology found that breast-feeding can later reduce a woman's risk for heart disease and diabetes. (
  • It is also thought that breastfeeding reduces a woman's risk of developing certain types of cancer. (
  • Breastfeeding was shown to significantly lower a woman's risk for developing metabolic syndrome in a study reported today by researchers with Kaiser Permanente. (
  • It's true that alcohol can be found in a woman's breast milk after drinking, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). (
  • Breastfeeding is one of the periods of the greatest nutritional requirement in a woman's life. (
  • The discussion of breastfeeding during early prenatal care can positively effect a woman's likelihood to breastfeed her child. (
  • During regular checkups, a woman's physician, midwife or other healthcare provider can initiate a conversation about the benefits of breastfeeding, which can influence a woman to breastfeed her child for a longer period of time than she might have otherwise. (
  • In general, if you are sober enough to drive, you are sober enough to breastfeed. (
  • They may not be well enough or strong enough to breastfeed. (
  • While you are pregnant, tell your doctor or midwife that you plan to breastfeed. (
  • UNICEF is working to support national governments in making the world a friendlier place for all mothers who wish to breastfeed. (
  • The new stance by the RCM follows a long debate about the best way to encourage mothers to breastfeed. (
  • Some babies who are born at term and sick may find it more difficult to breastfeed because of surgery or difficulties swallowing. (
  • An infant suckling at his or her mother's breast is not simply receiving a meal, but is intensely engaged in a dynamic, bidirectional, biological dialogue. (
  • The study found that 30 percent of the beneficial bacteria in a baby's intestinal tract come directly from mother's milk, and an additional 10 percent comes from skin on the mother's breast. (
  • At two weeks, Cruz just went straight for his mother's breast - a welcome relief all round. (
  • Play media Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the process of feeding a mother's breast milk to her infant, either directly from the breast or by expressing (pumping out) the milk from the breast and bottle-feeding it to the infant. (
  • [5] Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible. (
  • For mothers who pump breast milk there is a risk of contamination. (
  • You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail stores, and online. (
  • Which kind of breast pump to use is up to you. (
  • I didn't have much need to pump, so usually did it straight from the breast. (
  • Pumping to feed breast milk by bottle is far more work then direct breastfeeding, and you are more likely to have trouble attaining/maintaining supply if you pump exclusively. (
  • You can also pump after feeds and store the milk. (
  • While noting that she had breast-fed the five children she gave birth to, Ms. Bachmann said, "To think that government has to go out and buy my breast pump - You want to talk about nanny state, I think we just got a new definition. (
  • Yes, breast is best, but there are plenty of mothers who love and care for their children, but simply can't pump - for time, work or physical reasons. (
  • Be sure to pack all the necessary supplies including a battery pack and extra batteries for the pump and a converter if you're traveling outside of the U.S. Pack hand sanitizer and disposable wipes so you can wipe out the breast pump components until you're able to thoroughly wash them. (
  • If a mother needs a breast pump and bottles for feeding, the total cost of breastfeeding for a year is about $350. (
  • With this week's pump giveaway, we'll be able to help make long-term breastfeeding a reality for one family regardless of their current financial situation. (
  • As a thank you for sending in a story during World Breastfeeding Week, each mom will have her name placed in a drawing for a chance to win an Ameda Purely Yours breast pump. (
  • Even if a mom needs to return to work while her child is an infant, she can continue to provide breastmilk for her child by using a breast pump to express her milk. (
  • The cost of a quality, electric breast pump , which can range from $100 to $300, is still more affordable than a 6 month supply of formula. (
  • This month in celebration of World Breastfeeding Week, Breast Pumps Direct will giveaway an Ameda Purely Yours breast pump to one of the mothers who sends in a story for the Breastfeeding Week contest. (
  • Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. (
  • Microwave can over heat the milk causing burns and more importantly may damage some of the beneficial nutrients, antibodies and cellular components of the breast milk. (
  • Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help your infant grow into a strong and healthy toddler. (
  • Some of the nutrients in breast milk also help protect your infant against some common childhood illnesses and infections. (
  • Your breast milk has exactly the right balance of calories and nutrients. (
  • Breast milk also contains nutrients important for brain growth, such as taurine, an amino acid, and DHA, a fatty acid, Lawrence said. (
  • Sometimes premature babies need more nutrients than you can provide in your breast milk. (
  • Some of the nutrients in breast milk, such as protein and vitamins, help protect an infant against some common childhood illnesses and infections, such as diarrhea, middle ear infections, and certain lung infections. (
  • The nutrients in breast milk come from the mother's blood and body. (
  • For moms who can't breastfeed or who decide not to, infant formula is a healthy alternative. (
  • Even the author of a recent breast-feeding and cardiovascular risk factors study conceded that the health benefits from breast-feeding can be overblown by the time they reach mother's ears, if moms are listening at all. (
  • Although doctors like Scharwz may think reaching bottle feeding mothers eclipses the concern about overblown health claims, not all moms agree. (
  • Famous moms haven't been shy about sharing images of themselves breastfeeding. (
  • What you eat affects your breast milk, but usually not as much as most new moms think. (
  • Did they rule out moms who fed their kids orange juice in a bottle before putting them to bed without brushing their teeth? (
  • And, yes, breast-feeding moms can feed their babies when normal supplies of food and water are not available. (
  • When Breastfeeding, How Many Calories Should Moms and Babies Consume? (
  • Breastfeeding is a healthy choice for both moms and babies. (
  • Many moms worry that their babies won't be full enough to sleep through the night with only breast milk. (
  • Dec. 3, 2009 -- There is more evidence that breastfeeding benefits moms as well as their babies. (
  • Tell the General Assembly to Support ALL Breastfeeding and Working Moms in Pennsylvania! (
  • The purpose of this survey is to document the experience of moms dealing with ties in their children in the absence of clear treatment guidelines for ties and related breastfeeding complications. (
  • I have a couple of questions for experienced breast feeding moms. (
  • The findings, the authors write, underscore the importance of promoting the positive effects of breastfeeding for both moms and babies. (
  • For moms, breast-feeding decreases the risk of ovarian and breast cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • However, breastfeeding moms still encounter unsympathetic people who disagree with their actions. (
  • The Nutrition 2018 meeting will feature new research findings on the nature of breast milk and how breastfeeding may affect the health of both moms and babies. (
  • Beginning Wednesday, July 29, 2009, parents will be asked to share their most memorable breastfeeding stories and have them published in the Breastfeeding Stories from Real Moms section of the Breast Pumps Direct website. (
  • As a leading retailer of America's most preferred breast pumps, Breast Pumps Direct strives to increase awareness and support for breastfeeding year round by coming forward as a breastfeeding resource that provides moms with more than the average online store. (
  • After all, it's 2020 and moms are still being shamed and shunned for doing the most natural thing in the world - feeding their child (and that goes for whether it's by bottle or breast, because we know people will shame moms for not nursing too). (
  • But because staying hydrated is so important for nursing, breastfeeding moms need to make sure that they're drinking enough water before and after working out, according to experts from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (
  • Breastfeeding moms already burn between 300 and 500 calories daily-combine that with exercise and you're a veritable calorie-blasting machine. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding notes: "ingestion of alcoholic beverages should be minimized and limited to an occasional intake but no more than 0.5 g alcohol per kg body weight, which for a 60 kg mother is approximately 2 oz liquor, 8 oz wine, or 2 beers. (
  • US Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding seeks to make it possible for every mother who wishes to breastfeed to be able to do so. (
  • [3] Long-term benefits for the mother include decreased risk of breast cancer , cardiovascular disease , and rheumatoid arthritis . (
  • everything, so that they can make an informed decision," said Linda Goodman, a mother of five who breastfed her children for the health benefits and convenience. (
  • Breastfeeding also provides long-term preventative effects for the mother, including an earlier return to pre-pregnancy weight and a reduced risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer and osteoporosis. (
  • In addition, breast milk carries antibodies from the mother that help combat disease. (
  • Virtually every mother can breastfeed , if given appropriate support, advice and encouragement, as well as practical assistance to resolve any problems. (
  • Breastfeeding is the first step to a healthy life and forms a natural and lasting bond between mother and child. (
  • My mother friends love to exchange stories about subversive ways they used to sneak frozen breast milk through airline security (it's now legal), or about the random brutes on the street who don't approve of breast-feeding in public. (
  • From the moment a new mother enters the obstetrician's waiting room, she is subjected to the upper-class parents' jingle: "Breast Is Best. (
  • And when I look around my daughter's second-grade class, I can't seem to pick out the unfortunate ones: "Oh, poor little Sophie, whose mother couldn't breast-feed. (
  • This has become an even more complex issue in recent years since HIV can be passed from mother to child through breast milk in those babies who are born healthy but whose mothers have an HIV infection. (
  • If the mother is well-fed, breast milk is an idea diet for a newborn. (
  • Breast milk is sterile, readily available (to the mother, at least), and you never have to worry about its temperature. (
  • Every Brazilian mother should breastfeed. (
  • Above all, breastfeeding is considered the best way to strengthen the bond between mother and child. (
  • When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding? (
  • Sitting next to a breastfeeding mother on a flight to the US last week, I'll admit to feeling slightly queasy. (
  • Currently there are no measurements to assure the mother or the clinician that things [in the breast] are working," says Geddes. (
  • A breastfeeding pillow is a pillow specially designed for the breastfeeding mother. (
  • But for first-time mothers, it can take a few weeks for a mother and her newborn to get the hang of breast-feeding, as both of them are learning the process together and they haven't established a predictable feeding schedule. (
  • It may be tempting to quit breast-feeding in one go, but doing so can cause engorgement, nipple pain, and psychological distress to both the mother and infant. (
  • Breastfed babies are being allowed to express natural behaviour: a desire to suckle their mother both for food and comfort. (
  • A mother can receive health benefits as well, several of which are associated with a lower risk of breast and ovarian cancers for nursing mothers later in life. (
  • Fathers play an important role by assisting mothers with Kangaroo Mother Care, a technique where skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding offer newborn babies warmth and nutrition during the most critical stage - the first 24 hours. (
  • A mother breastfeeds her child in a room at the William Soler Pediatric Cardiology Center in Havana October 21, 2008. (
  • While the ideal postpartum abstention from alcohol, since ethanol can move rapidly into the breast milk, lactation experts agree that moderate alcohol consumption by a mother does not pose major threats to an infant. (
  • A mother who has a glass of wine with dinner or one beer when she goes out is not an issue or a problem," said Marsha Walker, a registered nurse and a member of the board of directors for the Massachusetts Breastfeeding Coalition . (
  • Lactation experts suggest pumping and freezing breast milk or having formula on hand can be useful if the mother will be drinking. (
  • Breast-feeding provides many well-documented health benefits for the child and the mother," explains Karthi Streb, MPH, director of programs at the National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality and program director for its Best Fed Beginnings project, which aims to improve maternity care practices in US hospitals to better support breast-feeding. (
  • These are just a few of the many benefits for mother and child," Bearzi says, adding that all the specifics of breast-feeding's benefits are still being teased out with new research. (
  • It is the physical and psychological bonding and interaction between infant and mother during breast-feeding that nurtures development of an infant's cognitive abilities. (
  • Jedrychowski strongly agrees with Raju's statement, and adds: 'I believe the IQ effect may in part be explained by this dynamic interaction between mother and child in the breast-feeding process. (
  • The amount of alcohol found in breast milk peaks about 30 to 60 minutes after the mother drinks alcohol, and about 60 to 90 minutes after she drinks if the woman has a drink with food, LLLI says. (
  • Breast milk also contains infection-fighting antibodies from the mother, and breastfed babies are believed to be at a reduced risk for many acute and chronic infections early in life. (
  • Through it is feeding another human being, and this implies that the mother should not neglect what she eats. (
  • However, if the mother is doing some exercise during breastfeeding, "we would even have to go to 3,400 kilocalories," she clarifies. (
  • According to their indications, the mother who is breastfeeding should do "between five and six meals a day" and also, increase the amount of the intake. (
  • 1 This is wonderful news, as breastfeeding offers life-long health benefits, not just for the child, but for the mother as well. (
  • A breastfeeding mother needs 300 extra calories a day, which adds little to the family food budget. (
  • Before birth, there is not really anything a mother should be doing to prepare or toughen breasts for breastfeeding. (
  • Whether using an underwire bra or not, consider getting a professional fitting at a new mother or breastfeeding boutique if one is available. (
  • In today's tough economic times, it is clear that breastfeeding is the most cost effective feeding choice for families since the longer a mother breastfeeds, the more money the family is able to save. (
  • It is also highly likely you will be breastfed by your mother right from the start. (
  • It's also common to have babies sleep in the same room as their mother while they're in hospital, which is good for making sure they can feed whenever they like," she adds. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that for every year a mother breastfeeds, her risk of breast cancer declines by about 4.3% (see Breastfeeding could slash breast cancer risk ). (
  • In a 1916 study, one researcher asked whether breast milk produced by the same lactating mother changes over time. (
  • Many breastfeeding pillows are designed to strap around your torso so the pillow can support the baby's head and neck when you breastfeed. (
  • Changes early in pregnancy prepare the breast for lactation. (
  • But there are no consistent guidelines regarding alcohol consumption following pregnancy during the time when mothers may be breastfeeding. (
  • Colostrum, the yellowish, sticky breast milk produced at the end of pregnancy, is recommended by WHO as the perfect food for the newborn, and feeding should be initiated within the first hour after birth. (
  • Breastfeeding isn't to blame for any sagging, however - pregnancy, weight gain and loss, and aging are usually responsible. (
  • This protective benefit of breastfeeding was seen among those born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes during pregnancy. (
  • Effective support techniques for breastfeeding include support given by nurses, physicians, and midwives during and after pregnancy, regular scheduled visits, and support that is directed towards specific groups of people. (
  • Peer support techniques can be used before, during, and after pregnancy to encourage exclusive breastfeeding, particularly among groups with low breastfeeding rates. (
  • Often called the "perfect food" for a human baby's digestive system, breast milk's components - lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat - are easily digested by a newborn. (
  • Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. (
  • Mums don't be surprised if you're feeding your newborn up to 12 times in a 24 hour period really sleepy babies may need to be woken for feeds. (
  • A newborn has a different feeding routine than a breastfeeding 6-month-old. (
  • Of course, breast milk would appear to be the most ideal food for your newborn . (
  • Restricting pacifier distribution during the newborn hospitalization without also restricting access to formula was associated with decreased exclusive breastfeeding, increased supplemental formula feeding, and increased exclusive formula feeding. (
  • He found that the nutritional composition of breast milk might change as quickly as the newborn develops in the early days of life. (
  • In most cases, yes - the majority of illnesses are not dangerous to a breastfeeding infant. (
  • Breast-fed babies do not have fewer respiratory virus infections or illnesses but may experience less severe illness. (
  • A raft of research indicates that breastfed children have higher IQs, fewer illnesses and less susceptibility to obesity than those who were deprived. (
  • [4] Older children feed less often. (
  • Deaths of an estimated 820,000 children under the age of five could be prevented globally every year with increased breastfeeding. (
  • [2] Mothers may feel pressure to breastfeed, but in the developed world children generally grow up normally when bottle fed with formula . (
  • Yet, research demonstrates that when parents have paid family leave following the birth of a child, mothers breastfeed longer and parents are more likely to take children for immunizations and well-child care. (
  • A huge survey has found striking evidence that mothers who feed their babies by breast end up with far fewer overweight and obese children. (
  • Earlier studies suggest that breast-feeding may help "programme" children not to be obese. (
  • Research found that bottle-fed children had far higher blood concentrations of insulin, the chemical that stimulates the laying down of fat cells. (
  • Although Stimson breastfed all three of her children for the health benefits and to bond with them, she said in retrospect she's not sure it made such a difference compared to neighbors and friends who didn't breast-feed. (
  • World Breastfeeding Week, celebrated this year from 1-7 August, is an annual event highlighting the critical importance of breastfeeding for children across the globe. (
  • Breastfeeding gives children the healthiest start in life and is one of the simplest, smartest and most cost-effective ways we have of ensuring that all children survive and thrive. (
  • Early and exclusive breastfeeding helps children survive, but it also supports healthy brain development, improves cognitive performance and is associated with better educational achievement at age 5. (
  • Breastfeeding is the foundation of good nutrition and protects children against disease. (
  • In this way, breastfeeding allows all children to thrive and develop to their full potential. (
  • Both mothers and children benefit from breast milk. (
  • Breastfed children have fewer ear, respiratory and urinary tract infections and have diarrhea less often. (
  • I dutifully breast-fed each of my first two children for the full year that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends. (
  • It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age. (
  • Researchers also found evidence that the first asthma-related symptoms occur earlier in life if children were breastfed for shorter lengths of time or not exclusively. (
  • Lead researcher Alison M. Stuebe, MD, told WebMD at the time that a woman with two children could potentially lower her risk for developing diabetes by almost a third by following the advice of child health experts and breastfeeding each child for a year. (
  • But Lawrence, who breast-fed all nine of her own children and conducts research on breast-feeding, points out that while "every species makes a milk specific for their offspring, humans are the only ones who might feed their young the milk from another species - cows. (
  • To assess the impact of breast feeding on the risk of obesity and risk of being overweight in children at the time of entry to school. (
  • In a subsample of 13 345 children, early feeding, diet, and lifestyle factors were assessed using responses to a questionnaire completed by parents. (
  • The prevalence of obesity in children who had never been breast fed was 4.5% as compared with 2.8% in breastfed children. (
  • Whether children are breast or formula fed matters significantly, because breastfeeding plays an important role in public health and in addressing inequalities. (
  • Research estimates that increasing breastfeeding rates has the potential to save the lives of over 820,000 children under 5 years old each year. (
  • Breastfeeding is one of the early ways that we learn to sacrifice for our children. (
  • The A.A.P. study, which tested breast milk rather than the babies, does not provide evidence of how or if children are affected. (
  • The strongest links were seen with wheezing and persistent phlegm, as children were 1.4 and 1.5 times more likely to develop these symptoms if they had never been breastfed. (
  • It's also tied to longer-term benefits, such as lower risks of asthma and obesity in children, and lower risks of breast and ovarian cancers in mothers. (
  • Many mothers who breastfeed their children wonder about the diet they should follow during breastfeeding. (
  • In the study, the longer the children were breastfed, the better they tended to be doing as adults. (
  • Increased breastfeeding globally could prevent approximately 820,000 deaths of children under the age of five annually. (
  • Breastfeeding promotion is a movement that came about in the twentieth century in response to high rates of bottle-feeding among mothers, and in recognition of the many health benefits to both mothers and children that breastfeeding offers. (
  • While infant formula had been introduced in developed countries in the 1920s as a healthy way to feed one's children, the emergence of research on health benefits of breastfeeding precipitated the beginning of the breastfeeding promotion movement in the United States. (
  • Among many provisions, Section 4207 of the law amends the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 ( 29 U.S. Code 207 ) to require an employer to provide reasonable break time for an employee to express breast milk for her nursing child for one year after the child's birth each time such employee has need to express milk. (
  • Breastfeeding drastically reduces deaths from acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea, two major child killers, as well as from other infectious diseases (WHO-Lancet 2000). (
  • O ne afternoon at the playground last summer, shortly after the birth of my third child, I made the mistake of idly musing about breast-feeding to a group of new mothers I'd just met. (
  • Note that feeding your child cow's milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk or formula. (
  • Besides possibly lowering your breast cancer risk, breastfeeding gives your child antibodies through the breast milk that can protect him/her from bacterial and viral infections. (
  • This document brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire. (
  • This document translates the aim, objectives and operational targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding into concrete, focused national strategy, policy and action plans. (
  • Will you point to your child and say, "I breastfed him until he was 2 and a half and he's only had two colds in his whole life. (
  • Exclusive breast feeding was defined as the child being fed no food other than breast milk. (
  • My first child would go back and forth between breast and bottle but my second would only do the breast (kind of a pain). (
  • Stacey Anvarinia, 26, pled guilty to charges of child neglect filed earlier this year for breastfeeding her child while she was drunk. (
  • Police had been called to her home in Grand Forks, N.D., on an unrelated domestic disturbance call, and while they were there, an intoxicated Anvarinia began to breastfeed her 6-month-old child. (
  • The officers learned from a local hospital that breastfeeding while under the influence of alcohol was not good for the child, and they charged her with neglect. (
  • If a child is breastfeeding during this time, they can receive up to about one fifth of the amount present in the blood. (
  • Chemists searching for a specific compound in mother's milk have been overlooking the obvious difference between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding -something that could easily account for the difference in cognitive development, wrote Tonse Raju, a pediatrician and neonatalogist at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in the current issue of Breastfeeding Medicine, October 2011. (
  • she told People magazine after giving birth to her first child, Blue Ivy, that she breast-fed for 10 weeks. (
  • This article is intended to help parents feel comfortable in making an educated decision about feeding their child based on scientific information. (
  • Bloomberg and the groups endorsing his policy are determined to get their way no matter what the desires of those who do the actual childbearing and child feeding. (
  • Bring extra ice packs, breast milk storage bags and bottles if you're bottle feeding your child. (
  • However, the findings are not the final word on breastfeeding and child development, Girard says. (
  • Researchers are still trying to understand the "complete picture," but it's difficult to separate the effects of breastfeeding from other factors that influence something as complex as child development. (
  • Although we must take into account, as highlighted by Muro, "that breastfeeding is not a period to get thin, it is a very important time for the child in which we even have to eat more. (
  • However, these tips should not make mothers who want to start their postpartum operation shortly after having their child rule out breastfeeding " pelancar ASI" , since, as pointed out by Muro, it is shown that "breastfeeding mothers lose weight much more than those that do not. (
  • Mothers who breastfeed miss less days from work to take care of a sick child. (
  • Contact a lactation consultant before you interrupt breastfeeding because of an illness or because of a medicine that you require. (
  • Lactation consultant, breastfeeding counsellor, journalist and mum-of-3 Simone Casey blogs regularly for us on all things breastfeeding and parenting. (
  • A lactation consultant -- and these tips -- can answer some of the most common breastfeeding how-to questions. (
  • Hospital-grade electric pumps may be rented from a lactation consultant at a local hospital or from a breastfeeding organization. (
  • With contributions from the foremost experts in the field, Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Fifth Edition is also an excellent resource to prepare for certification and practice as an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC). (
  • If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. (
  • Dr Lisa Amir, lactation consultant, GP and researcher at Latrobe University, says while this study is not large enough to warrant changing current guidelines, she agrees most babies should offered both breasts at a feed. (
  • Lactation consultant Michelle Branco, IBCLC, RLC, agrees: "We've focused a great deal of the public health effort on getting education [about breast-feeding's benefits] to parents, and I think that's worked. (
  • The study, published in the British Medical Journal, found that 4.5% of bottle-fed babies were obese by the time they reached five or six-years-old. (
  • Adamant breast milk advocates have warned (inaccurately) that bottle-fed babies do not emotionally bond to their mothers as well. (
  • But what is the missing ingredient that undermines the cognitive development of bottle-fed babies? (
  • Breastfeeding helps defend against infections, prevent allergies, and protect against a number of chronic conditions. (
  • Other research has shown that breast feeding for the first 15 weeks protects against both diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases, ear and urinary tract infections and reduces blood pressure. (
  • Nearly half of diarrhea episodes and one-third of respiratory infections are due to inadequate breastfeeding practices. (
  • Research has found that breastfed babies have fewer health problems, such as chest infections, and are less likely to develop health problems such as diabetes, or become obese, when they are older. (
  • Babies who are breast-fed are less likely to develop ear, respiratory, stomach and intestinal infections. (
  • For example, breastfed babies have fewer ear infections and respiratory problems. (
  • [3] [7] Breastfeeding is also less expensive than infant formula. (
  • Our reasoning about the merits of nursing was pretty simple: Humans are closer to humans than they are to cows or soys, so evolution would surely produce a better-fitting product in breast milk than manufacturers have with infant formula, which is made according to recipes based on cow's milk or soy proteins. (
  • Infant formula manufacturers have told mothers in third-world countries that breast milk wasn't as good for their babies as the commercial product which is also a lie. (
  • Newborns should not be fed infant formula unless it's a medical necessity, according to the Ten Steps guidelines. (
  • Infant formula producers have been trying to make formulas similar to breast milk, but many qualities and benefits of breast milk are impossible to reproduce. (
  • The traditional breast-feeding approach involves breast-feeding using both breasts at each feeding for no more than 10 minutes per breast. (
  • The regular, short-term use of both breasts at each feeding conditions the let-down reflex. (
  • Moreover, draining milk from both breasts at each feeding inhibits the slowing of milk production in an unused breast, and takes advantage of the higher fat and protein content of early-released milk from each breast. (
  • Breast engorgement is when your breasts get too full of milk. (
  • Your little one may feed from both breasts during one nursing session. (
  • These mothers can also feed their babies on breast milk using milk that is pumped out of the breasts. (
  • Breast self-exam, or regularly examining your breasts on your own, can be an important way to. (
  • Breast pain is any level of discomfort or pain in one or both breasts. (
  • The ability of the breasts to produce milk diminishes soon after childbirth without the stimulation of breastfeeding. (
  • My breasts leak like crazy, and most breast pads don't absorb enough milk to allow me to leave the house for more than 15 minutes. (
  • Breastfeeding mothers often wonder if any special procedures are needed to prepare breasts for breastfeeding while pregnant or to care for them while nursing. (
  • If nipples are damaged due to latch concerns in the early days of breastfeeding, consider using hydrogel pads to soothe breasts in between feedings. (
  • However, if you feel pain or discomfort beyond the initial letdown, in either breast or both breasts, ask your midwife or health visitor to refer you to a breastfeeding counsellor or consultant. (
  • Actor Brad Pitt took this W magazine cover photo of his partner Angelina Jolie while she breastfed one of their twins in 2008. (
  • This is a miracle of nature," beams Luiza Tome as she breastfeeds her two-month-old twins, Luigi and Adriana. (
  • Back in her lavish family home, Luiza Tome has finished feeding her twins. (
  • In certain overachieving circles, breast-feeding is no longer a choice-it's a no-exceptions requirement, the ultimate badge of responsible parenting. (
  • Good news: By the second month, some babies no longer need night feedings, and may even sleep through the night. (
  • Breastfeeding can lower breast cancer risk, especially if a woman breastfeeds for longer than 1 year. (
  • Breastfeeding for as little as a month or two appeared to convey some benefit, but not as much as longer lactation. (
  • They note, however, that more research is needed to see if the duration of breastfeeding affects the risk of SIDS - specifically, if babies who are breastfed for longer get more protection that those who are only breastfed for a short time after birth. (
  • There's strong evidence that many mothers want to breast-feed longer, but stop due to inconvenience and lack of support. (
  • A study of nearly 6,000 babies followed from birth until they turned 30 years old found that those who were breastfed had increased intelligence, longer schooling, and higher earning as adults. (
  • Sometimes giving smaller, more frequent feeds can help rather than large volume feeds. (
  • Frequent feeding from the affected breast may help. (
  • A number of health organizations - including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) - recommend breastfeeding as the best choice for babies. (
  • Like most doctors-and the American Academy of Pediatrics, which strongly recommends nursing for the first year of a baby's life-I have a strong suspicion that breast-feeding is preferential. (
  • American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Breastfeeding. (
  • The evidence of breast-feeding's many health benefits-for both mothers and babies-is plentiful and has stood as the backbone of current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and even the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (
  • There's no answer to that yet, but nursing mothers are being warned to avoid it: Traces of the drug can show up in breast milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. (
  • however, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on Breastfeeding recommends avoiding pacifier use until breastfeeding is fully established, at ∼3 to 4 weeks of age. (
  • Giving the gift of membership will connect your friend or loved one to all of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA)'s support services and networks. (
  • The legislation directs the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to provide ongoing training so that its agents better support air passengers traveling with breast milk, formula and infant feeding equipment. (
  • The legislation would require TRICARE-health insurance provided to members of the military and their families-to cover breastfeeding equipment, like breast pumps, along with support and counseling. (
  • These provisions, included in S. 2410 and H.R. 4435, both the House and Senate's versions of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY15, ensure that military mothers have the same access to breastfeeding equipment and support that most other health insurance plans are required to provide under the ACA. (
  • The proposed rule includes provisions that support and promote breastfeeding and improve access to healthy beverages, including water and low-fat and fat-free milk. (
  • They need strong family and community support to manage the demands of work and breastfeeding their babies. (
  • Providing this support is the right thing to do for both babies and mothers: breastfeeding prevents infant death, childhood illness and non-communicable diseases, while supporting brain development and protecting maternal health. (
  • Breastfeeding support, supplies and lactation counseling are one of these specified preventive services. (
  • You might like to contact your local branch of the National Childbirth Trust for more advice and support on tailing down breastfeeding before you resume work. (
  • Ask what kind of support is available to help you learn how to breastfeed. (
  • Support for breastfeeding should be given much higher priority. (
  • Build a support network this is an important thing for all new mums but for those breastfeeding it can be vital to help get you through those tough times, when things just aren't going to plan. (
  • The mothers of the world need our help to encourage and support their desire to feed their babies. (
  • 2016. Optimizing support for breastfeeding as part of obstetric practice. (
  • If, after being given appropriate information, advice and support on breastfeeding, a woman chooses not to do so, or to give formula as well as breastfeeding, her choice must be respected," the senior midwife said. (
  • Abi Wood, Head of Campaigns at the National Childbirth Trust, said: "We believe that parents need information and support for breastfeeding and bottle-feeding and it's up to them to decide how to feed their babies, so we wholeheartedly support the RCM's new statement which tallies with our position. (
  • We also train around 300 breastfeeding peer support workers a year, who voluntarily help mums across the UK. (
  • We fully support breastfeeding and visitors to our hospitals are welcome to breast- feed where they choose to and feel most comfortable," he added. (
  • A nurse, midwife or feeding specialist (such as an infant feeding coordinator) on the neonatal unit will be able to support you. (
  • Both parents can be involved in breastfeeding, and other people close to you can also provide encouragement and support, such as grandparents. (
  • Having as much support as possible can help ensure that you continue to breastfeed when you go home from the neonatal unit. (
  • It might be helpful to talk about how you are going to approach breastfeeding with your partner, and how they can best support you. (
  • The NHS website has more information about how dads and partners can support breastfeeding, and signposts to more support that is available. (
  • But for those mothers who do choose breast-feeding, we need to make this choice an easy choice by setting up the system to support them. (
  • TUESDAY, Oct. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. hospitals have made significant improvements to breast-feeding support programs in recent years, providing better help to new mothers, federal health officials reported Tuesday. (
  • Nearly twice as many hospitals have adopted most of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding initiative, a global standard for hospital support of breast-feeding before, during and after a new mom's hospital stay, the officials said. (
  • And just one-third of hospitals provide ongoing support for breast-feeding mothers after they've left the hospital. (
  • This support can include a follow-up visit, a phone call, or referrals to breast-feeding support groups. (
  • Advocacy and support for breastfeeding is growing, and policies are changing. (
  • Virtually all mothers can breastfeed, provided they have accurate information, and the support of their family, the health care system and society at large. (
  • See a lactation professional is breastfeeding pain continues or if nipples are visibly damaged for customized support. (
  • Internet retailer Breast Pumps Direct, is sponsoring a story telling contest to support breastfeeding awareness during World Breastfeeding Week 2009. (
  • World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) is celebrated in more than 120 countries each year during the first week of August to raise awareness and support for breastfeeding. (
  • The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) developed WBW in an effort to protect, promote and support breastfeeding on a global level. (
  • Staff are trained to be able to give breastfeeding advice and support to mothers. (
  • Family support was crucial for Nicki, who struggled to get her son, Cruz, to continue to breastfeed after they came home from hospital, despite the continued support she received from her midwife. (
  • You may also be able to find a children's centre near you where you can ask about breastfeeding support. (
  • In 1989, WIC state agencies began being required to spend funds targeted at breastfeeding support and promotion, including the provision of education materials in different languages and the purchase of breast pumps and other supplies. (
  • It is essential that healthcare providers receive high-quality training in clinical lactation to provide skilled and timely support to breastfeeding families. (
  • CDC's Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) is committed to increasing breastfeeding rates throughout the United States and to promoting and supporting optimal breastfeeding practices toward the ultimate goal of improving the public's health. (
  • A spokesman for the National Childbirth Trust said there was strong evidence that breast-feeding protected children's health long after weaning. (
  • If you have any problems with breastfeeding, it's important to ask for help from your midwife, health visitor or a breastfeeding specialist as soon as possible. (
  • Putting up with it could make pain or discomfort worse, so it's important to get help from your midwife, health visitor or breastfeeding specialist as soon as you can. (
  • It's best to get your midwife, health visitor or breastfeeding specialist to watch a feed to see if they can spot why this is happening. (
  • But a mathematician's analysis of breast-feeding studies found some of them mathematically questionable, and her conclusions have touched off a debate on whether some of the purported health benefits are overblown. (
  • The mathematician, Rebecca Goldin, director of research at STATS, a non-profit group designed to improve the quality of statistical information in the media, said in her review of studies, she really was only convinced of a few health benefits of breast-feeding for full-term healthy babies living in developed world. (
  • Stimson said she felt stifled by pressure from health care workers even after she decided to breast-feed. (
  • When federal and local health departments use the term "natural" to promote breast-feeding, it could inadvertently fuel concerns over other aspects of health and society that are seen as "unnatural," such as vaccines, genetically modified foods and assisted reproductive technologies, the experts warn. (
  • Health professionals and public health officials promote breastfeeding to improve infant health. (
  • Breastfeeding also contributes to maternal health immediately after the delivery because it helps reduce the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. (
  • Breastfeeding improves maternal and infant wellbeing and reduces health care costs. (
  • Rethinking the health benefits of breast-feeding. (
  • The health benefits of breast-feeding may not be what you think. (
  • Yet the actual health benefits of breast-feeding are surprisingly thin, far thinner than most popular literature indicates. (
  • I have spoken to my health visitor, who has just advised me to keep persevering, which is fine, but will it mean that he will find it harder and harder to come off the breast. (
  • Topics include placing breastfeeding in its historical context, workplace-related issues, anatomical and biological imperatives of lactation, the prenatal and perinatal periods, and concerns during the postpartum period, the mother's health, and sociocultural issues. (
  • Check with your health care provider if you have concerns about whether you should breastfeed. (
  • If you have a health condition or take any medicines, make sure it's okay for you to breastfeed. (
  • Many health centers, clinics, and hospitals have lactation (breastfeeding) experts to answer all your questions and help you get started. (
  • Retrieved on June 22, 2021 from (
  • Starting from the very first hour of an infant's life, breastfeeding can have a significant impact on the baby's health and development. (
  • If you are thinking about mixed or combination feeding, talk to your neonatal team, feeding specialist, midwife, health visitor or GP. (
  • Every component of breast milk has a specific role, and we're still learning how the different elements contribute to the child's overall health. (
  • What's more, babies who breast-feed even after they begin eating solid food continue reaping the benefits of a breast milk diet -- a growing population of beneficial bacteria associated with better health. (
  • New York Times health columnist Jane Brody reports that "no randomized, controlled trials-the gold standard of scientific research-have proved that breast-fed babies fare better, at least in industrialized countries. (
  • While breastfeeding has many known health benefits for newborns, there's still debate about how it may influence kids' behavior and intelligence. (
  • Now they only supply breast-milk substitutes for medical reasons," says Julie Stufkens, who heads the New Zealand Breastfeeding Authority (NZBA), which audits the BFHI accreditation programme in the country, on behalf of, and funded by, the New Zealand Ministry of Health. (
  • The Ministry of Health and NZBA's aim is to see breastfeeding become the cultural norm in New Zealand," says Ms Stufkens. (
  • On their own, both moderate exercise and breastfeeding have proven health benefits. (
  • Public health awareness events such as World Breastfeeding Week, as well as training of health professionals and planning, aim to increase this number. (
  • Lactation consultants are health care professionals whose primary goal is to promote breastfeeding and assist mothers with breastfeeding on an individualized or group basis. (
  • Furthermore, feeding more than 10 minutes from the first breast was associated with poor weight gain during the first 6 to 8 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding, the researchers report in the Archives of Disease in Childhood. (
  • The researchers believe that further studies are needed to explore the protective effect of breastfeeding on the various types of asthma in later life. (
  • The findings, published in Archives of Disease in Childhood , have prompted researchers to suggest there needs to be a review of some breastfeeding advice. (
  • The CDC researchers also found that only 45 percent of hospitals kept mothers and babies together throughout the entire hospital stay, which provides opportunities to breast-feed and helps mothers learn their baby's feeding cues. (
  • Throughout the babies' first year of life, researchers collected samples of breast milk and infant stool, and swabs from the skin around the nipple. (
  • In this Journal of Lipid Research article published in 2000, researchers reported that supplementing new mothers' diets with DHA-rich capsules could increase the DHA present in their breast milk. (
  • Still, commercial formulas can't completely match breast milk's exact composition. (
  • Breast-feeding has some biochemical advantages as well. (
  • Learn about the advantages and challenges of breastfeeding … to breastfeed but not be able to once you try. (
  • In this article, we will review advantages and disadvantages of breast and formula feeding and helpful concepts in preparation for breastfeeding. (
  • The nutritional advantages of breast milk are certainly numerous. (
  • The belief that babies who are breastfed have advantages in their cognitive development, in particular, has been a topic of debate for over a century now," said Lisa-Christine Girard, lead researcher on the long-term study. (
  • [3] Breastfeeding may also improve cognitive development and decrease the risk of obesity in adulthood. (
  • Breastfeeding also lowers the risk of chronic conditions later in life, such as obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, childhood asthma and childhood leukaemias. (
  • However, the impact of breast feeding on obesity has only been studied in comparatively small cohorts. (
  • Still, some studies have found it hard to make a strong connection between obesity and bottle feeding , or breast-feeding and a higher I.Q. or a lower incidence of allergies . (
  • Breastfeeding is particularly beneficial for premature babies. (
  • If this is the case, your baby's doctor may prescribe a breast milk fortifier (which is usually a powder made from cow's milk) which can be added to breast milk. (
  • This means the candida fungus that causes thrush can get into your nipple or breast. (
  • Or dab on a bit of lanolin or all purpose nipple ointment made for breastfeeding. (
  • What we see is that when the tongue is lowered and the vacuum is applied, that's when the milk is coming out of the breast, and that doesn't involve any compression of the nipple," says Geddes. (
  • A benign breast condition is a lump, cyst, or nipple discharge that is not cancerous. (
  • The Bottles and Breastfeeding Equipment Screening Act (H.R. 5065), was passed unanimously by the House in September 2016. (
  • 2016. Breastfeeding in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • What's more, breast-feeding reduces an infant's risk of developing type 1 diabetes due to breast milk's high insulin levels. (
  • According to a new study published in the journal Paediatrics , breastfeeding has little impact on long-term cognitive development and behavior. (
  • Indeed, the breast-feeding numbers may be lower than most people think. (
  • Some people believe that the acids in coffee may lower the iron content of breast milk, though there is no recent scientific evidence to confirm this. (
  • While the findings can't prove that breastfeeding causes the lower risk of SIDS, the authors write in Pediatrics that other explanations seem unlikely. (
  • In the short term, breastfeeding delays the return to fertility and in the long term, it reduces type 2 diabetes and breast, uterine and ovarian cancer. (
  • Breastfeeding reduces the mother's risk for breast and ovarian cancer . (
  • Breastfeeding reduces the incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The study, which is published online today (21 July 2011) in the European Respiratory Journal , looked at the impact of the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of alternative liquids or solids in addition to breast milk. (
  • I wish someone had told me how insatiably hungry I would be when I was breastfeeding. (
  • Milk may be expressed using manual or mechanized breast pumps. (
  • Electric breast pumps can provide most efficient pumping. (
  • We have products for at nursing home and on the go - find breast pumps, nursing pillows & bibs, plus a range of feeding accessories for new parents. (
  • The hospital you deliver at will have breast pumps you can rent. (
  • the I.R.S. would simply allow people to deduct breast-feeding expenses if they itemize, or use the pre-tax dollars in their medical savings accounts to pay for pumps. (
  • They realize that breastfeeding is the best option, but often times their budgets won't allow them to purchase some of the higher quality pumps that we carry,' says Jill Broussard, a Breast Pumps Direct breastfeeding counselor. (
  • Breast Pumps Direct is committed to providing mothers with the best breastfeeding products available because breastmilk is nature's perfect food for growing babies. (
  • For more information on the benefits of breastfeeding or the World Breastfeeding Week Story Telling Contest visit Breast Pumps Direct . (
  • In 1998, WIC state agencies were authorized to use funds earmarked for food to purchase breast pumps. (
  • Many of them return to work soon after delivering babies, and they need supportive national polices and legislation - such as paid maternity leave and breastfeeding breaks - to enable them to continue breastfeeding. (
  • They also say mothers who offered the timed feeds were more likely to continue breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks. (
  • Breastfeeding rates continue to rise in the US. (
  • Breast milk is easy to digest. (